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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. 1. away. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Ontario. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. It is held in this curve until dry. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 1. Toronto. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Noble. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. To throw a boomerang. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The pieces are then dressed round. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. distant. 2 -. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. E. Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. with the hollow side away from you. A piece of plank 12 in. as shown in Fig. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. wide and 2 ft. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . apart.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 2. 2. long will make six boomerangs. until it is bound as shown in Fig.

Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. thick. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. A very light. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. If the snow is of the right consistency. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. or rather no bottom at all. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but about 12 in. and with a movable bottom. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. First. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. however. dry snow will not pack easily. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. 6 in. A wall. long. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. which makes the building simpler and easier. high and 4 or 5 in. made of 6-in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. minus the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. blocks . In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. forcing it down closely. the block will drop out. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.

1. above the ground. 2. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. wide. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. or an old safe dial will do. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Ore. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Goodbrod. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. --Contributed by Geo. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. 1. It also keeps them out. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. C. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. which can be made of wood. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. and the young architect can imitate them. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. There is no outward thrust. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. is 6 or 8 in. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Union. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. which is about 1 ft. 3 -. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. D.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. long and 1 in.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The piece of wood. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 3. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 2. a.

as the weight always draws them back to place. says the Sphinx. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. one pair of special hinges. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. If ordinary butts are used. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. the box locked . S. New York. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Syracuse. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Merrill. --Contributed by R. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

All . Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. about 1-32 of an inch. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown in Fig. smooth surface. It remains to bend the flaps. Augusta. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. draw one-half of it. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. When the sieve is shaken. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 2. Alberta Norrell. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Place the piece in a vise. If the measuring has been done properly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Ga. -Contributed by L. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther.and the performer steps out in view. 1. as shown in Fig. If they do not. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. proceed as follows: First. With the metal shears. Fig. one for each corner. 3. allowing each coat time to dry. on drawing paper. The four pieces should be worked at the same time.

The current. which is about 6 in. 25 German-silver wire. Colo. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. A resistance. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. long. about 6 in. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. H. After this has dried. A piece of porcelain tube. from the back end. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. as shown at AA. and in the positions shown in the sketch. if rolled under the shoe sole. To keep the metal from tarnishing. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Galbreath. In boring through rubber corks.the edges should be left smooth. used for insulation. 25 gauge German-silver wire. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. C. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. If a touch of color is desired. causing it to expand. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. in passing through the lamp. The common cork. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. B. should be in the line. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. R. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. of No. --Contributed by R. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Denver. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. in diameter. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. When the current is turned off. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly.

leaving a space of 4 in. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. with thin strips of wood. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Purchase two long book straps. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fig. 2. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. --Contributed by David Brown. between them as shown in Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Kansas City. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely.bottom ring. Mo. as shown in Fig. . Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. 1. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 3. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal.

Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 1. 1.An ordinary electric bell. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. just the right weight for a woman to use. which is the right weight for family use. and one weighing 25 lb. as . Doylestown. The folds are made over the string. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. C.. --Contributed by James M. The string is then tied. 3. and tack smoothly. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. --Contributed by Katharine D. and a pocket battery. 36 in. in diameter. Y. These are shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Morse. long. and also prevent any leakage of the contents.. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. When the aeroplane tips. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Fig. Fig. 1. Kane. Two strips of brass. N. having a gong 2-1/2 in. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. are mounted on the outside of the box. Fig. Pa. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 2. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. 4. Syracuse. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. to form a handle. one weighing 15 lb.

toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. AA. machine screws. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 1. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. N. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 2. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. four washers and four square nuts. long. such as brackets. Day. bent as shown in Fig. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Floral Park. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. 2. in diameter. and many fancy knick-knacks.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . two 1/8 -in. --Contributed by Louis J. if once used. Y. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible.

as well as brass and copper. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. In the design shown. The buckle is to be purchased. using a swab and an old stiff brush. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. copper. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. of water in which dissolve. Rub off the highlights. Of the leathers. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. though almost any color may be obtained. of water. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. therefore. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. use them in place of the outside nuts. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. green and browns are the most popular. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. it has the correct strength. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. A. Drying will cause this to change to purple. If it colors the metal red. as well as the depth of etching desired. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. treat it with color. For etching. Detroit. Michigan. after breaking up. --Contributed by W.may be made of either brass. of course. the most expensive. allowing each time to dry. or silver.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Apply two coats. Silver is the most desirable but. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Watch Fob For coloring silver. be covered the same as the back.. Scranton. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. 1 part nitric acid. if copper or brass. File these edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. 1 part sulphuric acid. An Austrian Top [12] . leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer.

A 1/16-in. thick. 5-1/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The handle is a piece of pine. long.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. . Ypsilanti. pass one end through the 1/16-in. A handle. hole.F. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Michigan. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. is formed on one end. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Tholl. wide and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. long. Bore a 3/4-in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 3/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. When the shank is covered. hole in this end for the top. allowing only 1-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. in diameter. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. --Contributed by J. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.

The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Northville. Ga. . having no sides. tarts or similar pastry. Mich. --Contributed by Miss L. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Houghton. Augusta. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Alberta Norrell. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --A. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The baking surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center.

A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. the same as shown in the illustration. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. says Studio Light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The weight of the broom keeps it in position. glass fruit jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Mo. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. then solder cover and socket together. Centralia. two turns will remove the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. When you desire to work by white light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.

Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. so it can be folded up. Janesville. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. . Wis. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. square by 12 in. They are fastened. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 4 Vertical pieces. 4 Braces. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 16 Horizontal bars.for loading and development. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.

which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. H. If the loop is tied at the proper place. After rounding the ends of the studs. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Cincinnati. O. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Rosenthal. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. and a loop made in the end. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. after filling the pail with water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. -Contributed by Charles Stem. from scrap material. Phillipsburg. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. --Contributed by Dr. New York. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The front can be covered . C. The whole. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room.

you are. If the gate is raised slightly. Md. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. by all rules of the game. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. the color will be an undesirable. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. thoroughly fix. In my own practice. sickly one. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The . It consists of a stand to hold a bottle.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. By using the following method. Develop them into strong prints. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. if you try to tone them afterward. Wehr. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. either for contact printing or enlargements. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. The results will be poor. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. FIG. and. the mouth of which rests against a. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Baltimore. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. 1 FIG. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. --Contributed by Gilbert A. principally mayonnaise dressing.

but..... The blotting paper can .... When the desired reduction has taken place. to make it 5 by 5 in.. where it will continue to bleach.. With a little practice.. Iodide of potassium ..... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. preferably the colored kind.... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. 2... It will bleach slowly and evenly.... in size." Cyanide of potassium ... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.... Gray. L. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. transfer it to a tray of water. 2 oz. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. etc.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. A good final washing completes the process.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... Water .... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. without previous wetting........ Place the dry print.. Cal... --Contributed by T... 16 oz. three times. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. in this solution. 1 and again as in Fig.. when it starts to bleach... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. San Francisco. 20 gr.. long to admit the angle support.... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. wide and 4 in.. 5 by 15 in.

and a length of 5 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. the shaft 1 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Canada.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Corners complete are shown in Fig. wide below the . The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide. Monahan. Wisconsin. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 3. 20 gauge. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by J.J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Make a design similar to that shown. the head of which is 2 in.

A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. using a small metal saw. then trace the other half in the usual way. freehand. After this has dried. With files. With the metal shears.FIG. 1. then coloring. Do not put the hands in the solution. 1 part nitric acid. Trace the design on the metal. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Make one-half of the design. 4. 3. then put on a second coat. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine. Apply with a small brush. deep. Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 part sulphuric acid. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 Fig. 2. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. After the sawing. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Allow this to dry. as shown in Fig. Pierce a hole with a small drill. . after folding along the center line. The metal must be held firmly. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. being held perpendicular to the work. but use a swab on a stick. using carbon paper. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. For coloring olive green. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways.

hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. it does the work rapidly. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. then stain it a mahogany color. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Syracuse. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. --Contributed by H. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. When this is cold. on a chopping board. . The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. as shown. New York. --Contributed by Katharine D. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Richmond. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Cal. Conn. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. attach brass handles. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. --Contributed by M. Morse. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. thick. Carl Cramer. Burnett. After the stain has dried. M.

about 3/16 in. 1/4 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. also locate the drill holes. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. saucers or pans. or tin. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Atwell. Cal. Kissimmee. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 53 steel pens. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. holes. . it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. one shaft. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. two enameled. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Mrs. A. Richmond. Jaquythe. L.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. 4. some pieces of brass. in width at the shank. 1. --Contributed by W. H. thick. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in.. Fig. and several 1/8-in. square. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. machine screws. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Florida. thick and 4 in. brass. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. not over 1/4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. indicating the depth of the slots. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. as shown at A. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H.

for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. brass and bolted to the casing. hole is drilled to run off the water. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. thick. There should be a space of 1/16 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. 2. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Bend as shown in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. using two nuts on each screw. in diameter and 1/32 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. If metal dishes. 1. can be procured. long and 5/16 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. as shown. about 1/32 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. supply pipe. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. as shown in Fig. long by 3/4 in. 5. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. each about 1 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. with the face of the disk. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. as in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. and pins inserted. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers.. 3. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. into the hole. The shaft hole may also be filed square. a square shaft used. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 2. machine screws and nuts. lead should be run into the segments. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. hole in the center. thick. 3. hole. with a 3/8-in. wide.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. 6. with 1/8-in. 7. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. If the shaft is square. machine screws. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Fig. A 3/4-in. Fig.

the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Hamilton. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Ill. or more in diameter. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. long. La Salle. make these seams come between the two back legs. When assembling. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Smith. deep and 1-1/4 in. Cooke. deep over all. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . 8-1/2 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. square and 30-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the top of the box. Canada. screws. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. to make the bottom. --Contributed by F. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. we will call the basket. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The lower part. V. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. three of which are in the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. using four to each leg. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. from the bottom end of the legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. --Contributed by S. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Be sure to have the cover. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Now you will have the box in two pieces. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. high and 15 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. With a string or tape measure. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in.

have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide. The folded part in the center is pasted together.lining. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The side.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. When making the display. If all the parts are well sandpapered. as shown in the sketch. you can. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. 1. sewing on the back side. and gather it at that point. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. -Contributed by Stanley H. Baltimore. Cover them with the cretonne. Packard. Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary. wide and four strips 10 in. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. 2. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.2 Fig. Md. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Boston. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Mass. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in.

with slight modifications. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. --Contributed by H. 3. and. It is cleanly. Crockett. Gloversville. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. When through using the pad. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Fig. Orlando Taylor. N. Cross Timbers. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Y. --Contributed by B. It is not difficult to . Mo. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. saving all the solid part.

Lane. are shown in the diagram. If a file is used. S. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. across the face. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Texas. After stirring. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mass. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. After this is done. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Both of these methods are wasteful. --Contributed by Edith E. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Bourne. it should be new and sharp. -Contributed by C. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. or if desired. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Lowell. remove the contents. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. El Paso. and scrape out the rough parts.

Ill. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Greenleaf. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Geo. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Loren Ward. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Those having houses . F. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Turl. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. After several hours' drying. Des Moines. The insects came to the light. He captured several pounds in a few hours. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. circled over the funnel and disappeared.cooking utensil. Oregon. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. --Contributed by Marion P. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Ill. As these were single-faced disk records. Oak Park. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The process works well and needs no watching. Canton. A Postcard Rack [25]. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Wheeler. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Iowa. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle.

by 2 ft. and both exactly alike. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Glenbrook. --Contributed by Thomas E. 6 in. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. will do as well. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Both sides can be put together in this way.. Only three pieces are required. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.. --Contributed by Wm.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. thick. Rosenberg. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Worcester. and the second one for the developing bench. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and as they are simple in design. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Dobbins. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. but for cheapness 3/4 in. boards are preferable. Mass. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. not even with the boards themselves. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. 6 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Conn. plane and pocket knife. material. The single boards can then be fixed. one on each side of what will be the . fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Lay the floor next. the best material to use being matched boards. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the bottom being 3/8 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.

6. and in the middle an opening. and to the outside board of the sides. hinged to it. 9 by 11 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 11. by screwing to the floor. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 6 and 9. is cut. The roof boards may next be put on. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. It is shown in detail in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. 5. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. below which is fixed the sink. 9). 8. 3 and 4. and the top as at C in the same drawing. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. brown wrapping paper. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. wide. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 6. the closing side as at B. as shown in Figs.. nailing them to each other at the ridge. which is fixed on as shown . These are all in section and are self-explanatory. so that the water will drain off into the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. 10). The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. etc. 2 in section. At the top of the doorway. In hinging the door. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. of the top of the door for the same reason. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The developing bench is 18 in. 7. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room.doorway. and act as a trap for the light. and should be zinc lined. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy.

Details of the Dark Rook .

as in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and a 3/8-in. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Karl Hilbrich. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and a tank stand on it. Pennsylvania. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. as at M. mixing flour and water. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. as shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. or the room may be made with a flat roof. screwing them each way into the boards. are fastened in the corners inside. 13. 15. 18. Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 16. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H.in Fig. after lining with brown paper. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. as shown in the sections. 16. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 19. 13. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. In use. A circular piece about 2 in. as at I. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. or red light as at K. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 2. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 17. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. which makes it possible to have white light. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 6. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 1. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. preferably maple or ash. 20. though this is hardly advisable. if desired. four coats at first is not too many. --Contributed by W. For beating up an egg in a glass. it is better than anything on the market. but not the red glass and frame. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 14. Fig. Erie. these being shown in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under.

Smith. for a handle. which. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . when put together properly is a puzzle. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. --Contributed by Wm. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. long. Eureka Springs. Schweiger. --Contributed by L. To operate. L. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Kansas City. Mitchell.copper should be. Mo. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. G. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. -Contributed by E. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Ark. about 3/8 in. Yonkers. as shown in the sketch. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. New York. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. D.

as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. for the moment. as shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. holes should be drilled in the bottom. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 1. If the sill is inclined. Each cork is cut as in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. especially for filling-in purposes. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. as well as improve its appearance. as is usually the case. to make it set level. 3. The design shown in Fig. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. need them. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 2. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. the box will require a greater height in front. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 3. The corks in use are shown in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. . A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. After the box is trimmed. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. which binds them together. Having completed the bare box. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided.

the squirrels come in droves from far and near. 1. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. 2. Traps do no good. When the corn is gone cucumbers. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. can't use poison. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. cabbages. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. share the same fate. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. . The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Each long projection represents a leg. too dangerous. 3. drilled at right angles. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. it's easy. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 4. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. F. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. and observe results. etc. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. But I have solved the difficulty. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. life in the summer time is a vexation. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. being partly eaten into.

The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft. strips. long. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Iowa. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. the coil does not heat sufficiently. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. of No. If.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. by trial. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. -. The solution can be used over and over again. cut in 1/2-in. cut some of it off and try again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. . More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.

of gasoline. --Contributed by James M. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Y. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Dallas. Fig 2. Morse. Do not wash them. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Doylestown. it falls to stop G. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. to cause the door to swing shut. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. and a strip. Syracuse. of oleic acid with 1 gal. hot-water pot. . The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. is a good size--in this compound. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. forks. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. but with unsatisfactory results. In cleaning silver. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Kane. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Stir and mix thoroughly. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. coffee pot. of whiting and 1/2 oz. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. C. N. D. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Texas. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Pa. 1) removed. --Contributed by Katharine D. Knives.

Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. later fixed and washed as usual. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Pa. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. --Contributed by Theodore L. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. which is. Waverly. Sprout. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. negatives. but unfixed. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. . Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . using the paper dry. --Contributed by Oliver S. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Fisher. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ill. Harrisburg. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. New Orleans. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. La.

No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. 1. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. To obviate this difficulty. Fig. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. then . The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. a harmonograph is a good prescription.

Chicago. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction.. K. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. one-fourth. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. in the center of the circle to be cut. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. G. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by James T. Rosemont. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. such as a shoe buttoner. is attached as shown at H. what is most important. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. J. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. 1. in diameter. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. ceiling. 1. Arizona. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. to prevent any side motion. A pedestal. Gaffney. Ingham.. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. as shown in the lower part of Fig. of about 30 or 40 lb. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A weight. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. and unless the shorter pendulum is. The length of the short pendulum H. Another weight of about 10 lb. etc. R. A length of 7 ft. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A small weight. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. one-fifth. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. with a nail set or punch. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. as shown in Fig. or the lines will overlap and blur. which can be regulated. exactly one-third. Holes up to 3 in.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. --Contributed by Wm. provides a means of support for the stylus. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Punch a hole. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. as long as the other. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. for instance. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. that is.

J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 2. of course. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The two key cards are made alike. then 3 as in Fig. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 3. -Contributed by W. The capacity of the vise. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Morey. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and 4 as in Fig.H. dividing them into quarters. 6. N. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. a correspondent of . which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 5. then put 2 at the top. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Chicago. Fig. and proceed as before. Cruger. --Contributed by J. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual.J. Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 1. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. distributing them over the whole card. Cape May City. 4.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.

The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. says Popular Electricity. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. of ferricyanide of potash. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. wood-screws. To assemble. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. of the uprights. 1/4 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 6 gauge wires shown. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 1/2 oz. --Contributed by L. of water. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. drill 15 holes.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. of 18-per-cent No. After securing the tint desired. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. citrate of iron and ammonia. from the top and bottom. Ga. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. If constructed of the former. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. After preparing the base and uprights. remove the prints. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. respectively. Augusta. Alberta Norrell. 22 gauge German-silver wire. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Cut through the center. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 30 gr. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. the portion of the base under the coil. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. long. Wind the successive turns of . Asbestos board is to be preferred. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. deep. sheet of well made asbestos paper.

16 gauge copper wire. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. square. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. etc. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. as they are usually thrown away when empty. --Contributed by Frederick E. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Ampere. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. 14 gauge. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. if one is not a smoker. Labels of some kind are needed. Y. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Small knobs may be added if desired. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . The case may be made of 1/2-in. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.. rivets. which. then fasten the upright in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. but these are not necessary. N. screws. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.

14 oz. sandpaper or steel wool. Ark. it must be ground or filed to a point. and rub the point of the copper on it. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. This is considerable annoyance. galvanized iron. being careful about the heat. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. California. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. tinner's acid. S. Eureka Springs. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. --Contributed by A. C. especially if a large tub is used. Richmond. Copper. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Jaquythe. Kenosha. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. G. and labeled "Poison. --C. of water. If the soldering copper is an old one. Larson. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. --Contributed by W. a piece of solder. A. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper.. . Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. lead. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. or has become corroded. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. the pure muriatic acid should be used." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Heat it until hot (not red hot). zinc. B. In soldering galvanized iron. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. as shown in the sketch. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Wis. The material can be of any wood. and one made of poplar finished black. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. D. of glycerine to 16 oz. brass. E and F. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. tin. then to the joint to be soldered.

Six issues make a well proportioned book.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. round iron. I bind my magazines at home evenings. C. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. 2. 1. Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. D. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. nut. This will leave a clear hole. N. wide. in diameter. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Y. 7/8 in. This completes the die. thick and 1-1/4 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. brass and silver. a ring may be made from any metal. Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. The disk will come out pan shaped. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. W. which gives two bound volumes each year. The dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter. Place the band. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. B. Troy. Apart from this. Hankin. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. however. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. and drill out the threads. -Contributed by H. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. with good results. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Take a 3/4-in. such as copper. The punch A.

which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. of the ends extending on each side. using . Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. is nailed across the top. 1 in Fig. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. threaded double. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 5. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 2. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. size 16 or larger. Coarse white thread. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 2. on all edges except the back. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. C. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Start with the front of the book. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Five cuts. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. and place them against the strings in the frame. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. is used for the sewing material. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 1. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. which is fastened the same as the first. After drawing the thread tightly. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and a third piece. as shown in Fig. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. If started with the January or the July issue. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1/8 in. deep. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. then back through the notch on the right side. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. and then to string No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The covering can be of cloth. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Place the cardboard covers on the book. allowing about 2 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. . The string No.4. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back.

For the blade an old talking-machine . round iron. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. on which to hook the blade. and mark around each one. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Nebr. and. Tinplate. Divine. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Cal. Encanto. College View. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. at opposite sides to each other. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in.

by means of a U-bolt or large staple. by 1 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and 1/4 in. thick. at the same end. E. and a long thread plug. and file in the teeth. as shown. Summitville. -Contributed by Willard J. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. A. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Miss. On the upper side.. with 10 teeth to the inch. Make the blade 12 in. with a steel sleeve. and another piece (B) 6 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Hays. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. hydraulic pipe. fuse hole at D. C. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Moorhead.. Ohio. in order to drill the holes in the ends. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by 4-1/2 in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. as it is sometimes called. B. Then on the board put . thick. or double extra heavy. and 1/4 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. bore. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. F. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. long.

The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Boyd. Connect up as shown. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 4 jars. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Philadelphia. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. of wire to each coil. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. high around this apparatus. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. --Contributed by Chas. H. some sheet copper or brass for plates. about 5 ft. of rubber-covered wire. as from batteries. and some No. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . If you are going to use a current of low tension.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. A lid may be added if desired. using about 8 in. the jars need not be very large. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.

. Their size also depends on the voltage. direct to wire across jars. thick. long. For the brass trimmings use No. square by 14 ft. 27 B. 5 on switch. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. B and C. 3. or source of current. The stock required for them is oak. are important. and bolt through. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. two pieces 30 in. sheet brass 1 in. 16-1/2 in. however. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. On the door of the auto front put the . 2 and 3. by 2 in. 1 is connected to point No. 2 is lower down than in No. and plane it on all edges. wide and 3/4 in. 2. by 1 in. by 5 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 4. long. two for each jar. two pieces 14 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. by 2 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Use no nails. 15-1/2 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. The top disk in jar No. See Fig. 2. 30 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. wide by 3/4 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 3 and No. by 1-1/4 in. & S. with the cushion about 15 in. oak boards. beginning at the rear.the way. The connection between point No. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. apart. C. 1 on switch. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A.. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 1 and so on for No. 7 in. B. An iron washer. and four pieces 14 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Use no screws on the running surface. Put arm of switch on point No. 1. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. by 1-1/4 in. wide and 2 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. A 3/4-in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Z. long. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. wide. by 5 in.. First sandpaper all the wood. 3 in. C. No. gives full current and full speed. Equip block X with screw eyes. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. To wire the apparatus. thick. 2 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. and for the rear runners: A. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery.. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. as they "snatch" the ice. 2.. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. two pieces 34 in.. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 4 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. In proportioning them the points A. making them clear those in the front runner. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 34 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. by 6 in. long by 22 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 4) of 3/4-in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 11 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. B. on No. . then apply a coat of thin enamel. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. above the ground. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. long. The current then will flow through the motor. A variation of 1/16 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Fig. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp.. as they are not substantial enough. is used to reduce friction.

to improve the appearance. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. If desired. may be stowed within. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. which is somewhat moist. fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. cheap material.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. by 30 in. If desired. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 1/2 in. a brake may be added to the sled. If the expense is greater than one can afford. long. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. brass plated. to the wheel. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Then get some upholstery buttons. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Fasten a horn. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. such as used on automobiles. parcels. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. overshoes. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. cutting it out of sheet brass. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. such as burlap. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. or with these for $25. etc. lunch.

The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. .tree and bring. Leland. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.

mild steel or iron. with twenty-four teeth. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. a compass. though more difficult. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. some files.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. sheet metal. 3. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. A small clearance space. 4). made from 1/16-in. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Draw a circle on paper. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. the same diameter as the wheel. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. London. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. say 1 in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. E. The straight-edge. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. from F to G. The Model Engineer. 2. Fig. which. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The first tooth may now be cut. thick. 1. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. so that the center of the blade. FC. CD. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. First take the case of a small gearwheel. will be over the line FG. by drawing diameters. outside diameter and 1/16 in. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. when flat against it. This guide should have a beveled edge. the cut will be central on the line. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Fig.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. B. Then take one outlet wire. and the other outlet wire. as shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 1. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. R. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. A bright. Make a hole in the other. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Focus the camera in the usual manner. some wire and some carbons. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. . 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. No shock will be perceptible. If there is no faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. B. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. electric lamp. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. ground it with a large piece of zinc. hold in one hand. 2. transmitter. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. or several pieces bound tightly together. each in the center.Four Photos on One Plate of them. either the pencils for arc lamps.

The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. leaving about 10 in. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. are also needed. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. --Contributed by Geo. If desired. Ashland. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. serves admirably. and about that size. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Wrenn. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. at each end for terminals. 36 wire around it. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. as shown. or more of the latter has been used. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. one at the receiver can hear what is said. One like a loaf of bread. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Slattery. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. For a base use a pine board 10 in. by 12 in. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. J. Several battery cells. B. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Ohio. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. A is a wooden block. and again wind the wire around it. by 1 in. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Then set the whole core away to dry.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Dry batteries are most convenient. Emsworth. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. under the gable. as indicated by E E. of course. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and will then burn the string C. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Pa. They have screw ends. But in this experiment.

2. The oven is now ready to be connected. These should have hollow ends. as shown. D. E. C. B B. and switch. First make a support. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 14 wire. From the other set of binding-posts. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and one single post switch. Jr. The coil will commence to become warm. C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Fig. Fig. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and the lamps. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. D.. in parallel. as shown. connecting lamp receptacles. At one side secure two receptacles. Place 16-cp. for the . 12 or No. 1. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. run a No. Turn on switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Ohio. Newark. the terminal of the coil. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. in series with bindingpost. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Connect these three to switch.wire. while C is open. B B. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C.

etc. If for 3-way. A wooden box. This is slipped on the pivot. 2. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 4 amperes. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 10 turns to each layer. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. as shown in the cut. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. is then made and provided with a glass front. E. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 3. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 4.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. The core. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. and D.. long. Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 7. is made of wire.E.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. D. 3 amperes. but if for a 4way. This may be made of wood. remove the valve. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. inside measurements. 14 wire. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 1. to prevent it turning on the axle. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. although brass is better. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. thick. until the scale is full. Montreal. The box is 5-1/2 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. although copper or steel will do. 1/4 in. Fig. The pointer or hand. a battery. drill a hole as shown at H. 4 in. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 14. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 5. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. wide and 1/8 in. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. B. --Contributed by J. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Fig. drill in only to the opening already through. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. At a point a little above the center. a variable resistance. from the lower end. Dussault. drill through the entire case and valve. where A is the homemade ammeter. After drilling. wide and 1-3/4 in. long. 1. Fig. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. wind with plenty of No. is made of iron.or 4-way valve or cock. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. It is 1 in. long and make a loop. 6. deep. To make one. high. D. a standard ammeter. 5. C. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured.

It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. A. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and a metal rod. making two holes about 1/4 in. This stopper should be pierced. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. and the arc light. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. high. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. in diameter. provided with a rubber stopper. in thickness . turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. F. E. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. which is used for reducing the current. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. By connecting the motor. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. and the other connects with the water rheostat. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. D. as shown.performing electrical experiments. To start the light. One wire runs to the switch. B.

roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A piece of wood. Having finished the interrupter. If the interrupter does not work at first. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Carthage. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. long. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. As there shown. 1. Y. To insert the lead plate. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . Jones. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. 1. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 2. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. B. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Fig. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. as shown in C. 2. as shown in B. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. If all adjustments are correct. N. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. A. 1. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter.

high. dressed in brilliant. loosejointed effect. light-colored garments. The model. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. as the entire interior. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. inside dimensions. giving a limp. All . is constructed as shown in the drawings. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. A white shroud is thrown over his body. They need to give a fairly strong light. which can be run by three dry cells. L and M. by 7-1/2 in. by 7 in. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. with the exception of the glass. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. especially L. A. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. from which the gong has been removed. and must be thoroughly cleansed. to aid the illusion. especially the joints and background near A. and wave his arms up and down. until it is dark there. should be colored a dull black. within the limits of an ordinary room. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The glass should be the clearest possible. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine.. should be miniature electric lamps. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. could expect from a skeleton. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. the illusion will be spoiled. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Its edges should nowhere be visible. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. If everything is not black.coffin. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. figures and lights. The lights. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry.

These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. fat spark. Fry. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. as shown in the sketch. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Cal. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. If a gradual transformation is desired. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. square block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. --Contributed by Geo. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. after which it assumes its normal color. W. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. placed about a foot apart.that is necessary is a two-point switch.

F. In Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. This is a wide-mouth bottle. One of these plates is connected to metal top. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Cohen. New York. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. -Contributed by Dudley H. hydrogen gas is generated. the remaining space will be filled with air. with two tubes. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. by small pieces of wood.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The plates are separated 6 in. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. B and C. If a lighted match . A (see sketch). 1. to make it airtight. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. and should be separated about 1/8 in. into the receiver G. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. as shown. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. soldered in the top. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. or a solution of sal soda.

either by passing a current of electricity around it. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A nipple. should be only 5/16 of an inch. C C. 2 shows the end view. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. or by direct contact with another magnet. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A. One row is drilled to come directly on top. which forms the vaporizing coil. is then coiled around the brass tube. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. P. long. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. copper pipe. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. London. A. If desired. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. B. from the bottom. Fig. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A piece of 1/8-in. 36 insulated wire. 1. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. and the ends of the tube. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. of No. by means of the clips. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. then a suitable burner is necessary. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. says the Model Engineer. N. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. which is plugged up at both ends. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . is made by drilling a 1/8in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. as is shown in the illustration. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A 1/64-in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. A. Fig. copper pipe.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. N. 1/2 in. in diameter and 6 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The distance between the nipple. 1-5/16 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D.

longer and 1/4 in.lamp cord. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 2). boards and all. 3. this makes a much nicer book. Fig. fold and cut it 1 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. should be cut to the diameter of the can. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. trim both ends and the front edge. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. with a fine saw. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. leaving the folded edge uncut. about 8 or 10 in. larger all around than the book. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. but if the paper knife cannot be used. cut to the size of the pages. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Take two strips of stout cloth. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. duck or linen. Fig. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Cut four pieces of cardboard. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. 1. 1/4 in. smoothly. Fig. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. taking care not to bend the iron. Turn the book over and paste the other side.

B. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Parker. 18 in. which will just slip inside the little can. H. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. the joint will be gas tight. Ont. A. 4). as shown in the sketch. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Toronto. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. In the bottom. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. or rather the top now. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. pasting them down (Fig. C. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. E. but its diameter is a little smaller. --Contributed by Joseph N. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Noble. A gas cock. Another can. as shown. without a head. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. is soldered onto tank A. Another tank. --Contributed by James E. and a little can. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. deep. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. . Bedford City. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. of tank A is cut a hole. D.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is made the same depth as B. Va. in diameter and 30 in. is perforated with a number of holes. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. is turned on it. is fitted in it and soldered.

J. should be 3/8 in. should be 1/4 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Fig. shows how the connections are to be made. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Beverly. basswood or white pine. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. to prevent splitting. long. D. The diagonal struts. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. D. If the pushbutton A is closed. square by 42 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and the four diagonal struts. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. A A. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. C. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and sewed double to give extra strength. which may be either spruce. with an electric-bell magnet. tacks. The armature. long. H is a square knot. thus adjusting the . A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. B. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. when finished. as shown at C. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be cut a little too long. S.. -Contributed by H. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. If the back armature. E. are shown in detail at H and J. B. 2. Fig. N.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. exactly 12 in. The bridle knots. The longitudinal corner spines. The wiring diagram. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. making the width. which moves to either right or left. A. by 1/2 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Bott. and about 26 in. fastened in the bottom. 1. The small guards. B.

If the kite is used in a light wind. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Harbert. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. and. can be made of a wooden . --Contributed by A. as shown. Stoddard. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. thus shortening G and lengthening F. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. E. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. to prevent slipping. that refuse to slide easily. Chicago. D. for producing electricity direct from heat. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Closing either key will operate both sounders. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. shift toward F. --Contributed by Edw.lengths of F and G. A bowline knot should be tied at J. however. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. the batteries do not run down for a long time. with gratifying results. and if a strong wind is blowing. Clay Center. Kan.

B. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. 14 or No. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.. C. in position. Fasten a piece of wood. and the current may then be detected by means.frame. and also holds the pieces of wood. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Then. to the cannon. 16 single-covered wire. with a pocket compass. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. --Contributed by A. Chicago. by means of machine screws or. E. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. which conducts the current into the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. or parallel with the compass needle. The wood screw. A. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. E. with a number of nails. A and B. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. placed on top. When the cannon is loaded. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. C. D. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . F. spark.

Ohio. H. --Contributed by Joseph B. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms.the current is shut off. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. requiring a strong magnet. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Marion. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. To lock the door. To reverse. L. Chicago. where there is a staple. Mich. Big Rapids. Connect as shown in the illustration. within the reach of the magnet. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 1. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. In Fig. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Keil. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. but no weights or strings. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. To unlock the door. in this position the door is locked. A and S. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. press the button. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. A hole for a 1/2 in. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. now at A' and S'. to receive the screw in the center. when in position at A'. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. A. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. A and S. 1. screw is bored in the block. Fig. . B. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. square and 3/8 in. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. with the long arm at L'. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block.

a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. about 18 in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. J. long. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Rand. The standard and base. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. --Contributed by C. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. or for microscopic work. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and if desired the handles may . gas-pipe. and may be made at very slight expense. pipe with 1-2-in. are enameled a jet black. put in the handle. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. West Somerville. if enameled white on the concave side. When the holes are finished and your lines set. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. hole. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When ready for use. Mass. Thread the other end of the pipe. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport.

A. D. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. as shown at A in the sketch. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Fig. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. inside the pail. 1. long and 8 in. B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Mass. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. E. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Fig. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. across. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Get an iron pail about 1 ft. high by 1 ft. Warren. 1.. North Easton. M. which shall project at least 2 in. --Contributed by C.be covered with leather. 8 in. across. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Make a cylindrical core of wood. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. with a cover. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time.

Whatever burner is used. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. hotel china. Fit all the parts together snugly. and graphite. in diameter. After finishing the core. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. as is shown in the sketch. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 1390°-1410°. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Fig. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. passing wire nails through and clinching them. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. pipe.. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. and 3/8 in. or make one yourself. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight.. 1). Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. projecting from each end (Fig. When lighted. pipe 2-ft. E. long. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. The 2 in. and with especial caution the first time. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. in diameter. After removing all the paper. If the cover of the pail has no rim. about 1 in. say 1/4 in. strip of sheet iron. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 2. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 15%. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. Line the pail. to hold the clay mixture. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. cutting the hole a little smaller. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. make two wood ends. hard porcelain. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.mixture of clay. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. layer of the clay mixture. bottom and sides. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. if there is to be any glazing done. It is placed inside the kiln. as dictated by fancy and expense. and varnish. diameter. wider than the kiln. 3) with false top and bottom. of fine wire. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. L. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. C. 25%. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. let this dry thoroughly. the point of the blue flame. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. 60%. and on it set the paper wrapped core. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. but will be cheaper in operation. 1330°. and your kiln is ready for business.. C. Cover with paper and shellac as before. the firing should be gradual. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. carefully centering it. 1). pack this space-top. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. thick. and 3/4 in. C. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. W. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. full length of iron core. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. This done. if you have the materials.-G. such . Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. which is the hottest part. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. thick. 2 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. sand. Wind about 1/8 in.

with a plane. 8 in. 2.. C. red and black. procure a new deck. as in Fig. The funnel. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. length of . Of course. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. C. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. leaving long terminals. square them up. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. 2). and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. the next black. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. D. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. taking care to have the first card red. Take the red cards. and plane off about 1/16 in. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Then. and divide it into two piles. T. diameter. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. B. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. You can display either color called for. and so on. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. about 1/16 in. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. square them up and place in a vise. as in Fig. A. --Contributed by J. Chicago. and discharges into the tube. C. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Then take the black cards. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. around the coil. . Washington. every alternate card being the same color. bind tightly with black silk. overlaps and rests on the body. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. all cards facing the same way. 2.53 in. as shown in the sketch herewith. R. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. 1.

A. F. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. B. stove bolts. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. The cement. Drill all the horizontal pieces. E. through the holes already drilled. Fig. It should be placed in an exposed location. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass.J. thus making all the holes coincide. D. The bottom glass should be a good fit.C. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. All the horizontal pieces. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Long Branch. B. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. 1 gill of fine white sand. A. C. and this is inexpensive to build. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. as the difficulties increase with the size. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Let . The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. so that when they are assembled. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. to form a dovetail joint as shown. To find the fall of snow. angle iron for the frame. the first thing to decide on is the size. The upright pieces. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium.. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts. of the frame. about 20 in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. 1 gill of litharge. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. and then the frame is ready to assemble. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. E. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. When the glass is put in the frame a space. 1. the same ends will come together again. B. N.

as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and. B. on the door by means of a metal plate. having a swinging connection at C. D. a centerpiece (A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Fig. to the door knob. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Fasten the lever. if desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Aquarium Finished If desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B.

screwed to the door frame. Fig. which is 15 in. to keep the frame from spreading. White. long. They are shown in Fig. Y. and Fig. another. 2 at GG. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 26 in. F. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. for the top. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. according to the slant given C. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. 3 shows one of the paddles. AA. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. long. to form the main supports of the frame. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. another. Cut two of them 4 ft. soldered to the end of the cylinder. from the outside top of the frame. Do not fasten these boards now. Two short boards 1 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. wide by 1 in. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. 1. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. long. D. long. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. to form the slanting part. thus doing away with the spring. N. E. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Cut two pieces 30 in. PAUL S. I referred this question to my husband. 1 . 6 in. 2 ft. but mark their position on the frame. hoping it may solve the same question for them. wide . and another. B. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. approximately 1 ft. 1. as at E. will open the door about 1/2 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. C. Buffalo.. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. To make the frame. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. A small piece of spring brass. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 2 is an end view. --Contributed by Orton E.

2) with a 5/8-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. remove the cardboard. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. and a 1/4 -in. and drill a 1/8-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. long and filling it with babbitt metal. as shown in Fig. GG. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). by 1-1/2 in. These are the paddles.burlap will do -. with the wheel and shaft in place. 4. from one end by means of a key. in diameter. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. (I. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Now block the wheel. 2) and another 1 in. thick (HH. pipe. long to the wheel about 8 in. iron 3 by 4 in. then drill a 3/16-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Make this hole conical. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. that is. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. steel shaft 12 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. iron. take down the crosspieces. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Fig. thick. 24 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. hole through them. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole through their sides centrally. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through its center. hole from the tops to the 1-in. 1. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Tack one side on. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. holes. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. to a full 1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. and drill a 1-in. 2) form a substantial base. Drill 1/8-in. hole to form the bearings. When it has cooled. Take the side pieces. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Fasten them in their proper position.

Darken the rest of the window. as this makes long exposure necessary. and the subject may move. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and as near to it as possible. it would be more durable. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. but now I put them in the machine. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Focus the camera carefully. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. or what is called a process plate. says the Photographic Times. start the motor. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. If the bearings are now oiled.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as shown in the sketch at B. Correct exposure depends. It is obvious that. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. of course. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.a water-tight joint. The best plate to use is a very slow one. drill press. sewing machine. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. If sheet-iron is used. Raise the window shade half way. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and leave them for an hour or so. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. place the outlet over a drain. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. light and the plate. ice-cream freezer. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. . and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. but as it would have cost several times as much. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. any window will do. Drill a hole through the zinc. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. remove any white curtains there may be. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Do not stop down the lens. on the lens.

2. or wood. The current required is very small. as shown in Fig.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. A. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. and without fog. by twisting. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. a core. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. a glass tube. On completing . Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. and a base. an empty pill bottle may be used. without detail in the face. D. hard rubber. the core is drawn down out of sight. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. With a piece of black paper. with binding posts as shown. C. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. B. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. full of water. 2. as a slight current will answer. until the core slowly rises. which is made of iron and cork. The core C. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or an empty developer tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The glass tube may be a test tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or can be taken from an old magnet.

Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1. whale oil. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This is a mysterious looking instrument. finest graphite. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and one not easy to explain. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . according to his control of the current. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. is Benham's color top. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1 pt. 1 lb. white lead. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. The colors appear different to different people. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. water and 3 oz. and make a pinhole in the center. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies.

but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. especially if the deck is a new one. In making hydrogen.L. when the action ceases. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. Chicago. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. As this device is easily upset. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. deuce. B. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . fan-like.B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. nearly every time. or three spot. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.. A. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. -Contributed by D. In prize games. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus partly filling bottles A and C. before cutting. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.

Detail of Phonograph Horn . Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. W. 2. 10 in. 4. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. J. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. S. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Jr. in length and 3 in. Huron. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. as shown in Fig. 12 in. long and 3 in. --Contributed by F. long. Bently. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. in diameter.. (Fig. that will fit loosely in the tube A. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 3). Make a 10-sided stick. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Dak. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 1. 9 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Detroit. Form a cone of heavy paper. . --Contributed by C. S..

5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. allowing 1 in. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Denver. bend it at right angles throughout its length.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. with a pin driven in each end. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. A second piece of silk thread. E. --Contributed by Reader. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. making it three-ply thick. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. long. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Cut out paper sections (Fig. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Fig. and walk in. about the size of a leadpencil. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. A piece of tin. C. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. it is equally easy to block that trick. will cause an increased movement of C. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. on one side and the top. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. A. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. push back the bolt. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. but bends toward D. Fortunately. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. 6. Remove the form.

changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. B. posts. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. R. long. The feet. are 7 ft. put together as shown in the sketch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Fremont Hilscher. 4 ft. Two wood-base switches. Jr. S. Minn. is connected each point to a battery. long. Paul. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . will last for several years. S. as shown. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. W. or left to right. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. B. The upper switch. By this arrangement one. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The reverse switch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. and rest on a brick placed under each end.. West St. while the lower switch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them.strip. S S. The 2 by 4-in. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. --Contributed by J.. A. are made 2 by 4 in. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.

The hose E connects to the boiler. The base is made of wood. thick. H and K. with two washers. 2 and 3. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust.every house. is an old bicycle pump. the other parts being used for the bearing B. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. Fig. 3/8 in. pulley wheel. 2. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and a cylindrical . The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. or anything available. which will be described later. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. Fig. and in Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. E. In Fig. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 1. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. the size of the hole in the bearing B. which is made of tin. The valve motion is shown in Figs. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and the crank bearing C. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The steam chest D. and valve crank S. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. and has two wood blocks. FF. cut in half.

at that. Fry. Fig. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. as shown in Fig. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. This engine was built by W.piece of hard wood. J. --Contributed by Geo. The valve crank S. . The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Fig. C. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. and a very amusing trick. and saturated with thick oil. This is wound with soft string. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. of Cuba. and the desired result is obtained. is cut out of tin. W. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Wis. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Schuh and A. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Eustice. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. powder can. First. to receive the connecting rod H. 1. 3. San Jose. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. can be an old oil can. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. or galvanized iron. The boiler. as it is merely a trick of photography. using the positive wire as a pen. G. Cal. G. 4. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it.

Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 1 will be seen to rotate. Fig. as shown at AA. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and place a bell on the four ends. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 by covering up Figs. and Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. When turning. C. B. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. The smaller wheel. B. as shown. Cut half circles out of each stave. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and pass ropes around . Fig. diameter. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. They may be of any size. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction.

say 1/2 or 3/4 in. Louis. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. which allows the use of small sized ropes. To make this lensless microscope. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. produces a higher magnifying power). as shown in the illustration. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. but not on all. Mo. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. St.G. W. such as clothes lines.. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. From a piece of thin . and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. This in turn will act on the transmitter.M. procure a wooden spool. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A (a short spool. from the transmitter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. which accounts for the sound. long. --Contributed by H.

A. 2. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. B. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. D. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. fastened to a wooden base. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. 3. the object should be of a transparent nature. 1. as in all microscopes of any power. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. in which hay has been soaking for several days. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. place a small object on the transparent disk. C. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. bent as shown. by means of brads. held at arm's length. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. cut out a small disk. can be made of brass and the armature. .) But an object 3/4-in. H. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. C. The spring. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. darting across the field in every direction. otherwise the image will be blurred. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. or 64 times. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. i. The lever. Fig. the diameter will appear twice as large. The pivot. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. e. is made of iron. is fastened at each end by pins. E.. which costs little or nothing to make. (The area would appear 64 times as large. To use this microscope. and look through the hole D. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. the diameter will appear three times as large. and so on. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. which are pieces of hard wood.. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and at the center. An innocent-looking drop of water. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. Viewed through this microscope. if the distance is reduced to one-half. if the distance is reduced to one-third. B. D.

D. The back. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. FF. E. fastened near the end. brass. D.SOUNDER-A. C. The binding posts. should be about 22 in. Cut the top. The door. DD. AA. 26 wire: E. B. F. long. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. or taken from a small one-point switch. binding posts: H spring The stop. Fig. Fig. HH. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. K. connection of D to nail. or a single piece. coils wound with No. wide and about 20 in. wide. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. KEY-A. Each side. wide. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. can be made panel as shown. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. thick. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. 2. wide. K. long and 14-1/2 in. in length and 16 in. 16 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. between the armature and the magnet. . 16 in. 1. wood: C. brass: E. wide and set in between sides AA. wide. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. C. D. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. which are made to receive a pivot. brass or iron soldered to nail. nail soldered on A. similar to the one used in the sounder. B. and are connected to the contacts. long by 16 in. wood. The base of the key. soft iron. A switch. wood: F. is cut from a board about 36 in. A. brass: B.

Ill. with 3/4-in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Make 12 cleats. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Garfield. as shown. When the electrical waves strike the needle. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. 2 and made from 1/4-in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. E. long. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. as shown in the sketch. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . material. 13-1/2 in. AA. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. --Contributed by Carl Formhals.. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. In operation. cut in them.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings.

B. The cord is also fastened to a lever. N. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Pushing the wire. Fairport. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. --Contributed by R. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. the magnet. When the pipe is used. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. J. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. will give a greater speed. A. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Y. E. A fairly stiff spring. in order to increase the surface. filled with water. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. and thus decreases the resistance. --Contributed by John Koehler. F. pulls down the armature. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Ridgewood.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. and. A. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. when used with a motor. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . C. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. A (see sketch). Brown.

which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B. Borden. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. N. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. if desired. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door.for the secret contact. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Of course. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. --Contributed by Perry A. Gachville. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. even those who read this description.

Nails for stops are placed at DD.. From a piece of brass a switch. deep and 3/4 in. H. E. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. from the bottom. C. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. N. East Orange. Mangold. for 6-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Connect switch to post B. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. D. long and full 12-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. C. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cal. records. wide. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. long and 5 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. Dobson. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. in a semicircle 2 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. thick and 12-in. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. for 10in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Jr. 1. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. --Contributed by H. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. apart. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. . A. Washington. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. 2. The top board is made 28-in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. records and 5-5/8 in. as shown in Fig.whenever the bell rings. --Contributed by Dr. J. Compton. wide. as shown in Fig. With about 9 ft. and on both sides of the middle shelf. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in.

When the cord is passed over pulley C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . E. as shown in Fig. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. which in operation is bent. closed. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. A. 1. Roanoke. Va. as shown by the dotted lines. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. B. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. to which is fastened a cord.

1. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. in diameter. The crankpin should fit tightly. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. wide. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Cut two grooves. to turn on pins of stout wire. These wheels should be 3/4 in. In the sides (Fig. in diameter. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. holes (HH. CC. thick. but a larger one could be built in proportion. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. it too loose. as shown in the illustration. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. in diameter. which should be about 1/2 in. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. apart. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Do not fasten the sides too . 1 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Figs. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Now put all these parts together. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 5) when they are placed. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. D. 3). excepting the crank and tubing. wide. square and 7/8 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 4 shows the wheel-holder. E.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. they will let the air through. If the wheels fit too tightly. Notice the break (S) in the track. Fig. deep. E. Put the rubber tube. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. thick (A. is compressed by wheels. one in each end. against which the rubber tubing. 1 in. B. 3. deep and 1/2 in. they will bind. Fig. long. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Figs. through one of these holes. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in.

and 3-1/2 in. To use the pump. from that mark the next hole. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Fig. iron. 1. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. tubing. 17-1/2 in. because he can . from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from the bottom and 2 in. Take the center of the bar. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. and are 30 in. B. Then turn the crank from left to right. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. AA. Two feet of 1/4-in. --Contributed by Dan H. 2. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. of material. 15 in. 1. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. The screen which is shown in Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. A in Fig. Fig. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. The three legs marked BBB. Fig. For ease in handling the pump. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. and mark for a hole. 1. mark again. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Idana. Fig. from each end. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from each end. Cut six pieces. though a small iron wheel is better. AA. is all the expense necessary. costing 10 cents. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. If the motion of the wheels is regular. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The animal does not fear to enter the box. 1. the other wheel has reached the bottom. are 3/4 by 1/4 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. the pump will give a steady stream. beyond each of these two. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. as shown in Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. long. 2. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. mark for hole and 3 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Hubbard. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. stands 20 in. Kan. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from each end. a platform should be added.

Then pour the solution into the battery jar. there is too much liquid in the jar. dropping. long having two thumb screws. and the solution (Fig. or. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 2). Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Place the carbon in the jar. giving it a bright. rub the zinc well. When the bichromate has all dissolved. potassium bichromate. silvery appearance. shuts him in. of water dissolve 4 oz. acid 1 part). Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The truncated. --Contributed by H. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. 4 oz. The battery is now complete. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. To cause a flow of electricity. Philadelphia. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. but if one casts his own zinc. 14 copper wire. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. If it is wet. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. When through using the battery. . If the solution touches the zinc. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now ready for use. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. stirring constantly. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. and touches the bait the lid is released and. some of it should be poured out. or small electric motors. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. 1) must be prepared. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. of the top. however. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. C. Meyer. add slowly. sulphuric acid. It is useful for running induction coils. until it is within 3 in. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful.see through it: when he enters. The mercury will adhere. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores.

i. The price of the coil depends upon its size. pressing the pedal closes the door. Madison. After putting in the coal. If. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Wis.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.Fig. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. with slight changes. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. while the coal door is being opened. which opens the door. e. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the jump-spark coil .. the battery circuit.

For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. 6. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. the full length of the coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". W W. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. After winding. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. as shown in Fig. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 5. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in a partial vacuum. which is made of light copper wire. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. diameter. . made of No. coil. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Fig. This will make an excellent receiver.7. as shown in Fig. 7). being a 1-in. apart. W W. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 6. and closer for longer distances. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Now for the receiving apparatus. 7. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 7. This coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. while a 12-in. Change the coil described. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission.described elsewhere in this book. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in.

where A is the headstock. being vertical. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. 90°. 1). being at right angles. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. only. I run my lathe by power. No. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. may be easily made at very little expense. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. above the ground. in the air. 90°. after all. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. which will be described later. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 1 to 4. as it matches the color well. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. Figs. The writer does not claim to be the originator. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. For an illustration. and hence the aerial line. using an electric motor and countershaft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A large cone pulley would then be required. B the bed and C the tailstock.The aerial line. are analogous to the flow of induction. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them.6 stranded. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. These circles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). Run a wire from the other binding post. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but it could be run by foot power if desired. . but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. to the direction of the current.

steel tubing about 1/8 in. tapered wooden pin. 4. The headstock. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 6 Headstock Details D. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. pitch and 1/8 in. 5.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. B. A. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 5. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. which are let into holes FIG. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 6. Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. but not hot enough to burn it. If the bearing has been properly made. To make these bearings. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. one of which is shown in Fig. thick. which pass through a piece of wood. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The shaft is made of 3/4-in. and runs in babbitt bearings. After pouring. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. and it is well to have the shaft hot. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Heat the babbitt well. just touching the shaft. 2 and 3. 4. deep. The bolts B (Fig. too. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Fig. on the under side of the bed. Fig. and Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Fig.

other machines. If not perfectly true. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. B. of the walk . To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. the alarm is easy to fix up.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. embedded in the wood. so I had to buy one. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. If one has a wooden walk. The tail stock (Fig. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. lock nut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. Oak Park. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. and a 1/2-in. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. FIG.J. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. This prevents corrosion. A. Take up about 5 ft. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. they may be turned up after assembling. Ill. N. Newark.

Jackson. silver or other metal. before dipping them in the potash solution. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. leaving a clear solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Then make the solution . clean the articles thoroughly. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. to roughen the surface slightly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Finally. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. and the alarm is complete. save when a weight is on the trap. so that they will not touch. Minneapolis. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. water. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. hang the articles on the wires. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Fig.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. (A. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. add potassium cyanide again. Connect up an electric bell. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. S. Minn. of water. --Contributed by R. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. 2). to remove all traces of grease. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Do not touch the work with the hands again. To avoid touching it.

Then. as at F. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. thick by 3 in. 3. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. about 25 ft. The wooden catch. A (Fig.5 to 4 volts. will serve for the key. make a key and keyhole. as shown in Fig. If more solution is required. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Screw the two blocks together. hole in its center. lead. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. saw a piece of wood. of water. 1 not only unlocks. a hand scratch brush is good. 1). with water. pewter. such metals as iron. with water. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. from the lower end. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. long. If accumulators are used. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. On brass. In rigging it to a sliding door. Fig. also. 3) strikes the bent wire L. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. This solution. Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of clothesline rope and some No. a circuit is completed. Can be made of a 2-in. long.up to 2 qt. B should be of the same wood. 1 in. must be about 1 in. with the pivot 2 in. Where Bunsen cells are used. Make a somewhat larger block (E. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. --Model Engineer. shaking. Repeat six times. silver can be plated direct. square. Take quick. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. German silver. Before silver plating. which is held by catch B. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. copper. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. Having finished washing the precipitate. When all this is set up. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. but opens the door. which . The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 18 wire. Fig. which is advised. 1). 3) directly over the hole. To provide the keyhole. and 4 volts for very small ones. The wooden block C. and the larger part (F. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. piece of broomstick. when the point of the key touches the tin. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. A 1/4 in. With an electric pressure of 3. if one does not possess a buffing machine. an old electric bell or buzzer. nickel and such metals. use 2 volts for large articles. I. 1. 10 in. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. zinc. and then treated as copper. light strokes. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Fig.

The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and hands its contents round to the audience. is the cut through which the rope runs. and a slit. 1. or cave. should be cut a hole. Fig. B. New Jersey. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. the box should be painted black both inside and out. H. in his shirt sleeves. so much the better. Fig. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. a few simple tools. In front of you. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. no painting inside is required. the requisites are a large soap box. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. and finally lined inside with black cloth. Next. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. He removes the bowl from the black box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Next. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. which unlocks the door. 0. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. although a little more trouble. floor. The magician stands in front of this. 3. Fig. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. the illumination in front must be arranged. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. top. 2. and plenty of candles. enlarged. some black paint. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 116 Prospect St. spoons and jackknives. with the lights turned low. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Fig. Klipstein. Objects appear and disappear. One thing changes to another and back again. cut in one side. to throw the light toward the audience. Thus. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The box must be altered first. sides and end. some black cloth. H. On either side of the box. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. --Contributed by E. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. such as forks. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole.. Heavy metal objects. H. heighten the illusion. he tosses it into the cave. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). To prepare such a magic cave. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. between the parlor and the room back of it. half way from open end to closed end. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and black art reigns supreme. 1. One end is removed. 2. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. shows catch B. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. The interior must be a dead black. East Orange. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. surrounding a perfectly black space. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. one-third of the length from the remaining end. with a switch as in Fig.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. he points with one finger to the box. Receiving the bowl again. .

of course. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which can be made to dance either by strings. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. in which are oranges and apples. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Consequently. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. a screen must be used. his confederate behind inserts his hand. only he. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. The illusion. if. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. the room where the cave is should be dark. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. of course. into the eyes of him who looks. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. is on a table) so much the better. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. as presented by Hermann. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. But illusions suggest themselves. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. you must have an assistant. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and several black drop curtains. The audience room should have only low lights. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. was identical with this. The exhibitor should be . But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind.Finally. one on each side of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and if portieres are impossible. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave.

respectively. vice versa. About the center piece H moves a disk. c2. held down on it by two terminals. b1. b2. or b2. c4.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. square. Fig. so arranged that. by means of two wood screws. and c4 + electricity. b3. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 2. respectively. b2. Finally. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. with three brass strips. and c2 to the zinc. d. f2. terminal c3 will show +. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. respectively. held down on disk F by two other terminals. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. as shown in Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. and c1 – electricity. is shown in the diagram. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . or binding posts. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. 1. if you turn handle K to the right. c3. FIG. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. making contact with them. by 4 in. 2. A represents a pine board 4 in.. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base.a boy who can talk. terminal c3 will show . 1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. e1 and e2. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. when handle K is turned to one side. making contact with them as shown at y. Then. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. and a common screw. at L. A. On the disk G are two brass strips. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 2). held down by another disk F (Fig.

More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Newark. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when on No. Ohio. When switch B is closed and A is on No. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Joerin. from three batteries. 3. E. from four batteries. and then hold the receiver to your ear.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Jr. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving.. Tuttle. jump spark coil. from five batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. --Contributed by Eugene F. 5. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. B is a onepoint switch. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . . -Contributed by A. 1. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 4. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. when A is on No. you have the current of one battery. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. when on No.

A. E. and supporting the small weight. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. and placed on the windowsill of the car.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Thus. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. which may be a button or other small object. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. mark. per second for each second. A. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. B. of Burlington. over the bent portion of the rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Wis. The device thus arranged. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. so one can see the time. Handy Electric Alarm . Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. rule. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. mark. traveled by the thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. A. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. La. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. is the device of H. P. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. per second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Redmond. New Orleans..

wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then if a mishap comes. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Crafton. --Contributed by Gordon T. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. soldered to the alarm winder. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. . Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. for a wetting is the inevitable result. but may be closed at F any time desired. Lane. When the alarm goes off. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. S. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Instead. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. B. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. --C. which illuminates the face of the clock. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. and with the same result. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. C. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E.which has a piece of metal. Pa.

1 . A. models and miniature objects. whence it is soon tracked into the house. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. 1. when it is being prepared. and many other interesting and useful articles.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. With the easily made devices about to be described. If there is no foundry Fig. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Macey. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Two cleats. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. cannons. C. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. BE. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. ornaments of various kinds. as shown. as shown in Fig. small machinery parts. AA. --Contributed by A. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. which may. bearings. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. The first thing to make is a molding bench. and duplicates of all these. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. battery zincs. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. New York City. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. binding posts. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. as the sand is sure to get on the floor.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . L. engines. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature.

E. which should be nailed in. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together.How to Make a Mold [96] . is filled with coal dust. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. but this operation will be described more fully later on. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. white metal. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. CC. makes a very good sieve. 1. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Fig. A A. high. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. It is made of wood and is in two halves. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. J. G. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. which can be either aluminum. is made of wood. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag.near at hand. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. 1. and a sieve. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. will be required. The rammer. 2 . An old teaspoon." or lower part. say 12 in. and saw it in half longitudinally. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. by 8 in." or upper half. Fig. and the "drag. and the lower pieces.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. which can be made of a knitted stocking. II . the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. The cloth bag. DD. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. the "cope. If desired the sieve may be homemade. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. If the box is not very strong. D. is shown more clearly in Fig. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. as shown. and this. 2. by 6 in. A wedge-shaped piece. H. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. as shown. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. F. The flask. CC. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. try using sand from other sources. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A slight shake of the bag Fig. The dowels. is nailed to each end of the cope. is about the right mesh. previous to sawing. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers.

After ramming. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. Place another cover board on top. as shown at D. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and scatter about 1/16 in. as described. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. as shown at C. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." in position. and if water is added. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and thus judge for himself. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. or "cope. the surface of the sand at . where they can watch the molders at work. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It is then rammed again as before. or "drag. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as shown. and by grasping with both hands. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown at E. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. in order to remove the lumps. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as it is much easier to learn by observation. The sand is then ready for molding. turn the drag other side up. In finishing the ramming. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick.

the next operation is that of melting and pouring.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. . which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. it shows that the sand is too wet. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. Fig. thus holding the crucible securely. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown at H. The "sprue. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. place the cope back on the drag. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. in diameter. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as shown at F. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. as shown at J. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If." or pouring-hole. deep. made out of steel rod. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown at G. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. After drawing the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. This is done with a spoon. is next cut. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. III. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. after being poured. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. to give the air a chance to escape. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. wide and about 1/4 in. as shown at H. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. Place a brick or other flat. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. and then pour. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it.

5% zinc and 5% antimony. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Minneapolis. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Although the effect in the illustration . Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. and. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. 15% lead. battery zincs. used only for zinc. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. babbitt. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but any reasonable number may be used. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. and the casting is then ready for finishing. is very desirable. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. may be used in either direction. the following device will be found most convenient. --Contributed by Harold S. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. although somewhat expensive. In my own case I used four batteries. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. white metal and other scrap available.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Referring to the figure. or from any adjacent pair of cells. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Morton. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. If a good furnace is available.

To make it take a sheet-iron band. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Then replace the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown in the illustration. outward. The bearings. backward. By replacing the oars with paddles. 3/4 in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. connected by cords to the rudder. The brass rings also appear distorted. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. B.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. 2. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Fig. Then walk down among the audience. --Contributed by Draughtsman. If desired. which will be sufficient to hold it. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. as shown at A. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. shaft made. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. A. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Put a sharp needle point. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Chicago. Make one of these pieces for each arm. may be made of hardwood. B. He can easily steer the boat with his feet.

The hubs. and a weight. If galvanized iron is used. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. A block of ice. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 1. W. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. but when in motion. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. spoiling its appearance. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. A. 3. 2. Fig. as shown in Fig. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. If babbitt is used. or under pressure. should be made of wood. It may seem strange that ice . Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°.melted babbitt. E. as shown in Fig. Snow. The covers. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. or the paint will come off. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. C. being simply finely divided ice. when it will again return to its original state. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In the same way. 2 and 3. D. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1.

The current is flowing through both bells all the time. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. as per sketch. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. by 1/2 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. by 1/4. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 2 in. which resembles ice in this respect. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Pressing either push button. as shown on page 65. Crafton. Pa. or supporting it in some similar way. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but by placing it between books. P. no matter how slow the motion may be. --Contributed by Gordon T. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. brass. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. whenever there is any connection made at all. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 5 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. B. but. Lane.. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. thus giving a high resistance contact. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening.should flow like water. and assume the shape shown at B. square. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch.

The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. C. B.000 ft. G. draft chain. vertical lever. In the wiring diagram. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. the induction coil. weight. and C. draft. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. pulleys. --Contributed by A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. about the size used for automobiles. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. B. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. J. The success depends upon a slow current. A is the circuit breaker. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. furnace. D.thumb screws. The parts are: A. Pa. Ward. horizontal lever. K . the battery. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. as shown. F. I. Wilkinsburg. H. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. and five dry batteries. Indianapolis. as shown. wooden supports. cord. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. alarm clock. G. E. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated.

When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. will fit nicely in them. as well as the bottom. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. which will provide a fine place for the plants. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Kalamazoo. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The frame (Fig.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. where house plants are kept in the home. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 3. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. such as used for a storm window. material framed together as shown in Fig. Mich.

Halifax. so as to increase the current. one can regulate the batteries as required. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. W. S. It must be remembered. but maintain the voltage constant. and cost 27 cents FIG. multiples of series of three. Thus. in this connection. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. Canada. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. 1 cp... --Contributed by Wm. as indicated by Fig. for some time very satisfactorily. can be connected up in series. N. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. The 1/2-cp. Push the needle into the cork. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. as if drawn upon for its total output. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. this must be done with very great caution. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. in any system of lamps. after a rest. However. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. a cork and a needle. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. 1. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Grant. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. by connecting them in series. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. and a suitable source of power. 1 each complete with base. This is more economical than dry cells. is something that will interest the average American boy. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. i. since a battery is the most popular source of power. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. However. which sells for 25 cents. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and the instrument will then be complete.. in diameter. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and will give the . Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. A certain number of these. where they are glad to have them taken away. e.

to secure light by this method. which is the same as that of one battery. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. 11 series. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 1-cp. lamps. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell.proper voltage. if wound for 6 volts. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. In conclusion. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. although the first cost is greater. double insulated wire wherever needed. Thus. we simply turn on the water. by the proper combination of these. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. according to the water pressure obtainable. FIG. Chicago. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. or 22 lights. . and for Christmas trees. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and diffused light in a room. and running the series in parallel. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Fig. lamp. 2 shows the scheme. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run.. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. These will give 3 cp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. So. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. each. as in Fig. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. lamps. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and then lead No. Thus. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. However. for display of show cases. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. 18 B & S. especially those of low internal resistance. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. where the water pressure is the greatest. 3. making. If wound for 10 volts. generates the power for the lights. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and cost about the same as a 32-cp.

A indicates the ground. center points of switch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. outside points of switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. DD. bars of pole-changing switch. switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. . B. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. brushes of motor. CC. B. --Contributed by Leonard E. Santa Clara. the letters indicate as follows: FF. and the sides. or from one pattern. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. thus reversing the machine. are cut just alike. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. --Contributed by F. a bait of meat. Ind. field of motor. Emig. and C. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. simply change the switch. Plymouth. or a tempting bone. BB. A. as shown in the sketch. After I connected up my induction coil. AA. Parker. we were not bothered with them. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. To reverse the motor. Cal. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil.

Fry. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. a piece of string. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Hutchinson. Cal. The button can be hidden. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. thus locking the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. When the circuit is broken a weight. To unlock the door. Melchior. The experiment works best . a hammer. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. A. as it is the key to the lock. W.. attached to the end of the armature B. which is in the door. 903 Vine St. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. San Jose. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. If it is not. Minn. one cell being sufficient.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. -Contributed by Claude B. and a table or bench.

When the alarm rings in the early morning. Wis. the stick falls away. Ontario. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 4). which pulls the draft open. releasing the weight. . Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in the ceiling and has a window weight. the key turns. 3. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Canada. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. P. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. I. 2. as shown in Fig. Brockville. D.Contributed by F. Tie the ends of the string together. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.. -. run through a pulley. attached at the other end. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. the current flows with the small arrows. 18 Gorham St. Madison. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 1). forming a loop. Schmidt. Porto Rico. W. On another block of wood fasten two wires. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Culebra. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. A. where it will remain suspended as shown. 3. Crawford Curry. C.

and . D. including the mouthpiece. R. get two pieces of plate glass. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. square and 1 in. --Contributed by Wm. S. Connect two wires to the transmitter. running one direct to the receiver. Camden. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. which fasten to the horn. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Use a barrel to work on. J. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and then to the receiver. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Farley. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and the other to the battery. 6 in. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. made with his own hands. N. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. thick. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. thence to a switch. or tree. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Jr. The cut shows the arrangement. First.. J. or from a bed of flowers.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and break the corners off to make them round.

. with pitch. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. the coarse grinding must be continued.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. then take 2 lb. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. and label. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then 8 minutes. by the side of the lamp. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. with 1/4-in. or it will not polish evenly.. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. unless a longer focal length is wanted. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. using straight strokes 2 in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. A. set the speculum against the wall. spaces. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and a large lamp. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Fasten. melt 1 lb. and spread on the glass. When polishing the speculum. as in Fig. Use a binger to spread it on with. When dry. while walking around the barrel. wet till soft like paint. 1.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Fig. In a dark room. a round 4-in. 2. twice the focal length away. also rotate the glass. of water. or less. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and the under glass or tool convex. in length. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. wide around the convex glass or tool. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When done the glass should be semitransparent. L. Have ready six large dishes. and is ready for polishing. Then warm and press again with the speculum. so the light . Place a large sheet of pasteboard.

When the focus is found. Then add solution B. Now add enough of the solution A. fill the dish with distilled water. Two glass or earthenware dishes. The knife should not be more than 6 in. The polishing and testing done. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp.. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Place the speculum S. Nitric acid . 100 gr. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 25 gr. Fig. Then add 1 oz. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. With pitch. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.. touched with rouge. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….………………………………. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. that was set aside.. longer strokes. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. then ammonia until bath is clear.…………………………….. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 4 oz. Solution D: Sugar loaf . as in K. or hills. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. long to the back of the speculum. Fig. Silver nitrate ……………………………. from the lamp.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 39 gr. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. face down. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass... 840 gr. if a hill in the center. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. also how the rays R from a star . The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. must be procured. Place the speculum. cement a strip of board 8 in.100 gr.……………. 2. deep. 2.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. the speculum is ready to be silvered. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. If not. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. with distilled water. Fig. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. When dry. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). and pour the rest into the empty dish. the speculum will show some dark rings. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 4 oz.

is a satisfactory angle. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. cover with paper and cloth. My telescope is 64 in. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. deg. The flatter they are the less they will distort. telescope can be made at home. which proves to be easy of execution. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. using strawboard and black paper. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Thus an excellent 6-in. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. with an outlay of only a few dollars. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Then I made the one described. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Place over lens. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. About 20. stop down well after focusing. slightly wider than the lens mount. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Make the tube I of sheet iron. long and cost me just $15.. and proceed as for any picture. two glass prisms.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.John E. Mellish. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. .

Boody. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Zimmerman. D. and reflect through the negative. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The paper is exposed. A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. or powdered alum. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. add the plaster gradually to the water. Do not stir it. push the button D. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. through the lens of the camera and on the board. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. complete the arrangement. Ill. B. To unlock. The rays of the clear. instead of the contrary. 1. then add a little sulphate of potash. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. but will not preserve its hardening. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Fig. as shown in Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. says the Master Painter. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. -Contributed by A. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. . 2. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks.

Fasten on the switch lever. also provide them with a handle. Fig. as shown in the sketch. 1). 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. use a string. as in Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Then blow through the spool. 2. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. throw . If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. To reverse. 3. as at A and B.

When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Take out. the armature. C C. rinse in alcohol. --Contributed by R. Tex. carbons. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. wash in running water. as shown in the sketch. binding posts. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. --Contributed by Geo. although this is not necessary.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. and E E. In the sketch. B. and rub dry with linen cloth. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. A is the electricbell magnet. San Antonio. Tex. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Levy. Neb. North Bend. Go McVicker. San Marcos. carbon sockets. -Contributed by Morris L. . L. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. D. Thomas. Push one end of the tire into the hole.

wound evenly about this core. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 16 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Bell. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. 14 or No. Brooklyn. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. --Contributed by Joseph B. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. long or more. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 36 magnet wire. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. By means of two or more layers of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .

After the core wires are bundled. No. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This makes a condenser which may be folded. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. which is an important factor of the coil. In shaping the condenser. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. or 8 in. long and 2-5/8 in. as the maker prefers. The following method of completing a 1-in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. A 7/8-in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. wide. long and 5 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. When cut and laid in one continuous length. Beginning half an inch from one end. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. 2 yd. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. a box like that shown in Fig. The condenser is next wrapped . then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. at a time. making two layers. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. coil illustrates the general details of the work.which would be better to buy ready-made. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and finally the fourth strip of paper. as shown in Fig. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. but if it is not convenient to do this work. in diameter. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. with room also for a small condenser. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. hole is bored in the center of one end. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. diameter. one piece of the paper is laid down. about 6 in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 1. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. which is desirable. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. 4. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. in length. then the strip of tin-foil. the entire core may be purchased readymade. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in.

long and 12 in.) The wiring diagram. bell. E. D. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. spark. which is insulated from the first. copper lever with 1-in. G. I. C. B. B. and one from battery. 3. switch. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. flange turned on one side. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.securely with bands of paper or tape. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. battery . which allows wiring at the back. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and the other sheet. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. lines H. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. shows how the connections are made. go. one from bell. Fig. whole length. to the door. long to key. forms the other pole or terminal. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. F. ready for assembling. round so that the inside . spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. the letters indicate as follows: A. wide. V-shaped copper strip. 4 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. by 12 in. open switch C. A. The alarm key will turn and drop down. shelf for clock. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily.

diameter is 7 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. . but add 5 or 6 oz. says the Model Engineer. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. of zinc sulphate. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. from the bottom. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. instead of close to it. Line the furnace. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. If desired for use immediately.. Use a glass or metal shade. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. of blue stone. Short-circuit for three hours. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. do not shortcircuit. and then rivet the seam. The circuit should also have a high resistance. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. and the battery is ready for use. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This is for blowing. That is what they are for. 2 in. London. but with the circuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus producing two different vibrations. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. If any or your audience presume to dispute. If too low. for others the opposite way. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. as in the other movement. 1. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To operate the trick. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and then. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and therein is the trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction." which created much merriment. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. or think they can do the same let them try it. herein I describe a much better trick. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. oxygen to ozone. Enlarge the hole slightly. grip the stick firmly in one hand. for some it will turn one way. the second finger along the side. but the thing would not move at all. square and about 9 in. Make a hole through the center or this one arm.. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Outside of the scientific side involved. g.9 of a volt. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. At least it is amusing. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. long. This type of battery will give about 0. imparting to them a violet tinge. while for others it will not revolve at all. affects . Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Try it and see. 2. Ohio. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. below the bottom of the zinc. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. porcelain and paper.

photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. an old tripod screw. says the Photographic Times. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. To the front board is attached a box. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. but this is less satisfactory. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. earth. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. chemicals. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. however. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. if possible. a short-focus lens. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a means for holding it vertical. but small flowers. but not essential. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and one of them is photomicrography. If the worker is not after too high a magnification.

in Cu. 7-1/2 in. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 9 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. and a line. 268 17 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 5 ft. 697 44 lb. in diameter. 1. while it is not so with the quill. long and 3 ft. or 3 ft. A line. or 31 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 5 in. 11 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Fig. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 179 11 lb. 7 ft. 65 4 lb. 7-1/2 in. wide from which to cut a pattern. AB. 113 7 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 8 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. The following table will give the size. 905 57 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Boston.--Contributed by George C. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. If the balloon is 10 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. which is 15 ft. CD. Cap. 6 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Madison. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Mass. balloon. 381 24 lb. 12 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways.

boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. on the curved line from B to C. keeping the marked part on the outside. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Procure 1 gal. 2. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. using a fine needle and No. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 70 thread.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. and so on. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The cloth segments are sewed together. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 3. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. making a double seam as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 4. of beeswax and boil well together. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of the very best heavy body. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The pattern is now cut.

a clean white rag. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. ]. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. B. by fixing.ft. above the level of the water in barrel A. or a fan. it is not fit to use. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. When the clock has dried. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. C. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. of iron. but if any grease remains on the hand. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. with 3/4in.Green Iron ammonium citrate . How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. until no more dirt is seen. 5. with the iron borings. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. The outlet. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. B. using a fine brush. to the bag. Fill the other barrel. In the barrel. this should be repeated frequently. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. A. All FIG. 1 lb. of water will make 4 cu. balloon are 125 lb. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. of iron borings and 125 lb. . Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. of gas in one hour. with water 2 in. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. C. should not enter into the water over 8 in. 5 . which may sound rather absurd. The 3/4-in. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. of sulphuric acid. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. leaving the hand quite clean. as shown in Fig. 150 gr. B. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. 1 lb. A. ft. After washing a part. or dusting with a dry brush. About 15 lb. capacity and connect them. .The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order.. Water 1 oz. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. oil the spindle holes carefully. Vegetable oils should never be used. if it is good it will dry off. pipe. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action.

Dry the plates in the dark. Dry in the dark. says the Moving Picture World. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. A cold. or zinc. The miniature 16 cp.. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. of any make. Exposure. to avoid blackened skin. or carbon. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. or battery. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. keeping the fingers out of the solution. fix in hypo. A longer exposure will be necessary. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. . The negative pole. and a vigorous negative must be used. The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. .000 ft. toning first if desired.Water 1 oz. 20 to 30 minutes. This aerial collector can be made in . * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. at the time of employment. Port Melbourne. Printing is done in the sun. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. and keep in the dark until used.

Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. both positive and negative. when left exposed to the air. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. This will complete the receiving station. forming a cup of the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. lead pipe. as described below. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. If the wave ceases. and have the other connected with another aerial line. holes .various ways. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. will soon become dry and useless. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. making a ground with one wire. 5 in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. in diameter. the resistance is less. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. If the waves strike across the needle. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. lay a needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. long. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. As the telephone offers a high resistance. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. a positive and a negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty.

does not need to be watertight. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid.as possible. B. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. and the other to the negative. D. an oblong one and a triangular one. This. This box can be square. a round one. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. When mixing the acid and water. Two binding-posts should be attached. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. of course. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. or tube C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. This support or block. by soldering the joint. or tube B. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. except for about 1 in. one to the positive. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The other plate is connected to the zinc. namely: a square hole. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. on each end. says the Pathfinder. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled.

Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. A and B. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. Ill. is built 15 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. C. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Only galvanized nails should be used. 1. leaving about 1/16 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. as shown in Fig. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 3. long. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. and match them together. and has plenty of good seating capacity. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. The third piece of brass. 2. as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. all around the edge. about 20 in. in place on the wood. back and under. C. were fitted by this one plug. . wide. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. This punt. thick cut two pieces alike. 2. wide. Chicago. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. 1. deep and 4 ft. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. as it is not readily overturned. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire.

As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Tacoma.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A piece of 1/4-in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. square (Fig 2). gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. is cut 1 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Wash. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . long and fitted with a thumbscrew. B. In Fig. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. thick and 3-1/2 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.

It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. In designing. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. without auxiliary phase. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. and to consume. with the exception of insulated wire. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. or "rotor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . lamp. says the Model Engineer.--Contributed by Charles H. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no special materials could be obtained. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. no more current than a 16-cp. may be of interest to some of our readers. which the writer has made. which can be developed in the usual manner. it had to be borne in mind that. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. H." has no connection with the outside circuit. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. if possible. The winding of the armature.

but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. as shown in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. A. and all sparking is avoided. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 4. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. 5. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. 1. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. bolts put in and tightened up. Holes 5-32 in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. holes. while the beginnings . also varnished before they were put in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. as shown in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 2. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. thick. wrought iron. B. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. to be filed out after they are placed together. Unfortunately. and filled with rivets. The stator is wound full with No. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. or "stator." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. They are not particularly accurate as it is. After assembling a second time. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. in diameter were drilled in the corners. C. this little machine is not self-starting. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 3.the field-magnet. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. about 2-1/2 lb. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. no steel being obtainable. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. being used. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. with the dotted line.

as shown in Fig. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as each layer of wire was wound. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. This type of motor has drawbacks. McKinney. and all wound in the same direction. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. E. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. J. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. If too late for alcohol to be of use. it would be very simple to build. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. In making slides by contact. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. 2. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The rotor is wound with No. The image should . as a means of illustrating songs. Jr. One is by contact. and especially of colored ones. No starting resistance is needed. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. if applied immediately. as before stated. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. film to film. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 3-Contributed by C. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density.. The lantern slide is a glass plate.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. N. Newark. 1. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. and would not easily get out of order. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. having no commutator or brushes. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and the other by reduction in the camera.

Being unbreakable. Draw lines with a pencil. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and then a plain glass. about a minute. A. It is best. 1. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] .appear in. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. to use a plain fixing bath. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. a little extra work will be necessary. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. If the exposure has been correct. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. as shown in Fig. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 2. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. B. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. if possible. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. C. Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. also. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and development should be over in three or four minutes. except that the binding is different. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 4. they are much used by travelers. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. D. Select a room with one window. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 5. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. 3. as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. These can be purchased from any photo material store. over the mat.

Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. from the ends. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. wide and 50 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. long. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. A piece of canvas. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Corinth. from the end piece of the chair. Hastings. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Vt. in diameter and 20 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. If the star is in front of the left eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. 16 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 1. while the dot will be in front of the other. in diameter and 40 in. These longer pieces can be made square. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. long. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 1. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Fig. as shown in Fig. known as rods and cones.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. is to be used for the seat. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown at B. or other stout cloth. long. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. as shown at A. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. holes bored in the end pieces. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . 2.

. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. O'Gara. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. A disk 1 in. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Auburn. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. 1. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. as well as to operate other household machines. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. 2. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. in thickness and 10 in. Cal. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. J. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. per square inch.-Contributed by P. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A belt. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. made from an ordinary sash cord. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.

or inconvenient to measure. . and the construction is complete. Put the bolt in the hole. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. long. thick and 2-1/2 in. direction. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. screwing it through the nut. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. to the top of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. wide. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. says the Scientific American. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. A simple. 3/4 in. it serves a very useful purpose. Bore a 1/4-in. square for a support. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. with as fine a thread as possible. then removing the object. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. will be the thickness of the object. Cut out a piece from the block combination. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. fairly accurate.

When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. bolt in each hole. Santa Maria. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. piece of wood 12 ft. Place a 3/4-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. material 12 ft. beyond the end of the wood. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long is used for the center pole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. The wheel should be open . Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Oal. Bore a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. which show up fine at night.

is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. long. in diameter. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Tex. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. The boards may be nailed or bolted. P. and the lower part 61/2 in. Graham. The spool . This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. at the top and 4 in. H and J. and on its lower end a socket. O. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another.Side and Top View or have spokes. 1/2 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. long. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. of the ends with boards. at the bottom. thick. A piece of brass 2 in. thick. C. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. wide and 1/8 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The coil. wide and 1/8 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. from the top end. A cross bar. long. pieces used for the spokes. A. L. is soldered. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. made of the same material. thick is used for the armature. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. long. B. square and 3 or 4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. C. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.-Contributed by A. from the ends. Fort Worth. which should be 1/4 in.

then with a firm. do it without any apparent effort. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.J. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. This is a very neat trick if performed right. long. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.is about 2-1/2 in. At the bottom end of the frame. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. and directly centering the holes H and J. S. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. S. by soldering. which may be had by using German silver wire. for insulating the brass ferrule. Mass. A soft piece of iron. The armature. Bradlev. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. 1. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. one without either rubber or metal end. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. F. . Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. is drilled. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. that holds the lower carbon. C. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.000.E. D and E. This tie can be used on grain sacks. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. R. Randolph. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. A. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.--A. --Contributed by Arthur D.000 for irrigation work. and in numerous other like instances. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. B. 2. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. and place it against a door or window casing. 2 the hat hanging on it. or a water rheostat heretofore described.

A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. about 1/8 in. is connected to a flash lamp battery. and then 1. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. with a 3/16-in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. for adjustment. The coil ends are made from cardboard. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The core of the coil. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 2 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. A. 2. long and 1 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. long. about 3/16 in. in diameter. mixed with water to form a paste. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. hole in the center. may be made from a 3/8-in. About 70 turns of No. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. in diameter and 1/16 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. B. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. from the core and directly opposite. Fig. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. about 1 in. 1. C. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. is constructed in the usual manner. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The vibrator B.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. for the secondary. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. D. S. in diameter. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. for the primary. S. wide. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The switch.500 turns of No. F. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. leaving the projections as shown. Experiment with Heat [134] . The vibrator. 1. thick.

2 to fit the two holes. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. as shown in the sketch. The three screws were then put in the hasp. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The tin is 4 in. as shown. and the same distance inside of the new board. The hasp. Fig. long and when placed over the board. 16 in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. board. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. brass plate. with which to operate the dial. in an ordinary water glass. wide. lighted. which is cut with two holes. which is only 3/8-in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in.Place a small piece of paper. thick on the inside. between the boards. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The lock. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. was to be secured by only three brass screws. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. it laps down about 8 in. . 1. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. which seemed to be insufficient. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. 1. and then well clinched. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position.

square and 10-1/2 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. not shiny. clear glass as shown. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. If the box is made large enough. square and 8-1/2 in. the glass. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. but when the front part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. When making of wood. high for use in window displays. and the back left dark. or in the larger size mentioned. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. one in each division. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. black color. When the rear part is illuminated.

Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. wide will be about the right size. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as shown in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When there is no electric current available.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. above the top of the tank. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. When using as a window display. . or a piece of this width put on the bottom. long and 1 ft. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as shown at A in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. a tank 2 ft. alternately. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. as it appears. into the other..

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

square and 40 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. thick and 3 in. from the ground. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. two pieces 1-1/8 in. and a door in front. and a solution of iron sulphate added. using a 3/4-in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. 6 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. with a length of 13 in. each. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. hole bored the full length through the center. The 13-in. hole. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. is the green vitriol. bore from each end. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The pieces can then be taken out. If a planing mill is near. long. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. bit. gauge for depth. 1 in. 5 ft. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. but with a length of 12 in. lines gauged on each side of each. Three windows are provided. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. wide. however. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. as shown. long. Columbus. 2 ft. This precipitate is then washed. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. and 6 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. or ferrous sulphate. high. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. under sides together. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and boring two holes with a 1-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. square. Shape the under sides first. A small platform. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. is built on the front. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. O. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. one for each side. wide. This hole must be continued .to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Iron sulphate. radius. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in.

is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The sketch shows one method of attaching. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Electric globes--two. No lap is needed when joints are soldered.through the pieces forming the base. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. hole in each block. Saw the two blocks apart. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. apply two coats of wax. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. thick and 3 in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. If the parts are to be riveted. When the filler has hardened. A better way. For art-glass the metal panels are . When this is dry. if shade is purchased." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. square and drawing a diagonal on each. three or four may be attached as shown. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap.

METAL SHADE . as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. the other. 2 the front view of this stand. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and Fig. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Figure 1 shows the side. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. as in ordinary devices. one way and 1/2 in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. as shown in the sketch. the object and the background. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The arms holding the glass.

These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. about 1-1/4 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Put the ring in place on the base. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. in diameter for a base. If the light becomes dim. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. thus forming a 1/4-in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. wide and 11 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. outside diameter. Before mounting the ring on the base. An ordinary pocket compass. in diameter. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. long. Cut another circular piece 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. uncork and recork again. as shown in the cut. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. wide and 6-5/16 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. and swinging freely. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . and an inside diameter of 9 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. pointing north and south. channel in the circumference of the ring. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. as it is very poisonous. thick 5/8-in.

Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. in diameter and 8 in. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. black oxide of copper. Corresponding mirrors.420 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. above the half can.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.182 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. into these cylinders.289 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place on top the so- . from the second to the third. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .500 . The results given should be multiplied by 1.865 1. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. CC. AA. B. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.600 . and north of the Ohio river. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. of the top.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.088 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.715 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. 1 oz. EE.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are mounted on a base. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and mirrors.

It makes no difference which way the wind blows. the wheel will revolve in one direction. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. slender bottle. University Park. 62 gr. then they will not rust fast. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. When renewing. Colo. A Floating Electromagnet [152] .lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. In Fig. 31 gr. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized campor. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Put the solution in a long. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. little crystals forming in the liquid. alcohol. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. says Metal Worker. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. always remove the oil with a siphon. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. which otherwise remains clear. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole.

the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. If zinc and carbon are used. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Lloyd Enos. --Contributed by C. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. about 1-1/4 in.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Solder in the side of the box . on the under side of the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. This is used in place of the spoon. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and copper are used. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. floating on a solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. A paper-fastener box.

Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. A circular piece of cardboard.Contributed by J. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. 10 wire about 10 in. hole. 1/2. The spring should be about 1 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Put ends. Take a small piece of soft iron. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. D. H. of wire on each end extending from the coil. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. The bottom of the box. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. as shown in Fig. wide and 6 in. F. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. The standard. 1. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. C. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. can be made of oak.not shorter than 18 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Use a board 1/2. B. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. glass tubing . D. or made with a little black paint. to it. brass tubing. piece of 1/4-in. E. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. B. Bore holes for binding-posts. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. D. away.1-in. If the hose is not a tight fit. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. C. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. E. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The base. A. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. thick. 3 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Rhamstine. 14 wire will do. one on each side of the board. stained and varnished. long. long. is made from a piece of No. A. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. of No. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. C. G--No. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. long that has about 1/4-in.in. Thos. 1-1/4 in. and then solder on the cover. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. . The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. and on the other around the glass tube.

Smith. D. 3 in. of mercury will be sufficient. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3-in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. About 1-1/2 lb. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. When the glass becomes soft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Y. from the right hand. J. four hinges. long are used for the legs.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.of the coil. E. Milwaukee. as shown in Fig. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The iron plunger. in diameter. is drawn nearer to the coil. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long. 2. making a support as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. . and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Teasdale. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 3. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. of No. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. N. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by R. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. about 1 in. Wis. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 1. two pieces 2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. canvas. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 5. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. of 8-oz. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Cuba.

. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. 4.. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Keys. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 5. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. This tube as described will be 8 in. long. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The tube now must be filled completely. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. of vacuum at the top. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. leaving 8 in. holding in the left hand. 6. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Toronto. small aperture in the long tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Break off the piece of glass. Measure 8 in. 2. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Can. Take 1/2 in. expelling all the air. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. 3. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. --Contributed by David A. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. thus leaving a. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top.

as shown in Fig. 1 in. 3. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long. 1 in. 7. FIG. as shown in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. These are bent and nailed. as in Fig. in diameter. 3 in. 5. with each projection 3-in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. but yellow pine is the best. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. wide and 12 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 1. 3 in. thick. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. A crosspiece 3/4-in. material 2 in. Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. 2. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 5 ft.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 9 in. and 1/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. This forms a slot. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 4.6 -. Four blocks 1/4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. cut in the shape shown in Fig. from the end of same. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wide and 3 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 4 in. wood screws. joint be accurately put together. thick. 6. long. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig.

which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. R. first removing the crank. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. above the runner level. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Welsh. Manhattan. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. says Photography. Water 1 oz. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. --Contributed by C. by 1-in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. attach runners and use it on the ice. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. . and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Kan. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The runners can be made from 1/4-in.

This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Edward M. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. as shown in Fig. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Mass. --Contributed by Wallace C. 1. 1 oz. and very much cheaper. Treasdale. Newton. also. from an ordinary clamp skate. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 3. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 2. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. The print is washed. . of water. Printing is carried rather far. Leominster. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax.

too. 2. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. from one end. square piece. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. say. Fig. Place a 10-in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. 1-1/2 ft. about 10 in. 1. F. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. wide and 4 in. causing the door to swing back and up. 1. Va. The swing door B. A. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Church. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The thread is broken off at the . as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. high. Alexandria. --Contributed by H.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. with about 1/8-in. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and bend them as shown in the sketch. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Then. Fig. hole. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and 3 ft. Take two glass tubes. 1 ft. which represents the back side of the door. wide. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. high for rabbits. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. and to the bottom. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. fasten a 2-in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. extending the width of the box. long.

This opening. wide. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. shorter at each end. 3. say 8 in.by 7-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. wide. in size. Fig. plates.. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. high and 12 in. horses and dogs. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. C. being 1/8 in. long. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. camera and wish to use some 4. . 1 in. 10 in. 2. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. in size. inside of the opening. as shown in Fig. trolley cars. Chicago. wide and 5 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. and exactly 5 by 7 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. -Contributed by William M. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. B. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Cut an opening in the other piece. and go in the holder in the same way. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. 1. D.proper place to make a small hole. Fig. Paste a piece of strong black paper. black surfaced if possible. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5.by 5-in. to be used as a driving pulley. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Crilly. Out two rectangular holes. automobiles. from the edge on each side of these openings. says Camera Craft. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. shorter. A and B. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. but cut it 1/4 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Jr. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. long.

and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. in diameter. wide will be required. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. long and 6 in. into which the dog is harnessed. making a . but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.. A cell of this kind can easily be made. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. The needle will then point north and south.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.

one that will hold about 1 qt. fuel and packing purposes. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. short time. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. . Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. File the rods to remove the copper plate. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Do not paint any surface. of the plate at one end. pull out the wire as needed. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. when the paraffin is melted. sal ammoniac.in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. B is a base of 1 in. This makes the wire smooth. says Electrician and Mechanic. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. filter.watertight receptacle. Form a 1/2-in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. A is a block of l-in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. of the top. under the spool in the paraffin. 1 lb. F is a spool. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Place the pan on the stove. fodder. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Pack the paste in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. plaster of paris. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. pine. zinc oxide. 3/4 lb. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. and a notch between the base and the pan. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. long which are copper plated. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. leaving about 1/2-in. 1/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. only the joints. of water. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. with narrow flanges. beeswax melted together. for a connection. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. in which P is the pan. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. in diameter and 6 in.

On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. as in the other movement. g. and therein is the trick. and then. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. or think they can do the same. and one friend tells me that they were . threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. grip the stick firmly in one hand. for some it will turn one way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. for others the opposite way. let them try it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Try it and see. from vexation. by the Hindoos in India.. but the thing would not move at all. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. 2. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. If any of your audience presume to dispute. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Enlarge the hole slightly. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Ohio. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. thus producing two different vibrations. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. square and about 9 in. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Toledo. At least it is amusing. and he finally. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. long. while for others it will not revolve at all. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the thumb and second finger changing places: e." which created much merriment. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick.

by means of a center punch. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 2. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. p. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. the rotation may be obtained. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. Speeds between 700 and 1. 5. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. and. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The experiments were as follows: 1. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. no rotation resulted. If the pressure was upon an edge. Thus a circular or . To operate. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 7. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. and I think the results may be of interest. m. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 4. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. secondly. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 6. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. gave the best results. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 3. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. and this was confirmed by the following experiments.100 r. rotation was obtained.

Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Lloyd. D.. and the height of the fall about 6 in. at first. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. unwetted by the liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. a piece of wire and a candle. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. the upper portion is. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Minn. G. --Contributed by M. Sloan. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Duluth. . This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. forming a handle for carrying. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Ph. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. it will be clockwise. A. and the resultant "basket splash.D. is driven violently away. --Contributed by G. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. A wire is tied around the can. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. if the pressure is from the left. Washington." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. or greasy. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. C.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

1. hole drilled in the center. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. as shown. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . axle. as shown in Fig. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. with a 1/16-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. about 2-5/8 in. thick and 1 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. in diameter. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. long. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1.

50. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. or main part of the frame. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 6. as shown in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. which must be 110 volt alternating current. A trolley. of No. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. is made from a piece of clock spring. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. and the locomotive is ready for running. long. is made from brass. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. wood. are shown in Fig. 5. wide and 16 in. This will save buying a track. 1 from 1/4-in. each in its proper place. bent as shown. --Contributed by Maurice E. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 3. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 2. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The parts. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. bottom side up. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 4. The first piece. If the ends are to be soldered. holes 1 in. The current. Texas. 3. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Fig. lamp in series with the coil. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Fig. San Antonio. Fuller. 3/4 in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. These ends are fastened together. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 2. put together complete. as shown in Fig.brass. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. with cardboard 3 in. The motor is now bolted.

This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. the length of a paper clip. and holes drilled in them.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. then continue to tighten much more. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. 1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When cold treat the other end in the same way. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 3. O. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. but do not heat the center. Cincinnati. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. The quarter will not go all the way down. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 2. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. and as this end .

One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the trick is to be performed. A pair of centers are fitted. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the cutter A. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. or apparent security of the knot. and adjusted . A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. 2 and 1 respectively. has finished a cut for a tooth. In the sketch. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. or should the lathe head be raised. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief.

Fig. --Contributed by Howard S. dividing it into as many parts as desired. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. if but two parts. above the surface. draw center lines across the required space. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). (6. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. long. 2. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. such as brass or marble. or one-half of the design. (5.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. trace the outline. When connecting to batteries. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Brooklyn. An ordinary machine will do. Fold over along these center lines. note book. (1. In this manner gears 3 in. swing lathe. book mark. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. 1.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously.to run true. (2. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. gentleman's card case or bill book. lady's card case. Bunker. Second row: -Two book marks. Bott. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. (3. watch fob ready for fastenings. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. N. (4. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. at the same time striking light. Y. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). --Contributed by Samuel C. tea cosey. about 1-1/2 in. lady's belt bag. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . if four parts are to be alike. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. coin purse. blotter back. holding it in place with the left hand. With such objects as coin purses and card cases.) Place the paper design on the leather and. The frame holding the mandrel. tea cosey. twisted around itself and soldered. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. and a nut pick. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) Make on paper the design wanted.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The electrodes are made .C. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Florida. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. A. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and push it through a cork. a distance of 900 miles. D. from Key West. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. B. If the needle is not horizontal.. C. Thrust a pin. and bore a hole through the center. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. where it condenses. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. into which fit a small piece of tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.

The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. Powell. 1. or flying-machine. 1. wide and 20 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. long. free from knots. 3. thick. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 2. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 4 ft long. Connect as shown in the illustration. lumber cannot be procured. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. thick. take the glider to the top of a hill. D. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 1/2. as shown in Fig. All wiring is done with No. by 3/4 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. use 10-ft. long for the body of the operator. long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. wide and 4 ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. lengths and splice them. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. using a high resistance receiver. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. which is tacked to the front edge. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. and also to keep it steady in its flight. apart and extend 1 ft. 16 piano wire. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. square and 8 ft long. as shown in Fig.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other.in. wide and 4 ft. thick. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. If 20-ft. 1-1/4 in. To make a glide. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. thick. wide and 3 ft. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. 2. --Contributed by Edwin L. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. Washington. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. 1-1/2 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. wide and 3 ft. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. as shown in Fig. 1. long. The operator can then land safely and . slacken speed and settle. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. both laterally and longitudinally. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. several strips 1/2 in. 2 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. C. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away.

but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Great care should be .

When heated a little. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. --Contributed by L. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. which causes the dip in the line. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. half man and half horse. Bellingham. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. 2. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.exercised in making landings. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. a creature of Greek mythology. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. M. Olson. as shown in Fig. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 1. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle.

The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. at the other. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. in diameter. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. long and about 3/8 in. 14 in. long. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. making it 2-1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. of small rubber tubing. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The light from the . If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. will complete the material list. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. outside the box. about the size of door screen wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. square. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. this will cost about 15 cents.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. a piece of brass or steel wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire.

as shown in the sketch. Hunting. M. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Dayton.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. 1. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 2. . as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. If done properly the card will flyaway. O. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure.

A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as before. then put it on the hatpin head. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. as shown. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. This game is played by five persons." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Cool in water and dry.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. hold the lump over the flame. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. When the desired shape has been obtained. closing both hands quickly. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. place the other two. as described. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve.

or more in width. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. passing through neutralizing brushes. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. distribute electric charges .Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in.

Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. in diameter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The plates. The two pieces. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. the side pieces being 24 in. wide at one end. wide. in diameter. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and of a uniform thickness. in diameter. free from wrinkles. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. are made from 7/8-in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. D. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. long and the shank 4 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The collectors are made. C C. Fig. The drive wheels. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. These pins. GG. Two pieces of 1-in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. EE. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. 2. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 1-1/2 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. at the other. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. RR. in diameter. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. long. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. after they are mounted. as shown in Fig. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and 4 in. 1. and pins inserted and soldered. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. to which insulating handles . 3. or teeth. and this should be done before cutting the circle. as shown in Fig.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. are made from solid. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The fork part is 6 in. 1 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. 3/4 in. in diameter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter. long. 4. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 3. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. turned wood pieces. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The plates are trued up. Fig. material 7 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. from about 1/4-in. in diameter and 15 in. Two solid glass rods.

and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. D. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the work was done by themselves. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. one having a 2-in. which are bent as shown.. long. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. --Contributed by C. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. in diameter. KK. Colo. 12 ft. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Colorado City. wide and 22 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Lloyd Enos. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.are attached.

When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread.is a good one. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. string together. using a 1-in. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. pens . the boards are then put in a vise as shown. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. bit. They can be used to keep pins and needles. deep. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. as at A. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. yet such a thing can be done. and bore a hole 1/2 in. The key will drop from the string. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft.

Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Use . Inside this oblong. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked.and pencils. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Draw one-half the design free hand. unless it would be the metal shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. etc. extra metal on each of the four sides. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 5. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. inside the second on all. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. about 3/4-in. flat and round-nosed pliers. also trace the decorative design. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. 6. 9. 4. When the stamping is completed. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. file. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. slim screw. inside the first on all. 8. they make attractive little pieces to have about. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Having determined the size of the tray. etc. using a nail filed to chisel edge. very rapid progress can be made. 2. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. sharp division between background and design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. above the metal. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. then the other side. 7. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. This is to make a clean. stamp the background promiscuously. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Proceed as follows: 1.. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. The second oblong was 3/4 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.. 23 gauge. two spikes. They are easily made. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Raise the ends. or cigar ashes. and the third one 1/4 in. 3.

On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. second fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. first fingers. In the first numbering. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. and the effect will be most pleasing. third fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 8. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 9. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. and fourth fingers. 6. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 7. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. The eyes. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 10. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.

Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 2 times 2 equals 4.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten.. Still. as high as you want to go. . and 20 plus 16 equals 36.. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. etc. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. which tens are added. renumber your fingers.. or the product of 6 times 6. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 400. etc. the product of 12 times 12. 11. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or 60. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. thumbs. Let us multiply 12 by 12. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. or the product of 8 times 9. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. 25 times 25. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or numbers above 10. Put your thumbs together. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 600. which would be 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Two times one are two. or 80. there are no fingers above. above 15 times 15 it is 200. if we wish. 12. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. and the six lower fingers as six tens. viz. which would be 16. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. At a glance you see four tens or 40. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. In the second numbering. first fingers. above 20 times 20. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one.

whether the one described in second or third numbering. . 2. and so on. etc. beginning the thumbs with 16. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. thumbs. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. first finger 17. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. or from above or from below. any two figures between 45 and 55. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. in the case of a nearsighted person. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. and. twenties. Take For example 18 times 18. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives.. further. adding 400 instead of 100.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. the inversion takes place against his will. being 80). 3. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Proceed as in the second lumbering. first fingers 22. For example. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. lastly. forties. the revolution seems to reverse. at the will of the observer. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 75 and 85. about a vertical axis. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. the value of the upper fingers being 20. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. not rotation. And the lump sum to add. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. thirties. which is the half-way point between the two fives. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the value which the upper fingers have. when he removes his spectacles. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 21. as one might suppose. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. or what. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the lump sum to add. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 7. It takes place also. however. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 8. For figures ending in 6.

From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Looking at it in semidarkness. tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The ports were not easy to make. the other appearance asserts itself. when he knows which direction is right. A flat slide valve was used. and putting a cork on the point. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . sometimes the point towards him. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. holding it firmly in a horizontal position.

The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Springfield. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. . deep. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. secure a piece of No. such as is shown in the illustration. Fasten the block solidly. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Ill. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. The tools are simple and can be made easily. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. saw off a section of a broom handle. pipe. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. it is easily built. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. H. and make in one end a hollow. The eccentric is constructed of washers. pipe 10 in. While this engine does not give much power. across and 1/2 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Kutscher. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. If nothing better is at hand. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. inexpensive. Next take a block of wood. -Contributed by W. Beating copper tends to harden it and. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. in diameter. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. bottom side up. The steam chest is round. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. across the head..The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. as in a vise. about 2 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. if continued too long without proper treatment. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. apart.

the other to the left. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To overcome this hardness. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. This process is called annealing. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. S. Camden. especially when the object is near to the observer. C. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Hay. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. To produce color effects on copper. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. --Contributed by W. as it softens the metal. and. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses.will cause the metal to break. O. Vinegar. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid.

In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. the one for the left eye being blue. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. although they pass through the screen. as for instance red and green. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and lies to the right on the picture. disappears fully. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. orange. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. because of the rays coming from them. In order to make them appear before the card. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. they must be a very trifle apart. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. diameter. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. only the orange rays may pass through. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. in the proper choice of colors. from the stereograph. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. would serve the same purpose. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. the further from the card will the composite image appear. while both eyes together see a white background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. with the stereograph. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. not two mounted side by side.stereoscope. But they seem black. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. . they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. that for the right. and without any picture. So with the stereograph. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. however. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The further apart the pictures are. because. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. It is just as though they were not there. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The red portions of the picture are not seen. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. it. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter.

14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. in the shape of a crank. Place a NO. This should only be bored about half way through the block. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. long and a hole drilled in each end. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. thick. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 12 gauge wire. A No.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. etc. San Francisco. wireless. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. 1/4 in. Cal. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The weight of the air in round . Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in diameter. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. or the middle of the bottle. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. wide and 1 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in.

which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. the instrument. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. long. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same.. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. thick. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a bottle 1 in. Before fastening the scale. a glass tube 1/8 in.numbers is 15 lb. 30 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. wide and 40 in. long. long. inside diameter and 2 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. high. or a column of mercury (density 13. But if a standard barometer is not available. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. wide and 4 in. square. In general. Only redistilled mercury should be used. and a slow fall. the contrary. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. if accurately constructed. square.6) 1 in. will calibrate itself. The 4 in. or. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. high. if you choose. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. 34 ft. . When the tube is filled to within 1 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. pine 3 in.

thick. 2. Number the pieces 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 3. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. and place them as shown in Fig.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 5. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . which is slipped quickly over the end. Mark out seven 1-in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Procure a metal can cover. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. long. 6 and 7. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 1. a cover from a baking powder can will do. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

Move 10-Move No. 5. Move 9-Jump No. in diameter. N. 7. Move 12-Jump No. 3 to the center. Make 22 sections. 1. 2's place.J. 3. 6 over No. Move 14-Jump No. 6. 2 over No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 6 in. Move 15-Move No. 1. Cape May Point. 6 into No. 3. 2. Move 3-Move No. 1 into No. long and 2 ft. 5 over No. shaped like Fig. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 7's place. 2. which is the very best material for the purpose. To make such a tent. Move 8-Jump No. 2 . 3 over No. 6 to No. 2 over No. 1 to No. Move 4-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. 6. This can be done on a checker board. Move ll-Jump No. 2's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. using checkers for men. Move 6-Move No. 5's place. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5 over No. 5's place. Woolson. L. Move 7-Jump No. 7 over No. Move 13-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 3 into No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 5-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck.-Contributed by W. 7 over No. each 10 ft. as shown in Fig. l over No. 3.

which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. diameter. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. --Contributed by G. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. After transferring the design to the brass. made in two sections. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Have the tent pole 3 in. fill with canvas edging. 6-in. wide by 12 in. 9 by 12 in. Tress. Punch holes in the brass in . high. long. in diameter. 5. These are ventilators. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Nail a thin sheet of brass. from the top. added. 3 in. Use blocks. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 6. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. long and 4 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. will do. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 2. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. round galvanized iron. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Fig. Fig. wide at the bottom. 2 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. In raising the tent. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams.in.. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. as in Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. wide at the bottom. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides.J. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. leaving the rest for an opening. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 5) stuck in the ground. Pa. As shown in the sketch. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. about 9 in. Emsworth.

the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. Corr. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The pattern is traced as before. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. around the outside of the pattern. apart. . The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. When the edges are brought together by bending. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. When all the holes are punched. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. It will not. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. excepting the 1/4-in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. but before punching the holes. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. bend into shape.the spaces around the outlined figures. Chicago. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads.

The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. pipe is used for the hub. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. E.however. allowing 2 ft. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. partially filled with cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Dunham.. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. A cast-iron ring. pipe. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. better still. Que. G. Mayger. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Oregon. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. between which is placed the fruit jar. or. --Contributed by H. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Badger. or less. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A 6-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Stevens. If a wheel is selected. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. or center on which the frame swings. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. --Contributed by Geo. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. These pipes are .

in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Four braces made from 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.

They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . which was placed in an upright position. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. while doing this. as shown in Fig. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. and dropped on the table. and the guide withdrawn. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The performer. 3. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. 1.

the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. in a half circle. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. and second. --Contributed by H. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin. it requires no expensive condensing lens. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. St. Louis. 1. first. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. White. Harkins. The box can be made of selected oak or . Denver. 2. Mo. -Contributed by C. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. D. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. F.

A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide. from each end of the outside of the box. fit into the runners. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. focal length. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 5-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The door covering this hole in the back. This will be 3/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. long. 1. but not tight. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. and 2 in. 2. high and must . The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end. high and 11 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Two or three holes about 1 in. and. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. If a camera lens is used. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 6-1/2 in. long.mahogany. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. as shown in Fig. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 3-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 5 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. An open space 4 in. AA. long and should be placed vertically. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip.

This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. West Toledo. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. calling that knuckle January. Bradley. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. provided it is airtight. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. --Contributed by Chas. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. C. then the second knuckle will be March. This process is rather a difficult one. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. as it requires an airtight case. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. June and November." etc. Ohio. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. and so on. calling this February. April. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. 1. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and extending the whole height of the lantern. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. the article may be propped up .

The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. giving it an occasional stir. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. and the lead 24 sq. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. one of lead and one of aluminum. the lid or cover closed. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 1. but waxed. Crawford. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The top of a table will do. in. Pour in a little turpentine. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. 1 and 2. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. 2.with small sticks. In both Fig. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. taking care to have all the edges closed. or suspended by a string. and set aside for half a day. . In each place two electrodes. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. N. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Y. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. H. fruit jars are required. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Schenectady. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes.

although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. which you warm with your hands. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. After a few seconds' time. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. you remove the glass. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. he throws the other. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. He. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Cleveland. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as well as others. O. This trick is very simple. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. as you have held it all the time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.

it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. in diameter in the center.-Contributed by E. Crocker. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Colo. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. but by being careful at shores. on a table. Be sure that this is the right one. . and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. if any snags are encountered. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. put it under the glass. but in making one. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. J. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Pull the ends quickly. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. near a partition or curtain. Victor. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.take the handiest one.

8 in. is 14 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 mast. from the bow and the large one. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 8 in. 14 rib bands. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1. one 6 in. 50 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide unbleached muslin.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. for cockpit frame. by 16 ft. by 2 in. 1 in. 11 yd. 3 and 4. Both ends are mortised. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 9 ft. for center deck braces. 1 in. from each end to 1 in. wide and 12 ft. by 2 in. 7 ft. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. from the stern. 2 and braced with an iron band. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. of rope. long. 3 in. of 1-1/2-yd. 8 yd. Fig. long. Paint. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. at the ends. are as follows: 1 keelson. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. and. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 12 in. 2 gunwales. long. thick and 3/4 in. apart. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. by 10 ft. 2 in. screws and cleats. ducking. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 15 ft. wide and 12 ft. wide. 1 in. The keelson. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . wide 12-oz. and fastened with screws. 1/4 in. 1 in. as illustrated in the engraving. 1/8 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 3 in.. and the other 12 in. by 16 ft. for the stern piece. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. selected pine. square by 16 ft. 1 piece. long. 4 outwales. of 1-yd. clear pine. for the bow.. 1 piece. drilled and fastened with screws.

wide and 3 ft. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. is cut to fit under the top boards. 9. a piece 1/4 in. A 6-in. Fig. The block is fastened to the keelson. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick. thick and 1/2 in. 7 and 8. 5. Fig. doubled. 4 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. long. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The 11-yd. 1/4 in. wide and 14 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. corner braces. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. from the bow. 1 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. wide and 24 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. wood screws. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. also. They are 1 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. A piece of oak. long. apart. The deck is not so hard to do. These are put in 6 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. screws. thick and 12 in. Before making the deck. 6.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. long is well soaked in water. wide. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. thick 1-1/2 in. 6 in. long. A block of pine. Braces. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wide. 6 and 7. This block. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 1 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Figs. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. gunwales and keelson. and fastened to them with bolts. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The trimming is wood. . 3-1/2 ft. thick. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. in diameter through the block. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even.

which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. wide. long. are used for the boom and gaff. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 10 with a movable handle. each 1 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. E. --Contributed by O. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. is 6 in. in diameter and 10 ft. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. long. Fig. The mast has two side and one front stay. wide at one end and 12 in. The keel. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. thick by 2 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Tronnes. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The sail is a triangle. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. A strip 1 in. . The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. at the other. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. apart in the muslin. 11. Ill. Wilmette. 12. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The house will accommodate 20 families. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room.

except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. wide and 30 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. flat-headed screws. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 1. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown.into two 14-in. 2-1/2 in. 1 yd. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. flat on one side. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Wilmette. thick. long. long. Ill. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. long and five 1/2-in. Cut the maple. about 5/16 in. 3. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. long. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide. Fig. E. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 4. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. and 3 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. one 11-1/2 in. 2. square. as shown in Fig. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Bevel both sides of the pieces. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. --Contributed by O. Take this and fold it over . 2-1/2 in. Tronnes. 5. thick. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide and 2 ft. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. flat headed screws. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. and the other 18 in. 2 in. five 1/2-in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. wide. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. thick.

Another piece. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. After the glue. long. Mo. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. forming an eye for a screw. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. wide and 6-1/2 in. about 3/8 in. long. 6-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. thick. long. The sides are 3-1/4 in. --Contributed by W. the mechanical parts can be put together. thick and 3 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 2-1/2 in. A. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. wide and 2-3/4 in. are rounded. pieces 2-5/8 in. If carefully and neatly made. thick. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Fig. 1-1/4 in. F. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. but can be governed by circumstances. as well as the edges around the opening. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. When the glue is set. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. D. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 3-1/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. C. and make a turn in each end of the wires. soaked with water and blown up. long. and the four outside edges. leaving a small opening at one corner. 1. C. the top and bottom. and take care that the pieces are all square. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Glue a three cornered piece. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. wide and 5 in. Louis. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. 5 from 1/16-in. About 1/2 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. this square box is well sandpapered. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. square. long. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. A. The bag is then turned inside out. Figs. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. wide and 6-3/4 in. Wind three layers of about No. 3/8 in.once. 2 and 3. square. Bliss. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. of each end unwound for connections. Cut another piece of board. wide . 3 in. St. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. is set. B. E. then centered. The front. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. wide and 4-1/2 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory.

I. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The resistance is now adjusted to show .S. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark.and 2-5/8 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Place the tin. --Contributed by George Heimroth. 4 is not movable. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. from one end. 1/4 in. 5. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. wide and 2-1/2 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Like poles repel each other. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. in diameter. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. board. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A pointer 12 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. long. 1/16 in. Another strip of tin. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. The end of the polar axis B. When the current flows through the coil. Yorkshire. showing a greater defection of the pointer. hole is fastened to the pointer.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. The base is a board 5 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. thick. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. These wires should be about 1 in.R. so it will just clear the tin. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Fig. Austwick Hall. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. the same size as the first. 4. 4. that has the end turned with a shoulder. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. C. Richmond Hill. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The stronger the current. W. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. bored in the back. G. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. L. Fig. long. and fasten in place. from the spindle. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. and the farther apart they will be forced. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. R. F. long. The instrument is now ready for calibrating.A. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. and as the part Fig. wide and 9 in. 5-1/2 in. Chapman.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. thus: 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. A. say Venus at the date of observation. at 9 hr. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 1881. 30 min. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. The following formula will show how this may be found. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. M. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. shows mean siderial.

Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. --Contributed by Robert W. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. . owing to the low internal resistance. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.m. or.f. and then verify its correctness by measurement. New Haven. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. if one of these cannot be had. Hall. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Conn. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality.

as shown in the accompanying picture. arsenic to every 20 lb. Wet paper will answer. put the fish among the ashes. especially for cooking fish. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Then. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. cover up with the same. thick. Fig. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1-3/4 in. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. leaves or bark.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. inside diameter and about 5 in. of alum and 4 oz. When the follower is screwed down. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. 1. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. and heap the glowing coals on top. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. The boring bar. fresh grass. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. long. 3/8 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole .

pipe were fitted to these holes so that. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. and threaded on both ends. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. thick. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. when they were turned in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. pipe. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

bent in the shape of a U. a jump spark would be much better. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and which gave such satisfactory results. 30 in. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. labor and time. 4. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. If the valve keeps dripping. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. It . one of which is plainly shown in the picture. A 1-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. long. This plate also supports the rocker arms. square iron. however. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. then it should be ground to a fit. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Fig. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. as the one illustrated herewith. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The rough frame. was then finished on an emery wheel. Clermont. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. thick and 3 in. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Fig. but never one which required so little material. 5. the float is too high.valve stems. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Iowa. 3. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. wide. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. 2. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal.

W. hole bored in the post. square and 2 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. in fact. strengthened by a piece 4 in. rope is not too heavy. --Contributed by C. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. from the center.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. extending above. in diameter and 15 in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. The crosspiece is 2 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. The illustration largely explains itself. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright." little and big. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. with no trees or buildings in the way. strong clear material only should be employed. being held in position by spikes as shown. Nieman. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. in the ground with 8 ft. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. butting against short stakes. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. long. long is the pivot. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. and. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. so it must be strong enough. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. long. square. As there is no bracing. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. A malleable iron bolt. A 3/4 -in. This makes an easy adjustment. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. 12 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. square and 5 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. timber. long. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. for the "motive power" to grasp. 3/4 in. set 3 ft. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. completes the merry-go-round. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . from all over the neighborhood. and a little junk. It looks like a toy. If it is to be used for adults. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The seats are regular swing boards. no matter what your age or size may be.

the fingers. and sent to earth. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. square. A reel is next made. 2. Having placed the backbone in position. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. if nothing better is at hand. and 18 in. Both have large reels full of . apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. light and strong. These ends are placed about 14 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. away. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 4. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. then it is securely fastened. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The bow is now bent.2 emery. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. as shown in Fig. The backbone is flat. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 1/4 by 3/32 in. To wind the string upon the reel. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. one for the backbone and one for the bow. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. long. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. a wreck. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. 1.

The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Mass. --Contributed' by Harry S. or glass-covered string. Newburyport. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. N. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. he pays out a large amount of string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. C. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. the balance.-Contributed by S. often several hundred yards of it. First. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Brooklyn. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. If the second kite is close enough. Moody. common packing thread. Y. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The handle end is held down with a staple. Bunker.

1) which will make five layers of cloth. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. If the table is round. cutting the circular piece into quarters. such as mill men use. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. must be attached to a 3-ft. make the pad as shown in the illustration. then a dust protector. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. --Contributed by Earl R. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. lengths (Fig. each the size of half the table top. square (Fig. Vt. then draw the string up tight. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. length of 2-in. Hastings. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Corinth. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use.

Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Wharton. Use a smooth. Calif.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 16-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. trace the design carefully on the leather. 6-1/4 in. E. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. G to H. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.-Contributed by H.. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. . which spoils the leather effect. Moisten the . The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. 17-1/2 in.9-1/4 in. and E to G.. from E to F. Oakland. 2-1/4 in. from C to D. hard pencil. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.

I made this motor . wide. and corresponding lines on the other side. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and lace through the holes. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. with the rounded sides of the tools. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and E-G. Trace the openings for the handles. H-B. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. place both together and with a leather punch. is taken off at a time. also lines A-G. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. if not more than 1 in. about 1/8 in. get something with which to make a lining. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Now cut narrow thongs. G-J. apart. To complete the bag. Cut it the same size as the bag.

The one shown is 3-1/2 in. iron. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft.M. 1. each being a half circle. Pasadena. --Contributed by J. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 2. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 1. Shannon. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. long. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. as shown in Fig. D. in length. Calif. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. 2-1/4 in. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. B. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. of No. 24 gauge magnet wire. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. . The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained.

pasted in alternately. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. balloon should be about 8 ft. near the center. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. from the bottom end. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The gores for a 6-ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and the gores cut from these. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. 1. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. are the best kind to make. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the .Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. high.

widest point. leaving a long wake behind. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. lap on the edges. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. --Contributed by R. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. as shown in Fig. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. These are to hold the wick ball. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. E. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 3. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. using about 1/2-in. leaving the solution on over night. 4. in diameter. so it will hang as shown in Fig. After washing. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 5. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. coming through the small pipe A. 2. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. as shown in Fig. Staunton. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. somewhat larger in size. saturating it thoroughly. 1. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The steam. In removing grease from wood. If the gores have been put together right. Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. B.

the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. long. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. in bowling form. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . There are three ways of doing this: First. The blocks are about 6 in.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. high and 8 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. Second. Third. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. In using either of the two methods described. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. long and each provided with a handle. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. as is shown in Fig. wide by 6 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. 1. apart on these lines.

Albany. being careful not to dent the metal. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. thick. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Fig. Y. 2. Hellwig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. --Contributed by John A. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. N. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint.Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Rinse the plate in cold water.

which is 4 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Break off the frame. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong.upon any particular object. wide and of any desired height. A circular piece of wood. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . is fastened to a common camera tripod. and not produce the right sound. Corner irons. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. are screwed to the circular piece. With this device. 1 Fig. long for the base. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. A. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. These corner irons are also screwed to. Va. thick. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 5 in. A. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Richmond. CC. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. In Fig. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. in diameter. Paine. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. through which passes the set screw S. S. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. B. 6 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. with a set screw. 2 the front view. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. and Fig. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. --Contributed by R. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. and. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. wide and 8 in.

Mount the bell vibrator on the base. I made a wheel 26 in. Lake Preston. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. in diameter of some 1-in.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This horn. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. as only the can is visible. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. La Salle. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. pine boards. This will make a very compact electric horn. S. -1. Ill. D. Kidder. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. R. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. .Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. thus producing sound waves.

and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. the same thickness as the coins. Purdy. square. thick and 12 in. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. O. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. If there is a large collection of coins. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 2. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. A. --Contributed by James R. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 1. Doylestown. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. B. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Ghent. Kane. Fig. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The frame is made of a heavy card. Feet may be added to the base if desired. --Contributed by C.

though not absolutely necessary. and then glued together as indicated. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. several large nails. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. of developer. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. plus a 3/8-in. One Cloud. Canada. thick. If desired. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. --Contributed by August T. cut and grooved. The material required is a sheet of No. Milwaukee. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. It will hold 4 oz.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Toronto. --Contributed by R. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Smith. they become uninteresting. Noble. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Cal. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.E. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.J. A lead pencil. border all around. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Wis. --Contributed by J. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. melted and applied with a brush. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. a hammer or mallet. for after the slides have been shown a few times. into which to place the screws . A rivet punch is desirable. Neyer. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment.

Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. using 1/2-in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Remove the screws. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. like the one shown. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. and file it to a chisel edge. Take the nail. screws placed about 1 in. There are several ways of working up the design. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. both outline and decoration. never upon the metal directly. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.

2. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Provide four lengths for the legs. long. square and 181/2 in. two lengths. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. for the top. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. square. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. and two lengths. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. l-1/8 in. of 11-in. . up from the lower end. for the lower rails. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. 1. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. in the other. The pedal. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. using a 1/2in. About 1/2 yd. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. 3/4 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 3. each 1 in. being ball bearing. Rivet the band to the holder. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. square and 11 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in.wall. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it.

The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by W. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. having quite a length of threads. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . --Contributed by John Shahan. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Quackenbush. Attalla. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. F. New York City. Ala.

something that is carbonated. one about 1 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. college or lodge colors. long. Assemble as shown in the sketch. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and 3/8 in. D. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece.. in depth. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Ironwood. --Contributed by C. initial. from one end. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. long. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Two pieces of felt. using class. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. making a lap of about 1 in. The desired emblem. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. each 1-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. and the other 2-3/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Luther. from the end. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. long.

1/4 in. or more in height. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. if desired by the operator. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. about 2 in. Ind. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. in the cover and the bottom. and the cork will be driven out. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Schatz. which can be procured from a plumber. or a pasteboard box. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Punch two holes A. 2. This method allows a wide range of designs. 1. in diameter and 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. --Contributed by John H.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. A piece of lead. as shown at B. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. as shown in the sketch. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Indianapolis. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Fig.

and the ends of the bands looped over them. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. A piece of thick glass. 5. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 4. When the can is rolled away from you. 3. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. Columbus. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. or marble will serve. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 1. . The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. are turned up as in Fig. putting in the design. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The pieces of tin between the holes A. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. on both top and bottom.Rolling Can Toy lead. metal. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. Fig. O. it winds up the rubber band.

3 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. thick. mark over the design. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. hole through it. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. wide and 20 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. After this has been done. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. thicker than the pinion. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. long and bored a 1/2-in. Next place the leather on the glass. from each end. 1 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. New York City.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. deep in its face. I secured a board 3/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. If it is desired to "line" the inside. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. face up. A pencil may be used the first time over.

Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Make the lower frame first. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 4 guides. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. M. 1 screw block. pieces for the vise slides. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2 side rails. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Syracuse. Brooklyn. New York. Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Y. 2 crosspieces. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 2 end rails. N. and fit it in place for the side vise. Cut the 2-in. 1 piece for clamp.in the board into the bench top. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. lag screws as shown. 2. much of the hard labor will be saved. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 3 by 3 by 36. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 back board. thick top board. 3 by 3 by 6 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 piece. in diameter. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 piece for clamp. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. --Contributed by A. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Rice. countersinking the heads of the vise end.

1 claw hammer. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. as well as the pattern maker. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 2 screwdrivers. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 marking gauge. 1 nail set. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 countersink. 1 compass saw. The bench is now complete. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.screws. 1 set gimlets. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 3 and 6 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. in diameter. 24 in. . This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 pair dividers. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 2-ft. rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The amateur workman. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 rip saw. 1 pocket level. Only the long run. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair pliers. 1 wood scraper.. 1 cross cut saw. 24 in. 1 bench plane or jointer. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 monkey wrench. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws.. 1 set chisels.

---Contributed by James M. try square. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig. being softer. will sink into the handle as shown at D.1 6-in. after constant use. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Pa. will be easier to work. 1. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. but will not make . Fig. 2. Kane. becomes like A. Fig. No. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1 oilstone.1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. The calf skin. the projecting point A. 1. Doylestown. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 3.

cover it completely with water enamel and. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. The form can be made of a stick of wood. If calf skin is to be used. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. New York City. the same method of treatment is used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. . It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. but a V-shaped nut pick. which steam. -Contributed by Julia A. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Turn the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in.as rigid a case as the cow skin. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. will do just as well. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Two pieces will be required of this size. when dry. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. White. After the outlines are traced. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. water or heat will not affect. Having prepared the two sides. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. then prepare the leather. If cow hide is preferred. First draw the design on paper. such as copper or brass. lay the design on the face. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. secure a piece of modeling calf. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose.

The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. --Contributed by W. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. as shown in the sketch. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Richmond. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Maine. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. C. Cobb.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. --Contributed by Chas. Portland. Herrman. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. A. Jaquythe. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. . it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Cal. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by Chester L. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.

Wright. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A thick piece of tin. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Conn. B. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Roberts. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. for instance. Middletown. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. . Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Cambridge.. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. --Contributed by Wm. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Mass.

as shown. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. --Contributed by C. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. used as part of furniture. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Ind. which has been tried out several times with success. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. face down. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. L. well calcined and powdered. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Indianapolis. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. F. so some bones were quickly calcined. pulverized and applied. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.. There was no quicklime to be had. but not running over. of boiling water. If any traces of the grease are left. If the article is highly polished. but only an odor which soon vanished. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. and the grease will disappear. The next morning there was no trace of oil. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Chicago. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. and quite new. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Bone. on a clear piece of glass. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Illinois. . Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Herbert. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. When dry. such as chair seats. A beautifully bound book.

long.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. If properly adjusted. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Howe. This coaster is simple and easy to make. thick. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. --Contributed by Geo. the pieces . 2 in. A. set and thumbscrews. Tarrytown. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. deep and 5 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. says Scientific American. 6 in. wide and 12 in. The pieces marked S are single. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. New York.

so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Their size depends on the plate used. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. A sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. to the underside of which is a block. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. If the letters are all cut the same height. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. says Camera Craft. E. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . for sending to friends. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. no doubt. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. they will look remarkably uniform. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The seat is a board.

and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . So made. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. using care to get it in the right position. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. photographing them down to the desired size. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. So arranged. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. for example. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and. pasting the prints on some thin card. after. mount them on short pieces of corks. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. In cutting out an 0. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.

says the American Thresherman. Old-Time Magic . so they will lie horizontal. long that will just fit are set in. G. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. snow or anything to hide it. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. N.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Cape May Point. of its top. A hole 6 or 7 in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.J.-Contributed by I. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. He smells the bait. Bayley. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . squeezes along past the center of the tube. hung on pivots. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. with the longest end outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.

E. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. N. --Contributed by L.faced up. Pocatello. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Szerlip. Press the hands together. Rhode Island. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Parker. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. --Contributed by Charles Graham. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Idaho. then expose again. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Y. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then spread the string. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pawtucket. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin.

if any. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade should be about 27 in. When the whole is quite dry. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Glue the other side of the blade. end of the blade. in building up his work from the illustrations. or green oil paint. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The handle is next made. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The pieces. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. long. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. narrower. and if carefully made. wipe the blade . 1. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. wide and 2 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. thick. using a straightedge and a pencil. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. full size.Genuine antique swords and armor.. dark red. says the English Mechanic. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. 4 on the blade. or a complete suit of armor. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in.. they will look very much like the genuine article. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. whether he requires a single sword only. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 2 Fig. near the point end. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. in width. 3 Fig. 1 Fig.

with light strokes up and down several times. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 1. as it is . in diameter. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 1. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. of course. 2. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord.. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. square and of any length desired. long. and 3 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. in the widest part at the lower end. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 1. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. 4. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the length of the blade 28 in. the illustration. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. In making. the other is flat or half-round. The length of the handle. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1/8 in. In making this scimitar. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. shows only two sides. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. thick and 5 in. the other two are identical. This sword is about 68 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. about 1-1/2 in. Fig. the other is flat or halfround. should be about 9 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 2. follow the directions as for Fig. In the finished piece. take two pieces of wood. preferably of contrasting colors. 3. 3. 1. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux.

free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Syracuse. at the lower end. It is made of a plank. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Doctors probed for the button without success. long. A piece of mild steel. N. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Both can be made easily. about 3/8 in. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. and if so. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Morse. each about 1 ft. however. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. as can the pitch bed or block. --Contributed by John Blake. square. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. On each edge of the board. Franklin. as there was some at hand. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Y. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Mass. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The thinness of the plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. piping and jackets by hard water. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. in an attempt to remove it. 2 in. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. A cold . and. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. --Contributed by Katharine D. or an insecure fastening. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. as shown in the sketch.

See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Trim up the edges and file them . When this has been done. To put it in another way. tallow. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. plaster of Paris. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. using a small metal saw. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. design down. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.. a file to reduce the ends to shape.. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. 5 lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. secure a piece of brass of about No. on the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. When the desired form has been obtained. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. To remedy this. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 18 gauge.

These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. 30 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. lb. A.smooth. using powdered pumice with lye. and hang a bird swing. Before giving the description. in one second. in diameter (Fig. That is lifting 33. --Contributed by Harold H. and still revolve. or 550 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. space between the vessels with water. 1 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Cutter. or fraction of a horsepower. it may be well to know what horsepower means. one 18 in. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Fill the 3-in. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. make an unusual show window attraction. Fig. to keep it from floating.000 lb. The smaller is placed within the larger. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in diameter (Fig. 1) and the other 12 in. Clean the metal thoroughly. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in the center. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. . Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 2). Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 ft. in one minute or 550 lb.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. over the smaller vessel. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. per minute.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. lb. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. This in turn divided by 33. per second. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 1 ft. but not to stop it. 3.

18 in. The effect is surprising. --Contributed by J. 2 Fig. Campbell. F. Mass. or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip. --Contributed. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Y. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. N.3 Fig. Diameter Fig. by L. Diameter 12 in. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Brooklyn. 1 Fig. Somerville.

and then. often render it useless after a few months service. This compound is impervious to water. In riveting. with other defects. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine.copper of No. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and cut out the shape with the shears. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. away from the edge. Polish both of these pieces. using any of the common metal polishes. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. which may be of wood or tin. as a rule. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Rivet the cup to the base. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. then by drawing a straightedge over it. after which it is ready for use. unsatisfactory. keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. which. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Do not be content merely to bend them over. with the pliers. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. and the clay . The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. is. the same as removing writing from a slate.

the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. long. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. --Contributed by John T. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. -Contributed by Thos. the device will work for an indefinite time. Scotland. A. as shown in Fig. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly.can be pressed back and leveled. --Contributed by A. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. in diameter and 5 in. . The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. DeLoof. 1. Dunlop. Mich. Shettleston. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Mich. It is made of a glass tube. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Northville. 3/4 in. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Houghton. 2. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Grand Rapids. The siphon is made of glass tubes.

in width and 2 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. This sword is 4 ft. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. 1. long. London. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.FIG.1 FIG. put up as ornaments. As the handle is to .

4. The lower half of the handle is of wood. This sword is about 4 ft. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. string. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. This stiletto has a wood handle. sharp edges on both sides. the axe is of steel. 9. 5. A German poniard is shown in Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The crossbar and blade are steel. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. in length. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. In Fig. narrower. 20 spike. Both handle and axe are of steel. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. This weapon is about 1 ft. the upper part iron or steel. Three large. 6. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. one about 1/2 in. 7. with wire or string' bound handle. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. When dry. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. wood with a keyhole saw. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. very broad. with both edges sharp. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Cut two strips of tinfoil. is shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The sword shown in Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. In Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball.represent copper. paint it a dark brown or black. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. in length. small rope and round-headed nails. 8. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. long. studded with brass or steel nails. glue and put it in place. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The handle is of wood. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. In Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This axe is made similar to the one . Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. with both edges of the blade sharp. 3 is shown a claymore. When the whole is quite dry. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. long with a dark handle of wood. The ball is made as described in Fig. firmly glued on. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. in width. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A German stiletto. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. then glued on the blade as shown. 11 were used.

Old-Time Magic . Davis.described in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. the ends are tied and cut off. such as braided fishline. 10. This will make a very good flexible belt. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will pull where other belts slip. high. so the contents cannot be seen. 2. together as shown in Fig. --Contributed by E. W. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. When wrapped all the way around. Chicago.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.

N. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Before the performance. some of the liquid. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. S.J. 2.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The dotted lines in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Macdonald. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. 1 and put together as in Fig. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. filled with water. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. about one-third the way down from the top. in a few seconds' time. four glass tumblers. Oakland. To make the flowers grow in an instant. There will be no change in color. held in the right hand. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Calif. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. --Contributed by A. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. or using small wedges of wood. causing the flowers to grow. with the circle centrally located. Bridgeton. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. an acid. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. apparently.

which are numbered for convenience in working. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Cal. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. This outlines the desired opening. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . 2 for height. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. says a correspondent of Photo Era. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. --Contributed by W. A. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. When many slides are to be masked. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. 4 for width and No. not only because of the fact just mentioned. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Richmond. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. and kept ready for use at any time. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. practical and costs nothing. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. and equally worthy of individual treatment. unless some special device is used. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. If the size wanted is No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Jaquythe. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record.

depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. and the extreme length 7 in. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. paint the design. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. about half and half. and do not inhale the fumes. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. 16 gauge. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. or. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the paper is folded along the center line. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. but they can be easily revived. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. When etched to the desired depth. using the carbon paper. too. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. With a stick. not the water into the acid. Secure a sheet of No. a little less acid than water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Draw a design. The one shown is merely suggestive. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. which is dangerous. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. may be changed. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. or a pair of old tongs. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The decoration. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. is about right for the No. possibly. This done.

2. wide and of the same length as the table. Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 3/8 in. repeat as many times as is necessary. attached to a post at each end. The connections are simple: I. J is another wire attached in the same way. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. about 1 in. or more wide. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. about 2-1/2 in. Paint the table any color desired. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 1. the bell will ring. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Cut out a piece of tin. thick. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. C and D. with the wires underneath. high. 3. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. as shown in the illustration. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. 2. in diameter and 1/4 in. Then get two posts. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. as in Fig. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Fig. 5. through it. long and 1 ft. as shown in Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. it will touch post F. Fig. . 2. 0 indicates the batteries. and about 2-1/2 ft. so that when it is pressed down. 24 parts water. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. long. When the button S is pressed. about 3 ft. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 5. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. about 8 in. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. A. to the table. 4. wide. and bore two holes. It may be either nailed or screwed down. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Nail a board. as at H. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button.

This weapon is about 22 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. handle and all. long. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. 1. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. such as . the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. 2. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. says the English Mechanic. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire weapon. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A wood peg about 2 in. These rings can be carved out. is to appear as steel. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. but they are somewhat difficult to make. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circle is marked out with a compass. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. After the glue is dry. thick. The imitation articles are made of wood. long serves as the dowel.Imitation Arms and Armor .. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth.

These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. or the amateur cannot use it well. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. If such a tool is not at hand.ornamental scrolls. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle is of wood. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. studded with large brass or steel nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. covered with red velvet. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. leaves. The handle is of steel imitation. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. . The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The axe is shown in steel. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. long. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. as before mentioned. flowers. as shown. The spikes are cut out of wood. with a sharp carving tool. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The lower half of the handle is wood. The entire handle should be made of one piece. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. is shown in Fig. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. 2. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as described in Fig. etc. Its length is about 3 ft. also. This weapon is about 22 in. 3. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. the hammer and spike. All of these axes are about the same length. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. 8. 6. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued.

as shown in Fig. as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 7) calls for one out. the knife resting on its back. and so on for nine innings. Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. a three-base hit. 4). and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. then the other plays.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Fig. 5. calls for a home run. 3. 2. Each person plays until three outs have been made. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 6. 1. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. . The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife falling on its side (Fig.

Mass. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. with the rope laced in the cloth. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Old-Time Magic . while the committee is tying him up. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. hypo to 1 pt. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Somerville. This he does. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. If it is spotted at all.-Contributed by J. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. as shown in Fig. one of them burning . When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. F. of the rope and holds it. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Campbell. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 1. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. of water for an hour or two. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. 2. 3. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.

Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. with which he is going to light the other candle. 4 oz. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Evans. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. B. Ky. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. New York City. etc. of turpentine. Brown. thick. of sugar. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of water and 1 oz. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. the other without a light. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. . of plumbago. Lebanon. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. thus causing it to light. The magician walks over to the burning candle. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. --Contributed by L. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 4 oz. Thome.brightly. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. shades the light for a few seconds. and. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.. showing that there is nothing between them. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. He then walks over to the other candle. Ky. --Contributed by C. bolt. Drill Gauge screw. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. invisible to them (the audience). 3/4 in.Contributed by Andrew G. Louisville.

as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Denniston. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. steady current.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. or blotting paper. thick. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . To make the porous cell. about 5 in. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. for the material. N. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Its current strength is about one volt. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. H. 5 in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. into a tube of several thicknesses. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. which will give a strong. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. but is not so good. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. long. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. In making up the solution. --Contributed by C. Do not add water to the acid. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Pulteney. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Y. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. diameter. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup.

the other holding them apart. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. After much experimentation with bearings. long with a bearing at each end. To insure this. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. Finally. As to thickness. One hole was bored as well as possible. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. while the other end is attached by two screws. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made.station. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel.) may be obtained. a positive adjustment was provided. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. but somewhat lighter. carrying the hour circle at one end. steel. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. one drawing them together. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The . The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.

Point it approximately to the north star." When this is done. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. To find a star in the heavens." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Instead. Cassiopiae. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Set the declination circle to its reading. If the result is more than 24 hours. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground .. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Declination is read directly. apart. and 15 min. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. excepting those on the declination axis.. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. All set screws. When properly set it will describe a great circle. is provided with this adjustment. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg." Only a rough setting is necessary. It is. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. All these adjustments. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. need not be changed. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The aperture should be 1/4 in. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. are tightened. subtract 24. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. once carefully made. turn the pointer to the star. and if it is not again directed to the same point. save the one in the pipe. The pole is 1 deg. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To locate a known star on the map. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Each shaft. 45 min. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg.

cannon balls. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. La. Ohio. which is the one examined. In reality the first ball.. If this will be too transparent. The dance will begin. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Strosnider. the others . OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. then add 1 2-3 dr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Plain City. a great effect will be produced. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. 3 or 4 in. -Contributed by Ray E. as shown in the sketch. add a little more benzole. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. taking care not to add too much. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. is the real cannon ball. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of ether. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. is folded several times. New Orleans.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. benzole. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. The ball is found to be the genuine article. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.

Somerville. 1). Fig. Wis. etc. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Campbell. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. --Contributed by J. Cal. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. 2. F. small brooches. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. as shown in the illustration. Milwaukee. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Return the card to the pack. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Mass. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. without taking up any great amount of space. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. taps. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. San Francisco. In boxes having a sliding cover.

At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. slides and extra brushes. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. . Beller. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. thus giving ample store room for colors. as shown in the illustration. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. prints.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Connecticut. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. round pieces 2-1/4 in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Hartford. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled.

I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. with well packed horse manure. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. tacking the gauze well at the corners. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. about threefourths full. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. costing 5 cents. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Mass. -Contributed by C. . Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. FIG. Fill the upper tub. holes in the bottom of one. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. West Lynn. 2). then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. or placed against a wall. When the ends are turned under. will answer the purpose. Darke. O. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 1).

The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Chicago. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. --Contributed by L. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. oil or other fluid. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If the following directions are carried out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. if this is not available. Eifel. M. cutting the cane between the holes. when they are raised from the pan. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. and each bundle contains . The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.

then across and down. No plugs . and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. 1. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. as shown in Fig. a square pointed wedge. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. held there by inserting another plug.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. put about 3 or 4 in. after having been pulled tight. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. it should be held by a plug. as it must be removed again. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In addition to the cane.

making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. as it always equals the latitude of the place.15+. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Patrick. and for 1° it would be . and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. When cool. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. for 2°. but the most common. as shown in Fig. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Fig. There are several different designs of sundials. and the one we shall describe in this article. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. If you have a table of natural functions. Their difference is . lat. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. R.2+.5 in. trim off the surplus rosin. From table No. 42° is 4. 5. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. If handled with a little care. All added to the lesser or 40°. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. as for example. 5 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. using the same holes as for the first layer. 3. No weaving has been done up to this time. 4.2 in. 41°-30'.075 in. as the height of the line BC for lat.3 in. Detroit. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 1. --Contributed by M. the height of which is taken from table No. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. the height of the line BC.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. in this case) times the . 41 °-30'. the next smallest. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. Fig. it is 4.075 in. is the horizontal dial. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The style or gnomon.15 in. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. During the weaving. This will make three layers. 1. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. or the style. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. W. Michigan. called the gnomon. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. is the base (5 in.= 4. It consists of a flat circular table.42 in. and for lat. 1. 1 lat. Even with this lubrication. After completing the second layer. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. as shown in Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. -Contributed by E. we have 4. stretch the third one. 40°. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. D. 3.

76 1. .41 38° 3. gives the 6 o'clock points.42 .39 .37 54° 6.32 6.64 4 8 3. or more. and for this size dial (10 in.68 5-30 6-30 5.23 6.00 40° 4.82 5.63 56° 7.85 1.55 46° 5.11 3.66 1.87 1.97 5 7 4.29 4-30 7-30 3. Draw two semi-circles.16 40 .66 latitude. To layout the hour circle. which will represent the base in length and thickness.27 2.18 28° 2.42 45 .99 2.07 4.30 2.06 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.89 50° 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.49 30 .19 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.55 4. circle Sundial.85 35 .30 1.82 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . 2. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. 2.88 36° 3.57 3.46 .12 52° 6.81 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. long.20 60° 8. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.tangent of the degree of latitude. or if of stone. Table NO.83 27° 2.59 2.50 26° 2.10 6.44 44° 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.96 32° 3. Its thickness. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.93 2. and intersecting the semicircles.03 3.49 3. and perpendicular to the base or style.02 1.57 1.55 30° 2.66 48° 5.79 4.38 . if of metal.26 4. Fig.42 1.87 4.82 2. using the points A and C as centers.37 5.40 34° 3. 2 for given latitudes.56 .28 .55 5.77 2. Draw the line AD. For latitudes not given.93 6. 1.14 5.46 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.33 .16 1. an inch or two. base. according to the size of the dial. with a radius of 5 in.33 42° 4.94 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.40 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.91 58° 8. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.

with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Iowa.37 2. As they are the genuine reproductions. June 15. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.72 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 3. The + means that the clock is faster. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.53 1.71 2.77 3.34 5. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.10 4. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.30 2.12 5.57 1. it will be faster.93 6. London. 2 and Dec.68 3. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.14 1. 25. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.46 4. Sun time to local mean time.60 4. and the . making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.79 6.87 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.98 4. 3. says the English Mechanic.49 5.19 2. An ordinary compass. Mitchell. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. each article can be labelled with the name.21 2. Sept. April 16. E. after allowing for the declination. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. then the watch is slower. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Sioux City.01 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.52 Table No. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.add those marked + subtract those Marked .54 60 . will enable one to set the dial.46 5.from Sundial lime.08 1. Each weapon is cut from wood. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.24 5. --Contributed by J. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.06 2.50 .89 3. 900 Chicago.82 3. adding to each piece interest and value.63 1. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. and for the difference between standard and local time.49 3.50 55 . if west. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.means that the dial is faster than the sun.

wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.. the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. 1. 3. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. . and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Partisan. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. When putting on the tinfoil.

about 4 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. long with a round staff or handle. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. 6 ft.. 5. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear is steel. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. long. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. used about the seventeenth century. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. in diameter. 7. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. sharp on the outer edges. the holes being about 1/4 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel.which is square. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. which are a part of the axe. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. 8. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. This weapon is about 6 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. . A gisarm or glaive. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The extreme length is 9 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. long. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. press it well into the carved depressions. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. It is about 6 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long with a round wooden handle. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. The length of this bar is about 5 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The edges are sharp.

the cross cords. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 2 and 3. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 4. used for spacing and binding the whole together.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. are put in place. H. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This is important to secure neatness. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. 5. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 1. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. as shown in Fig. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. apart. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. the most durable being bamboo. They can be made of various materials. B. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Ohio.-Contributed by R. Substances such as straw. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Loudonville. Workman. The twisted cross cords should . In Figs.

To remedy this. This was turned over the top of the other can. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. A slit was cut in the bottom. New York. as shown at B. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. in which was placed a piece of glass. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. below the top to within 1/4 in. The first design shown is for using bamboo. -Contributed by Geo. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. M. La. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. shaped as shown at C. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. for a length extending from a point 2 in. of the bottom. wide. Lockport. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. bamboo or rolled paper. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New Orleans. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Harrer.be of such material. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. 3 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Four V-shaped notches were cut.

but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by W. N. is shown in the accompanying sketch. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. the brass is loosened from the block. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Sanford. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Shay. turned over but not fastened.tape from sticking to the carpet. wide. Maywood. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and two along the side for attaching the staff. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. This should be done gradually. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. --Contributed by Joseph H. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Ill. Schaffner. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. This plank. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Y. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Cal. Newburgh. H. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Chas. giving the appearance of hammered brass. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Pasadena. After this is finished. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. do not throw away the gloves.

bent as shown. Ill. the pendulum swings . Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Oak Park. A. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Cal. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Richmond. Unlike most clocks. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. -Contributed by W. in diameter. K. Marshall. --E. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall.

Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. wide that is perfectly flat. --Contributed by V. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. bearing on the latter. B. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. wide. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. about 12 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. high. Metzech. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. to the first one with screws or glue. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. 3/4 in. . The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. thick. 6 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. on the board B. Chicago. are secured in the base bar. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. high and 1/4 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets.. 7-1/2 in. Secure a board. bar. by 1-5/16 in. long and at each side of this. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. C. The construction is very simple. says the Scientific American. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. A. only have the opposite side up. away. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. such as this one. high. In using this method. high. Two uprights. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. about 6 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Fasten another board. in diameter. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. 5/16 in. Now place the board to be joined.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. is an electromagnet. and the other two 2-5/8 in.

plates should be made 8 in. wide and 1 in. 2. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. long. or more. Phoenixville. as shown at A. square inside. Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. --Contributed by Elmer A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. 3. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Vanderslice. wide and 5 in. . The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The trigger. from one end. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 4. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 1. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 1. Pa. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 1. square. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. is fastened in the hole A. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in.

one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in.A. -Contributed by J. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. as shown in the illustration. rubbing varnish and turpentine. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. square. by weight. Simonis. 5 parts of black filler. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 2 parts of whiting. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Fostoria. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Ohio. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. if only two bands are put in the .

8 in. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Michigan. preferably copper. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. No. deep. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. wide and about 1 ft. A mirror. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. II. DeLoof. and the picture can be drawn as described. If a plain glass is used. in the opposite end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. --Contributed by Thos. Grand Rapids. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Mass.lower strings. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. London. It must be kept moist and well . is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. long. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. -Contributed by Abner B. and it may be made as a model or full sized. place tracing paper on its surface. is set at an angle of 45 deg. which may be either of ground or plain glass. A double convex lens. G. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. says the English Mechanic. Dartmouth. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. 1. is necessary. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. as shown in Fig. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. Shaw. In constructing helmets. In use. A piece of metal.

1. as in bas-relief. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. on which to place the clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. or some thin glue. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. Scraps of thin.kneaded. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. as shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and over the crest on top. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The clay. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. After the clay model is finished. and the deft use of the fingers. 3. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. shown in Fig. with a keyhole saw. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and left over night to soak. brown. All being ready. a few clay-modeling tools. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. take. will be necessary. the clay model oiled. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 2. joined closely together. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This being done. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model.

In Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. which should be no difficult matter. 5. as shown: in the design. square in shape. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. --Contributed by Paul Keller. should be modeled and made in one piece. 7. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The band is decorated with brass studs. will make it look neat. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. When perfectly dry. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the skullcap. a few lines running down. owing to the clay being oiled. as seen in the other part of the sketch. 1. 9. Before taking it off the model.as possible. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. This contrivance should be made of wood. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and the ear guards in two pieces. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. the piecing could not be detected. one for each side. a crest on top. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. They are all covered with tinfoil. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. When the helmet is off the model. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . Indianapolis. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. In Fig. Indiana. or. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The whole helmet. When dry. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. with the exception of the vizor. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The center of the ear guards are perforated. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. then another coating of glue. and so on.

and two large 3in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. above the collar. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. wide and 15 in. 1. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. if this cannot be obtained. screws. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. one fuse block. as shown in Fig. with slits cut for the wires. of No. 4. 22 gauge resistance wire. two ordinary binding posts. AA. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. one glass tube.same size. 4. A round collar of galvanized iron. which can be bought from a local druggist. 3 in. Fig. the fuse block. 12 in. high. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The mineral wool. FF. 2. long. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. one oblong piece of wood. of the top. 4. GG. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. 2. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. if the measurements are correct. 3. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. The plate. 1. 4. thick. long. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. of mineral wool. 4 lb. 4. AA. 4. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 1. as shown in Fig. one small switch. for connections. long. about 80 ft. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. is shown in Fig. 4. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. the holes leading to the switch. thick sheet asbestos. The two holes. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. until it is within 1 in. If asbestos is used. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. This will make an open space between the plates. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 1 in. E and F. JJ. Fig. If a neat appearance is desired. of fire clay. and C. as shown in Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The reverse side of the base. German-silver wire is better. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. AA. Fig. Fig. This will allow the plate. about 1 lb. The holes B and C are about 3 in. in diameter and 9 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. about 1/4 in. and. 2. or.

using care not to get it too wet. --Contributed by R. when heated. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Cut a 1/2-in. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. 4. will slip and come in contact with each other. Cnonyn. This point marks the proper length to cut it. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. This completes the stove. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. it leaves a gate for the metal. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. so that the circuit will not become broken. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Jaquythe. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The clay. When this is done. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. A. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. when cool. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. allowing a space between each turn. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. then. II. Richmond. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If this is the case. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. While the clay is damp. Catherines. If it is not thoroughly dry. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. When the tile is in place. above the rim. It should not be left heated in this condition. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Cover over about 1 in. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. as the turns of the wires. more wire should be added. Fig. It should not be set on end. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. 2. steam will form when the current is applied. causing a short circuit. H. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. deep. Can. A file can be used to remove any rough places. As these connections cannot be soldered. --Contributed by W. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. KK. Next. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. St. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Fig. and pressed into it. Cal. apart. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full.

Louisville. Ky. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. square material in any size. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. is large enough. says the Photographic Times. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Thorne.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. but 12 by 24 in. Then clip a little off the . Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the prints will dry rapidly. as shown. the pie will be damaged.

-Contributed by S. 1. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 1 and 3. thereby saving time and washing. as shown. high. Fig. for the crank. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. A 1/8-in. Fig. 1/2 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. causing a break in the current. thick and 3 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. thick. 1. long. wide and 3 in. 14 in.Paper Funnel point. Herron. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The connections are made as shown in Fig. each 1/2 in. at GG. long. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The upright B. The connecting rod E. As the shaft revolves. 22 gauge magnet wire. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Two supports. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. 2-1/2 in. Iowa. each 1 in. The board can be raised to place . in diameter. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. W. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. wide. 4 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Figs. Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. high. slip on two cardboard washers. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Le Mars. long. in diameter and about 4 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. thick and 3 in. An offset is bent in the center. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 3. long. The driving arm D. 2. open out. 1. wide and 7 in.

wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. --Contributed by William F. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Dorchester. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. . Place the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Stecher. In designing the roost. as shown in the sketch. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. on a board. making a framework suitable for a roost. Mass.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. One or more pots may be used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. in height. 3 in. bottom side up. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them.

etc. Fig. 1. and give it time to dry. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The bottom part of the sketch. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.. ordinary glue. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. 1. windows. F. will produce the pattern desired. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. if it is other than straight lines. preferably. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. as shown in Fig. F. paraffin and paint or varnish. adopt the method described. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.. without any corresponding benefit. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Wind the . odd corners. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. grills and gratings for doors. shelves.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. in diameter. when combined. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The materials required are rope or. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. that it is heated. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.

M. six designs are shown. 2. Harrer.Fig. cut and glue them together. N. Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Lockport. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

will be retained by the cotton. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London.. etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. which was used in front of a horse's head. As the . chips of iron rust. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. etc..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. 1. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. but no farther. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. when it will be observed that any organic matter. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.

A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An arrangement is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. and the clay model oiled. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 2. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. with the exception of the thumb shield. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 8. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 2.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. then another coat of glue. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. This will make the model light and easy to move around. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. In Fig. the same as in Fig. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as shown in the sketch. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. except the thumb and fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. which can be made in any size. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and therefore it is not described. All being ready. as the surface will hold the clay. and will require less clay. This triangularshaped support. but for . This being done. which is separate. The armor is now removed from the model. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. but the back is not necessary. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. the rougher the better. This can be made in one piece. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 4. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands.

9. but 3-1/2 in. A piece of board. long. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. two for the jaws and one a wedge. running down the plate. Redondo Beach. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. --Contributed by Ralph L. The two pieces of foil. the foils will not move. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. If it does not hold a charge. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. --Contributed by John G. Fasten a polished brass ball to. wide and 1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. fastened to the rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. cut into the shape shown in Fig. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. La Rue. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Buxton. Goshen. . two in each jaw. Calif. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. in depth. N. Y. 1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. are glued to it. 2. will be about right. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. the top of the rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. each about 1/4 in. When locating the place for the screw eyes. are better shown in Fig. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines.

The can may be bronzed. 2-1/2 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Texas. enameled or otherwise decorated. --Contributed by Mrs. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Bryan. as shown in the illustration. At a point 6 in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as indicated in the . long. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. hole bored through it. When a fish is hooked. A. silvered. from the smaller end. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Corsicana. M. is made of a 1/4-in. about 15 in. pine board. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as this will cut under the water without splashing.

The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Next prepare the metal holder. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. and trace upon it the design and outline. put a coat or two of wax and polish . it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. 3/8 or 1/4 in. wide by 6 in. A good size is 5 in. 22 is plenty heavy enough.Match Holder accompanying sketch. punch the holes." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. If soft wood. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using powdered pumice and lye. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. take a piece of thin wood. then with a nail. as shown. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. using a piece of carbon paper. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Having completed the drawing. Polish the metal. Any kind of wood will do. When it has dried over night. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Basswood or butternut. such as basswood or pine was used. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. long over all. or even pine. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. will do as well as the more expensive woods. thick.

If carving is contemplated. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. thick. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 1/2 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. 2 in. each 1 in. . is used for the base of this instrument. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Two wire nails. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Jaquythe. Instead of the usual two short ropes. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Richmond. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. can be made on the same standards. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. A. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. If one has some insight in carving. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. long. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. the whole being finished in linseed oil. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. of pure olive oil. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. wide and 5 in. --Contributed by W. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Cal.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. long. It is useful for photographers.

About 1 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. cloth or baize to represent the legs. 3. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. the paper covering put on. A piece of tin. All of the parts for the armor have been described. says the English Mechanic. except that for the legs. as shown by the dotted lines. 1. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. . when the key is pushed down. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. similar to that used in electric bells. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. A rubber band. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. --Contributed by W. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. as shown in Fig. at A. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. about No. in the shape shown in the sketch. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. then covered with red. London. cut in the shape of the letter T. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. leaving about 1/4 in. H. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Lynas.

1 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Take the piece shown in Fig. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Cut them to a length or 40 in. not too tight. Fig. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. flat headed carriage bolt. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. about 1 in. A 1/4-in. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 and drill a 1/4in. drill six 1/4-in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. completes the equipment. long. one to another . at each end. In one end of the piece. holes. hole in the center.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. 2. Silver paper will do very well. for the sake of lightness.. and eight small holes. Secure two strips of wood. in the other end. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. apart. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. The two pieces are bolted together. says Camera Craft. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. So set up. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 3 in. apart. Instead of using brass headed nails. can be made in a few minutes' time. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. make the same series of eight small holes and. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in.

take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and the one beneath C. as in portraiture and the like. Start with one end. D over A and C. Then draw all four ends up snugly. A is the first string and B is the second. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. taking the same start as for the square fob. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Fig. 4. A round fob is made in a similar way. In this sketch. long. 1. doubled and run through the web of A. for instance. but instead of reversing . and lay it over the one to the right. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then take B and lay it over A.of the larger holes in the strip. 2. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. the one marked A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. of the ends remain unwoven. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. lay Cover B and the one under D. in Fig. 2. C over D and B. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.

as at A in Fig. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. as in making the square fob. always lap one string. Other designs can be made in the same manner. 5. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. especially if silk strings are used. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Monroeville. 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. over the one to its right. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as B. The round fob is shown in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Rupp. Ohio.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. is left out at the center before starting on one side. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . long. 3. is to be made of leather. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. --Contributed by John P. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. the design of which is shown herewith. A loop. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel.

tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. it can be easily renewed. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. such as a nut pick. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. beeswax or paraffin. door facing or door panel. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Houghton. filling them with wax. pressing it against the wood. using the reverse side. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. . This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. -Contributed by A. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Any smooth piece of steel. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Mich. Northville. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin.

Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. --Contributed by O. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. it is best to leave a plain white margin. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. leaving about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. remaining above the surface of the board. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Select the print you wish to mount. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Y. New York. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. and about 12 in. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. place it face down in the dish. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Fold together on lines C. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. thick. if blueprints are used. Thompson. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. although tin ones can be used with good success. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. those on matte paper will work best.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. D. E and F. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. J. N. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. and after wetting. long. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Ill. apart and driven in only part way. The tacks should be about 1 in. Enough plaster should. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Petersburg. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. . says Photographic Times. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast.

Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. filling the same about onehalf full.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. One of the . but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. without mixing the solutions. as shown in the right of the sketch. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.. violets. bell flowers. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. roses. Lower into the test tube a wire. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. will be rendered perfectly white. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. as shown at the left in the sketch.

melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. shading. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. When soldering these parts together. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. thick. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. is about 2-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. to keep the core from coming off in turning. about 1/8s in. in diameter and 1 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Millstown. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The tin horn can be easily made. long. L. turned a little tapering. The sound box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. or delicate tints of the egg. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. 2. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. should be soldered to the box. The diaphragm. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The first point should be ground blunt. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. and at the larger end. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. made of heavy tin. South Dakota. A rod that will fit the brass tube. not too tightly.. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. --Contributed by L. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 3. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. long and made of wood. as shown. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Shabino. 1-7/8 in. but which will not wobble loose.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 1. Fig. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in.

mice in the bottom. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and weighted it with a heavy stone. while playing in the yard close to a grain house.Contributed by E. and. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Colo. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. says the Iowa Homestead. Ill. wondering what it was. put a board on top.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. E. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Gold. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Chicago. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Victor. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr.

Can. Y. . and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. N. Ottawa. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Pereira. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.

Grand Rapids. De Loof. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Richmond. --Contributed by Thos. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. a piece of tin. above the end of the dasher. by means of a flatheaded tack. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. A. as shown. as it can be made quickly in any size. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. This cart has no axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cal. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. cut round. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Put a small nail 2 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Mich. longer than the length of the can. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. through which several holes have been punched. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in.

as shown. 1. were below the level of the bullseye. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The baseboard and top are separable. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of course. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 1-1/2 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Kane. I reversed a door gong. long. board. Pa. thick. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . wide. 2. --Contributed by James M. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The candles. New Orleans. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. wide and as long as the box. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1/4 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. deep and 3 in. apart. La. 2. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Doylestown. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Fig. Notches 1/8 in.1. 2 in. wide and 3 ft. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. 1 ft.

wide rubber bands or felt. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. when placed as in Fig. This device is very convenient for invalids. Cover the block with rubber.Book Back Holders metal. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Mass. A. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. it can be removed without marring the casing. 3. 1. --Contributed by G. After the glue has dried. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. stone or wood. Wood. take two pieces of hard wood. can be picked up without any trouble. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. After completing the handle.. dressing one surface of each piece. by cutting away the ends. the blade is put back into the groove . etc. as shown in Fig. West Union. Worcester. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. When not in use. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. will. Ia. the shelf could not be put on the window. Needles. For the handle. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The block can also be used as a paperweight. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. wide into each side of the casing. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. scissors. to prevent its scratching the desk top. the reason being that if both were solid.

as shown in Fig. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Mass. 2. Jacobs. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. long. S. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1 in. Ohio. . Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. If desired. A notch is cut in one side. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Cleveland. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. A. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Malden. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. -Contributed by W. Each one is made of a hardwood block. --Contributed by H. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Pa. square and 4 in. thus carrying the car up the incline. Hutchins. as shown in Fig. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Erie.

. N.. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it. Cape May Point. and an awl and hammer. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. will be needed. One sheet of metal. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. The letters can be put on afterward. This will insure having all parts alike.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in.

it may be effected by an application of potash lye. behind or through the center of a table leg. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. So impressive are the results. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. On the back. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine." In all appearance. paste the paper design right on the metal. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. applied by means of a brush. says Master Painter. The stick may be placed by the side of. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. One coat will do. if desired. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. which is desirable. a violin. turpentine. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The music will not sound natural. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. varnish. or. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. 3/4 part. 2 parts white vitriol. 1 part. to right angles. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Remove the metal. but weird and distant. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. If any polishing is required. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 1/4 part. in the waste metal. placed on a table. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. . only the marginal line is to be pierced. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. as shown. that can be worked in your own parlor.Fasten the metal to the board. flat brush. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. mandolin or guitar. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over.

With proper tools this is easy. each 6 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. wide. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. London. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. each 28 in. 3. 2. long and spread about 8 in. The longest piece. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. apart. square bar iron. says Work. round-head machine screws. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Two pairs of feet. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. it might be difficult. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. without them. thick by 1/2 in. and is easy to construct. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. are shaped as shown in Fig. . which should be about 5-1/2 ft. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. across the top. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights.

4. as shown in Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. After the glass is cut. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. A. B. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. lead. Place the corner piece of glass. 5. on it as shown. 5. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The glass. D. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. While the piece of lead D. using rosin as a flux. the latter being tapped to . better still. is held by the brads. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. C. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. cut a long piece of lead. 7. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. After the joints are soldered. and the base border. special flux purchased for this purpose. 6. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The design is formed in the lead. in the grooves of the borders. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. Fig. or. The brads are then removed. Fig. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips.

and round the corners of one end for a ring. Bore a 3/4-in. Secure a post. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. rounded at the top as shown. then flatten its end on the under side. wood screws in each washer. in diameter and about 9 in. J. A and B. The center pin is 3/4-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in.the base of the clip. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. bolt. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. This . Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. plank about 12 ft. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Make three washers 3-in. rocker bolt. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Camden. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Bore a 5/8-in. plates. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. N. holes through their centers. then drill a 3/4-in. long. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. long. and two wood blocks. square and of the length given in the drawing. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. 8. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. thick and drill 3/4-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Jr. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. in diameter and 1/4 in. Dreier. Two styles of hand holds are shown. H. not less than 4 in. --Contributed by W. bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Fasten the plates to the block B. long. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. as shown in Fig. one on each side and central with the hole..

shanks. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 3 in. by 6-1/2 ft. maple. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. of 1/4-in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . If trees are convenient. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. because it will not stand the weather. long. 16 screws. La. 3/4 by 3 in. 9 in. 2 by 4 in. 1 by 7 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The four 7-in. long. 4 pieces. long. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 50 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. square by 9-1/2 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long and 1 piece. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 filler pieces. chestnut or ash. long. 7 in. and some one can swing an axe. in diameter and 7 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed.will make an excellent cover for a pot. straight-grained hickory. 4 pieces. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. bit. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. long. horse and rings. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. screws. boards along the side of each from end to end. bolts and rope. 1/2 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 in. 1-1/4in. long. can make a first class gymnasium. by 2 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 2-1/2 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. from one edge. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. New Orleans. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. To substitute small. hickory. square by 5 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1.

Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. apart. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving .. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.bored. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. deep and remove all loose dirt. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. each 3 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post.. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. 2. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. apart. 8 in. so the 1/2-in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. at each end. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. piece of wood. from the end. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Bore a 9/16-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. boards coincide. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft.

He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. but most deceptive at dusk. in an endless belt. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and ascends the stem. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He stretched the thread between two buildings. When the interest of the crowd. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.. was at its height.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. apart. And all he used was a black thread. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. about 100 ft. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the effect is very striking. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. . passing through a screweye at either end. just visible against the dark evening sky. not even the tumbler. not much to look at in daytime. and then passes in a curve across the base. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. W. If the tumbler is rotated. it follows the edge for about 1 in. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. it is taken to the edge of the foot. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and materially heightened the illusion. which at once gathered. disappearing only to reappear again." which skimmed along the distant horizon.

long. wide and 1 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 in. long and 1 doz. beginning at a point 9 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. New Orleans. long. The cork will come out easily. 2 by 4 in. square and 6 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 bolts. long. square and 51/2 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. deep. Bevel the ends of . large spikes. by 10 ft. La. 4 in. from either side of the center. To make the apparatus. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. and turned in a spiral D. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 7 in. 4 in. long. long. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 by 4 in. 2 cross braces. 6 in. 2 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. by 7 ft. 2 by 3 in. preferably cedar. 8 bolts. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A wire about No. 2 side braces. long. 8 in. 4 wood screws. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 1. long. by 2 ft. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. Fig. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 base pieces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. so the point will be on top. 8 in. 4 knee braces.

. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. leave it undressed. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. which face each other. as shown in the diagram. except the bars. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. of 7 ft. Jaquythe. but even unpainted they are very durable. additional long. --Contributed by W.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. After the trenches are dug. screws. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. A large sized ladle. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. so the bolts in both will not meet. using four of the 7-in bolts. save the bars. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. jellies. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Cal. ( To be Continued. The wood so treated will last for years. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A. equipped with a strainer. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. These will allow the ladle to be turned. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. leaving the strainer always in position. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Two endpieces must be made. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus..the knee braces. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. If using mill-cut lumber. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Richmond. etc. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and countersinking the heads. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.

. of sufficient 1ength. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. A. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. thus holding the pail as shown. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. or various cutting compounds of oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. which seems impossible. partly a barrier for jumps.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. milling machine. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it is necessary to place a stick. drill press or planer. In order to accomplish this experiment.

two 1/2-in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. bolt. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 1 cross brace. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. bolts. projections and splinters. 4 in. These are well nailed in place. by 3 ft. apart. 4 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. beginning 1-1/2 in. in the ground. from each end. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. ten 1/2-in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. stud cut rounding on one edge. 7 in. square by 5 ft. Procure from a saw mill. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 2 by 4 in. long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. is a good length. long. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. These are placed 18 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 2 by 4 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. bolts. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Hand holds must be provided next. but 5 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. 1 in. 4 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 3 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . long. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. long. 4 knee braces. 2 adjusting pieces.. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. in diameter--the larger the better. To construct. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. apart in a central position on the horse. long. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. long. 4-1/2 in. bolts. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. and free from knots. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 bases. The round part of this log must be planed.. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. piece of 2 by 4-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft.

then bending to the shape desired. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts.horse top. A. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition.--Contributed by W. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. such as a dent. snow. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. it is caused by some obstruction. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Richmond. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. over and around. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. no one is responsible but himself. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but nevertheless. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. pipe and fittings. etc. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Jaquythe. Also. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Such a hand sled can be made in a . water. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.

at E and F. when complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. when straightened out. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. These. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Boston. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. then run a string over each part. Noble. which. Mass. --Contributed by James E. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. Ontario. 2. W. . The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. are all the tools necessary. thick. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The end elevation. Joerin. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Vener. --Contributed by J. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. in width and 1/32 in. is much better than a wood sled. 1. Toronto. will give the length. Paris.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 3. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. are nailed. AA and BB. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. . Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The method shown in Figs. 4. nor that which is partly oxidized. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. It is best to use soft water. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr.

8 and 9. 2. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. . If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Broad lines can be made. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 3. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or unequal widths as in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 1). two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 2. or various rulings may be made. 4. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. as shown in Fig. class ice-yacht.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. bent and drilled as shown.Fig. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. It can be made longer or shorter. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1-Details of Lathe sort. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The headstock is made of two tees. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. out from the collar. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pipe. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. pins to keep them from turning. about 30 in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. a tee and a forging. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. a larger size of pipe should be used. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. Both the lower . The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. long. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. 1. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The point should extend about 11/2 in. but if it is made much longer.

This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. W. and will answer for a great variety of work. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Cal. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Laporte. 1. Man. thick as desired. To do this. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. . --Contributed by W. 2. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by W. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. but also their insulating properties. Boissevain. or a key can be used as well. a corresponding line made on this. UpDeGraff. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 3/4 or 1 in. --Contributed by M. Held. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. as shown in Fig. Indiana. 2. It is about 1 in. else taper turning will result. Fruitvale. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Musgrove. M.

The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . --Contributed by E. Smith. as shown. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. J. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ark. Ft. In use. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. long.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Cline. To obviate this. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.

New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. La. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Colo. the drill does not need the tool. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. on starting the lathe. which should be backed out of contact. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. After being entered. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. if this method is followed: First. White. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. take . it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. and when once in true up to its size. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. --Contributed by Walter W. Denver. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. face off the end of the piece. centering is just one operation too many. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece.

as shown in D. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. In doing this. unknown to the spectators. a long piece of glass tubing. the cap is placed over the paper tube. a bout 1/2 in. The glass tube B. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. and this given to someone to hold. It can be used in a great number of tricks. by applying caustic soda or . as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. after being shown empty. is put into the paper tube A. says the Sphinx. shown at C. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The handkerchief rod. all the better. vanishing wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. After the wand is removed. and can be varied to suit the performer. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. shorter t h a n the wand.

square and 1-7/8 in. 1 Neck. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Cut a piece of hard wood. long. End. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. preferably hard maple. 3/16. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. As the cement softens. Glue strips of soft wood. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Glue the neck to the box. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. can be made by the home mechanic. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. This dimension and those for the frets . as shown by K. by 14 by 17 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. and glue it to the neck at F. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. cut to any shape desired. 1. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. thick.potash around the edges of the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The sides. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 End. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1 Bottom. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. across the front and back to strengthen them. with the back side rounding. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1/4 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 2 Sides. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. The brace at D is 1 in.

The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Stoddard. A board 1 in. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.Pa. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. or backbone. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Six holes. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. toward each end. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. E. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. 3/16 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. long is used for a keel. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. but it is not. thick and about 1 ft. H. O. in diameter. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. --Contributed by Chas. and beveled . probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Norwalk. Frary.should be made accurately. -Contributed by J. Carbondale. wide and 11-1/2 ft. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars.

a. two twigs may be used to make one rib. The ribs.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. and so. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. with long stout screws. In drying. as shown in Fig. Fig. . long are required. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. These are better. C. by means of a string or wire. 13 in. Any tough. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 2. B. the loose strips of ash (b.) in notches. 3. as they are apt to do. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and are not fastened. Fig. in thickness and should be cut. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. and notched at the end to receive them (B. slender switches of osier willow. procure at a carriage factory. Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. as shown in Fig. b. b. which are easily made of long. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 3. C. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 3). or other place. 2). Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. 3). Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 3/8 in. thick. but before doing this. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. apart. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. For the gunwales (a. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. probably. Fig. when made of green elm. wide by 26 in. Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 4. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. as before described. such as is used for making chairbottoms. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. thick. but twigs of some other trees. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. are next put in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places.. and. The cross-boards (B. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. long. in such cases. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. b. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. some tight strips of ash. 1 and 2. 4). For the ribs near the middle of the boat. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Green wood is preferable. 2). 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Shape these as shown by A. buy some split cane or rattan. such as hazel or birch. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. will answer nearly as well. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. two strips of wood (b. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 1. or similar material.

sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. You may put in . Being made in long rolls. wide. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. B. and light oars. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. preferably iron. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. however. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. The paper is then trimmed. It should be smooth on the surface. but with less turpentine. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and as soon as that has soaked in. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. When thoroughly dry.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. after wetting it. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. When the paper is dry. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. apply a second coat of the same varnish. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and steady in the water. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. If the paper be 1 yd. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Then take some of the split rattan and. Fig. of very strong wrapping-paper. 5). It should be drawn tight along the edges. If not. and held in place by means of small clamps. but neither stiff nor very thick. and very tough.

and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. We procured a box and made a frame. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. they will support very heavy weights. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. fore and aft. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. to fit it easily. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Drive the lower nail first. 1. Fig. 5. 1 and the end in . which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5). Fig.

The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pa. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 3. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 4. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. This is an easy . and the glass. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is. 5. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pittsburg. being softer where the flame has been applied. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. this makes the tube airtight. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Close the other end with the same operation. A good way to handle this work.Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.

drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Give the metal a circular motion. flat and round-nosed pliers. 23 gauge. The candle holders may have two. After the bulb is formed. with a piece of carbon paper. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. also trace the decorative design. very rapid progress can be made. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Oswald. metal shears. -Contributed by A. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. fourth. extra metal all around. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. or six arms. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. then reverse. above the work and striking it with the hammer. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. third. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.way to make a thermometer tube. above the metal. fifth. second. three. Sixth. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. four. file. rivet punch. Seventh. thin screw.

and holder. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. Metal polish of any kind will do. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers.

I steer with the front wheel. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Twenty cents was all I spent. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Heat 6-1/2 oz. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and add the gelatine. Fifty. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. smooth it down and then remove as before. J. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. F. deep. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. all the rest I found. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and in a week . using a steel pen. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. except they had wheels instead of runners. and water 24 parts. they were like an ice boat with a sail. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. thus it was utilized. on a water bath. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. is a broomstick. if it has not absorbed too much ink. The boom. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. sugar 1 part.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Mother let me have a sheet. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. alcohol 2 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and other things as they were needed. The gaff. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. hammer. the stick at the bottom of the sail. when it will be ready for use. Shiloh. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. of glycerine to about 200 deg. glycerine 4 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and it will be ready for future use. N. and brace and bit were the tools used. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Soak 1 oz. A saw. winding the ends where they came together with wire. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. and. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. long. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. This ring is made up from two rings. and the work carefully done. wire brads. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. slide to about 6 ft. 3. thick. The board is centered both ways. and the lens slide. and a projecting lens 2 in. If a small saw is used. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. well seasoned pine.. about 2 ft. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. provided the material is of metal. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. above the center. 8 in. or glue. are . wide and 15 in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. as desired. but if such a box is not found. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. high. at a distance of 24 ft. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The slide support. focus enlarging a 3-in. wide. H. at a point 1 in. 1. or a lens of 12-in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. Fig. A and B. G. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. E. A table. describe a 9-in. and 14 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1/2 to 3/4 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. DD. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in.

but not long enough. JJ. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. P. the strips II serving as guides. and when the right position is found for each. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. should the glass happen to upset. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Minn. St. B. A sheet . of safe. Small strips of tin. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. E. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Paul. The arrangement is quite safe as. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.-Contributed by G. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. apply two coats of shellac varnish. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. light burning oil. placed on the water. the water at once extinguishes the flame.constructed to slip easily on the table. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. To reach the water. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.

to cover the mattresses. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.H. 4. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. 9 in. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Fig. Crawford. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 12 ft. then the corners on one end are doubled over. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Schenectady. from a tent company. 2. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Y. 1. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. I ordered a canvas bag. N.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3 in. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. by 12 ft. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Fig.. 3.

for amperes and the other post. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Denver. thick. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 2. open on the edges. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. To calibrate the instrument. 1/2 in. and insert two binding-posts. Warren. so as to form two oblong boxes. Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. --Contributed by Walter W. V. insulating them from the case with cardboard. An arc is cut in the paper. 3 to swing freely on the tack. wide. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. long and 3/16 in. Fasten the wire with gummed label. holes in the edge. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. White. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 3/4 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 1/2 in. Colo. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Attach a piece of steel rod. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Edward M. first mark the binding-post A. as shown in Fig. Teasdale. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. to keep it from unwinding. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. A rubber band. long. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 1. D. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. 2.each edge. apart. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fig. drill two 3/16 in. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. Pa. in the center coil. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Do not use too strong a rubber. through which the indicator works. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. C. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 1.

A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. Place this can on one end of the trough. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. with the large hole up. Dayton. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. --Contributed by M. Wood Burning [331] . M. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.

Place the small bottle in as before. Upper Troy. --Contributed by John Shahan. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. 1. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. N. as shown in the sketch. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thick.Y. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Ala. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. wide and 4 in. Auburn. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by Fred W. If the cork is adjusted properly. but not very thick. This will make a very pretty ornament. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Whitehouse. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 3/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. provided the bottle is wide. 2. long.

and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. to the shaft. Its smaller parts. On a 1000-ft. long. 2. 1. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The shaft C. 3. G. W. high without the upper half. Fig. If a transmitter is used. wide. Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. pulley F. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. sugar pine on account of its softness. was 1/4in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which was 6 in. pulley. The 21/2-in. 1. as shown in Fig. thick. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. line. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. in diameter and 1 in. 2 ft. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. K. thick. was keyed to shaft C. iron rod. 4. Fig. Milter. thick and 3 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. by the method shown in Fig. I. such as blades and pulleys. were constructed of 1-in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. Fig. B. 1. 1. which gave considerable power for its size. 1 in. A staple. The wire L was put . The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. even in a light breeze. which extended to the ground.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. --Contributed by D. which was nailed to the face plate.

To make the key. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. 1. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. washers were placed under pulley F. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. This fan was made of 1/4-in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. so that the 1/4-in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long and bend it as shown at A. with brass headed furniture tacks. The bed plate D. 2. Fig. and was cut the shape shown. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. square to the board P at the top of the tower. hole was bored for it. 3 in. long and 3 in. pine 18 by 12 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. apart in the tower. To lessen the friction here. in diameter. through the latter. Two washers were placed on shaft C. This completes the receiver or sounder. across the thin edge of a board. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fig. strips. hole for the shaft G was in the center. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. was tacked. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. R. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. in the center of the board P. G. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. was 2 ft. Fig. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 25 ft. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long and bend it as . 1. long. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Fig. H. when the windmill needed oiling. top down also. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. for instance. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The other lid. a 1/2-in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Fig. 5. This board was 12 in. 0. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. with all parts in place. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 1. The power was put to various uses. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. long. 1) 4 in. as. 6. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. wide and 1 in. 6. cut out another piece of tin (X. 1. The smaller one. There a 1/4-in. long and 1/2 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. If you have no bell.

fitted with paddles as at M. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Going back to Fig. Thus a center drive is made. By adjusting the coils. 1. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. although it can be made with but two. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.shown. as indicated. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The rear barrels are. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Now. and. McConnell. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. 2. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. as shown at Water. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. leaving the other wire as it is. Before tacking it to the board. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. using cleats to hold the board frame. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. When tired of this instrument. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. causing a buzzing sound. at the front. -Contributed by John R. like many another device boys make.

The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. There is no danger. there will not be much friction. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. If the journals thus made are well oiled. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. 1. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which will give any amount of pleasure. as shown in Fig. or even a little houseboat. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. 3. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. feet on the pedals. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. To propel it. The speed is slow at first. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. can be built. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount .

Place one brass ring in cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 1. A.of pleasure for a little work. Fig. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Turn a small circle of wood. 2. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Then melt out the rosin or lead. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. C. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. and so creating a false circuit. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. B. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. D. 1. If it is desired to make the light very complete. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 2. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead.

F. such as is used for cycle valves. shelf. Utah. --Contributed by Geo. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. which stops bell ringing. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Throw lever off from the right to center.india rubber tubing. Pa. switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. To get the cylinder into its carriage. C. by having the switch on the baseboard. I. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. bracket. To throw on light throw levers to the left. S. key of alarm clock. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. wire from light to switch. E. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 5-1/4 by 10 in. X. after two turns have been made on the key. 4 in. while lying in bed. wire from bell to switch. brass rod. T. When alarm goes off. brass strip. copper tubing. J. wide and 1/16 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. long. 4-1/2 in. 3/8 in. In placing clock on shelf. and pulled tight. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. some glue will secure them. G. long. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. contact post. The parts indicated are as follows: A. --Contributed by C. bell. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Ogden. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. wire from batteries to switch. set alarm key as shown in diagram. after setting alarm. Chatland. D. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . or 1/4in. dry batteries.. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. B. near the bed. thick. C. if too small. Swissvale. To operate this. Brinkerhoff. H.

as . gives the heater a more finished appearance. 1. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Minn. making it as true and smooth as possible. as in Fig. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. long.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Having finished this. Fig. A small lamp of about 5 cp. which can be made of an old can. from one end. about 6 in. This is to form the fuse hole. in diameter. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. 2. as at B. Chapman. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1/4 in. beyond the end of the spindle. A flannel bag. Make a shoulder. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. S. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Make the spindle as in Fig. a bed warmer. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Fig. for instance. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. will do the heating. 2. 4 in. letting it extend 3/4 in. 3. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Fig. --Contributed by Chas. as at A. being careful not to get the sand in it. Pull out the nail and stick. wide. All that is required is a tin covering. in diameter. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as at A. Lanesboro. 1. about 3-1/2 in.

The material must be 1-1/2 in. 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. or hickory. The illustration shows how this is done.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 6 ft. ash. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . A piece of oak. 11/2 in. spring and arrows. 5/8 in. Joerin. this is to keep the edges from splitting. --Contributed by Arthur E. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. 1. wide and 3 ft. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. A piece of tin. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. 1 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. thick. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick. 6 in. deep. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. long. wide and 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do.

with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. as shown in Fig. Fig. it lifts the spring up. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which is 1/4 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. --Contributed by O. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. E. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. 3. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. and one for the trigger 12 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 9. or through the necessity of. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. better still. as shown in Fig. 8. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Fig. from the end of the stock. Wilmette. A spring. place the arrow in the groove. from the opposite end. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 7. in diameter. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Ill. wide at each end. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. When the trigger is pulled. Trownes. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 2. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 4. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. having the latter swing quite freely. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. To shoot the crossbow. The trigger. 6. thick. To throw the arrow.

made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Remove the bottom of the box. and replace as shown at B. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. C. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. make the frame of the wigwam. Moreover. since the flame of the candle is above A. it is the easiest camp to make. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. By chopping the trunk almost through. from the ground. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The hinged cover E. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. apart. is used as a door. respectively. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. says Photo Era. and nail it in position as shown at A. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. the bark lean-to is a . making lighting and trimming convenient. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. from the ground. The cut should be about 5 ft. Remove one end. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. This lamp is safe. or only as a camp on a short excursion.

piled 2 or 3 ft. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. In the early summer. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Tongs are very useful in camp. wide and 6 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and split the tops with an ax. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 3 ft. long and 1-1/2 in. For a permanent camp. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Where bark is used. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. 6 ft. and when the camp is pitched. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. wide. Sheets of bark. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. selecting a site for a camp. a 2-in. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. For a foot in the middle of the stick. deep and covered with blankets. long. . The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. A piece of elm or hickory. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. thick. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. long and 2 or 3 ft. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and cedar. makes a good pair of tongs. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. spruce. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. will dry flat. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split.

. hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons.

At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Pa. --Contributed by James M. Kane. 1. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. I drove a small cork. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. B. about 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. A.. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. wide. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Fig. the interior can. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Doylestown. to another . and provide a cover or door. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. deep and 4 in.

The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. until. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 4 and 5). the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The diagram. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 2. fused into one side. for instance. The current is thus compelled. 3. to pass through an increasing resistance. a liquid. such as ether. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.glass tube. This makes . shows how the connections to the supply current are made. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. C. Fig. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. for instance. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. limit. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. if necessary. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. 2. E. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. which project inside and outside of the tube.

but merely discolored. cannot be used so often. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. and for the outside of the frame. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. 3-3/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. A. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Before removing the field from the lathe. on a lathe. as shown in Fig. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. A 5/8in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. to allow for finishing. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. thicker. or even 1/16 in. tap. Michigan. screws. in diameter. brass. making it 1/16 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. therefore. Alpena. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. assemble and rivet them solidly. which will make it uniform in size. when several pieces are placed together. After the template is marked out. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. larger than the dimensions given. 4-1/2 in. set at 1/8 in. thick. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. or pattern. which may be of any thickness so that. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. between centers. The bearing studs are now made. When the frame is finished so far. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. 3. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch. These holes are for the bearing studs. thick. bent at right angles as shown. If the thickness is sufficient. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. brass or iron. mark off a space. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Fig. by turning the lathe with the hand. 2. After cleaning them with the solution. drill the four rivet holes. is composed of wrought sheet iron. in diameter. 1. two holes. hole is . clamp the template.

The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. soldered into place. file them out to make the proper adjustment. into which a piece of 5/8-in. is turned up from machine steel. Fig. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. 4. and build up the solder well. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The shaft of the armature. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. or otherwise finished. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . solder them to the supports. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. When the bearings are located. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. brass rod is inserted.

Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. or segments. thick. The sides are also faced off and finished. 3. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown in Fig. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 5. 7. thick and 1/4 in. thick. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 3. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. thick are cut like the pattern. to allow for finishing to size. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. inside diameter. by 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. brass rod. 3/4 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. and held with a setscrew. When this is accomplished. 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. then drill a 1/8-in. 1-1/8 in. deep and 7/16 in. 8. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. sheet fiber. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. washers. 6. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. being formed for the ends. threaded. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. After the pieces are cut out.. Make the core 3/4 in. Armature-Ring Core. After they . The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. wide. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. hole and tap it for a pin. 6. 1/8 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Rivet them together. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 9. holes through them for rivets. wide. as shown in Fig. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. When annealed. as shown m Fig.

In starting to wind. being required. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Run one end of the field wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. of the wire. sheet fiber. All connections should be securely soldered. The two ends are joined at B.have dried. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. shown at A. which will take 50 ft. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. After one coil. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. by bending the end around one of the projections. The field is wound with No. until the 12 slots are filled. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Fig. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The source of current is connected to the terminals. shown at B. This winding is for a series motor. 5. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. thick. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. When the glue is set. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. they are glued to the core insulation. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. long. 1. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. 1. about 100 ft. The winding is started at A. yet it shows a series of . then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Fig. of the end to protrude. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. 6 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. To connect the wires. 8 in. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. or side. and wind on four layers. are soldered together. wide and 1 in. of No. the two ends of the wire.

by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Nine wires run from the timer. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. A 1/2-in. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. still more simply. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. which serves as the ground wire. is fastened to the metallic body. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. or. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and one. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. as in the case of a spiral. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. one from each of the eight contacts. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.

wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. 45 deg. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. circle. 6 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts.The Wind Vane. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. of the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. board. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. long. It should be . Covering these is a thin. Without this attachment. thus giving 16 different directions. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.

to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. called a chip carving knife. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets.about 6 ft. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. also a piece of new carpet. making it heavy or light. . nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. high. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. -Contributed by James L. is most satisfactory. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. long to give the best results. Cut 3-in. thus making a universal joint. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Before tacking the fourth side. according to who is going to use it. Blackmer. though a special knife. To work these outlines. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Y. will answer the purpose just as well. if not too high. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. N. Place the leather on some level. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. 14 by 18 in. To make it. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Buffalo. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. will be sufficient. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. or. and securely nail on the top of the box. will be enough for the two sides. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. and about 6 in. however. Fill the box with any handy ballast.

An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. N. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Syracuse. temporary lameness. of water. and fasten the feathers inside of it. a needle and some feathers. Y. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. B. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. and tie them together securely at the bottom. square and tying a piece of . or a hip that has been wrenched.will do if a good stout needle is used. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. of common salt and 10 lb. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. away from it. If a fire breaks out. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be thrown away when no longer needed. rather than the smooth side. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Morse. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time.

The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The diaphragm C. long. Gordon Dempsey.. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. made up of four layers of No. One end is removed entirely. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. 1/8 in. high. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. but not sharp. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Hellwig. B. wide and 1/16 in. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The body of the receiver. setting traps. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The strings should be about 15 in. Ashland. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. and a coil of wire. A. is cut on the wood. which is the essential part of the instrument. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. E. N. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume.string to each corner. The end is filed to an edge. as shown. Y. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. board all around the bottom on the inside. laying poisoned meat and meal. and the receiver is ready for use.J. Paterson. F. N. --Contributed by John A. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. and tacked it to the boards. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. thus helping the rats to enter. Wis. etc. Albany. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. the corners being wired. This not only keeps the rats out. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. long. G. cut to the length of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. The coil is 1 in. A small wooden or fiber end. commonly called tintype tin. --Contributed by J. deep. wound on the head end. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. . but prevents the chickens from digging holes. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. There is a 1-in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool.

Take a piece of string or. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The vase is to have three supports. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. to . gold. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. and bend each strip in shape. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. wide. Take a pair of round-nose pliers.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. better still. To clean small articles. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. begin with the smallest scrolls. a piece of small wire. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. A single line will be sufficient.

from the lines EF on the piece. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. sharp pencil. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. wide when stitching up the purse. Trace also the line around the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. from E to F. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. thus raising it. 3-1/2 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.. About 1 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. .000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. and does not require coloring. using a duller point of the tool. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. as shown in the sketch. from C to D. Press or model down the leather all around the design. After taking off the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Work down the outside line of the design.. Fold the leather on the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. 4-1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. 3-1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern.

place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. long. and a model for speed and power. This also should be slightly beveled. with the open side down. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 3. deep. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. When it is finished. 2. Procure a thin board 1/4 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Now take another piece of wood. b. then nail it. and cut out a wheel. with the largest side down. and. and tack the other piece slightly. being cast in wooden molds. and which will be very interesting. around the wheel. as shown in Fig. the "open" side. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Fit this to the two . with a compass saw. It can be made without the use of a lathe. thick. 1. It is neat and efficient. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. with pins or small nails. and the projections B. First. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. following the dotted lines. by 12 ft. square. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. leaving the lug a. 1 was cut.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Make the lug 1/4 in. as well as useful. all the way around.

After it is finished. bolts. Now take another of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. and bore six 1/4-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. slightly beveled. 1. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.pieces just finished. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. then bolt it together. as shown by the . holes through it. deep. hole bored through its center. and clean all the shavings out of it. in the center of it. hole 1/4 in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and boring a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Now put mold No. Take the mold apart. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the black dots in Fig.

Find the center of the paddle-wheel. holes. until it is full. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and 3/8-in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. where the casting did not fill out. This is for a shaft. B. and the exhaust hole in projection b. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Fig. Put this together in mold No. 6. 4. in diameter must now be obtained. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and lay it away to dry. true it up with a square. Then bolt the castings together. lay it on a level place. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. put the top of the brace through this hole. This is the same as Fig. and pouring metal in to fill it up. take an ordinary brace. 5. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. holes at d. drill in it. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. instead of the right-handed piece. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. over the defective part. and run in babbitt metal again. screw down. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.1. and connect to the boiler. long. wide and 16 in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This is mold No. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. only the one is left-handed.black dots in Fig. the other right-handed. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Let it stand for half an hour.2. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 1.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. fasten a 3/8-in.1. and drill them in the same manner. and pour babbitt metal into it. This will cast a paddle-wheel. one in the projections. After it is fitted in. b. and bore three 1/4-in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and the other in the base. Now take mold No. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Pour metal into mold No. so that it will turn easily. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 6. as shown in illustration. one in the lug. as shown by the black dots in Fig. see that the bolts are all tight. from the one end. long. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. d. and two 1/4-in. place the entire machine in a vise. and drill it entirely through. Using the Brace . place it under the drill.2.

Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. long. one 6 ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge.. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. with a boss and a set screw. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. At each end of the 6ft. and the other 8 ft. will do good service. Then take a knife or a chisel.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed. piece and at right angles to it. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

leaving 1 ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. in diameter at the base. 8 a reef point knot. 1. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Fig. Run the seam on a machine. plank nail 8-in. The spar should be 9 ft. long and 2-1/2 in. Make your runners as long as possible. so much the better will be your boat. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. at the end. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. plank. The tiller. Fig. in diameter in the center. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. piece and at right angles to it. long. in front of the rudder block. 2 by 3 in. as the runners were fastened. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. bolt the 8-ft. and about 8 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. long. 3. 1. projecting as in Fig. where they often did considerable damage. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. distant. Over the middle of the 6-ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. should be of hardwood. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. This fits in the square hole. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. at the butt and 1 in. in the top before the skate is put on. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. in diameter. boards to make the platform. at the top. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin.

Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. P. The . and the alarm bell will ring. wide. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Ariz. Mechanicsburg. Pa. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. small piece of wood. Adams. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Comstock. S S. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. --Contributed by J. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. B. --Contributed by John D.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. so that they come in contact at C. allowing the springs to contact at C. R. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. to block B. P. and place it behind a stove. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. Phoenix. Its parts are as follows: A. bent into a hook at each end. block of wood nailed to A.

and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. high. Take the glass. including the . dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. The stump makes the best support. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. 2. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. 1. 6 in. and drill a hole in the center so