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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. apart. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. 1. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. until it is bound as shown in Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. long will make six boomerangs. 2 -. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 1. Toronto. 2. It is held in this curve until dry. E. Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. distant. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. --Contributed by J. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. wide and 2 ft. as shown in Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.Fig. as shown in Fig. with the hollow side away from you. away. To throw a boomerang. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Noble. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. A piece of plank 12 in. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Ontario. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The pieces are then dressed round.

If the snow is of the right consistency. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. A wall. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. or rather no bottom at all. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. First. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. long. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. the block will drop out. dry snow will not pack easily. made of 6-in. blocks . Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. but about 12 in. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. forcing it down closely. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and with a movable bottom. which makes the building simpler and easier. thick. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. 6 in. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. one inside of the circle and the other outside. A very light. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. however. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. high and 4 or 5 in. minus the top. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.

a. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. There is no outward thrust. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A nail. wide. Ore. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The piece of wood. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. long and 1 in.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. which is about 1 ft. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Goodbrod. 1. It also keeps them out. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and the young architect can imitate them. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. D. which can be made of wood. is 6 or 8 in. above the ground. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 2. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Union. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. or an old safe dial will do. C. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Fig. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. 3. --Contributed by Geo. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 1. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Fig. Fig. 2. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. 3 -.

one pair of special hinges. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. --Contributed by R. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Syracuse. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. says the Sphinx. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. S. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. the box locked . I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. If ordinary butts are used. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. as the weight always draws them back to place. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Merrill. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. New York.

Place the piece in a vise. allowing each coat time to dry. With the metal shears. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. 3. smooth surface. It remains to bend the flaps. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. one for each corner. on drawing paper. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. All . 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Augusta. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Alberta Norrell. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 1. To make a design similar to the one shown. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. about 1-32 of an inch. If they do not. Fig. Ga. If the measuring has been done properly. draw one-half of it. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. When the sieve is shaken. as shown. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. -Contributed by L. as shown in Fig. 2. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. proceed as follows: First.and the performer steps out in view. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation.

A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. should be in the line. and in the positions shown in the sketch. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. --Contributed by R. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. B. which is about 6 in. In boring through rubber corks. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. in diameter. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. causing it to expand. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. C. is fitted tightly in the third hole. of No. A resistance.the edges should be left smooth. A piece of porcelain tube. Denver. 25 German-silver wire. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. as shown at AA. about 6 in. 25 gauge German-silver wire. R. H. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Galbreath. To keep the metal from tarnishing. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. used for insulation. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. if rolled under the shoe sole. When the current is turned off. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Colo. heats the strip of German-silver wire. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. long. After this has dried. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The current. The common cork. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. in passing through the lamp. from the back end. If a touch of color is desired.

Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. as shown in Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. . Kansas City. 2. 1. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 3. Purchase two long book straps. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. between them as shown in Fig. with thin strips of wood. leaving a space of 4 in. --Contributed by David Brown. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.bottom ring. Mo. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown.

Kane. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and tack smoothly. long. Fig. 1. --Contributed by James M. When the aeroplane tips.An ordinary electric bell. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Morse. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. are mounted on the outside of the box. to form a handle. Y. 1.. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Pa. Syracuse. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. in diameter. Two strips of brass. 1. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Fig. 3. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. A. one weighing 15 lb. 4. The string is then tied. N. as . just the right weight for a woman to use. 36 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. These are shown in Fig.. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 2. and one weighing 25 lb. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The folds are made over the string. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and a pocket battery. C. which is the right weight for family use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Doylestown.

which can be purchased at a local hardware store. The saw. four washers and four square nuts. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bent as shown in Fig. 1. 3/32 or 1/4 in. 2. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. if once used. Day. such as brackets. Frame Made of a Rod . Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. N. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Y. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. long. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. AA. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Floral Park. machine screws. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. two 1/8 -in. 2. --Contributed by Louis J. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. in diameter. and many fancy knick-knacks.

1 part nitric acid. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Drying will cause this to change to purple. File these edges. Silver is the most desirable but. though almost any color may be obtained. therefore. use them in place of the outside nuts. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. allowing each time to dry. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. as well as brass and copper. the most expensive. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Apply two coats. if copper or brass. green and browns are the most popular. A. Detroit. Of the leathers. of course.may be made of either brass. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of water. Michigan. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Rub off the highlights. --Contributed by W. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. be covered the same as the back.. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. For etching. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. as well as the depth of etching desired. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. after breaking up. copper. it has the correct strength. or silver. Scranton. Watch Fob For coloring silver. The buckle is to be purchased. An Austrian Top [12] . rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. of water in which dissolve. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. In the design shown. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. If it colors the metal red. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. treat it with color. using a swab and an old stiff brush. 1 part sulphuric acid.

starting at the bottom and winding upward. wide and 3/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine. Parts of the Top To spin the top. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. When the shank is covered. allowing only 1-1/4 in. . thick. hole. Bore a 3/4-in. A 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. A handle. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. is formed on one end. set the top in the 3/4 -in. Michigan. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Tholl. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. --Contributed by J. in diameter. pass one end through the 1/16-in. long. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. hole in this end for the top. Ypsilanti. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 3/4 in. long.F. 5-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in.

Northville. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. . --A. The baking surface. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. For black leathers. having no sides. Augusta. --Contributed by Miss L. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. tarts or similar pastry. Alberta Norrell. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Ga. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Houghton. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Mich.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle.

just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Stringing Wires [13] A. When you desire to work by white light. Mo. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . then solder cover and socket together. the same as shown in the illustration. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Centralia. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. says Studio Light. glass fruit jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power.

The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Wis. square by 62 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1-1/4 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 4 Braces. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. square by 12 in. 4 Vertical pieces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. They are fastened. so it can be folded up. Janesville. 16 Horizontal bars.for loading and development. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. and not tip over. 1-1/4 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. . --Contributed by Herman Fosel. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.

the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Cincinnati. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Phillipsburg. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. from scrap material. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. and a loop made in the end. --Contributed by Dr. The front can be covered . How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. C. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The whole. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. New York. H. Rosenthal. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. after filling the pail with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. O.

The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. sickly one. In my own practice. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. principally mayonnaise dressing. 1 FIG. Wehr. The . if you try to tone them afterward. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Md. the mouth of which rests against a. either for contact printing or enlargements. If the gate is raised slightly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. you are. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. thoroughly fix. Baltimore. By using the following method. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Develop them into strong prints. The results will be poor. the color will be an undesirable.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. and. FIG.

wide and 4 in. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. in size. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.... as it will appear clean much longer than the white........ in this solution.. 5 by 15 in. Water .. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The blotting paper can . to make it 5 by 5 in. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. Place the dry print... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.... 20 gr. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away...... 2. where it will continue to bleach..... 16 oz. Iodide of potassium .. transfer it to a tray of water." Cyanide of potassium .. without previous wetting. L..... preferably the colored kind. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. long to admit the angle support. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. --Contributed by T. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print..... but. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... Gray.. When the desired reduction has taken place.. San Francisco. etc. 1 and again as in Fig.... three times..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Cal... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... It will bleach slowly and evenly... 2 oz. With a little practice. A good final washing completes the process.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. when it starts to bleach. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in..

Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. the shaft 1 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Canada. Make a design similar to that shown. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. 20 gauge. wide. Monahan. 3. and a length of 5 in.J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the head of which is 2 in. wide below the . Wisconsin. having a width of 2-1/4 in.

The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. which gives the outline of the design Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Make one-half of the design. using turpentine. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The metal must be held firmly. 2. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Do not put the hands in the solution. then trace the other half in the usual way. then coloring. Apply with a small brush. then put on a second coat. 1 Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. After this has dried. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. after folding along the center line. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. being held perpendicular to the work. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 1 part sulphuric acid. but use a swab on a stick. With the metal shears. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Fig. 4. 1 part nitric acid.FIG. 1. Trace the design on the metal. deep. Allow this to dry. For coloring olive green. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. . using a small metal saw. freehand. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. using carbon paper. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. After the sawing. 3. With files. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. as shown in Fig.

The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Syracuse. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. --Contributed by Katharine D. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Carl Cramer. thick. Burnett. East Hartford. --Contributed by M. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. When this is cold. --Contributed by H. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. New York. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Ii is an ordinary staple. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. then stain it a mahogany color. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. on a chopping board. Cal. M. it does the work rapidly. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. . attach brass handles. After the stain has dried. as shown. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Morse. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Conn. Richmond.

it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. saucers or pans. H. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. not over 1/4 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. or tin. brass. as shown at A. 1. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Fig. two stopcocks with 1/8 in.. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. 53 steel pens. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. two enameled. indicating the depth of the slots. Cal. also locate the drill holes. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. one shaft. --Contributed by W. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. machine screws. Jaquythe. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. square. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. L. holes. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Florida. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Richmond. and several 1/8-in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by Mrs. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Atwell. thick. A. some pieces of brass. . 1/4 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 4. as shown in Fig. in width at the shank. about 3/16 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. thick and 4 in. Kissimmee.

1. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. brass and bolted to the casing. The shaft hole may also be filed square. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. using two nuts on each screw. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 2. a square shaft used. as in Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. 6. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. hole in the center. Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 5. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Bend as shown in Fig. 2. wide. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. with a 3/8-in. machine screws and nuts. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and pins inserted. 7. supply pipe. into the hole. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. with 1/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. long and 5/16 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. machine screws. If the shaft is square. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. thick. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. as shown. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. There should be a space of 1/16 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. lead should be run into the segments. A 3/4-in. with the face of the disk. If metal dishes. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Fig. can be procured. each about 1 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 3. long by 3/4 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. thick. in diameter and 1/32 in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in.. about 1/32 in. hole. as shown in Fig. 3. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in.

The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. --Contributed by S. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Smith. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. square and 30-1/2 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Hamilton. three of which are in the basket. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. La Salle. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. from the top of the box. When assembling. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Ill. The lower part. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. we will call the basket. 8-1/2 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Canada. Stain the wood before putting in the . The four legs are each 3/4-in. --Contributed by F. from the bottom end of the legs. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. With a string or tape measure. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. using four to each leg. screws. high and 15 in. deep over all. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. long. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. V. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Be sure to have the cover. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. or more in diameter. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Fasten with 3/4-in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. to make the bottom. Cooke. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place.

Fig.lining. If all the parts are well sandpapered. you can. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Mass. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. 2. wide and four strips 10 in. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Md. and gather it at that point. -Contributed by Stanley H. The side. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. 1. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Packard. Cover them with the cretonne.2 Fig. When making the display. --also the lower edge when necessary. Sew on to the covered cardboards. wide. sewing on the back side. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Baltimore. as shown in the sketch. Boston. The folded part in the center is pasted together. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig.

Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. It is cleanly. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. It is not difficult to . are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. --Contributed by H. Fig. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Cross Timbers. and. Crockett. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. with slight modifications. Y. N. Gloversville. saving all the solid part. L. Mo. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by B. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. When through using the pad. 3. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog.

and scrape out the rough parts. Mass. Both of these methods are wasteful. -Contributed by C. --Contributed by Edith E. across the face. After stirring. If a file is used. or if desired. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. are shown in the diagram. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. El Paso. it should be new and sharp. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the .Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Lane. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. After this is done. Lowell. Texas. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Bourne. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. remove the contents. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters.

After several hours' drying. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Wheeler. Ill. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Ill. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. The process works well and needs no watching. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Turl. F. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. A Postcard Rack [25]. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Those having houses . Iowa. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Geo. He captured several pounds in a few hours. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. Oregon. The insects came to the light. Des Moines. --Contributed by Marion P. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Oak Park. Canton. --Contributed by Loren Ward. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. As these were single-faced disk records. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other.cooking utensil. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.

6 in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. by 2 ft. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Lay the floor next. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. 6 in. not even with the boards themselves. Worcester. the best material to use being matched boards. --Contributed by Thomas E. and both exactly alike. thick. Mass. plane and pocket knife. Glenbrook. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. but for cheapness 3/4 in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and the second one for the developing bench. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Conn. --Contributed by Wm. one on each side of what will be the . The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. Dobbins. The single boards can then be fixed. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them.. Rosenberg. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. material. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Both sides can be put together in this way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. boards are preferable. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the bottom being 3/8 in. and as they are simple in design. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Only three pieces are required. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. will do as well.

This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and in the middle an opening. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The developing bench is 18 in. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. of the top of the door for the same reason. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 5. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 9 by 11 in. 6 and 9. as shown in Figs. below which is fixed the sink. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. brown wrapping paper. 6. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. etc. In hinging the door. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. which is fixed on as shown . 7. 8.. and the top as at C in the same drawing. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. hinged to it. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig.. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. It is shown in detail in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. wide. 3 and 4. and to the outside board of the sides. The roof boards may next be put on. and should be zinc lined. is cut. the closing side as at B. 11. At the top of the doorway. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. by screwing to the floor. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in..doorway. 6. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 10). and act as a trap for the light. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so that it will fit inside the sink. Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 2 in section. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 9). The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.

Details of the Dark Rook .

hole bored in the center for a handle. A circular piece about 2 in. In use. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as at M. these being shown in Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 20. screwing them each way into the boards. preferably maple or ash. as shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. it is better than anything on the market. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 15. --Contributed by W. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. mixing flour and water. 2. Pennsylvania. 13. and a 3/8-in. as at I. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 18. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 13. Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. and a tank stand on it. For beating up an egg in a glass. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 16. after lining with brown paper. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. though this is hardly advisable. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 6. 19. as shown in the sections. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. four coats at first is not too many. are fastened in the corners inside. but not the red glass and frame. if desired. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground.in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 1. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. as in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Fig. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 14. or red light as at K. Fig. Fig. Erie. 17. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. Karl Hilbrich.

Schweiger. which. Yonkers. Mitchell. Eureka Springs. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. as shown in the sketch. To operate. Mo. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. D. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Ark. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. G. L. long. when put together properly is a puzzle. --Contributed by Wm. about 3/8 in. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B.copper should be. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. --Contributed by L. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . -Contributed by E. for a handle. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smith. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Kansas City. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. New York. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint.

The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. holes should be drilled in the bottom.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. After the box is trimmed. The design shown in Fig. which binds them together. 3. need them. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Each cork is cut as in Fig. to make it set level. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. If the sill is inclined. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. as shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. 2. the box will require a greater height in front. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. in order to thoroughly preserve it. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as is usually the case. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. the rustic work should be varnished. as shown in Fig. . as well as improve its appearance. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. for the moment. Having completed the bare box.

Each long projection represents a leg. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. When the corn is gone cucumbers. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. being partly eaten into. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. But I have solved the difficulty. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. . but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. drilled at right angles. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. can't use poison. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. share the same fate. 3. 1. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. etc. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. cabbages. F. as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. too dangerous. 2. 4. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. it's easy. and observe results. Traps do no good. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. life in the summer time is a vexation. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.

26 gauge heating wire will be about right. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. by trial. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. cut some of it off and try again. -. of No. and made up and kept in large bottles. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Iowa. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. cut in 1/2-in. strips. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. long. About 9-1/2 ft. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The solution can be used over and over again. . The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. If. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil.

being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Doylestown. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. but with unsatisfactory results. Stir and mix thoroughly. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. of whiting and 1/2 oz. In cleaning silver. as shown in the sketch. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Fig 2. Knives. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. 1) removed. Kane. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Syracuse. Dallas. and a strip. --Contributed by James M. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. is a good size--in this compound. C. Pa. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Morse. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. forks. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. to cause the door to swing shut. it falls to stop G. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. coffee pot. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. --Contributed by Katharine D. Do not wash them. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. of gasoline.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. hot-water pot. Texas. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. D. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. N. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. . Y. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly.

using the paper dry. --Contributed by Oliver S. New Orleans. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Harrisburg. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Sprout. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Fisher. negatives. Ill. --Contributed by Theodore L. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. later fixed and washed as usual. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. . Pa. but unfixed. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. of course. which is.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Waverly.

Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The harmonograph. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. metal. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Fig. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. 1. To obviate this difficulty. a harmonograph is a good prescription. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. In this uncertainty lies the charm. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.

the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. or the lines will overlap and blur. Gaffney. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. as shown in Fig. of about 30 or 40 lb. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. as shown in the lower part of Fig. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. one-fifth. etc. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A length of 7 ft. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. exactly one-third. provides a means of support for the stylus. Another weight of about 10 lb. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. with a nail set or punch. for instance. what is most important. The length of the short pendulum H. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. 1. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. makes respectively 3. to prevent any side motion. R. Ingham. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. one-fourth. Arizona. A weight. as long as the other. 1. in the center of the circle to be cut. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Punch a hole. which can be regulated.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A small table or platform. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. --Contributed by Wm.. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. G. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. such as a shoe buttoner. ceiling. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. that is. A pedestal. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. is attached as shown at H. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise.. K. Chicago. in diameter. J. is about right for a 10-ft. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Rosemont. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Holes up to 3 in. A small weight. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. --Contributed by James T.

These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 6. Fig. --Contributed by J. 1. Cape May City. -Contributed by W. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Morey. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. a correspondent of .J. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 2. of course. 4. 3. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. distributing them over the whole card.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. and 4 as in Fig. The capacity of the vise. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cruger. then 3 as in Fig. then put 2 at the top. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 5. The two key cards are made alike. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. and proceed as before. Chicago.H. Fig. N. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. dividing them into quarters. one for the sender and one for the receiver.

drill 15 holes. 1/4 in. If constructed of the former. from the top and bottom. Wind the successive turns of . --Contributed by L. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. of 18-per-cent No. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of the uprights. long. citrate of iron and ammonia. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. 6 gauge wires shown. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of water. Asbestos board is to be preferred. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Cut through the center. the portion of the base under the coil. remove the prints. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. respectively. After preparing the base and uprights. To assemble. After securing the tint desired. sheet of well made asbestos paper. says Popular Electricity. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. 30 gr. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. acetic acid and 4 oz. 1/2 oz. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. deep. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. of ferricyanide of potash. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Ga. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Alberta Norrell. wood-screws. Augusta. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board.

Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. etc. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Labels of some kind are needed. screws.. which. then fasten the upright in place. --Contributed by Frederick E. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Small knobs may be added if desired. The case may be made of 1/2-in. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 14 gauge. but these are not necessary. as they are usually thrown away when empty. rivets. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Y. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Ampere. N. Ward. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. cut and dressed 1/2 in. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. if one is not a smoker. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. 16 gauge copper wire. square.

C." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The material can be of any wood. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. A.. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. especially if a large tub is used. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. of water. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Jaquythe. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. B. S. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. brass. galvanized iron. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. or has become corroded. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Copper. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Eureka Springs. --C. G. --Contributed by W. . tinner's acid. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Richmond. In soldering galvanized iron. Ark. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. and rub the point of the copper on it. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. being careful about the heat. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. of glycerine to 16 oz. lead. Larson. --Contributed by A. If the soldering copper is an old one. tin. and one made of poplar finished black. sandpaper or steel wool. This is considerable annoyance. then to the joint to be soldered. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The parts are put together with dowel pins.14 oz. particularly so when the iron has once been used. E and F. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. and labeled "Poison. a piece of solder. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. D. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Kenosha. California. as shown in the sketch. Wis. it must be ground or filed to a point. zinc.

W. Fig.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. such as copper. The covers of the magazines are removed. C. Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Troy. Y. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The dimensions shown in Fig. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. however. 1. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. This completes the die. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. in diameter. N. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. a ring may be made from any metal. nut. Take a 3/4-in. 7/8 in. round iron. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. in diameter. Place the band. -Contributed by H. Apart from this. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. B. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. which gives two bound volumes each year. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. D. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. wide. thick and 1-1/4 in. brass and silver. Hankin. with good results. The disk will come out pan shaped. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Brass rings can be plated when finished. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. 2. The punch A. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. and drill out the threads.

threaded double. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. After drawing the thread tightly. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 2. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 1/8 in. 5. . the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. is nailed across the top. Place the cardboard covers on the book. allowing about 2 in. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. The string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. If started with the January or the July issue. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. as shown in Fig. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Coarse white thread. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and then to string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. of the ends extending on each side.4. Five cuts. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The covering can be of cloth. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. which is fastened the same as the first. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. and place them against the strings in the frame. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. then back through the notch on the right side. The sections are then prepared for sewing. using .pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and a third piece. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Start with the front of the book. 1 in Fig. through the notch on the left side of the string No. on all edges except the back. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. deep. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. 2. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. size 16 or larger. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. is used for the sewing material. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. C. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner.

Place the cover on the book in the right position. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. For the blade an old talking-machine . Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Divine.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Tinplate. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Cal. and mark around each one. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Nebr. at opposite sides to each other. College View. on which to hook the blade. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. round iron. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. and. Encanto. --Contributed by Clyde E. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.

How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Summitville. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. long. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Then on the board put . thick. thick. Hays. Moorhead. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). E. as shown. and a long thread plug. On the upper side. F. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. A. by 4-1/2 in.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. B. with 10 teeth to the inch. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. fuse hole at D. Miss. at the same end. and another piece (B) 6 in. by 1 in. hydraulic pipe. with a steel sleeve. Ohio. and file in the teeth. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as it is sometimes called. and 1/4 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. -Contributed by Willard J. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. C. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and 1/4 in. Make the blade 12 in. bore. or double extra heavy. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe.

but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. H. using about 8 in. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Connect up as shown. the jars need not be very large. Philadelphia. some sheet copper or brass for plates. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. as from batteries. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. of rubber-covered wire. about 5 ft.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of wire to each coil. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. high around this apparatus. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Boyd. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. If you are going to use a current of low tension. A lid may be added if desired. and some No. 4 jars.

or source of current. Equip block X with screw eyes. two for each jar. 30 in. by 1-1/4 in. as they are not substantial enough. 2 and 3. is used to reduce friction. To wire the apparatus. 4. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Put arm of switch on point No. A 3/4-in. 3 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 6 in. For the brass trimmings use No. 11 in. Fig. by 1-1/4 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. thick. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. The current then will flow through the motor. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Use no nails. square by 14 ft. by 5 in. by 1 in.. 2. wide. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. The illustration shows how to shape it. 1. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. B and C. making them clear those in the front runner. 2. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. & S. then apply a coat of thin enamel. long. wide and 3/4 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. by 5 in. beginning at the rear. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. . The stock required for them is oak. and four pieces 14 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 1 on switch. above the ground. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and for the rear runners: A.the way. The connection between point No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 1 and so on for No. 15-1/2 in. An iron washer. At the front 24 or 26 in. oak boards. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. 4) of 3/4-in. by 2 in. See Fig.. The top disk in jar No. 5 on switch. For the front runners these measurements are: A. long. on No. 4 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. B. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. wide by 3/4 in. and bolt through. by 2 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. long by 22 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 3 and No. 1 is connected to point No. two pieces 14 in. C. with the cushion about 15 in. long. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 27 B. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 7 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A.. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. On the door of the auto front put the . Let stand for three days and apply another coat. apart. First sandpaper all the wood. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. however. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 34 in. long. two pieces 30 in. A variation of 1/16 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. gives full current and full speed. No. 3. 16-1/2 in. two pieces 34 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. In proportioning them the points A. B. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. and plane it on all edges. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 2 in. thick. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Z. as they "snatch" the ice. direct to wire across jars. The sled completed should be 15 ft. C. 2.. Use no screws on the running surface.. 2 is lower down than in No. wide and 2 in.. sheet brass 1 in. are important.. Construct the auto front (Fig.

and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. The best way is to get some strong. fasten a cord through the loop. If desired. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. If desired. overshoes. a brake may be added to the sled. cutting it out of sheet brass. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. long. to the wheel. by 30 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Then get some upholstery buttons. If the expense is greater than one can afford. which is somewhat moist. Fasten a horn. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. parcels. by 1/2 in. to improve the appearance. brass plated. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. etc. such as used on automobiles.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. lunch. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. cheap material. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . or with these for $25. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. such as burlap. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. may be stowed within.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. . Lexington. Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. First take the case of a small gearwheel. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . mild steel or iron. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. A small clearance space. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. E. The Model Engineer. 2. The first tooth may now be cut. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. when flat against it. CD. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Draw a circle on paper. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. will be over the line FG. the cut will be central on the line.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. This guide should have a beveled edge. the same diameter as the wheel. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. some files. made from 1/16-in. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. outside diameter and 1/16 in. say 1 in. FC. 4). thick. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. by drawing diameters. with twenty-four teeth. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. a compass. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. sheet metal. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. which. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. 1. though more difficult. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. 3. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. London. The straight-edge. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Fig. so that the center of the blade. With no other tools than a hacksaw. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. from F to G.

Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. either the pencils for arc lamps. some wire and some carbons. No shock will be perceptible. Focus the camera in the usual manner. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 2.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 1. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. transmitter. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. B. as shown in Fig. 1. B. electric lamp. ground it with a large piece of zinc. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. each in the center. Make a hole in the other. and the other outlet wire. . This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. R. If there is no faucet in the house. hold in one hand. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Then take one outlet wire. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. A bright. or several pieces bound tightly together. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A.

It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. 36 wire around it. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Ohio. and will then burn the string C. leaving about 10 in. and again wind the wire around it. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. at each end for terminals. B. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Wrenn. For a base use a pine board 10 in. But in this experiment. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. are also needed. under the gable. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. D D are binding posts for electric wires. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. They have screw ends. Then set the whole core away to dry. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. as shown. and about that size.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. One like a loaf of bread. Emsworth. Dry batteries are most convenient. J. Several battery cells. A is a wooden block. or more of the latter has been used. Pa. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. --Contributed by Geo. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. If desired. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. serves admirably. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. of course. as indicated by E E. by 1 in. by 12 in. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Slattery. Ashland. one at the receiver can hear what is said. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. a transmitter which induces no current is used.

by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. for the . Turn on switch. Jr. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. B B. From the other set of binding-posts. D. 12 or No. First make a support. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. the terminal of the coil.wire. and switch. while C is open. connecting lamp receptacles.. and the lamps. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. At one side secure two receptacles. 2. and one single post switch. Connect these three to switch. E. D. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. as shown. Fig. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. C. in parallel. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Fig. Ohio. F. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 1. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. The oven is now ready to be connected. C. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. B B. The coil will commence to become warm. Place 16-cp. run a No. in series with bindingpost. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. These should have hollow ends. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. 14 wire. Newark. as shown.

B. a battery. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 5. 14. a standard ammeter. D. wind with plenty of No. 1/4 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. E.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. C. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. remove the valve. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 3. The box is 5-1/2 in. although brass is better. After drilling. 1. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 7. 4 in. is then made and provided with a glass front.or 4-way valve or cock. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. long. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. A wooden box. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . This may be made of wood. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. a variable resistance. 1. Fig.E. Continue in this way with 2 amperes.. but if for a 4way. where A is the homemade ammeter. long. is made of wire. 14 wire. It is 1 in. to prevent it turning on the axle. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 1/2 in. The core. Dussault. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. If for 3-way. drill in only to the opening already through. 10 turns to each layer. inside measurements. 3 amperes. from the lower end. 6. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. is made of iron. 5. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. drill a hole as shown at H. long and make a loop. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. high. 4. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. drill through the entire case and valve. wide and 1/8 in. until the scale is full. thick. This is slipped on the pivot. 2. as shown in the cut. 4 amperes. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. and D. At a point a little above the center. D. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. The pointer or hand. Montreal. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. wide and 1-3/4 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. etc. To make one. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. deep. Fig.

A. high. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. D. in diameter. This stopper should be pierced. making two holes about 1/4 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. which is used for reducing the current. in thickness . B. To start the light. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. as shown. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. By connecting the motor. F. E. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.performing electrical experiments. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and the arc light. and a metal rod. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. provided with a rubber stopper. One wire runs to the switch.

Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Having fixed the lead plate in position. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. A. A piece of wood. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. as shown in C. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. To insert the lead plate. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 1. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. If all adjustments are correct. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in B. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Carthage. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Y. --Contributed by Harold L. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. As there shown. N. B. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Jones. Fig. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. If the interrupter does not work at first. 2. Having finished the interrupter. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. 1. long. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings.

by 7-1/2 in. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. especially L. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. especially the joints and background near A. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. giving a limp. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.. The model. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. L and M. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The lights. loosejointed effect. could expect from a skeleton. is constructed as shown in the drawings. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. with the exception of the glass. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and must be thoroughly cleansed. inside dimensions. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. and wave his arms up and down. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. as the entire interior. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. the illusion will be spoiled. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. high. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. Its edges should nowhere be visible. and can be bought at Japanese stores. from which the gong has been removed. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. A. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. until it is dark there. within the limits of an ordinary room. If everything is not black. should be colored a dull black. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. If it is desired to place the box lower down. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. figures and lights. The glass should be the clearest possible. should be miniature electric lamps. dressed in brilliant. light-colored garments. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. by 7 in. to aid the illusion. A white shroud is thrown over his body. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The skeleton is made of papier maché. which can be run by three dry cells.coffin. All . They need to give a fairly strong light.

and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. square block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. as shown in the sketch. fat spark. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Two finishing nails were driven in. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Fry. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. after which it assumes its normal color. San Jose. Cal. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. W. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. --Contributed by Geo. If a gradual transformation is desired. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. placed about a foot apart. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch.

connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. into the receiver G. One of these plates is connected to metal top. The plates are separated 6 in. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. B and C. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. which is filled with melted rosin or wax.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. hydrogen gas is generated. A (see sketch). If a lighted match . In Fig. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. F. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. to make it airtight. 1. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. as shown. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. In Fig. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. -Contributed by Dudley H. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. with two tubes. the remaining space will be filled with air. and should be separated about 1/8 in. soldered in the top. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. or a solution of sal soda. This is a wide-mouth bottle. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. by small pieces of wood. Cohen. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water.

hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. P. B. A. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. copper pipe. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. of No. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. either by passing a current of electricity around it. C C. The distance between the nipple. N.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. says the Model Engineer. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. Fig. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A piece of 1/8-in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. London. which is plugged up at both ends. is then coiled around the brass tube. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. One row is drilled to come directly on top. by means of the clips. A 1/64-in. If desired. as is shown in the illustration. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. or by direct contact with another magnet. then a suitable burner is necessary. A nipple. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. long. from the bottom. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. in diameter and 6 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. 1-5/16 in. copper pipe. 2 shows the end view. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A. and the ends of the tube. N. 1/2 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. which forms the vaporizing coil. should be only 5/16 of an inch. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. 36 insulated wire. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. 1. A. Fig. Three rows of holes 1/16 in.

How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. trim both ends and the front edge. about 8 or 10 in. 3. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. cut to the size of the pages. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. duck or linen. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Cut four pieces of cardboard. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. at the front and back for fly leaves. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. this makes a much nicer book. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. longer and 1/4 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. larger all around than the book. but if the paper knife cannot be used. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Turn the book over and paste the other side. 1. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Take two strips of stout cloth. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 2). pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. should be cut to the diameter of the can. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. taking care not to bend the iron. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1/4 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges.lamp cord. with a fine saw. Fig. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). fold and cut it 1 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. smoothly. Fig. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. boards and all. Fig.

A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. of tank A is cut a hole. . Toronto. is soldered onto tank A. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Noble. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. E.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. C. is perforated with a number of holes. is fitted in it and soldered. 18 in. or rather the top now. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Another tank. deep. as shown. as shown in the sketch. H. --Contributed by Joseph N. --Contributed by James E. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. In the bottom. A. Va. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Ont. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is turned on it. A gas cock. which will just slip inside the little can. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Bedford City. but its diameter is a little smaller. D. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. pasting them down (Fig. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Another can. is made the same depth as B. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Parker. 4). B. and a little can. without a head. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. the joint will be gas tight. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. in diameter and 30 in.

when finished. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. making the width. 1. which moves to either right or left. S. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. basswood or white pine. J. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. shows how the connections are to be made. C. Beverly. If the pushbutton A is closed. B. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. D.. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. exactly 12 in. thus adjusting the . square by 42 in. B. D. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. long. N. A A. by 1/2 in. The diagonal struts. Bott. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The armature. Fig. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. should be 3/8 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. to prevent splitting. A. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. fastened in the bottom. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. B. The longitudinal corner spines. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. H is a square knot. which may be either spruce. 2. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. as shown at C. should be 1/4 in. The small guards. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. The wiring diagram. -Contributed by H. should be cut a little too long. are shown in detail at H and J. long. Fig. The bridle knots. and the four diagonal struts. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. with an electric-bell magnet. and sewed double to give extra strength. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. If the back armature. and about 26 in. tacks. E.

--Contributed by A. to prevent slipping. Kan. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Clay Center. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. can be made of a wooden . D. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G.lengths of F and G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. --Contributed by Edw. If the kite is used in a light wind. the batteries do not run down for a long time. thus shortening G and lengthening F. with gratifying results. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Chicago. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. that refuse to slide easily. E. Closing either key will operate both sounders. as shown. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Harbert. Stoddard. and. shift toward F. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. however. for producing electricity direct from heat. and if a strong wind is blowing.

when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 14 or No. C. which conducts the current into the cannon. --Contributed by A. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. and the current may then be detected by means. with a pocket compass. A.frame. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. E.. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. spark. Fasten a piece of wood. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A and B. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. B. C. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. C. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. to the cannon. F. by means of machine screws or. A. or parallel with the compass needle. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. D. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. Chicago. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. When the cannon is loaded. with a number of nails. E. 16 single-covered wire. The wood screw. A. Then. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. placed on top. and also holds the pieces of wood. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. in position. if there are no trunnions on the cannon.

remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. when in position at A'. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. where there is a staple. square and 3/8 in. press the button. Marion. 1. now at A' and S'. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. --Contributed by Henry Peck. L. A hole for a 1/2 in. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. 1. Bend the strips BB (Fig. requiring a strong magnet. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Mich. to receive the screw in the center. . H. Chicago. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. screw is bored in the block. 1. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. To reverse. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. within the reach of the magnet. Fig. To unlock the door. with the long arm at L'. Connect as shown in the illustration. Keil. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. B. A and S. Fig. In Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. in this position the door is locked. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. but no weights or strings. A and S. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. --Contributed by Joseph B. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. To lock the door.the current is shut off. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Ohio. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Big Rapids.

and then tap it for a 3/8-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. are enameled a jet black. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. about 18 in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. if enameled white on the concave side. gas-pipe. or for microscopic work. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When ready for use. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Thread the other end of the pipe. Rand. Mass. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and C is a dumbbell. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. put in the handle. The standard and base. J. hole. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and if desired the handles may . The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and may be made at very slight expense. long. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. pipe with 1-2-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. --Contributed by C. West Somerville. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.

The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.be covered with leather. B. E. with a cover. high by 1 ft. 8 in. inside the pail. Fig. across. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Warren. North Easton. Make a cylindrical core of wood. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. long and 8 in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Mass. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. 1. across. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . M. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. This peculiar property is also found in ice. A. --Contributed by C. Fig.. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. D.

sand. but will be cheaper in operation. pipe 2-ft.. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and with especial caution the first time. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. long. 1390°-1410°. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and varnish. or make one yourself. full length of iron core. Fit all the parts together snugly. let this dry thoroughly. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. This done. pack this space-top. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. projecting from each end (Fig. It is placed inside the kiln. After removing all the paper. about 1 in. 1). C. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and 3/8 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°.. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. Whatever burner is used. pipe. to hold the clay mixture. and graphite. carefully centering it. strip of sheet iron. and on it set the paper wrapped core. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. the point of the blue flame. 15%. wider than the kiln. C. The 2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. of fine wire. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. 2 in. say 1/4 in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. make two wood ends. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. thick. hard porcelain. Fig. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. in diameter. When lighted. 2. bottom and sides. 25%. 1). Set aside for a few days until well dried. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in.-G. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. W. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. layer of the clay mixture.mixture of clay. E. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. as dictated by fancy and expense. After finishing the core. 1330°. if there is to be any glazing done. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. which is the hottest part. and your kiln is ready for business. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. and cut it 3-1/2 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. diameter. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 3) with false top and bottom. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. Line the pail. C. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. in diameter. if you have the materials. L. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. hotel china.. Wind about 1/8 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. such . of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. passing wire nails through and clinching them. as is shown in the sketch. and 3/4 in. thick. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. the firing should be gradual. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 60%. If the cover of the pail has no rim.

and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience.53 in. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. A.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Chicago. and divide it into two piles. --Contributed by J. square them up and place in a vise. and plane off about 1/16 in. C. around the coil. R. procure a new deck. Of course. about 1/16 in. D. The funnel. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. length of . square them up. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. leaving long terminals. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Then take the black cards.. T. as in Fig. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. the next black. as shown in the sketch herewith. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. C. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. red and black. every alternate card being the same color. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. 2. taking care to have the first card red. You can display either color called for. B. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. . and so on. overlaps and rests on the body. diameter. with a plane. C. Washington. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. bind tightly with black silk. 8 in. Take the red cards. 2. all cards facing the same way. 1. Then. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. and discharges into the tube. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. as in Fig. 2). with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch.

Let .C. 1. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so that when they are assembled. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. B. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. stove bolts. The bottom glass should be a good fit. E. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. D. about 20 in.. N. 1 gill of fine white sand. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. When the glass is put in the frame a space. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. angle iron for the frame. and then the frame is ready to assemble. A. The upright pieces. Fig. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Long Branch. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents.J. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. as the difficulties increase with the size. through the holes already drilled. the first thing to decide on is the size. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. F. the same ends will come together again. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. B. It should be placed in an exposed location. All the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. to form a dovetail joint as shown. A. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. B. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and this is inexpensive to build. thus making all the holes coincide. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. 1 gill of litharge. E. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. To find the fall of snow. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. The cement. Drill all the horizontal pieces. of the frame. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. C.

In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. a centerpiece (A. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. D. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fig. if desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and. having a swinging connection at C. A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Aquarium Finished If desired. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Fasten the lever. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. to the door knob. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . on the door by means of a metal plate.

long. B. 2 is an end view. for the top. wide . thick (preferably of hard wood) are required.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to form the slanting part. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 1 . Fig. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Cut two pieces 30 in. 2 at GG. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. N. thus doing away with the spring. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. Cut two of them 4 ft. another. Fig. I referred this question to my husband. F. several lengths of scantling 3 in. approximately 1 ft. Fig. as at E. Buffalo. Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. according to the slant given C.. wide by 1 in. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. --Contributed by Orton E. Do not fasten these boards now. another. long. PAUL S. E. showing the paddle-wheel in position. long. 1. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. which is 15 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. AA. but mark their position on the frame. to keep the frame from spreading. and Fig. from the outside top of the frame. D. To make the frame. long. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. C. screwed to the door frame. to form the main supports of the frame. 2 ft. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. and another. Two short boards 1 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. A small piece of spring brass. hoping it may solve the same question for them. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. White. 1. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 6 in. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Y. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. They are shown in Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. will open the door about 1/2 in. 26 in.

Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. hole through them. (I. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Take the side pieces. tapering from 3/16 in. iron. GG. When it has cooled. with the wheel and shaft in place. hole from the tops to the 1-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Tack one side on. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Make this hole conical. 2) with a 5/8-in. Drill 1/8-in. 1. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Fasten them in their proper position. These are the paddles. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Fig.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole through its center.burlap will do -. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fig. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. 2) and another 1 in. 2) form a substantial base. then drill a 3/16-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. and drill a 1/8-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. by 1-1/2 in. Fig. thick (HH. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. in diameter. and drill a 1-in. from one end by means of a key. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. holes. remove the cardboard. hole through their sides centrally. Now block the wheel. hole to form the bearings. to a full 1/2 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. after which drill a 5/8 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. long to the wheel about 8 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. that is. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 4. pipe. steel shaft 12 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . long and filling it with babbitt metal. thick. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. as shown in Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. iron 3 by 4 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and a 1/4 -in. take down the crosspieces. 24 in.

in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and the subject may move. If the bearings are now oiled. place the outlet over a drain. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. it would be more durable.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. sewing machine. Correct exposure depends. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. of course. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills.a water-tight joint. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. but now I put them in the machine. any window will do. Do not stop down the lens. says the Photographic Times. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. light and the plate. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Darken the rest of the window. If sheet-iron is used. on the lens. The best plate to use is a very slow one. start the motor. as this makes long exposure necessary. Raise the window shade half way. Drill a hole through the zinc. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. remove any white curtains there may be. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Focus the camera carefully. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and as near to it as possible. . ice-cream freezer. but as it would have cost several times as much. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and leave them for an hour or so. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. or what is called a process plate. as shown in the sketch at B. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. It is obvious that. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. drill press. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.

and without fog. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. 2. With a piece of black paper. full of water. with binding posts as shown.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as shown in Fig. which is made of iron and cork. The glass tube may be a test tube. the core is drawn down out of sight. 2. until the core slowly rises. a glass tube. or wood. as a slight current will answer. a core. and a base. C. hard rubber. A. On completing . Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. or can be taken from an old magnet. by twisting. without detail in the face. D. B. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. or an empty developer tube. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. an empty pill bottle may be used. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The current required is very small. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The core C. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom.

fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1 lb. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and make a pinhole in the center. The colors appear different to different people. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. water and 3 oz. whale oil. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. is Benham's color top. according to his control of the current. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 pt. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and one not easy to explain. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. white lead. and are changed by reversing the rotation. finest graphite. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it.

especially if the deck is a new one. In making hydrogen. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. In prize games. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. or three spot. deuce. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. As this device is easily upset. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. B. nearly every time. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. -Contributed by D. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. A. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. when the action ceases.B.L. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. before cutting. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. Chicago. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. fan-like. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. C. thus partly filling bottles A and C. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.

4. 1. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 10 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. S. J. Bently. Detroit. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. --Contributed by F. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long and 3 in. 9 in. long. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. . Form a cone of heavy paper. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Huron. 3).. in diameter. 2. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Dak. 12 in. as shown in Fig. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Make a 10-sided stick. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation.. --Contributed by C. Jr. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. S. (Fig. in length and 3 in. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. W.

is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. 6. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. push back the bolt. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Denver. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. A piece of tin. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. A. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. long. but bends toward D. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. C.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. with a pin driven in each end. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. A second piece of silk thread. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . bend it at right angles throughout its length. --Contributed by Reader. Fortunately. Cut out paper sections (Fig. E. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. about the size of a leadpencil. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. on one side and the top. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. allowing 1 in. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Fig. Remove the form. will cause an increased movement of C. making it three-ply thick. it is equally easy to block that trick.

S. The 2 by 4-in. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The reverse switch. as shown. The upper switch. B. is connected each point to a battery. R. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. while the lower switch. Paul. or left to right. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them.strip.. 4 ft. A. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. long. Jr. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. --Contributed by J. S. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. West St. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. long. The feet. S S. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.. Fremont Hilscher. put together as shown in the sketch. W. are made 2 by 4 in. Two wood-base switches. B. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Minn. By this arrangement one. posts. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. are 7 ft. will last for several years.

is an old bicycle pump. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. thick. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The base is made of wood.every house. the other parts being used for the bearing B. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. pulley wheel. Fig. In Fig. which will be described later. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 1. and the crank bearing C. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 3/8 in. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2 and 3. which is made of tin. and a cylindrical . The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The hose E connects to the boiler. and valve crank S. The steam chest D. and has two wood blocks. or anything available. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. H and K. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. with two washers. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. FF. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Fig. 2. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. cut in half. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and in Fig. E.

A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. 3. Fry. and saturated with thick oil. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. This engine was built by W. --Contributed by Geo. Cal. as it is merely a trick of photography. to receive the connecting rod H. The valve crank S. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This is wound with soft string. San Jose. and a very amusing trick. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. First. . as shown in Fig. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. 1. J. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Eustice. Fig. Schuh and A. W. can be an old oil can. powder can. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. C. Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. G. G. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. using the positive wire as a pen. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 4. The boiler. and the desired result is obtained. is cut out of tin. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. at that. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. of Cuba.piece of hard wood. Wis. or galvanized iron. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled.

Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. When turning. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. B. as shown. and place a bell on the four ends. diameter. and Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. and pass ropes around . to cross in the center. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 will be seen to rotate. B. They may be of any size. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. as shown at AA. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. C. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Cut half circles out of each stave.

When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. produces a higher magnifying power). The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.M. as shown in the illustration. from the transmitter. such as clothes lines. To make this lensless microscope. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. A (a short spool. procure a wooden spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. but not on all. --Contributed by H. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Mo. W. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. long. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.G. which accounts for the sound. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. St.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. From a piece of thin . Louis.

. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. in which hay has been soaking for several days. 3. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. fastened to a wooden base. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. bent as shown. darting across the field in every direction. and look through the hole D. E. is fastened at each end by pins. the object should be of a transparent nature. The lever. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The spring. H. 1. D. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. or 64 times. C. if the distance is reduced to one-third.. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and so on.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. the diameter will appear three times as large. A. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. (The area would appear 64 times as large.) But an object 3/4-in. the diameter will appear twice as large. which costs little or nothing to make. B. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. by means of brads. place a small object on the transparent disk. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. can be made of brass and the armature. cut out a small disk. as in all microscopes of any power. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. 2. Viewed through this microscope. if the distance is reduced to one-half. B. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. and at the center. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. To use this microscope. The pivot. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. Fig. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. is made of iron. e. otherwise the image will be blurred. held at arm's length. An innocent-looking drop of water. C. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. which are pieces of hard wood. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. D. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. i.

K. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. The base of the key. 2. long by 16 in. soft iron. B. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. B. wide and set in between sides AA. should be about 22 in. D. coils wound with No. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. and are connected to the contacts. DD. which are made to receive a pivot. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. or a single piece. F. brass. similar to the one used in the sounder. brass: E. long and 14-1/2 in. wood: C. wide and about 20 in. K. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. or taken from a small one-point switch. HH. The door. D. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. D. wide.SOUNDER-A. FF. wood. KEY-A. nail soldered on A. Each side. in length and 16 in. The binding posts. . 16 in. A. Cut the top. brass: B. fastened near the end. between the armature and the magnet. C. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. C. AA. wide. Fig. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wide. The back. thick. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 26 wire: E. E. connection of D to nail. wood: F. 16 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. A switch. binding posts: H spring The stop. can be made panel as shown. Fig. 1. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. long.

the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Make 12 cleats.. When the electrical waves strike the needle. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. E. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. material. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. brads. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. long. as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. as shown. AA. In operation. with 3/4-in. Ill. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Garfield. cut in them.

Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Pushing the wire. and thus decreases the resistance. J. B. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. in order to increase the surface. the magnet. Y. filled with water. and. --Contributed by John Koehler. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. N. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A (see sketch). E. When the pipe is used. F. Ridgewood. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. C. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A fairly stiff spring. --Contributed by R. N. Brown. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . through which a piece of wire is passed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. pulls down the armature. A. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Fairport. when used with a motor. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. will give a greater speed.

Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.for the secret contact. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. if desired. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. --Contributed by Perry A. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. N. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. B. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. even those who read this description. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Gachville. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Of course. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Borden.

East Orange. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Connect switch to post B. and on both sides of the middle shelf.. From a piece of brass a switch. The three shelves are cut 25-in. for 6-in. 2. 1. J. Jr. Washington. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. apart. D. long and full 12-in. Cal. The top board is made 28-in. thick and 12-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. H. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. C. E. --Contributed by Dr. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. . Compton. for 10in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. wide. Mangold. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. A. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. in a semicircle 2 in.whenever the bell rings. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records. wide. wide. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. --Contributed by H. where the other end of wire is fastened. Dobson. N. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. from the bottom. records and 5-5/8 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and 5 in. deep and 3/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. With about 9 ft. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. C.

thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. to which is fastened a cord. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. B. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. closed. as shown in Fig. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. 1. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. A. which in operation is bent. as shown by the dotted lines. E. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Va. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Roanoke. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.

Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. E. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Fig. Figs. to turn on pins of stout wire. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. one in each end. B. in diameter. through one of these holes. 3. thick. deep and 1/2 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. deep. wide. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. is compressed by wheels. In these grooves place wheels. they will bind. 3). If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. against which the rubber tubing. The crankpin should fit tightly. 5) when they are placed. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 1 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. it too loose. excepting the crank and tubing. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 1. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. E. D. square and 7/8 in. apart. in diameter. which should be about 1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. Do not fasten the sides too . Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. wide. holes (HH. Fig. Put the rubber tube. Cut two grooves. CC. 1 in. in diameter. Figs. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Now put all these parts together. thick (A. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Fig. long. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. they will let the air through. 4 shows the wheel-holder. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. In the sides (Fig.

15 in. of material. from each end. from each end. Fig. because he can . is all the expense necessary. Cut six pieces. Fig. a platform should be added. --Contributed by Dan H. 1. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Then turn the crank from left to right. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. mark again. 17-1/2 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. B. Hubbard. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. iron. and 3-1/2 in. To use the pump. and mark for a hole. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The animal does not fear to enter the box. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Kan. 2. and are 30 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. costing 10 cents. from each end. from that mark the next hole. the pump will give a steady stream. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. stands 20 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 1. 1. as shown in Fig. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Idana. beyond each of these two. Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. AA. mark for hole and 3 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 2. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from the bottom and 2 in. AA. the other wheel has reached the bottom. A in Fig. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. If the motion of the wheels is regular. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. long. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. though a small iron wheel is better. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Take the center of the bar. The screen which is shown in Fig. For ease in handling the pump. tubing. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. The three legs marked BBB.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely.

lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. long having two thumb screws. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. The battery is now ready for use. When through using the battery. To cause a flow of electricity. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. take out the carbon and lower the zinc.see through it: when he enters. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. When the bichromate has all dissolved. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. of water dissolve 4 oz. until it is within 3 in. If it is wet. add slowly. or. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. stirring constantly. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. silvery appearance. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. some of it should be poured out. Philadelphia. rub the zinc well. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. --Contributed by H. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The mercury will adhere. Place the carbon in the jar. shuts him in. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 1) must be prepared. acid 1 part). Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. 2). It is useful for running induction coils. and touches the bait the lid is released and. but if one casts his own zinc. potassium bichromate. 14 copper wire. C. of the top. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. If the solution touches the zinc. dropping. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. giving it a bright. . conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If the battery has been used before. sulphuric acid. or small electric motors. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Meyer. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. The battery is now complete. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. The truncated. and the solution (Fig. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. however. there is too much liquid in the jar. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. 4 oz. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys.

If. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. the battery circuit. i. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. pressing the pedal closes the door. while the coal door is being opened. After putting in the coal.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however. e. Madison. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The price of the coil depends upon its size. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the jump-spark coil .Fig. with slight changes. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. which opens the door. Wis. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch..

The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. the full length of the coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. . which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. This coil. being a 1-in. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water.7. in a straight line from top to bottom. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 7. This will make an excellent receiver. 6. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. in a partial vacuum. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. which is made of light copper wire. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. apart. coil. as shown in Fig. 7. and closer for longer distances. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Change the coil described. while a 12-in. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings.described elsewhere in this book. After winding. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". diameter. 6. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. made of No. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. W W. W W. as shown in Fig. 7). 5.

being vertical. 1 to 4. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). These circles. Figs. 90°. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. For an illustration. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles.6 stranded. 1). The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. I run my lathe by power. at any point to any metal which is grounded. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. . attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. but it could be run by foot power if desired. only. A. and hence the aerial line. where A is the headstock. may be easily made at very little expense. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. in the air. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. are analogous to the flow of induction. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. to the direction of the current. The writer does not claim to be the originator. No. 90°. being at right angles. A large cone pulley would then be required. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. after all. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. using an electric motor and countershaft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. Run a wire from the other binding post.The aerial line. as it matches the color well. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. above the ground. which will be described later. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. but simply illustrates the above to show that.

so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . hardwood being preferable for this purpose. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. pitch and 1/8 in. tapered wooden pin. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. deep. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 4. one of which is shown in Fig. 5. The headstock. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 6. Fig. too. To make these bearings. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 5. just touching the shaft. on the under side of the bed. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The bearing is then ready to be poured. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. After pouring. The bolts B (Fig. and Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. which are let into holes FIG. Heat the babbitt well. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. If the bearing has been properly made. 4. 6 Headstock Details D. 2 and 3. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Fig. thick. A. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. and runs in babbitt bearings.

the alarm is easy to fix up. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. of the walk . B. If not perfectly true. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. they may be turned up after assembling. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. This prevents corrosion. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. The tail stock (Fig. and a 1/2-in. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Oak Park. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. FIG. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. N. Ill. Take up about 5 ft. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. lock nut. embedded in the wood. so I had to buy one. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical.other machines. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. If one has a wooden walk.J. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. A. Newark. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary.

Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. clean the articles thoroughly. add potassium cyanide again. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. To avoid touching it. to roughen the surface slightly. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. before dipping them in the potash solution. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then make the solution . S. --Contributed by R. Do not touch the work with the hands again. water. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Jackson. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. leaving a clear solution. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. of water. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. silver or other metal. Fig. hang the articles on the wires. Minn. to remove all traces of grease. 2). so that they will not touch. Minneapolis. Finally. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. save when a weight is on the trap. Connect up an electric bell. (A. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. and the alarm is complete. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap.

and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. silver can be plated direct. 1 in. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. A (Fig. saw a piece of wood. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. thick by 3 in. Then. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Fig. nickel and such metals. such metals as iron. square. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. and 4 volts for very small ones. and then treated as copper. B should be of the same wood. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. hole in its center. Fig. Take quick. Having finished washing the precipitate. If accumulators are used. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 1). and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 3) strikes the bent wire L. must be about 1 in. long. 1 not only unlocks. 18 wire. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 1. 3. which is advised. If more solution is required. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. with water. 10 in. 3) directly over the hole. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. an old electric bell or buzzer. With an electric pressure of 3. lead. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. when the point of the key touches the tin.up to 2 qt. A 1/4 in. Screw the two blocks together. Can be made of a 2-in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. a hand scratch brush is good. but opens the door. The wooden block C. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. from the lower end. as shown in Fig.5 to 4 volts. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. copper. Fig. with water. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. --Model Engineer. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. To provide the keyhole. light strokes. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. with the pivot 2 in. German silver. When all this is set up. I. if one does not possess a buffing machine. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. zinc. also. and the larger part (F. of water. pewter. The wooden catch. long. will serve for the key. Before silver plating. piece of broomstick. This solution. make a key and keyhole. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. about 25 ft. a circuit is completed. Make a somewhat larger block (E. 1). Repeat six times. Fig. which is held by catch B. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. shaking. On brass. as at F. In rigging it to a sliding door. use 2 volts for large articles. of clothesline rope and some No. which .

just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. the box should be painted black both inside and out. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. one-third of the length from the remaining end. The interior must be a dead black. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Receiving the bowl again. sides and end. which unlocks the door. no painting inside is required. Fig. The box must be altered first. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and a slit. a few simple tools. One end is removed. and black art reigns supreme. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and plenty of candles. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. --Contributed by E. Thus. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. 1. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. should be cut a hole. with a switch as in Fig. some black cloth. such as forks. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. he points with one finger to the box. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. B. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. so much the better. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. The magician stands in front of this. Fig. Next. On either side of the box. between the parlor and the room back of it. and finally lined inside with black cloth. top. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 3. In front of you. cut in one side. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. surrounding a perfectly black space. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. East Orange. Fig.. Heavy metal objects. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. enlarged. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. H. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. the requisites are a large soap box. floor. shows catch B. 2. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). although a little more trouble. and hands its contents round to the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. spoons and jackknives. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. H. Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. H. or cave.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. 116 Prospect St. Objects appear and disappear. One thing changes to another and back again. 2. He removes the bowl from the black box. 1. with the lights turned low. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Next. New Jersey. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. . in his shirt sleeves. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. he tosses it into the cave. 0. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. To prepare such a magic cave. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. to throw the light toward the audience. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. is the cut through which the rope runs. heighten the illusion. the illumination in front must be arranged. half way from open end to closed end. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. Klipstein. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. some black paint.

It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. a screen must be used. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. But illusions suggest themselves. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which can be made to dance either by strings. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. is on a table) so much the better. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. of course. in which are oranges and apples.Finally. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the room where the cave is should be dark. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. you must have an assistant. The exhibitor should be . and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. Consequently. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. was identical with this. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The illusion. if. The audience room should have only low lights. into the eyes of him who looks. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and if portieres are impossible. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. only he. one on each side of the box. as presented by Hermann. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. had a big stage. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. his confederate behind inserts his hand. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and several black drop curtains. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which are let down through the slit in the top. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box.

or b2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. e1 and e2. b2. 1. and c2 to the zinc. b3. their one end just slips under the strips b1. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 2. when handle K is turned to one side.. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. Fig. and c1 – electricity. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. held down on it by two terminals. c3. terminal c3 will show +. held down on disk F by two other terminals. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. square. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. 1. and a common screw. b1. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. FIG. making contact with them as shown at y. 2). b2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. respectively. held down by another disk F (Fig. respectively. Then. terminal c3 will show . vice versa. with three brass strips. On the disk G are two brass strips. and c4 + electricity. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. respectively. making contact with them. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.a boy who can talk. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). by means of two wood screws. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. or binding posts. as shown in Fig. Finally. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. if you turn handle K to the right. c2. About the center piece H moves a disk. d. is shown in the diagram. c1. b3. by 4 in. f2. A represents a pine board 4 in. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . A. 2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. at L. so arranged that.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. c4. The action of the switch is shown in Fig.

when on No. Ohio. from three batteries. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. When switch B is closed and A is on No. E. and C and C1 are binding posts. thus making the message audible in the receiver. from four batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Tuttle. 1. Joerin. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. jump spark coil. when on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Jr. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 5. Newark.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from five batteries. when A is on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 3. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. you have the current of one battery. B is a onepoint switch.. . --Contributed by Eugene F. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 4. and when on No. -Contributed by A.

which may be a button or other small object. as shown in the sketch. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. of Burlington. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. B. so one can see the time. When you do not have a graduate at hand. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. per second for each second. per second. P. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. New Orleans. A. E.. and placed on the windowsill of the car. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. rule. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. mark. mark. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. La. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Thus. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Wis. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and supporting the small weight. The device thus arranged. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. traveled by the thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. is the device of H. Handy Electric Alarm . a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. over the bent portion of the rule. Redmond.

will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Pa. Crafton. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. soldered to the alarm winder. wrapping the wire around the can several times. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. and with the same result. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. which illuminates the face of the clock. Then if a mishap comes. . C. When the alarm goes off. B. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Instead. but may be closed at F any time desired. S.which has a piece of metal. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. for a wetting is the inevitable result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. --C. Lane. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. --Contributed by Gordon T.

New York City. A. If there is no foundry Fig. when it is being prepared. C. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by A. models and miniature objects. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. 1 . which in turn support the mold while it is being made. which may. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . bearings. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. and many other interesting and useful articles. but it is a mistake to try to do this. AA. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. With the easily made devices about to be described. binding posts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Two cleats. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. cannons. battery zincs. 1. and duplicates of all these. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. as shown. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Macey. whence it is soon tracked into the house. The first thing to make is a molding bench. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. small machinery parts. engines. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. L. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. BE. ornaments of various kinds.

as shown. The rammer. try using sand from other sources. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. 1. by 8 in. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and saw it in half longitudinally. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. high. The dowels. If the box is not very strong. II . which can be made of a knitted stocking. is nailed to each end of the cope. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. a little larger than the outside of the flask. say 12 in. F. The flask. by 6 in. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. is shown more clearly in Fig. H. J. G. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. An old teaspoon. previous to sawing. and this. Fig. 2. 1. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. 2 . CC.How to Make a Mold [96] . D. It is made of wood and is in two halves. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. Fig. E. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. is filled with coal dust. and the lower pieces. which can be either aluminum. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. white metal.near at hand. as shown. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. The cloth bag. and the "drag. which should be nailed in. A wedge-shaped piece." or lower part. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the "cope. is made of wood. will be required. A A. makes a very good sieve. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. but this operation will be described more fully later on." or upper half. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. and a sieve.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. DD. is about the right mesh. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A slight shake of the bag Fig. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. If desired the sieve may be homemade. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. CC. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold.

which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. Place another cover board on top. in order to remove the lumps. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as shown. as shown at D. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. It is then rammed again as before. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and thus judge for himself. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown at E. and scatter about 1/16 in. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or "cope. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. In finishing the ramming. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown at C. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little." in position. as it is much easier to learn by observation. or "drag. the surface of the sand at . A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. turn the drag other side up. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and then more sand is added until Fig. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. The sand is then ready for molding. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. After ramming. where they can watch the molders at work. and if water is added. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and by grasping with both hands. as described. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle.

Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. as shown at H. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. deep. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. in order to prevent overheating. This is done with a spoon. in diameter. as shown at J. . as shown at H. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam.E should be covered with coal-dust. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. Place a brick or other flat. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. made out of steel rod. III. Fig. and then pour. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown in the sketch. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. place the cope back on the drag. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus making a dirty casting. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. as shown at F. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. wide and about 1/4 in. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. The "sprue. is next cut. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand." or pouring-hole. after being poured. as shown at G. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. to give the air a chance to escape. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. After drawing the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet.

the following device will be found most convenient. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. is very desirable. white metal and other scrap available. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. but any reasonable number may be used. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. may be used in either direction. 15% lead. babbitt. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. If a good furnace is available. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Morton. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. or from any adjacent pair of cells. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. In my own case I used four batteries. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although somewhat expensive. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Although the effect in the illustration . An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. battery zincs. used only for zinc. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. Minneapolis. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. and. Referring to the figure. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. --Contributed by Harold S.

How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Then replace the table. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. --Contributed by Draughtsman. By replacing the oars with paddles. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. The bearings. Fig. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. B. Put a sharp needle point. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. connected by cords to the rudder. as shown at A. A. The brass rings also appear distorted. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. outward. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. 3/4 in. backward. Chicago. To make it take a sheet-iron band. which will be sufficient to hold it. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. may be made of hardwood. If desired. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. shaft made. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. B. 2. Then walk down among the audience. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. as shown in the illustration. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in.

being simply finely divided ice. It may seem strange that ice . it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 2. when it will again return to its original state. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 1. If galvanized iron is used. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process.melted babbitt. 3. but when in motion. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. C. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. or the paint will come off. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. D. A. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. as shown in Fig. In the same way. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. spoiling its appearance. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The hubs. Fig. 2 and 3. A block of ice. E. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. should be made of wood. The covers. and a weight. Snow. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. If babbitt is used. 1. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. or under pressure. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. W. as shown in Fig.

Pa. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. P. or supporting it in some similar way. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. --Contributed by Gordon T. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. square. Lane. B. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 2 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but by placing it between books. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 1/2 in.should flow like water.. by 1/4. in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. no matter how slow the motion may be. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. as shown on page 65. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. which resembles ice in this respect. brass. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. as per sketch. and assume the shape shown at B. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. whenever there is any connection made at all. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but. by 5 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact. Crafton. it will gradually change from the original shape A. sometimes only one or two feet a day.

B. G. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Ward. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. H. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. B. A is the circuit breaker. as shown. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time.000 ft.thumb screws. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Indianapolis. the induction coil. E. about the size used for automobiles. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. C. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. Wilkinsburg. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and five dry batteries. Pa. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. I. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. wooden supports. F. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. furnace. the battery. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. pulleys. --Contributed by A. and C. draft. D. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. G. In the wiring diagram. The success depends upon a slow current. alarm clock. K . draft chain. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The parts are: A. cord. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. weight. vertical lever. horizontal lever. as shown. J.

material framed together as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 3. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Kalamazoo. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. as well as the bottom. Mich. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Artistic Window Boxes The top. where house plants are kept in the home. such as used for a storm window. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. will fit nicely in them. The frame (Fig.

this must be done with very great caution. The 1/2-cp. However. S. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs.. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. multiples of series of three. It must be remembered. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. is something that will interest the average American boy. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. but maintain the voltage constant. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Canada. as if drawn upon for its total output. N. after a rest. so as to increase the current. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. e. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. --Contributed by Wm. Thus. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. and the instrument will then be complete. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. 1 cp. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. 1 each complete with base. a cork and a needle. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Grant. in diameter. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. can be connected up in series. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. A certain number of these. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. This is more economical than dry cells. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. one can regulate the batteries as required. where they are glad to have them taken away. i. which sells for 25 cents. for some time very satisfactorily. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and cost 27 cents FIG. 1.. in any system of lamps. However. W. and a suitable source of power. and will give the . since a battery is the most popular source of power.. by connecting them in series. Halifax. in this connection. as indicated by Fig. Push the needle into the cork.

while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. If wound for 10 volts. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. generates the power for the lights. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. as in Fig. However. and for Christmas trees. 18 B & S. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. double insulated wire wherever needed. In conclusion. for display of show cases. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. FIG. by the proper combination of these. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. 3. lamps. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose.. and then lead No. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. if wound for 6 volts. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 1-cp.proper voltage.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Fig. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. which is the same as that of one battery. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. Thus. to secure light by this method. So. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 11 series. according to the water pressure obtainable. especially those of low internal resistance. and diffused light in a room. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and running the series in parallel. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. making. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. These will give 3 cp. lamp. . Chicago. or 22 lights. 2 shows the scheme. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. although the first cost is greater. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Thus. each. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments.

Cal. CC. thus reversing the machine. simply change the switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. or from one pattern. we were not bothered with them. outside points of switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Plymouth. To reverse the motor. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. B. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. B. switch. DD. A. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. AA. field of motor. and the sides. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. . To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. and C. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. After I connected up my induction coil. a bait of meat. as shown in the sketch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. center points of switch. bars of pole-changing switch. brushes of motor. Parker. A indicates the ground. Emig. --Contributed by F. Ind. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. --Contributed by Leonard E. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. BB. are cut just alike. Santa Clara. or a tempting bone.

merely push the button E. which is in the door. or would remain locked.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. a piece of string. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. and a table or bench. When the circuit is broken a weight. Cal. -Contributed by Claude B. one cell being sufficient. The experiment works best . The button can be hidden. a hammer. as it is the key to the lock. Hutchinson. Melchior. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. 903 Vine St. If it is not. thus locking the door. To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. San Jose. W. Minn. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked.. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. A. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.

forming a loop. 4). which pulls the draft open. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Crawford Curry. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. A.Contributed by F. Brockville.. in the ceiling and has a window weight. the current flows with the small arrows. -. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. P. Tie the ends of the string together. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Porto Rico.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. I. 18 Gorham St. attached at the other end. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. --Contributed by Geo. run through a pulley. as shown in Fig. 3. releasing the weight. Wis. Madison. Culebra. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. D. the stick falls away. When the alarm rings in the early morning. W. 3. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. On another block of wood fasten two wires. the key turns. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. C. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 2. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Canada. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. where it will remain suspended as shown. Ontario. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Schmidt. 1). Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. . Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig.

R. thence to a switch. Use a barrel to work on. The cut shows the arrangement. get two pieces of plate glass. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. 6 in. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and break the corners off to make them round. including the mouthpiece.. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. square and 1 in. Connect two wires to the transmitter. --Contributed by Wm. J. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and . These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. J. Jr. which fasten to the horn. and then to the receiver. Camden. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. First. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and the other to the battery. thick. S.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or from a bed of flowers. Farley. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. or tree. running one direct to the receiver. N. D. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. made with his own hands.

then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. melt 1 lb. spaces. Fig. and a large lamp. so the light . where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in.. or it will not polish evenly. 1. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. a round 4-in. wetting it to the consistency of cream. using straight strokes 2 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. the coarse grinding must be continued. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. by the side of the lamp. When dry. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and label. A. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. When polishing the speculum. or less. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Have ready six large dishes. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. When done the glass should be semitransparent. in length.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. 2. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. with 1/4-in. Use a binger to spread it on with. unless a longer focal length is wanted. 2.. of water. set the speculum against the wall. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. as in Fig. wet till soft like paint. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. while walking around the barrel. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. with pitch. and spread on the glass. Fig. also rotate the glass. and the under glass or tool convex. In a dark room. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. then take 2 lb. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. L. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Fasten. then 8 minutes. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and is ready for polishing. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. wide around the convex glass or tool. twice the focal length away.

of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 4 oz. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 840 gr. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp... 100 gr. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. The polishing and testing done.. fill the dish with distilled water. Silver nitrate ……………………………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Nitric acid . Fig. Fig. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Now add enough of the solution A. When the focus is found. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). from the lamp.. 25 gr. cement a strip of board 8 in. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. 4 oz. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Place the speculum S. if a hill in the center. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.……………………………. Two glass or earthenware dishes. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. deep. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Solution D: Sugar loaf . must be procured. Fig. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Then add 1 oz. 39 gr. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. touched with rouge. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….. or hills. When dry. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 2.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. the speculum will show some dark rings. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. then ammonia until bath is clear. With pitch. longer strokes... that was set aside. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. as in K. 2. Then add solution B. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. face down.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. If not. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Place the speculum. long to the back of the speculum. with distilled water.100 gr. also how the rays R from a star .………………………………..…………….

How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Thus an excellent 6-in. cover with paper and cloth. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.John E. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Mellish. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. stop down well after focusing. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms.. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. long and cost me just $15. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. . Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. telescope can be made at home.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. which proves to be easy of execution. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. using strawboard and black paper. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Then I made the one described. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. is a satisfactory angle. My telescope is 64 in. deg. Make the tube I of sheet iron. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. About 20. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Place over lens. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. slightly wider than the lens mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. and proceed as for any picture. two glass prisms. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.

or powdered alum. B. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. says the Master Painter. instead of the contrary. unobstructed light strike the mirror. -Contributed by A. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Boody. as shown in Fig. but will not preserve its hardening. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. 2. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Zimmerman. and reflect through the negative. Do not stir it. 1. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. A. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. complete the arrangement. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The paper is exposed. D. To unlock. . Fig. The rays of the clear. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. then add a little sulphate of potash.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. add the plaster gradually to the water. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. push the button D. Ill. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings.

use a string. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 1). If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Then blow through the spool. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fig. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as at A and B. as shown in the sketch. also provide them with a handle. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Fasten on the switch lever. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. so that it can rotate about these points.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as in Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. To reverse. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 3. throw .

Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. L. although this is not necessary. Take out. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. A is the electricbell magnet. Neb. and rub dry with linen cloth. San Antonio. Levy. Tex. Go McVicker. carbon sockets. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. . Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. D. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by R. the armature. as shown in the sketch.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and E E. rinse in alcohol. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. In the sketch. C C. -Contributed by Morris L. San Marcos. binding posts. Tex. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. --Contributed by Geo. carbons. North Bend. wash in running water. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Thomas. B. Push one end of the tire into the hole.

an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. --Contributed by Joseph B. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 16 magnet wire. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. long or more. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 36 magnet wire. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Bell. Brooklyn. wound evenly about this core. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.

2 may be purchased at a small cost. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The condenser is next wrapped . and the results are often unsatisfactory. the entire core may be purchased readymade. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. No. as the maker prefers. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. in length. The primary is made of fine annealed No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. In shaping the condenser. diameter. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. about 6 in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. with room also for a small condenser. When cut and laid in one continuous length. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. long and 5 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. This makes a condenser which may be folded. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The following method of completing a 1-in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. A 7/8-in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. a box like that shown in Fig. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. at a time. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. coil illustrates the general details of the work. long and 2-5/8 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is desirable. After the core wires are bundled. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. 2 yd. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as shown in Fig. making two layers.which would be better to buy ready-made. Beginning half an inch from one end. one piece of the paper is laid down. which is an important factor of the coil. then the strip of tin-foil. in diameter. 4. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 1. wide. or 8 in.

Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Fig. copper lever with 1-in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. shows how the connections are made. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. D. battery . I. long and 12 in. switch. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard.) The wiring diagram. shelf for clock. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in.securely with bands of paper or tape. V-shaped copper strip. the letters indicate as follows: A. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. The alarm key will turn and drop down. flange turned on one side. whole length.. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. to the door. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. go. forms the other pole or terminal. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. by 12 in. ready for assembling. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the other sheet. bell. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. long to key. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. E. 3. A. which allows wiring at the back. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. which is insulated from the first. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. wide. open switch C. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spark. C. round so that the inside . the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. one from bell. B. F. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and one from battery. lines H. 4 in. G. B.

and then rivet the seam. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. do not shortcircuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance. but with the circuit.diameter is 7 in. 2 in. . London. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. This is for blowing. That is what they are for. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. instead of close to it. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Line the furnace. of zinc sulphate. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. from the bottom. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. of blue stone. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. If desired for use immediately. but add 5 or 6 oz. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. and the battery is ready for use. says the Model Engineer. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Short-circuit for three hours. Use a glass or metal shade.. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.

At least it is amusing. g. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. grip the stick firmly in one hand.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. 2. Enlarge the hole slightly. affects . Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and then. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. If too low. as in the other movement. To operate the trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. long. herein I describe a much better trick. square and about 9 in. the second finger along the side. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. for others the opposite way. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations.. Ohio. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.9 of a volt." which created much merriment. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. for some it will turn one way. Try it and see. porcelain and paper. and therein is the trick. imparting to them a violet tinge. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. below the bottom of the zinc. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. changes white phosphorus to yellow. oxygen to ozone. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. This type of battery will give about 0. or think they can do the same let them try it. 1. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Outside of the scientific side involved. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. but the thing would not move at all. If any or your audience presume to dispute.

To the front board is attached a box. but small flowers. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. and. says the Photographic Times. and one of them is photomicrography. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. insects. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. however. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. but this is less satisfactory. but not essential. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. an old tripod screw. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. chemicals. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. a means for holding it vertical. a short-focus lens.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. earth. if possible. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner.

Ft Lifting Power. A line. in diameter. 7-1/2 in. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 9 ft. in Cu. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 8 ft. 7 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. balloon. AB. Mass. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 1. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Cap. Boston. 65 4 lb. wide from which to cut a pattern. If the balloon is 10 ft. 905 57 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. while it is not so with the quill. Madison.--Contributed by George C. long and 3 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 12 ft. CD. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 697 44 lb. or 3 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 113 7 lb. which is 15 ft. and a line. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 11 ft. 7-1/2 in. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Fig. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. The following table will give the size. 6 ft. 179 11 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 381 24 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 5 ft. or 31 ft. 5 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 268 17 lb.

Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. of beeswax and boil well together. 70 thread. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The cloth segments are sewed together. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Repeat this operation four times. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. and so on. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The pattern is now cut. 2. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 4. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. keeping the marked part on the outside. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. on the curved line from B to C. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Procure 1 gal. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of the very best heavy body. 3. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. using a fine needle and No. cutting all four quarters at the same time.

Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. ]. of sulphuric acid. with 3/4in. When the clock has dried. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. ft. The outlet. 1 lb. . . Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. B. C. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. After washing a part. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. A. a clean white rag. with the iron borings. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. or dusting with a dry brush. if it is good it will dry off. oil the spindle holes carefully. of gas in one hour. should not enter into the water over 8 in. by fixing. About 15 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. B. Vegetable oils should never be used. B. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. it is not fit to use. 1 lb..Green Iron ammonium citrate . The 3/4-in. of water will make 4 cu. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. using a fine brush. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Fill the other barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Water 1 oz. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet.ft. with water 2 in. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. balloon are 125 lb. as shown in Fig. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. but if any grease remains on the hand. 150 gr. A. leaving the hand quite clean. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. capacity and connect them. this should be repeated frequently. pipe. 5 . or a fan. of iron. C. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. above the level of the water in barrel A. to the bag. All FIG. which may sound rather absurd. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. until no more dirt is seen. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. 5. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. In the barrel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of iron borings and 125 lb.

Exposure.Water 1 oz. says the Moving Picture World. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. keeping the fingers out of the solution. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. The positive pole. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. of the cell is connected to a ground wire.. Printing is done in the sun. and a vigorous negative must be used. fix in hypo. to avoid blackened skin. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. A longer exposure will be necessary. The miniature 16 cp. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. . or zinc. or carbon. Print to bronzing under a strong negative.000 ft. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This aerial collector can be made in . or battery. dry atmosphere will give best results. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Port Melbourne. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. and keep in the dark until used. 20 to 30 minutes. Dry the plates in the dark. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The negative pole. . A cold. Dry in the dark. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. toning first if desired. of any make. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. at the time of employment.

This will complete the receiving station. in diameter. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. If the waves strike across the needle. will soon become dry and useless. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. long. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. as described below. making a ground with one wire. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. lay a needle. and as less current will flow the short way. and have the other connected with another aerial line. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance is less. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. a positive and a negative. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. 5 in. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. forming a cup of the pipe. The storage cell. when left exposed to the air. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell.various ways. If the wave ceases. lead pipe. As the telephone offers a high resistance. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. both positive and negative. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. holes . of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water.

D. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. When mixing the acid and water. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This box can be square. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. says the Pathfinder. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. by soldering the joint. except for about 1 in. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax.as possible. or tube C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. namely: a square hole. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. an oblong one and a triangular one. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Two binding-posts should be attached. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the other to the negative. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. does not need to be watertight. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. one to the positive. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. of course. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The other plate is connected to the zinc. or tube B. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This support or block. a round one. on each end. This. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. B.

The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 3. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. long. as it is not readily overturned. as shown in Fig. and match them together. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. thick cut two pieces alike. all around the edge. 2. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 2. C. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. about 20 in. Ill. deep and 4 ft. . Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. wide. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. leaving about 1/16 in. C. The third piece of brass. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as shown in Fig. were fitted by this one plug. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. back and under. Chicago. A and B. 1. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. wide. Only galvanized nails should be used. 1. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. in place on the wood. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. This punt. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in.

Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. B. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. gas pipe. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. thick and 3-1/2 in. A.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Tacoma. square (Fig 2). Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point.

The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. with the exception of insulated wire. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible. and to consume. or "rotor. which the writer has made. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. In designing. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. without auxiliary phase. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C." has no connection with the outside circuit. may be of interest to some of our readers. H. Wagner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. lamp. which can be developed in the usual manner. The winding of the armature. says the Model Engineer. no more current than a 16-cp. no special materials could be obtained. it had to be borne in mind that. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.--Contributed by Charles H.

All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. were then drilled and 1/4-in. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. Unfortunately. also varnished before they were put in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. After assembling a second time. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 1. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 5. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. no steel being obtainable. and all sparking is avoided. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. being used. 3. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. wrought iron. 2. with the dotted line. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. A. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. C. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. 4. while the beginnings . bolts put in and tightened up. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. or "stator. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. as shown in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. Holes 5-32 in. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. holes. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. this little machine is not self-starting. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. They are not particularly accurate as it is. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. to be filed out after they are placed together. about 2-1/2 lb. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. thick.the field-magnet. as shown in Fig. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. B. The stator is wound full with No. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and filled with rivets.

J. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. as shown in Fig. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. a regulating resistance is not needed. it would be very simple to build.. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The lantern slide is a glass plate. and would not easily get out of order. 2. In making slides by contact. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Newark. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. having no commutator or brushes. Jr. and especially of colored ones. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. E. as a means of illustrating songs. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. if applied immediately. and the other by reduction in the camera. One is by contact. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. If too late for alcohol to be of use. McKinney. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. N. 3-Contributed by C. The image should . No starting resistance is needed. and all wound in the same direction. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. and as each layer of wire was wound. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. film to film. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. 1. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The rotor is wound with No. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as before stated. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. This type of motor has drawbacks.

on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. It is best. Being unbreakable. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 5. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. over the mat. to use a plain fixing bath. also.appear in. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. D. if possible. C. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . they are much used by travelers. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. a little extra work will be necessary. as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. 1. about a minute. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. A. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Select a room with one window. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. 3. and then a plain glass. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. except that the binding is different. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Draw lines with a pencil. If the exposure has been correct. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. the formulas being found in each package of plates. 2. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. B. 4.

2. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. These longer pieces can be made square. wide and 50 in. long. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Hastings. Fig. as shown at A. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. from the center of this dot draw a star. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Corinth. holes bored in the end pieces. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. from the end piece of the chair. while the dot will be in front of the other. is to be used for the seat. in diameter and 40 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. A piece of canvas. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 1. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. as shown at B. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. in diameter and 20 in. long. 1. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Vt. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. 16 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. as shown in Fig. If the star is in front of the left eye. from the ends. known as rods and cones. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . or other stout cloth. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes.

was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Cal. 2. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A disk 1 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. 1. made from an ordinary sash cord. J. O'Gara. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A belt. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. in thickness and 10 in. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. per square inch. as shown in Fig. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Auburn. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.-Contributed by P. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. . as well as to operate other household machines.

long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. screwing it through the nut. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. long. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and the construction is complete. fairly accurate. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The part of a rotation of the bolt. with as fine a thread as possible. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. direction. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. leaving it shaped like a bench. A simple. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. will be the thickness of the object. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. 3/4 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. then removing the object. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. wide. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Bore a 1/4-in. square for a support. it serves a very useful purpose.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. . to the top of the bench. Put the bolt in the hole. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. or inconvenient to measure. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. says the Scientific American.

piece of wood 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. long is used for the center pole. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. material 12 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. which show up fine at night. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Bore a 3/4-in. Oal. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. bolt in each hole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Santa Maria. Place a 3/4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The wheel should be open . beyond the end of the wood. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in.

long. square and 3 or 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. long. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. O. thick. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. in diameter. A. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. at the top and 4 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The coil. A piece of brass 2 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. wide and 1/8 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. H and J. long. Tex. L. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. at the bottom. from the ends. is soldered. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. thick. and on its lower end a socket. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted.Side and Top View or have spokes. to be operated by the magnet coil. Fort Worth. made of the same material. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. The spool . pieces used for the spokes. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. wide and 1/8 in. 1/2 in. P. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. C. Graham. B.-Contributed by A. from the top end. which should be 1/4 in. of the ends with boards. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A cross bar. C. thick is used for the armature. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft.

Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Bradlev. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.E. is drilled. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. that holds the lower carbon. 1. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. At the bottom end of the frame. When you slide the pencil along the casing.000. Mass. or a water rheostat heretofore described. S. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.000 for irrigation work. 2. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. which may be had by using German silver wire. B. The armature. for insulating the brass ferrule. . and place it against a door or window casing. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. R.--A. A soft piece of iron. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.is about 2-1/2 in. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. F. and in numerous other like instances. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. --Contributed by Arthur D. do it without any apparent effort. This tie can be used on grain sacks. by soldering.J. one without either rubber or metal end. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. This is a very neat trick if performed right. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then with a firm. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. S. long. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Randolph. A. and directly centering the holes H and J. 2 the hat hanging on it. C. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. D and E.

of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. about 3/16 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The vibrator B. about 1 in. C. D. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The core of the coil. A. long and 1 in.500 turns of No. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. thick. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. leaving the projections as shown. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. S. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. for the secondary. in diameter and 1/16 in. 1. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter. S. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The vibrator. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. is connected to a flash lamp battery. with a 3/16-in. for the primary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. F. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. Fig. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. from the core and directly opposite. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. wide. B.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. mixed with water to form a paste. is constructed in the usual manner. and then 1. The switch. 2. about 1/8 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. long. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. in diameter and 2 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. hole in the center. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. in diameter. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. 1. Fig. About 70 turns of No. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. for adjustment. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil.

was to be secured by only three brass screws. . thick on the inside. in an ordinary water glass. board. 16 in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 1. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The hasp. with which to operate the dial. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. it laps down about 8 in. brass plate. between the boards. The three screws were then put in the hasp. Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover.Place a small piece of paper. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which is only 3/8-in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. and then well clinched. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which seemed to be insufficient. which is cut with two holes. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 1. The lock. and the same distance inside of the new board. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. as shown. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. wide. long and when placed over the board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The tin is 4 in. 2 to fit the two holes. lighted.

which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. square and 10-1/2 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. When making of wood. If the box is made large enough. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. one in each division. high for use in window displays. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. not shiny. clear glass as shown. but when the front part is illuminated. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. When the rear part is illuminated. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. or in the larger size mentioned. black color. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. and the back left dark. the glass. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. any article placed therein will be reflected in. which completely divides the box into two parts. square and 8-1/2 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.

alternately. and with the proper illumination one is changed. above the top of the tank. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When there is no electric current available. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as shown in the sketch. a tank 2 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. When using as a window display. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. wide will be about the right size. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as it appears. into the other. . Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator.. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. long and 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

with a length of 13 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. under sides together. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and boring two holes with a 1-in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. as shown. long. 1 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. but with a length of 12 in. bit. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. however. 2 ft. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. 5 ft. If a planing mill is near. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The 13-in. wide.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and 6 ft. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. and a door in front. This hole must be continued . The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. lines gauged on each side of each. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. radius. Columbus. thick and 3 in. O. high. long. bore from each end. Three windows are provided. square. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. is the green vitriol. Iron sulphate. or ferrous sulphate. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. dried and mixed with linseed oil. hole. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. using a 3/4-in. 6 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. is built on the front. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. from the ground. This precipitate is then washed. square and 40 in. hole bored the full length through the center. Shape the under sides first. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. The pieces can then be taken out. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. A small platform. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. wide. one for each side. gauge for depth. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. each. placed to either side of the 1/2-in.

Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. square and drawing a diagonal on each. For art-glass the metal panels are . Saw the two blocks apart. When this is dry. hole in each block. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The sketch shows one method of attaching." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. if shade is purchased. three or four may be attached as shown. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Electric globes--two. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. If the parts are to be riveted. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. apply two coats of wax. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. A better way. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. When the filler has hardened. thick and 3 in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.through the pieces forming the base. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Directions will be found on the filler cans.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . as brass. METAL SHADE . such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. as in ordinary devices. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. the object and the background. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Figure 1 shows the side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The arms holding the glass. and Fig. 2 the front view of this stand. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as shown in the sketch. one way and 1/2 in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.

and an inside diameter of 9 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Put the ring in place on the base. and swinging freely. pointing north and south. thick 5/8-in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. outside diameter. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. An ordinary pocket compass. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. as it is very poisonous. as shown in the cut. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. as shown in the sketch. in diameter. If the light becomes dim. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. about 1-1/4 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. wide and 6-5/16 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. channel in the circumference of the ring. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. long. in diameter for a base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. wide and 11 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. uncork and recork again. thus forming a 1/4-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in.

289 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.600 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. are mounted on a base. above the half can. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.420 .088 . and north of the Ohio river. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. EE. from the second to the third. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.715 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place on top the so- . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. B. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. and mirrors.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.865 1. AA. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. in diameter and 8 in. CC. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.182 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.500 . Corresponding mirrors.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. into these cylinders. 1 oz. black oxide of copper. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. of the top.

alcohol. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . 31 gr. slender bottle. Colo. When renewing. Put the solution in a long. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. of pulverized campor. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. In Fig. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. says Metal Worker.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. University Park. then they will not rust fast. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 62 gr. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. always remove the oil with a siphon. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. little crystals forming in the liquid. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. which otherwise remains clear. the wheel will revolve in one direction.

The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. about 1-1/4 in. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If zinc and carbon are used. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. on the under side of the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Attach to the wires. Solder in the side of the box . floating on a solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. --Contributed by C. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. will allow the magnet to point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If zinc and copper are used. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A paper-fastener box. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.

The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. away. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.1-in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. The base. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. thick. Take a small piece of soft iron. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. and then solder on the cover. 14 wire will do. G--No. long. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . D. A. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. The spring should be about 1 in. Thos. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Bore holes for binding-posts. Put ends. long. glass tubing . C. as shown in Fig. B. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The standard. brass tubing. Use a board 1/2. can be made of oak. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose.in. 1-1/4 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. H. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. hole. . A circular piece of cardboard. Wind evenly about 2 oz.Contributed by J. long that has about 1/4-in. wide and 6 in.not shorter than 18 in. is made from a piece of No.in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. wide and 2-1/2 in. F. A. E. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. one on each side of the board. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. E. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. and on the other around the glass tube. D. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. B. 3 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. to it. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. or made with a little black paint. 1. piece of 1/4-in. C. If the hose is not a tight fit. 10 wire about 10 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The bottom of the box. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 1/2. of wire on each end extending from the coil. of No. Rhamstine. stained and varnished. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring.

E. N. Cuba. Smith. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Y. D. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. two pieces 2 ft. in diameter. 2. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. from the right hand. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 3. The iron plunger. 3-in. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. is drawn nearer to the coil. of No. long. Teasdale. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. long. four hinges. making a support as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. canvas. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. about 1 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. of mercury will be sufficient. long are used for the legs. . 5.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in.--Contributed by R. About 1-1/2 lb. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. J. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Wis. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 1. long. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end.of the coil. 3 in. of 8-oz. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. long. When the glass becomes soft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl.

Keys. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Measure 8 in. The tube now must be filled completely. Break off the piece of glass.. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. thus leaving a. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. of vacuum at the top. small aperture in the long tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 5. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 2. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Take 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. 3. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Can. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. This tube as described will be 8 in. leaving 8 in. 6. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Toronto. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 4. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Fig. long. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. Seal the remaining 1/2 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. expelling all the air.

All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.6 -. wide and 5 ft. FIG. thick. 2. as in Fig.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. This forms a slot. with each projection 3-in. Four blocks 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. as shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 3 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. in diameter. 3 in. material 2 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. thick. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 3. wide and 12 in. 1. Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 7. and 1/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wood screws. wide and 5 ft. These are bent and nailed. 5. 9 in. joint be accurately put together. wide and 5 ft. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as shown in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. long. thick. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. cut in the shape shown in Fig. thick. long. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 1 in. long. long. 1 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 3 in. but yellow pine is the best. 4. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. from the end of same.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 6.

Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Kan. --Contributed by C. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. by 1-in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. attach runners and use it on the ice.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. first removing the crank. R. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. says Photography. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Water 1 oz. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. above the runner level. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Welsh. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Manhattan. . Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.

Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. from an ordinary clamp skate. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 1 oz. Leominster. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. 1. and very much cheaper. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. --Contributed by Wallace C. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. . The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. also. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 2. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Edward M. Newton. Printing is carried rather far. of water. Treasdale. The print is washed. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Mass. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt.

as shown in the sketch. fasten a 2-in. Va. and 3 ft. wide. hole. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. --Contributed by H. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. which represents the back side of the door. wide and 4 in. about 10 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Alexandria. 1. with about 1/8-in. and to the bottom. A. Fig. Place a 10-in. too. 1 ft. The thread is broken off at the . is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. from one end. long. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. high for rabbits. Take two glass tubes. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. say. extending the width of the box. Then. 1. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. high. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The swing door B. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1-1/2 ft. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Church. Fig. square piece. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. 2. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. causing the door to swing back and up. F. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft.

long. says Camera Craft. inside of the opening. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. in size.proper place to make a small hole. long. 2. and go in the holder in the same way. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. as shown in Fig. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. . Take two pieces of pasteboard. 1 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. wide. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. in size. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Paste a piece of strong black paper. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. trolley cars. horses and dogs. wide. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. say 8 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. C. being 1/8 in. 10 in. -Contributed by William M. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.by 5-in. from the edge on each side of these openings. black surfaced if possible. Out two rectangular holes. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fig. Crilly. camera and wish to use some 4. B. automobiles. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Fig. Chicago. wide and 5 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater.by 7-in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in.. but cut it 1/4 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. plates. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. shorter at each end. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. shorter. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Jr. A and B. and exactly 5 by 7 in. This opening. to be used as a driving pulley. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 1. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. high and 12 in. 3. D.

This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The needle will then point north and south.in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. if it has previously been magnetized. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. wide will be required. in diameter.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. making a . Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. long and 6 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.

sal ammoniac. only the joints. filter. pine. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. says Electrician and Mechanic. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. in diameter and 6 in. . making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. of the plate at one end. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Do not paint any surface. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. beeswax melted together.in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. F is a spool. fuel and packing purposes. This makes the wire smooth. and a notch between the base and the pan. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Place the pan on the stove. long which are copper plated. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. File the rods to remove the copper plate. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. of rosin and 2 oz. one that will hold about 1 qt. of the top. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb.watertight receptacle. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. zinc oxide. in which P is the pan. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. 1 lb. plaster of paris. of water. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. A is a block of l-in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. with narrow flanges. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. 1/4 lb. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. pull out the wire as needed. leaving about 1/2-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. for a connection. when the paraffin is melted. Form a 1/2-in. 3/4 lb. under the spool in the paraffin. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. B is a base of 1 in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. fodder. Pack the paste in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. short time. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only.

thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and then. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. g. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and therein is the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. but the thing would not move at all. and one friend tells me that they were . by the Hindoos in India. thus producing two different vibrations." which created much merriment.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick.. Ohio. Enlarge the hole slightly. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. as in the other movement. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. At least it is amusing. for others the opposite way. from vexation. If any of your audience presume to dispute. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. square and about 9 in. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. while for others it will not revolve at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. or think they can do the same. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. for some it will turn one way. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Toledo. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. let them try it. long. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and he finally. 2.

Thus a circular or . When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 6.100 r. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. and I think the results may be of interest. rotation was obtained. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. secondly. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. gave the best results. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 4. 5. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. A square stick with notches on edge is best. To operate. 2. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The experiments were as follows: 1. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. p. and. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. 3. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. the rotation may be obtained. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. m. Speeds between 700 and 1. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. by means of a center punch. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. no rotation resulted. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 7.

. --Contributed by G. it will be clockwise. a piece of wire and a candle. D. is driven violently away. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Duluth.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. . and not to friction of the pin in the hole. at first. and the resultant "basket splash. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). forming a handle for carrying. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. the upper portion is. if the pressure is from the left." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Minn. Ph. or greasy. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. G. unwetted by the liquid. Sloan. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. C. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. A. --Contributed by M. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Lloyd. and the height of the fall about 6 in. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Washington. A wire is tied around the can. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall..D. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. long.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. flange and a 1/4-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. axle. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. 1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. in diameter. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. as shown. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. thick and 1 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. as shown in Fig. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . hole drilled in the center.

as shown in Fig. The first piece. 3. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. 3. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated.50. of No. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. wood. If the ends are to be soldered.brass. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. long. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Texas. 2. as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. with cardboard 3 in. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. are shown in Fig. The parts. and the locomotive is ready for running. 1 from 1/4-in. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The motor is now bolted. bent as shown. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 5. These ends are fastened together. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. bottom side up. is made from brass. San Antonio. Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 4. 2. wide and 16 in. or main part of the frame. 3/4 in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. put together complete. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. This will save buying a track. Fig. lamp in series with the coil. 6. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. --Contributed by Maurice E. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. is made from a piece of clock spring. Fuller. The current. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. holes 1 in. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. each in its proper place. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. A trolley.

and holes drilled in them. O. but do not heat the center. 1. Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. 3. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Fig 1. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Cincinnati. the length of a paper clip. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and as this end . When cold treat the other end in the same way. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. 2. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. then continue to tighten much more. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief.

For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. or should the lathe head be raised. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or apparent security of the knot. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the trick is to be performed. In the sketch. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. and adjusted . has finished a cut for a tooth. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. A pair of centers are fitted. When the cutter A. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.

--Contributed by Howard S. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Brooklyn. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. watch fob ready for fastenings. Y. Bunker. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. book mark. coin purse. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The frame holding the mandrel.to run true. Fold over along these center lines. (3. 2. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. above the surface. swing lathe. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. An ordinary machine will do. note book. N. trace the outline. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the paper design on the leather and. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. twisted around itself and soldered. --Contributed by Samuel C. such as brass or marble. blotter back. (1. tea cosey. or one-half of the design. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (5. long. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (2. In this manner gears 3 in. 1. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. tea cosey. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. (6. When connecting to batteries. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . draw center lines across the required space. if four parts are to be alike. lady's belt bag.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. and a nut pick.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Bott. holding it in place with the left hand. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Fig. (4. about 1-1/2 in.) Make on paper the design wanted. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. if but two parts.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. gentleman's card case or bill book. lady's card case. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. at the same time striking light. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.

and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.

where it condenses. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. C. The electrodes are made . One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. B. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.C. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. from Key West. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.. Florida. and bore a hole through the center. into which fit a small piece of tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Thrust a pin.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a distance of 900 miles. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. If the needle is not horizontal. and push it through a cork. D. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. A. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.

The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. as shown in Fig. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. square and 8 ft long. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. D. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick. --Contributed by Edwin L. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 1. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. which is tacked to the front edge. Washington. thick. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1-1/2 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. long. using a high resistance receiver. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 2 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 1. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. wide and 3 ft. wide and 20 ft. 2. wide and 4 ft long. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. or flying-machine. 16 piano wire. both laterally and longitudinally. use 10-ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. free from knots. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. All wiring is done with No. long. wide and 4 ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft.in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. long for the body of the operator. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. If 20-ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. apart and extend 1 ft. thick. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. Four long beams 3/4 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. several strips 1/2 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. thick. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. thick. long. The operator can then land safely and . wide and 4 ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. lumber cannot be procured. take the glider to the top of a hill. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. slacken speed and settle. wide and 3 ft. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 2. lengths and splice them. 3. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. Powell. To make a glide. 1-1/4 in. by 3/4 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 1/2. C. long. as shown in Fig.

the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.gently on his feet. Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.

and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. When heated a little. which causes the dip in the line. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Bellingham. 2. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.exercised in making landings. as shown in Fig. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. --Contributed by L. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. a creature of Greek mythology. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. half man and half horse. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. M. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Olson. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead.

When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. of small rubber tubing. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. in diameter.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. this will cost about 15 cents. will complete the material list. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. about the size of door screen wire. long and about 3/8 in. making it 2-1/2 in. outside the box. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. about the size of stove pipe wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. at the other. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. a piece of brass or steel wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. square. The light from the . 14 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. long. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire.

Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. 1. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Dayton. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. while others will fail time after time. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. M.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. O. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. This is very simple when you know how. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 2. If done properly the card will flyaway. Hunting. --Photo by M. .

while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as shown. closing both hands quickly. hold the lump over the flame. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. place the other two." or the Chinese students' favorite game.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as before. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Cool in water and dry. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When the desired shape has been obtained. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. This game is played by five persons. as described. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . one between the thumb and finger of each hand. then put it on the hatpin head. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve.

Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. distribute electric charges . or more in width.

The drive wheels. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. RR. The plates are trued up. Two plates are necessary to make this machine.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. are made from 7/8-in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. EE. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. or teeth. 3. Two solid glass rods. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. D. and pins inserted and soldered. The fork part is 6 in. from about 1/4-in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. at the other. long. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. in diameter. turned wood pieces. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. C C. to which insulating handles . close grained wood turned in the shape shown. are made from solid. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter and 15 in. 1-1/2 in. The two pieces. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. as shown in Fig. 1. free from wrinkles. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 4. 3. in diameter. 1 in. Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 3/4 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. GG. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. after they are mounted. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. the side pieces being 24 in. in diameter. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The collectors are made. Two pieces of 1-in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Fig. and the outer end 11/2 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. material 7 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. These pins. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and 4 in. wide at one end. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. long and the shank 4 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. long. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. in diameter. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and of a uniform thickness. The plates. wide. 2. long and the standards 3 in.

and the work was done by themselves. long. wide and 22 ft. in diameter. --Contributed by C. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. ball and the other one 3/4 in. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Lloyd Enos. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Colo. Colorado City.are attached. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines.. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. one having a 2-in. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. 12 ft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. KK. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. which are bent as shown.

as at A. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. deep. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. using a 1-in. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. pens . Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. string together. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. bit. and bore a hole 1/2 in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. yet such a thing can be done. The key will drop from the string.is a good one. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.

slim screw. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. two spikes. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. This is to make a clean. flat and round-nosed pliers. also trace the decorative design.. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 3. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. etc. etc. very rapid progress can be made. 23 gauge. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. 6. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. unless it would be the metal shears. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 4. file. 8. using a nail filed to chisel edge. When the stamping is completed. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Use . If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. or cigar ashes. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 5.. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. inside the second on all. stamp the background promiscuously. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. inside the first on all. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. extra metal on each of the four sides. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. and the third one 1/4 in. Proceed as follows: 1. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. sharp division between background and design. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background.and pencils. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Inside this oblong. 2. Draw one-half the design free hand. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. They are easily made. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Raise the ends. about 3/4-in. above the metal. then the other side. 7. 9. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent.

6. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. second fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 10. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. third fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. The eyes. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 7. 8. In the first numbering. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and fourth fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. first fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 9. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot.

or the product of 6 times 6. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. which tens are added. which would be 70. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. In the second numbering. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Put your thumbs together. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. 11. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 80. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and the six lower fingers as six tens. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. etc. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. . We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties.. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. 12. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. above 20 times 20. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. as high as you want to go. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 600. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 25 times 25. or the product of 8 times 9. there are no fingers above. which would be 16. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 2 times 2 equals 4. etc. 400. if we wish.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. or 60. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. etc. the product of 12 times 12. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. viz.. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Two times one are two. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or numbers above 10. thumbs. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Still. renumber your fingers. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. above 15 times 15 it is 200. first fingers. and 70 plus 2 equals 72.

4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. and. forties. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. . such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked.. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. It takes place also. and so on. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. adding 400 instead of 100. For example. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. further. about a vertical axis. the inversion takes place against his will. beginning the thumbs with 16. being 80). first finger 17. in the case of a nearsighted person. or what. the value which the upper fingers have. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. at the will of the observer. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 7. or from above or from below. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. thumbs. For figures ending in 6. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the revolution seems to reverse. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. when he removes his spectacles. Proceed as in the second lumbering. whether the one described in second or third numbering. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 21. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. as one might suppose. 2. twenties. not rotation. however. first fingers 22. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. thirties. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 75 and 85. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 3. lastly. etc. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 8.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. which is the half-way point between the two fives. And the lump sum to add. Take For example 18 times 18. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. any two figures between 45 and 55. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the lump sum to add.

Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and putting a cork on the point. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the other appearance asserts itself. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. tee. The ports were not easy to make. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Looking at it in semidarkness. sometimes the point towards him. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . A flat slide valve was used. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. when he knows which direction is right.

Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Ill. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Next take a block of wood. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and make in one end a hollow. -Contributed by W. across and 1/2 in. in diameter. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. pipe. pipe 10 in. While this engine does not give much power. inexpensive. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. bottom side up. . round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. as in a vise. across the head. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl.. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. apart. if continued too long without proper treatment. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. deep. secure a piece of No. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The tools are simple and can be made easily. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. it is easily built. If nothing better is at hand. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Fasten the block solidly. H. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. saw off a section of a broom handle. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The eccentric is constructed of washers. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The steam chest is round. Kutscher. such as is shown in the illustration. Springfield. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. about 2 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.

Vinegar. This process is called annealing. and. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To produce color effects on copper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. especially when the object is near to the observer. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. as it softens the metal. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture.will cause the metal to break. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Camden. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. C. Hay. To overcome this hardness. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. --Contributed by W. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. S. O. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the other to the left.

they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. diameter. however. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. while both eyes together see a white background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. with the stereograph. that for the right." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. But they seem black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. because. from the stereograph. not two mounted side by side. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In order to make them appear before the card. they must be a very trifle apart. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The further apart the pictures are. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. disappears fully. in the proper choice of colors. the one for the left eye being blue. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. It is just as though they were not there. would serve the same purpose. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. it. So with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. . As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. although they pass through the screen. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. because of the rays coming from them. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and without any picture. as for instance red and green. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass.stereoscope. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. only the orange rays may pass through. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. the further from the card will the composite image appear. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The red portions of the picture are not seen. the left eye sees through a blue screen. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. orange. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background.

wide and 1 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. etc. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Place a NO. long and a hole drilled in each end. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The weight of the air in round . San Francisco. 12 gauge wire.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. A No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. This should only be bored about half way through the block. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 1/4 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. or the middle of the bottle. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. in diameter. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Cal. wireless. thick.

The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. In general. wide and 4 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. long. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. will calibrate itself. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below.numbers is 15 lb. if accurately constructed. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. the instrument. square. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. and a slow fall. Only redistilled mercury should be used.. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. But if a standard barometer is not available. pine 3 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. internal diameter and about 34 in. . 30 in. wide and 40 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. high. thick. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. inside diameter and 2 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. if you choose. square. long. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. a bottle 1 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. 34 ft. or a column of mercury (density 13. high. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.6) 1 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the contrary. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. The 4 in. Before fastening the scale. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. a glass tube 1/8 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. or. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. long. high. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.

This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Number the pieces 1. wide and 10 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. long. the size of the outside of the bottle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. and place them as shown in Fig. Mark out seven 1-in. 6 and 7. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 5. 2. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Procure a metal can cover. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. thick. 3. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly.

2 over No.J. 1. Move 9-Jump No.-Contributed by W. 1 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Make 22 sections. Move 14-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. N. Cape May Point. long and 2 ft. 3. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Woolson. Move 3-Move No. 6. 6 to No. 6 in. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 10-Move No. 2 over No. 5 over No. 6 over No. l over No. 2. 3. Move 8-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. procure unbleached tent duck. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2's place. 2. 2 . in diameter. each 10 ft. 3 into No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 5's place. L. 3 to the center. 1 to No. shaped like Fig.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7. 6. 3. To make such a tent. 7 over No. 6 into No. Move 2-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. as shown in Fig. Move 7-Jump No. 7's place. 5 over No. Move 13-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5's place. 3 over No. 7 over No. using checkers for men. 1. 2's place. Move ll-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 15-Move No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 12-Jump No. Move 4-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 5.

Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. to a smooth board of soft wood.in. These are ventilators. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Have the tent pole 3 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Tress. from the top. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Punch holes in the brass in . across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. round galvanized iron. as in Fig. leaving the rest for an opening. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 5. 2 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Fig. diameter. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. about 9 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. made in two sections. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. in diameter. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. 6-in. long and 4 in. 2. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 5) stuck in the ground. wide at the bottom. As shown in the sketch. Use blocks.J. fill with canvas edging. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. 9 by 12 in. 6. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. added. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. high. Emsworth. Pa. After transferring the design to the brass. long. wide by 12 in. In raising the tent. --Contributed by G. Nail a thin sheet of brass. will do.. Fig. 3 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide at the bottom.

fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. but before punching the holes. excepting the 1/4-in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together.the spaces around the outlined figures. Chicago. around the outside of the pattern. When all the holes are punched. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. apart. Corr. The pattern is traced as before. cut out the brass on the outside lines. . When the edges are brought together by bending. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. It will not. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. bend into shape. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty.

Dunham.however. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. allowing 2 ft. G. partially filled with cream. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. --Contributed by Geo. or less. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. A 6-in. E. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Oregon. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Mayger. Que. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. or center on which the frame swings. better still. or. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. If a wheel is selected. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. A cast-iron ring. pipe is used for the hub. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Badger. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. --Contributed by H. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. These pipes are . Sometimes the cream will accumulate. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Stevens. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. pipe. between which is placed the fruit jar. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph..

pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Four braces made from 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe clamps.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .

as shown in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The performer. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. 3. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. and dropped on the table. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. 1. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. while doing this. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. which was placed in an upright position. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and the guide withdrawn. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.

--Contributed by H. first. in a half circle. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. 2. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. St. The box can be made of selected oak or .make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin. F. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Denver. and second. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Mo. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. 1. D. -Contributed by C. Colo. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Louis. Harkins. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.

This will be 3/4 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide. represented by the dotted line in Fig. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. AA. high and must . The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. from each end of the outside of the box. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. and. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. but not tight. 5-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat.mahogany. fit into the runners. high and 11 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. as shown in Fig. 2. An open space 4 in. and 2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. focal length. wide and 6-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide by 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 1. Two or three holes about 1 in. long and should be placed vertically. long. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide and 5 in. from each end. If a camera lens is used. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in.

until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. April.. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. calling this February. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. West Toledo. C. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. the article may be propped up . June and November. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Ohio. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and so on. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. --Contributed by Chas. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. as it requires an airtight case. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. 1. then the second knuckle will be March." etc. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and extending the whole height of the lantern. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. calling that knuckle January. Bradley. This process is rather a difficult one.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. provided it is airtight.

N. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. giving it an occasional stir. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. . one of lead and one of aluminum. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. and the lead 24 sq. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. In both Fig. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Pour in a little turpentine. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1 and 2. fruit jars are required. but waxed. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. in. 2. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. --Contributed by J. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. or suspended by a string. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Crawford. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. running small motors and lighting small lamps. taking care to have all the edges closed. In each place two electrodes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. H. The top of a table will do. and set aside for half a day. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Schenectady. Y. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 1.with small sticks. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. the lid or cover closed.

After a few seconds' time. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. O. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. as you have held it all the time. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. He.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. which you warm with your hands.. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . This trick is very simple. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Cleveland. You have an understanding with some one in the company. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. you remove the glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. he throws the other. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. as well as others. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass.

Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Crocker. J. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Victor. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. but in making one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Colo. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. in diameter in the center. . on a table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table.-Contributed by E. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded.take the handiest one. put it under the glass. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. near a partition or curtain. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. if any snags are encountered. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. but by being careful at shores. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Pull the ends quickly. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Be sure that this is the right one.

apart. by 15 ft. by 16 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. long. by 12 in. 11 yd. one 6 in. 2 gunwales. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. by 2 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. wide. 2 and braced with an iron band. long. 3 and 4. 1/8 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 mast. clear pine. of 1-1/2-yd. from each end to 1 in. by 16 ft. at the ends. of rope. 2 in. and fastened with screws. 1 in. for cockpit frame. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. of 1-yd. screws and cleats. wide unbleached muslin. ducking. 1 piece. long. Paint. 3 in. square by 16 ft. 1 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. as illustrated in the engraving. 8 yd. from the bow and the large one. drilled and fastened with screws. Both ends are mortised. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 in. 8 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces.. thick and 3/4 in. wide and 12 ft. by 8 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. are as follows: 1 keelson. 1. 9 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 3 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1/4 in. and. 7 ft. for the bow. is 14 ft. from the stern. 1 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. wide and 12 ft. for the stern piece. 1 piece.. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. and the other 12 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 2 in. Fig. 50 ft. by 10 ft. 14 rib bands. The keelson. wide 12-oz. 4 outwales. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. long. for center deck braces. selected pine. and is removed after the ribs are in place.

The 11-yd. apart. wide. is a cube having sides 6 in. thick. long. in diameter through the block. 7 and 8. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. long. The deck is not so hard to do. long is well soaked in water. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A piece of oak. thick and 1/2 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. corner braces. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. wide. . Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 1 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. thick 1-1/2 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. They are 1 in. Fig. screws. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 4 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. wood screws. thick and 12 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. also. from the bow. The block is fastened to the keelson. Before making the deck. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. wide and 3 ft. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. A 6-in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. wide and 14 in. 6 in. 3-1/2 ft. long. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. length of canvas is cut in the center. gunwales and keelson. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. These are put in 6 in. Fig. thick. 6. Figs. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 1/4 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wide and 24 in. 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. A block of pine. 5. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. This block. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. and fastened to them with bolts. doubled. The trimming is wood.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. a piece 1/4 in. Braces. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 9. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. is cut to fit under the top boards.

which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. 12. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The house will accommodate 20 families. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The keel. wide. The sail is a triangle. E. in diameter and 10 ft. The mast has two side and one front stay. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. wide at one end and 12 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A strip 1 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Wilmette. --Contributed by O. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. at the other. apart in the muslin. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. thick by 2 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. long. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. each 1 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Tronnes. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Ill. is 6 in. 11. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. Fig. . 10 with a movable handle. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. are used for the boom and gaff. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Several coats of good paint complete the boat.

5. thick.into two 14-in. 2-1/2 in. Cut the maple. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 1 yd. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Take this and fold it over . The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 2-1/2 in. wide. long. and the other 18 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. wide. long. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. thick. five 1/2-in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2 in. wide and 2 ft. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. flat on one side. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Tronnes. long and five 1/2-in. 3. 1.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 4. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. square. flat-headed screws. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. with the ends and the other side rounding. 2. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Wilmette. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. as shown in Fig. Ill. E. Fig. and 3 ft. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. --Contributed by O. wide and 30 in. flat headed screws. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long. about 5/16 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. one 11-1/2 in. thick. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner.

The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. When the glue is set. 5 from 1/16-in. but can be governed by circumstances. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. the mechanical parts can be put together. Figs. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. B. F. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. is set. this square box is well sandpapered. Fig. 2 and 3. then centered. A. soaked with water and blown up. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Mo. thick. Louis. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. wide and 3 ft. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 2-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. wide and 2-3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. of each end unwound for connections. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. About 1/2 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 3/8 in. Another piece. The bag is then turned inside out. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. square. 1. 6-1/2 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Bliss. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. forming an eye for a screw.once. wide . --Contributed by W. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. as well as the edges around the opening. the top and bottom. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. are rounded. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. wide and 6-3/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. Glue a three cornered piece. wide and 5 in. long. 3-1/4 in. long. C. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. After the glue. If carefully and neatly made. 3 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. The front. Make a double stitch all around the edge. and the four outside edges. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. A. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. St. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The sides are 3-1/4 in. E. long. Wind three layers of about No. C. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. square. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. long. pieces 2-5/8 in. Cut another piece of board. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. D. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. thick. long. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. and take care that the pieces are all square. about 3/8 in.

A pointer 12 in. F. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.and 2-5/8 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. hole is fastened to the pointer. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Another strip of tin. 1/16 in. L. When the current flows through the coil. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. the same size as the first. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The resistance is now adjusted to show . the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long. C. bored in the back. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. 4. Fig. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . the part carrying the pointer moves away. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. thick. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Like poles repel each other. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. G. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Place the tin. long. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 4 is not movable. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. and fasten in place. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long. 4. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. I.A.R. Chapman. board. so it will just clear the tin. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 5-1/2 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Richmond Hill. These wires should be about 1 in. wide and 9 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 1/4 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. from the spindle. in diameter. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. --Contributed by George Heimroth. W. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark.S. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Austwick Hall. The stronger the current. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Fig. Yorkshire. 5. and the farther apart they will be forced. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. and as the part Fig. R. from one end. The end of the polar axis B. The base is a board 5 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. wide and 2-1/2 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 1881. say Venus at the date of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. and vice . M. The following formula will show how this may be found. 30 min. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. at 9 hr. 10 min. shows mean siderial.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock.

and then verify its correctness by measurement. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Hall. Conn. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. .The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.f. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. owing to the low internal resistance. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. --Contributed by Robert W. or. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. New Haven.m. if one of these cannot be had. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.

thick. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . arsenic to every 20 lb. The boring bar. Then. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. especially for cooking fish. as shown in the accompanying picture. 3/8 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. leaves or bark. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. 1-3/4 in. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. put the fish among the ashes. cover up with the same. Wet paper will answer. inside diameter and about 5 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. 1. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. long. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. When the follower is screwed down. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. of alum and 4 oz. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Fig. fresh grass.

Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. and threaded on both ends. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. thick. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. when they were turned in. fastened with a pin. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.

The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. square iron.valve stems. and which gave such satisfactory results. 5. 4. however. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Clermont. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. thick and 3 in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. a jump spark would be much better. was then finished on an emery wheel. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. A 1-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. labor and time. 30 in. 3. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. bent in the shape of a U. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. but never one which required so little material. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The rough frame. If the valve keeps dripping. long. Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the float is too high. as the one illustrated herewith. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. wide. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Iowa. Fig. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. It . Fig. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 2. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated.

and long enough to keep firmly in the post. It looks like a toy. This makes an easy adjustment. being held in position by spikes as shown. As there is no bracing. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. 3/4 in. If it is to be used for adults. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. The crosspiece is 2 in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. with no trees or buildings in the way. no matter what your age or size may be. and. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. in the ground with 8 ft. strong clear material only should be employed. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Use a heavy washer at the head. A 3/4 -in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. extending above. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. in fact. timber. and a little junk. from all over the neighborhood. for the "motive power" to grasp. long is the pivot. 12 ft. long. A malleable iron bolt. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Nieman. long. so it must be strong enough. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. from the center. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. The seats are regular swing boards. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. square and 5 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. set 3 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. --Contributed by C. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. square. butting against short stakes. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. hole bored in the post.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat." little and big. in diameter and 15 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. W. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. rope is not too heavy. strengthened by a piece 4 in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. square and 2 ft. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. completes the merry-go-round. The illustration largely explains itself. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders.

This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. To wind the string upon the reel. These ends are placed about 14 in. square. A reel is next made. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.2 emery. 1. The bow is now bent. and 18 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The backbone is flat. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other.the fingers. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1/4 by 3/32 in. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. then it is securely fastened. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. a wreck. away. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. 2. Both have large reels full of . as shown in Fig. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. one for the backbone and one for the bow. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. long. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. if nothing better is at hand. and sent to earth. 4. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. light and strong. Having placed the backbone in position. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.

It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. --Contributed' by Harry S. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Y. If the second kite is close enough. First. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Moody. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. the balance. he pays out a large amount of string.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string.string. common packing thread. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. C. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Brooklyn. N. Bunker. The handle end is held down with a staple. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Newburyport. often several hundred yards of it. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . or glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Mass.

Hastings. If the table is round. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. each the size of half the table top. Vt. lengths (Fig. square (Fig. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. must be attached to a 3-ft. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. length of 2-in. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. then draw the string up tight. Corinth. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. --Contributed by Earl R. then a dust protector. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. such as mill men use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. make the pad as shown in the illustration. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.

17-1/2 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 6-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.. 2-1/4 in.9-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. hard pencil. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.-Contributed by H. G to H. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. E. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. which spoils the leather effect. Wharton. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. and E to G. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Use a smooth. Oakland.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. from C to D. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. from E to F. Moisten the . A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. .. 16-1/4 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Calif. trace the design carefully on the leather.

apart. also lines A-G. To complete the bag. is taken off at a time. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and E-G. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Now cut narrow thongs. get something with which to make a lining. about 1/8 in. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. wide. and corresponding lines on the other side. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. H-B. with the rounded sides of the tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. if not more than 1 in. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and lace through the holes. place both together and with a leather punch. I made this motor . G-J. Cut it the same size as the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings.

The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. iron. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Pasadena. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. 2-1/4 in. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 24 gauge magnet wire. Calif. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. of No. B. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. as shown in Fig. long. each being a half circle. 1. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. D. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. . Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. 1. in length.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.M. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Shannon. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. --Contributed by J. 2.

balloon should be about 8 ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. pasted in alternately. 1. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. high. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. near the center. and the gores cut from these. The gores for a 6-ft. are the best kind to make. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. from the bottom end. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions.

somewhat larger in size. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. using about 1/2-in. Staunton. lap on the edges. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. as shown in Fig. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. B. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. In starting the balloon on its flight. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The steam. coming through the small pipe A. 3. --Contributed by R. leaving the solution on over night. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. In removing grease from wood. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. These are to hold the wick ball. E. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. 2. leaving a long wake behind. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. 5. saturating it thoroughly. 1. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe.widest point. After washing. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. A. 4. after which the paint will adhere permanently. in diameter. As the boat is driven forward by this force. If the gores have been put together right.

The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. wide by 6 in. apart on these lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. high and 8 in. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Third. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. 1. The blocks are about 6 in. in bowling form. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long and each provided with a handle. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. as is shown in Fig. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. In using either of the two methods described. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.

being careful not to dent the metal. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. thick. N.Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Albany. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . --Contributed by John A. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Rinse the plate in cold water. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Fig. Hellwig. 2. Y.

through which passes the set screw S. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Va. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or .upon any particular object. Break off the frame. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. are screwed to the circular piece. With this device. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. CC. wide and 8 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. 6 in. and. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. In Fig. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. and Fig. in diameter. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 1 Fig. thick. which is 4 in. 5 in. B. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. S. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Corner irons. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Richmond. --Contributed by R. wide and of any desired height. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. and not produce the right sound. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Paine. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A circular piece of wood. 2 the front view. A. long for the base. with a set screw. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. These corner irons are also screwed to. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A.

. La Salle.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. as only the can is visible. Ill. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. This will make a very compact electric horn. I made a wheel 26 in. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Kidder. in diameter of some 1-in. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. R. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. -1. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. thus producing sound waves. S. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. This horn. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. D. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. pine boards.

Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. A. --Contributed by C. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Fig. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 1. thick and 12 in. --Contributed by James R. B. If there is a large collection of coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. the same thickness as the coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. square. 2. Kane. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. O. The frame is made of a heavy card. Doylestown. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 1. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Ghent. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Purdy.

Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. A rivet punch is desirable. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. plus a 3/8-in. It will hold 4 oz. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that.E. --Contributed by J. If desired. Noble. they become uninteresting. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. though not absolutely necessary. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Neyer. several large nails. a hammer or mallet. --Contributed by August T. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. --Contributed by R. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. border all around. into which to place the screws . and then glued together as indicated. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Cal. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Smith. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. cut and grooved. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Milwaukee. Canada. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. A lead pencil. of developer. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.J. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. melted and applied with a brush. Toronto. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. thick. The material required is a sheet of No. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Wis. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. One Cloud. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper.

Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. never upon the metal directly. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Take the nail. There are several ways of working up the design. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. and file it to a chisel edge.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Remove the screws. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. both outline and decoration. using 1/2-in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. like the one shown. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. screws placed about 1 in. draw one part.

in the other. The pedal. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square and 11 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 2. up from the lower end. Rivet the band to the holder. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. two lengths. being ball bearing. and two lengths. for the top. of 11-in. 3/4 in. long. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. for the lower rails. 1. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. each 1 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. as shown in Fig. square. About 1/2 yd. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in.wall. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. 3. using a 1/2in. long. square and 181/2 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. . l-1/8 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto.

The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Quackenbush. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. having quite a length of threads. Ala.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Attalla. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. New York City. F. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by John Shahan.

New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Assemble as shown in the sketch. college or lodge colors. The desired emblem. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. using class. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. long.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. one about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in. D. initial. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. something that is carbonated. --Contributed by C. Two pieces of felt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and two holes in the other. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and 3/8 in. each 1-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. Ironwood. in depth. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. long. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.. Purchase a 1/2-in. from one end. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Luther. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. from the end. and the other 2-3/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over.

1/4 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Ind. from the center and opposite each other. or more in height. A piece of lead. 2. which can be procured from a plumber. This method allows a wide range of designs. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 1. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. and the cork will be driven out. or a pasteboard box. about 2 in. Indianapolis. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Fig. --Contributed by John H. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. as shown in the sketch. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. in the cover and the bottom. in diameter and 2 in. Schatz. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . as shown at B. Punch two holes A. if desired by the operator. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet.

or marble will serve. so that it will indent without cutting the leather.Rolling Can Toy lead. O. A piece of thick glass. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. . but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. as shown in Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. putting in the design. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 3. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. Columbus. metal. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. on both top and bottom. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. allowing the two ends to be free. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Fig. 1. are turned up as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 4. it winds up the rubber band. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 5.

Next place the leather on the glass. 3 in. and. deep in its face. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. wide and 20 in. After this has been done. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. face up. A pencil may be used the first time over. New York City. I secured a board 3/4 in. mark over the design. If it is desired to "line" the inside. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thick. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. thicker than the pinion. from each end. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. 1 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. hole through it. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.

The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 4 guides. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Brooklyn. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Syracuse. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Cut the 2-in. and fit it in place for the side vise. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 piece for clamp. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. New York. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. M. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 top board. 2 end rails. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. N. Fig. 1 screw block. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Rice. 2 side rails. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces for the vise slides. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 2. --Contributed by A. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 3 by 3 by 36. Make the lower frame first. 1 back board. 1.in the board into the bench top. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. lag screws as shown. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 piece. much of the hard labor will be saved. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1 piece for clamp. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 crosspieces. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. thick top board. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. in diameter. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Y.

. 1 monkey wrench. 1 rip saw. 3 and 6 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 claw hammer. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. The amateur workman. Only the long run. 24 in. The bench is now complete. 1 pair pliers. 1 wood scraper. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 pair dividers. 1 nail set. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 24 in. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. rule. . 1 set chisels.screws.. in diameter. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 countersink. 1 cross cut saw. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 marking gauge. 1 set gimlets. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pocket level.. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 bench plane or jointer. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 2 screwdrivers. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 2-ft. 1 compass saw. as well as the pattern maker.

after constant use.1. will be easier to work. Pa. ---Contributed by James M. 3. will sink into the handle as shown at D. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. The calf skin. 2 and 00 sandpaper. but will not make . Fig. Kane. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 2. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. No. Fig. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Doylestown. 1. becomes like A. Fig. 1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. being softer. the projecting point A. try square.1 6-in.

which steam. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. the same method of treatment is used. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. will do just as well. Having prepared the two sides. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. If cow hide is preferred. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. New York City. White. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. water or heat will not affect. such as copper or brass. but a V-shaped nut pick. secure a piece of modeling calf. -Contributed by Julia A. First draw the design on paper. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface.as rigid a case as the cow skin. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. If calf skin is to be used. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. cover it completely with water enamel and. After the outlines are traced. then prepare the leather. Turn the leather. lay the design on the face. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two pieces will be required of this size. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. when dry. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. The form can be made of a stick of wood. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. .

Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by Chester L. and an adjustable friction-held loop. A. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by W. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. C. Maine. as shown in the sketch. Jaquythe. .Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. --Contributed by Chas. New York City. Cobb. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Portland. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Richmond. Herrman. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cal. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel.

the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Cambridge. for instance. --Contributed by Geo.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Middletown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. --Contributed by Wm. B. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Conn. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Wright.. an inverted stewpan. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Roberts. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A thick piece of tin. Mass. . The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.

well calcined and powdered. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Indianapolis. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. If the article is highly polished. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. used as part of furniture.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. as shown. but not running over. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. of boiling water. F. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Herbert. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. which has been tried out several times with success. face down. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. but only an odor which soon vanished. so some bones were quickly calcined. There was no quicklime to be had. --Contributed by C. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. L. The next morning there was no trace of oil. apply powdered calcined magnesia. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. When dry. Ind. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Bone. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. and the grease will disappear. If any traces of the grease are left. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. A beautifully bound book. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. on a clear piece of glass. and quite new.. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Chicago. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Illinois. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. pulverized and applied. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. such as chair seats. . --Contributed by Paul Keller.

. A. wide and 12 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown. the pieces . high and are bolted to a block of wood. deep and 5 in. --Contributed by Geo. The pieces marked S are single. long. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. says Scientific American. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. thick. 6 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. set and thumbscrews. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 2 in. New York. Howe.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.. If properly adjusted.

E. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. no doubt. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Their size depends on the plate used. A sharp knife. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. to the underside of which is a block. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The seat is a board. they will look remarkably uniform. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. says Camera Craft. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. If the letters are all cut the same height. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. albums and the like. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. for sending to friends. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.

So arranged. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. mount them on short pieces of corks. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. So made. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . these letter pictures can be made with a black border. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. In cutting out an 0. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. pasting the prints on some thin card. and.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. photographing them down to the desired size. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. for example. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. using care to get it in the right position. after. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background.

so they will lie horizontal. with the longest end outside.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.J. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Old-Time Magic . The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Cape May Point. Bayley. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A hole 6 or 7 in. long that will just fit are set in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. snow or anything to hide it. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. G. says the American Thresherman. of its top. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. hung on pivots. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . N.-Contributed by I. He smells the bait. squeezes along past the center of the tube.

Brooklyn. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. N.faced up. Parker. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. then expose again. Pawtucket. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Idaho. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Press the hands together. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. then spread the string. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. Y. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . E. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pocatello. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. --Contributed by Charles Graham.

Genuine antique swords and armor. or a complete suit of armor. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 3 Fig. or green oil paint. The pieces. they will look very much like the genuine article. narrower. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. if any. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. dark red. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. wide and 2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. end of the blade. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 4 on the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. 1. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. full size. When the glue is thoroughly dry. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. and if carefully made. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade should be about 27 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. long. in building up his work from the illustrations. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. using a straightedge and a pencil. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. When the whole is quite dry. 1 Fig. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The handle is next made. in width. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade.. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty.. whether he requires a single sword only. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. near the point end. thick. Glue the other side of the blade. 2 Fig. wipe the blade . Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. says the English Mechanic.

about 1-1/2 in. 2. allowing for a good hold with both hands. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 3. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1/8 in. 1. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. and 3 in. In the finished piece. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration.. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 2. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine.. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The length of the handle. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 3. Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. of course. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the other is flat or halfround. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. preferably of contrasting colors. 1. follow the directions as for Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. as it is . the other is flat or half-round. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 1. long. thick and 5 in. should be about 9 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the other two are identical. In making. shows only two sides. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. square and of any length desired. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 1. This sword is about 68 in. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. in diameter. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. take two pieces of wood. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. 4. In making this scimitar. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the illustration.

thick and from 14 to 16 ft. and if so. in an attempt to remove it. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. about 3/8 in. and. Both can be made easily. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. A piece of mild steel. each about 1 ft. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. It is made of a plank. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. square. 2 in. N. long. On each edge of the board. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. piping and jackets by hard water. A cold . Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Mass. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. --Contributed by John Blake. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. or an insecure fastening. as can the pitch bed or block. Syracuse. as there was some at hand. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Franklin. The thinness of the plank. Morse. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Y. as shown in the sketch. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Doctors probed for the button without success. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. however. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. at the lower end. --Contributed by Katharine D. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand.

design down. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. To put it in another way.. secure a piece of brass of about No. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. plaster of Paris. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 5 lb. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Trim up the edges and file them . Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. When the desired form has been obtained. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. tallow. a file to reduce the ends to shape. To remedy this.. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When this has been done. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. using a small metal saw. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. on the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 18 gauge.

Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Fill the 3-in. The smaller is placed within the larger. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. or fraction of a horsepower. A. but not to stop it. . Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. That is lifting 33. This in turn divided by 33. it may be well to know what horsepower means. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Before giving the description. Clean the metal thoroughly. per minute. Cutter.000 ft. lb. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. space between the vessels with water. in one minute or 550 lb. 1) and the other 12 in. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. in diameter (Fig. --Contributed by Harold H. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. 1 ft.smooth. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. per second.000 lb. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. one 18 in. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 2). Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in the center. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle. 1 ft. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in one second. in diameter (Fig. or 550 ft.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. make an unusual show window attraction. Fig. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. over the smaller vessel. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. using powdered pumice with lye. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. and hang a bird swing. to keep it from floating. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 3. 30 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. lb. and still revolve.

How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Y. 1 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Mass. Diameter Fig. --Contributed. Campbell.3 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Brooklyn. 2 Fig. Somerville. F. Diameter 12 in. --Contributed by J. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. The effect is surprising. by L. Szerlip. or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.18 in. N.

Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. often render it useless after a few months service. Do not be content merely to bend them over. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. which may be of wood or tin. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. away from the edge. then by drawing a straightedge over it. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. with other defects. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. to keep the metal from tarnishing. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge.copper of No. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. after which it is ready for use. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. with the pliers. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. which. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. as a rule. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the clay . and then. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Rivet the cup to the base. keeping the center high. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. the same as removing writing from a slate. is. This compound is impervious to water. Polish both of these pieces. In riveting. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. using any of the common metal polishes. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. unsatisfactory. and cut out the shape with the shears. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration.

Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. A. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. the device will work for an indefinite time. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Scotland. It is made of a glass tube. Northville. --Contributed by John T. Houghton. --Contributed by A. Grand Rapids. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 2. Shettleston. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Dunlop. 1. -Contributed by Thos. DeLoof. as shown in Fig.can be pressed back and leveled. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Mich. . in diameter and 5 in. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Mich. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 3/4 in. long. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube.

1. put up as ornaments. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. London. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. As the handle is to . The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. in width and 2 in. long. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. This sword is 4 ft.

This sword is about 4 ft. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. sharp edges on both sides. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. one about 1/2 in. wood with a keyhole saw. in length. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. In Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Three large. The sword shown in Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. firmly glued on. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. When dry. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 3 is shown a claymore. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. small rope and round-headed nails. 20 spike. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. string. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The ball is made as described in Fig. glue and put it in place. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 5. with both edges sharp. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. then glued on the blade as shown. These must be cut from pieces of wood. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 4. with both edges of the blade sharp. A German poniard is shown in Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 11 were used. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The crossbar and blade are steel. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. with wire or string' bound handle. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A German stiletto. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the axe is of steel. studded with brass or steel nails. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. in width. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. long with a dark handle of wood. which is about 2-1/2 ft.represent copper. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long. This stiletto has a wood handle. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. in length. When the whole is quite dry. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. This axe is made similar to the one . In Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 7. 9. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. narrower. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the upper part iron or steel. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. very broad. Both handle and axe are of steel. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. 6. 8. paint it a dark brown or black.

together as shown in Fig.described in Fig. W. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. Davis. . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. such as braided fishline. will pull where other belts slip.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Chicago. When wrapped all the way around. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. This will make a very good flexible belt. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 2. Old-Time Magic . 10. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. so the contents cannot be seen. --Contributed by E.

or using small wedges of wood. causing the flowers to grow. Oakland. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. 1 and put together as in Fig.J.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Before the performance. apparently. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. some of the liquid. filled with water. held in the right hand. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The dotted lines in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. with the circle centrally located. To make the flowers grow in an instant. an acid. four glass tumblers. Bridgeton. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. 2. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. There will be no change in color. N. Calif. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Macdonald. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. These wires are put in the jar. --Contributed by A. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. in a few seconds' time. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. S.

The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. and equally worthy of individual treatment. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. If the size wanted is No. --Contributed by W. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. not only because of the fact just mentioned. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. 4 for width and No. 2 for height. Cal. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. practical and costs nothing. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Richmond. When many slides are to be masked. A. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. says a correspondent of Photo Era. unless some special device is used. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] .It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Jaquythe. which are numbered for convenience in working. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. This outlines the desired opening. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. and kept ready for use at any time. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly.

and do not inhale the fumes. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. the paper is folded along the center line. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. a little less acid than water. paint the design. The one shown is merely suggestive. This done. 16 gauge. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. not the water into the acid. about half and half. which is dangerous. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. With a stick. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. or a pair of old tongs. Draw a design. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. When etched to the desired depth. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The decoration. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. or. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. but they can be easily revived.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. may be changed. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. the margin and the entire back of the metal. using the carbon paper. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. too. and the extreme length 7 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. possibly. is about right for the No. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Secure a sheet of No.

3. long.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Fig. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. attached to a post at each end. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. about 3 ft. high. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 2. Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Then get two posts. C and D. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. The connections are simple: I. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. as shown in Fig. Fig. It may be either nailed or screwed down. thick. 4. and about 2-1/2 ft. Nail a board. the bell will ring. 5. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. as at H. 24 parts water. Paint the table any color desired. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 3/8 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Cut out a piece of tin. When the button S is pressed. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. wide. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. A. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. repeat as many times as is necessary. as shown in the illustration. J is another wire attached in the same way. 0 indicates the batteries. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 2-1/2 in. wide and of the same length as the table. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. to the table. so that when it is pressed down. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. it will touch post F. about 8 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. . 2. 5. through it. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 2. Fig. and bore two holes. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. as in Fig. about 1 in. 1. in diameter and 1/4 in. with the wires underneath. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. or more wide. long and 1 ft.

thick.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. This weapon is about 22 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The circle is marked out with a compass. long serves as the dowel. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Imitation Arms and Armor . Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The entire weapon. 1. 2. the wood peg inserted in one of them. says the English Mechanic. The imitation articles are made of wood. is to appear as steel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. After the glue is dry. such as . long.. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A wood peg about 2 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. These rings can be carved out. handle and all.

can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. long. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The spikes are cut out of wood. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. 3. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. the hammer and spike. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. If such a tool is not at hand. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. covered with red velvet. also. 6. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. This weapon is about 22 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle is of wood. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. with a sharp carving tool. or the amateur cannot use it well. . The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. All of these axes are about the same length.ornamental scrolls. as described in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Its length is about 3 ft. The upper half of the handle is steel. 5. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. used at the end of the fifteenth century. 8. as shown. The lower half of the handle is wood. as before mentioned. flowers. etc. leaves. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. studded with large brass or steel nails. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of steel imitation. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The axe is shown in steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out.

as in Fig. . The knife falling on its side (Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 5. calls for a home run. 1. as shown in Fig. the knife resting on its back. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. and so on for nine innings. 3. 4). Chicago. Fig. 2. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 6. then the other plays.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 7) calls for one out.

He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. hypo to 1 pt. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. 3. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.-Contributed by J. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. It may be found that the negative is not colored. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. F. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. as shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. one of them burning . Old-Time Magic . 2. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. This he does. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. as shown in Fig. of the rope and holds it. while the committee is tying him up. Campbell.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 1. with the rope laced in the cloth. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Mass. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Somerville. of water for an hour or two. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right.

Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. etc. of turpentine. invisible to them (the audience). Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. of sugar. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. --Contributed by L.. shades the light for a few seconds. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. the other without a light. --Contributed by C. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Ky. . thick. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. B. 3/4 in. New York City. thus causing it to light. 4 oz. with which he is going to light the other candle. of plumbago. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. bolt. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of water and 1 oz. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Louisville. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.brightly. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Evans. showing that there is nothing between them. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Thome. Lebanon. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. and. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Ky. Brown.Contributed by Andrew G. Drill Gauge screw. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The magician walks over to the burning candle. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. He then walks over to the other candle. 4 oz. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles.

--Contributed by C. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Its current strength is about one volt. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. into a tube of several thicknesses. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. but is not so good. or blotting paper. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. which will give a strong. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. for the material. long. In making up the solution. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. H. Pulteney. about 5 in. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. 5 in. diameter. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. To make the porous cell.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Y. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. steady current. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Denniston. Do not add water to the acid. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. N. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. thick.

it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.station. After much experimentation with bearings. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. one drawing them together. steel. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. To insure this. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft.) may be obtained. Finally. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. carrying the hour circle at one end. As to thickness. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. but somewhat lighter. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. One hole was bored as well as possible. a positive adjustment was provided. while the other end is attached by two screws. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. steel. the other holding them apart. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The . long with a bearing at each end. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in.

Declination is read directly. Instead. The pole is 1 deg. All these adjustments. Point it approximately to the north star. and 15 min. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg.. To find a star in the heavens. save the one in the pipe. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. turn the pointer to the star. The aperture should be 1/4 in. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. and if it is not again directed to the same point." Only a rough setting is necessary. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. When properly set it will describe a great circle. If the result is more than 24 hours. All set screws. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. once carefully made.. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. It is. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. apart. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. are tightened. in each direction from two points 180 deg. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. is provided with this adjustment. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Each shaft. Set the declination circle to its reading. To locate a known star on the map." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. need not be changed. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. 45 min.axis is adjusted by turning these screws." When this is done. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Cassiopiae. excepting those on the declination axis. subtract 24. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes.

Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. is folded several times. Strosnider. taking care not to add too much. add a little more benzole. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. is the real cannon ball. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. the others . New Orleans. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of ether. The dance will begin. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. La. -Contributed by Ray E. If this will be too transparent. Ohio. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. In reality the first ball. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.. Plain City. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. benzole. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. which is the one examined. a great effect will be produced. then add 1 2-3 dr. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. 3 or 4 in.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The ball is found to be the genuine article. long. as shown in the sketch.

Return the card to the pack. without taking up any great amount of space. taps. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. as shown in the illustration. San Francisco. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Wis. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. 1). --Contributed by J. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. In boxes having a sliding cover. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Milwaukee. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Somerville. Fig. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. etc. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. F. Cal. 2.. Mass. small brooches. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Campbell. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.

The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Beller. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Connecticut. thus giving ample store room for colors. as shown in the illustration. slides and extra brushes. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. . prints. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Hartford. from the bottom of the box.

2). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. O. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. will answer the purpose. holes in the bottom of one. Mass. -Contributed by C. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the ends are turned under.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. about threefourths full. with well packed horse manure. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. or placed against a wall. FIG. Fill the upper tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. . 1). Darke. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. West Lynn. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. costing 5 cents. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and especially are the end pieces objectionable.

oil or other fluid. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If plugs are found in any of the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and each bundle contains . they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Chicago. if this is not available. Eifel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. If the following directions are carried out.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. when they are raised from the pan. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. M. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. --Contributed by L. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel.

then across and down. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. held there by inserting another plug. after having been pulled tight. 1. a square pointed wedge. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. as shown in Fig. No plugs . First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In addition to the cane. put about 3 or 4 in. as it must be removed again. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. it should be held by a plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs.

is the horizontal dial. using the same holes as for the first layer. 3. From table No. as shown in Fig. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. After completing the second layer. When cool. 4. stretch the third one. or the style. 1. the height of the line BC. trim off the surplus rosin. Fig.075 in. the next smallest. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 1 lat. If you have a table of natural functions. W. as the height of the line BC for lat. 42° is 4. During the weaving. No weaving has been done up to this time.2+. as it always equals the latitude of the place. and the one we shall describe in this article. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. 1. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 5 in. 3. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.= 4. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The style or gnomon. 41 °-30'. we have 4. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. --Contributed by M. 1. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.42 in. as for example. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. R. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. but the most common. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside.3 in. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Detroit. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. There are several different designs of sundials. the height of which is taken from table No. and for lat. in this case) times the . lat. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. -Contributed by E. It consists of a flat circular table. it is 4.075 in. Fig. Michigan. as shown in Fig. Their difference is . 40°. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. This will make three layers. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. and for 1° it would be . although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.5 in.2 in. All added to the lesser or 40°. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. D. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. Patrick. called the gnomon. 41°-30'. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.15+. for 2°. is the base (5 in. If handled with a little care.15 in. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Even with this lubrication. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 5. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.

Draw two semi-circles.30 1. 1. or if of stone.37 54° 6.30 2. using the points A and C as centers. long.23 6. To layout the hour circle.55 4. according to the size of the dial.49 3.37 5.26 4.55 46° 5. For latitudes not given.07 4.40 1.39 .10 6. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.38 .00 40° 4. base. Fig. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.68 5-30 6-30 5.16 40 .66 latitude.50 26° 2. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. an inch or two.02 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.03 3.88 36° 3.28 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. and intersecting the semicircles. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. 2.55 30° 2.57 3. and for this size dial (10 in. or more.44 44° 4.93 6.tangent of the degree of latitude. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.64 4 8 3.42 1.33 42° 4.91 58° 8. with a radius of 5 in.14 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.57 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness. .41 38° 3.16 1. 2.06 2.82 3.63 56° 7.66 1.76 1.33 .99 2.56 . 2 for given latitudes.12 52° 6. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.20 60° 8.87 1.82 5.83 27° 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 48° 5.81 4.93 2. Its thickness. gives the 6 o'clock points.18 28° 2.46 .85 35 .79 4.29 4-30 7-30 3. Table NO.42 .49 30 .11 3.42 45 .59 2. and perpendicular to the base or style. Chords in inches for a 10 in. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.19 1.94 1.55 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.87 4.40 34° 3. if of metal. circle Sundial.85 1.77 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. Draw the line AD.89 50° 5.82 2.96 32° 3.97 5 7 4.32 6.46 3.27 2.

53 1. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Each weapon is cut from wood. Mitchell. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.46 5. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.49 3.54 60 . The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .from Sundial lime.30 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.52 Table No. each article can be labelled with the name. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.87 6. Iowa.21 2. 2 and Dec. says the English Mechanic.68 3. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 3. adding to each piece interest and value.add those marked + subtract those Marked . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.19 2.77 3.57 1. Sept. and the . 3 Corrections in minutes to change.46 4.08 1.06 2.50 . April 16. Sun time to local mean time. 25. E. 900 Chicago. June 15. and for the difference between standard and local time.49 5.72 5. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.98 4.82 3.01 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.14 1. --Contributed by J. then the watch is slower.93 6. As they are the genuine reproductions.12 5.37 2. London. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. after allowing for the declination. 3. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. Sioux City. The + means that the clock is faster.50 55 . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. will enable one to set the dial. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.89 3.10 4. An ordinary compass.34 5.. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. it will be faster.71 2.60 4.63 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.24 5. if west. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.79 6.

the length of which is about 5 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 3. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Partisan. When putting on the tinfoil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. 1. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. . and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.

5. . used about the seventeenth century. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear.. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. in diameter. the holes being about 1/4 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The spear is steel. is shown in Fig. press it well into the carved depressions. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. This weapon is about 6 ft. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 7. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. 6 ft. about 4 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. long with a round wooden handle. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. long. long with a round staff or handle.which is square. It is about 6 ft. 8. The edges are sharp. The length of this bar is about 5 in. long. A gisarm or glaive. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. which are a part of the axe. The extreme length is 9 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. sharp on the outer edges. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood.

although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Substances such as straw. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Loudonville. or in holes punched in a leather strap. In Figs. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. H. B. Cut all the cords the same length. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. apart. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Ohio. 5. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. The twisted cross cords should . They can be made of various materials. 4. 2 and 3. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 1. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Workman. the cross cords. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This is important to secure neatness. as shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. are put in place. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove.-Contributed by R.

procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. shaped as shown at C. To remedy this. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New Orleans. Four V-shaped notches were cut. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. A slit was cut in the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in.be of such material. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. below the top to within 1/4 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. in which was placed a piece of glass. New York. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. of the bottom. wide. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . This was turned over the top of the other can. M. Harrer. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Lockport. La. as shown at B. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. 3 in. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. bamboo or rolled paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. -Contributed by Geo. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper.

about 1/16 in. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Shay. H. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright.tape from sticking to the carpet. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. This plank. Y. After this is finished. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Cal. giving the appearance of hammered brass. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. wide. N. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by Chas. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . --Contributed by W. the brass is loosened from the block. do not throw away the gloves. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. --Contributed by Joseph H. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Newburgh. turned over but not fastened. Maywood. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Pasadena. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Ill. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Sanford. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This should be done gradually. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Schaffner.

A. -Contributed by W. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Oak Park. Richmond. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Cal. --E. Marshall. Jaquythe. K. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. bent as shown. Ill. Unlike most clocks. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. in diameter. the pendulum swings .

Chicago. away. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. high and 1/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Fasten another board. 3/4 in. in diameter. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. C. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. about 6 in. In using this method. about 12 in. The construction is very simple. thick. by 1-5/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. long and at each side of this. 6 in. Metzech. Now place the board to be joined. Secure a board. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. to the first one with screws or glue. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. --Contributed by V. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. . Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. and the result is not only novel but well worth while.. Two uprights. on the board B. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. is an electromagnet. high. wide. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. 5/16 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. high. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. says the Scientific American. are secured in the base bar. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. wide that is perfectly flat. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. bar. and the other two 2-5/8 in. 7-1/2 in. such as this one. only have the opposite side up. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. bearing on the latter. A.

--Contributed by Elmer A. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The trigger. 3. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. plates should be made 8 in. wide and 5 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. as shown at A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. wide and 1 in. long. 2. square inside. Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. from one end. by driving a pin through the wood. 1. or more. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. square. . Pa. is fastened in the hole A. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. 4. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Vanderslice. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Phoenixville. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 1.

if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Fostoria. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. rubbing varnish and turpentine.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. one-half the length of the side pieces. by weight. as shown in the illustration. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 2 parts of whiting. 5 parts of black filler. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. which allows 1/4 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. -Contributed by J. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis.A. square. Ohio. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.

If a plain glass is used. Shaw. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Dartmouth. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. It must be kept moist and well . long. II. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Mass. as shown in Fig. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. which may be either of ground or plain glass. in the opposite end of the box. A piece of metal. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. preferably copper. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Grand Rapids. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Michigan. In use. DeLoof. is set at an angle of 45 deg. A double convex lens. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training.lower strings. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. is necessary. No. London. G. In constructing helmets. wide and about 1 ft. and it may be made as a model or full sized. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Thos. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. A mirror. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. 1. says the English Mechanic. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. keeps the strong light out when sketching. -Contributed by Abner B. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. place tracing paper on its surface. and the picture can be drawn as described. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. deep. 8 in. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons.

and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. joined closely together. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. 2. This being done. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and the deft use of the fingers. 3. as in bas-relief. shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. and continue until the clay is completely covered. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. brown. The clay. and over the crest on top. take. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. Scraps of thin.kneaded. or some thin glue. as shown in Fig. will be necessary. After the clay model is finished. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . a few clay-modeling tools. 1. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. the clay model oiled. All being ready. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and left over night to soak. with a keyhole saw. 1.

This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. as shown: in the design. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. 5. a few lines running down. and so on. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Indianapolis. In Fig. 7. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. the piecing could not be detected. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. the skullcap. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. which should be no difficult matter. should be modeled and made in one piece. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. When the helmet is off the model. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. one for each side. square in shape. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. then another coating of glue. and the ear guards in two pieces. The whole helmet. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. will make it look neat. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig.as possible. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. When dry. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. When perfectly dry. Before taking it off the model. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. Indiana. with the exception of the vizor. The band is decorated with brass studs. or. They are all covered with tinfoil. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 9. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. owing to the clay being oiled. as seen in the other part of the sketch. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. In Fig. The center of the ear guards are perforated. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. a crest on top. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. 1.

Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 12 in. high. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. and two large 3in. until it is within 1 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 3. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. The mineral wool. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. E and F. 22 gauge resistance wire. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. If asbestos is used. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. German-silver wire is better. 3 in. about 1 lb. 1. 1. 4. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 4. long. wide and 15 in. GG. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. of No. or. in diameter and 9 in. of the top. to receive screws for holding it to the base. thick sheet asbestos. AA. for connections. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. are allowed to project about 1 in. The two holes. Fig. about 1/4 in. The reverse side of the base. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. one small switch. screws. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. Fig. long. 2. with slits cut for the wires. 4. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. and C. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The holes B and C are about 3 in. one fuse block. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. 2. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 2. This will allow the plate. one glass tube. if the measurements are correct. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. JJ. is shown in Fig. of mineral wool. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. FF. two ordinary binding posts. one oblong piece of wood. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. long. when they are placed in opposite positions. if this cannot be obtained. also the switch B and the fuse block C. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. This will make an open space between the plates. The plate. each 4-1/2 in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 1. Fig.same size. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 4. A round collar of galvanized iron. as shown in Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 1 in. thick. Fig. and. 1. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. is then packed down inside the collar. should extend about 1/4 in. AA. above the collar. Fig. of fire clay. which can be bought from a local druggist. the fuse block. 4. AA. the holes leading to the switch. about 80 ft. 4 lb. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F.

Cut a 1/2-in. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. deep. Cal. II. When this is done. as the turns of the wires. Can. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. and pressed into it. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. so that the circuit will not become broken. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. above the rim. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. it leaves a gate for the metal. It should not be left heated in this condition. It should not be set on end. St. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Richmond. When the tile is in place. steam will form when the current is applied. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. when heated. more wire should be added. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. 4. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. This point marks the proper length to cut it. allowing a space between each turn. As these connections cannot be soldered. apart. H. will slip and come in contact with each other. While the clay is damp. A. --Contributed by W. This completes the stove. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. when cool. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Catherines. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. If it is not thoroughly dry. KK. then. The clay. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Fig. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. If this is the case. Fig. --Contributed by R. Cover over about 1 in. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. causing a short circuit. Cnonyn. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. 2. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. using care not to get it too wet. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Next. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Jaquythe.

constructed of 3/4-in. Then clip a little off the . Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. but 12 by 24 in. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the frame set near a window." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Ky. --Contributed by Andrew G. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the prints will dry rapidly. square material in any size. the pie will be damaged. says the Photographic Times. as shown. is large enough. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Thorne. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Louisville.

which are fastened to the base. long. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. each 1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. thereby saving time and washing. long. 2. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. in diameter. wide and 7 in. as shown. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. for the crank. Fig. W. 22 gauge magnet wire. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 3. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. long. thick and 3 in. The connecting rod E. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. causing a break in the current. An offset is bent in the center. -Contributed by S. each 1 in. open out. 1/2 in. 4 in. Figs. 2-1/2 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. allowing each end to project for connections. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Le Mars. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. wide. 1. 1 and 3. As the shaft revolves. high. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. thick. wide and 3 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. high. The upright B. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. which gives the shaft a half turn. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1. Herron. Two supports. 14 in. Fig. 1/2 in.Paper Funnel point. high. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 1. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. A 1/8-in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The board can be raised to place . Iowa. thick and 3 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. in diameter and about 4 in. The driving arm D. slip on two cardboard washers. 1. at GG.

wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Place the pot. as shown in the sketch. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. in height. Dorchester. Stecher. on a board. In designing the roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. making a framework suitable for a roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. --Contributed by William F. One or more pots may be used. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Mass. . and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. bottom side up. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. 3 in. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.

Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. shelves. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.. Fig. will produce the pattern desired. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. etc. F. odd corners. windows. as shown in Fig. that it is heated. paraffin and paint or varnish. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. ordinary glue. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The materials required are rope or. and give it time to dry. preferably. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. when combined. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.. Wind the . 1. grills and gratings for doors. without any corresponding benefit. The bottom part of the sketch. adopt the method described. if it is other than straight lines. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. in diameter. 1.

Fig. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. cut and glue them together. M. N. Harrer. 2. -Contributed by Geo. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Y.

when it will be observed that any organic matter. This piece of horse armor. chips of iron rust.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. but no farther. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. will be retained by the cotton. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. As the . etc. and the sides do not cover the jaws.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. London. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. says the English Mechanic. 1. which was used in front of a horse's head.

main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. but the back is not necessary. and therefore it is not described. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 2. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. which is separate. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. the same as in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. In Fig. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. except the thumb and fingers. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. but for . and the clay model oiled. 6 and 7. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. An arrangement is shown in Fig. The armor is now removed from the model. This being done. which can be made in any size. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and will require less clay. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. All being ready. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. with the exception of the thumb shield. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. as the surface will hold the clay. 8. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. the rougher the better. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This can be made in one piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 4. This triangularshaped support. as shown in the sketch. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. then another coat of glue. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. a weak solution of glue will do equally well.

are glued to it. long. will be about right. the foils will not move. La Rue. The two pieces of foil. Goshen. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. and the instrument is ready for use. fastened to the rod. each about 1/4 in. . --Contributed by Ralph L. in depth. wide and 1/2 in. running down the plate. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. --Contributed by John G. Y. are better shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 9. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. N. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. If it does not hold a charge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Redondo Beach. 1/2 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Buxton. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. cut into the shape shown in Fig. 2. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. two in each jaw. Calif. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. the top of the rod. A piece of board.

such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. long. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. The can may be bronzed. Bryan. about 15 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. from the smaller end. hole bored through it. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. enameled or otherwise decorated. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. is made of a 1/4-in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as shown in the illustration.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. When a fish is hooked. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. 2-1/2 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. pine board. A. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as this will cut under the water without splashing. --Contributed by Mrs. Corsicana. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as indicated in the . A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. At a point 6 in. Texas. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. M. silvered.

using powdered pumice and lye. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. long over all. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Basswood or butternut. or even pine. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. wide by 6 in. Having completed the drawing. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. take a piece of thin wood. 3/8 or 1/4 in. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. such as basswood or pine was used. A good size is 5 in. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. then with a nail. Any kind of wood will do. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. If soft wood. Polish the metal. using a piece of carbon paper. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. thick. as shown. Next prepare the metal holder. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. punch the holes. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. When it has dried over night. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. and trace upon it the design and outline. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back.Match Holder accompanying sketch. 22 is plenty heavy enough.

Richmond. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. It is useful for photographers. . long. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Cal. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. If carving is contemplated. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. A. each 1 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. the whole being finished in linseed oil. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. thick. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Jaquythe. is used for the base of this instrument. long. If one has some insight in carving. 2 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. wide and 5 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. of pure olive oil. Two wire nails. 1/2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. --Contributed by W. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. can be made on the same standards. are used for the cores of the magnets. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. leaving about 1/4 in. cut in the shape of the letter T. about No. at A. Lynas. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. cloth or baize to represent the legs. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A rubber band. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. . behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. then covered with red. as shown in Fig. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. 3. All of the parts for the armor have been described. when the key is pushed down. says the English Mechanic. London. About 1 in. similar to that used in electric bells. as shown by the dotted lines. the paper covering put on. except that for the legs. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. A piece of tin. in the shape shown in the sketch. 1. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. --Contributed by W. acts as a spring to keep the key open. 25 gauge. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. H.

drill six 1/4-in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. hole in the center. In one end of the piece. 1 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. for the sake of lightness. in the other end. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 3 in. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. Take the piece shown in Fig. flat headed carriage bolt. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. apart. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. or ordinary plaster laths will do. holes. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Silver paper will do very well. Secure two strips of wood. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. These can be purchased at a stationery store. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. long. not too tight. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. at each end. about 1 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Fig. 2. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. one to another . make the same series of eight small holes and. says Camera Craft. completes the equipment. So set up. apart..Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and eight small holes. 1 and drill a 1/4in. A 1/4-in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. The two pieces are bolted together.

then B over C and the end stuck under A. 2. of the ends remain unwoven. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. and lay it over the one to the right. long. 2. taking the same start as for the square fob. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as in portraiture and the like. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. lay Cover B and the one under D. the one marked A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. in Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Fig. 2. Then take B and lay it over A. but instead of reversing . The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. D over A and C. 4. 1. Start with one end. A is the first string and B is the second. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured.of the larger holes in the strip. C over D and B. and the one beneath C. for instance. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. In this sketch. A round fob is made in a similar way. doubled and run through the web of A. as shown in Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart.

Monroeville. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. the design of which is shown herewith. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. always lap one string. 3. Rupp. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as in making the square fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. as at A in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 1-1/2 in. over the one to its right. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. long. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Ohio. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as B. A loop. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is left out at the center before starting on one side. --Contributed by John P. 5. is to be made of leather. especially if silk strings are used.

The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. pressing it against the wood. Mich. it can be easily renewed. using the reverse side. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Houghton. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Any smooth piece of steel. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. door facing or door panel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. beeswax or paraffin. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. . Northville. such as a nut pick. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. filling them with wax. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. -Contributed by A. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. A. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. says Photographic Times. long. leaving about 1/4 in. although tin ones can be used with good success. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. D. Fold together on lines C. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. apart and driven in only part way. those on matte paper will work best. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. E and F. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. . remaining above the surface of the board. and after wetting. Thompson. J. Ill. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. thick. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Petersburg. it is best to leave a plain white margin. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. New York. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. and about 12 in. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Y. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. but any kind that will not stick may be used. The tacks should be about 1 in. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Select the print you wish to mount. N. place it face down in the dish. --Contributed by O. if blueprints are used. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Enough plaster should. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted.

When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.. without mixing the solutions. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. filling the same about onehalf full. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. violets. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. as shown at the left in the sketch. roses. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. etc. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. as shown in the right of the sketch. bell flowers.

The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. in diameter and 1 in. as shown. 1-7/8 in. L. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and at the larger end. should be soldered to the box. not too tightly. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. 3. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1. about 1/8s in. The tin horn can be easily made. Millstown. The diaphragm. but which will not wobble loose. When soldering these parts together. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . as shown in the sketch.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. 2. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. shading. long and made of wood. long. is about 2-1/2 in. The first point should be ground blunt. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube.. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. or delicate tints of the egg. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The sound box. South Dakota. turned a little tapering. to keep the core from coming off in turning. A rod that will fit the brass tube. Shabino. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. thick. made of heavy tin. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Fig. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. --Contributed by L.

Gold. is to take a knife with two blades at one end.Contributed by E. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Chicago. Colo. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Jr.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. wondering what it was. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Ill. mice in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. E. and weighted it with a heavy stone. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. put a board on top.

. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Can. Pereira. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Y. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. N. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Ottawa. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo.

Mich. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by W. a piece of tin. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. A. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. De Loof. Jaquythe. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. by means of a flatheaded tack. as shown. --Contributed by Thos. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . cut round.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. longer than the length of the can. above the end of the dasher. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cal. and at one end of the stick fasten. as it can be made quickly in any size. Grand Rapids. through which several holes have been punched. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. This cart has no axle. Richmond. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Put a small nail 2 in.

can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. as shown. Notches 1/8 in. 1 ft. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 1/4 in.1. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Fig. 2. apart.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. I reversed a door gong. New Orleans. thick. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. --Contributed by James M. A wedge-shaped piece of . of course. 2. wide. The candles. Kane. 1-1/2 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide and 3 ft. were below the level of the bullseye. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. long. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Doylestown. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. La. wide and as long as the box. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The baseboard and top are separable. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. cut in the center of the rounding edge. deep and 3 in. 1. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Pa. 2. board. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 2 in. wide and 1/8 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.

as one end must be dropped in place before the other.Book Back Holders metal. scissors. After the glue has dried. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. will. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Ia. When not in use. the reason being that if both were solid. Needles. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. West Union. Worcester. For the handle. wide into each side of the casing. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. as shown in Fig. etc. the blade is put back into the groove . After completing the handle. when placed as in Fig. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. 3. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. dressing one surface of each piece. wide rubber bands or felt. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. can be picked up without any trouble. take two pieces of hard wood. A. Wood. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. 1. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. This device is very convenient for invalids. by cutting away the ends. --Contributed by G. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. to prevent its scratching the desk top. stone or wood. it can be removed without marring the casing. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge.. the shelf could not be put on the window. Mass. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Cover the block with rubber.

1 in. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Cleveland.and sharpened to a cutting edge. as shown in Fig. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Pa. A. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Ohio. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Each one is made of a hardwood block. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. -Contributed by W. Jacobs. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. as shown in Fig. If desired. Mass. Hutchins. is shown in the accompanying sketch. A notch is cut in one side. Erie. square and 4 in. S. --Contributed by H. 1. 2. long. . Malden. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. thus carrying the car up the incline.

and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. The letters can be put on afterward. N. 6 by 9-1/2 in. a board on which to work it. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Prepare a design for the front. This will insure having all parts alike. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. will be needed. .. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. and an awl and hammer.J. If one such as is shown is to be used. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.

to right angles. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. 1/4 part. paste the paper design right on the metal. but weird and distant. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. turpentine. or. a violin. 2 parts white vitriol. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. varnish. Remove the metal. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. behind or through the center of a table leg. flat brush." In all appearance. if desired. On the back. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The music will not sound natural. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. which is desirable. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. as shown. mandolin or guitar. placed on a table. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. in the waste metal. If any polishing is required.Fasten the metal to the board. One coat will do. 1 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. only the marginal line is to be pierced. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. applied by means of a brush. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. So impressive are the results. . The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The stick may be placed by the side of. 3/4 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. says Master Painter.

1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. wide. and is easy to construct. thick by 1/2 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. 3. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. long and measuring 26 in. apart. 2. round-head machine screws. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. . long. The longest piece. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. without them. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. it might be difficult. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. London. are shaped as shown in Fig. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long and spread about 8 in. each 6 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. square bar iron. across the top. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. says Work. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Two pairs of feet. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. With proper tools this is easy. each 28 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.

D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The design is formed in the lead. The glass. as shown in Fig. Place the corner piece of glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. and the base border. lead. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. or. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. B. in the grooves of the borders. C. is held by the brads. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. on it as shown. the latter being tapped to . The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The brads are then removed. 4. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 7. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. better still. Fig. While the piece of lead D. A. After the joints are soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. special flux purchased for this purpose. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. cut a long piece of lead. using rosin as a flux. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. After the glass is cut. 5. 5. 6. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.

lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. square and of the length given in the drawing. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. long. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. A and B. 8. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. rounded at the top as shown. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. and round the corners of one end for a ring. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. then drill a 3/4-in. This . hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. bolt. long. plank about 12 ft. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. wood screws in each washer. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. holes through their centers. and two wood blocks. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. in diameter and 1/4 in. Make three washers 3-in. one on each side and central with the hole. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. not less than 4 in. H. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. bolt. The center pin is 3/4-in. Camden. rocker bolt. Dreier. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Fasten the plates to the block B. then flatten its end on the under side. Bore a 5/8-in.. N. J. plates. This ring can be made of 1-in. Secure a post. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Jr. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown.the base of the clip. but the one on the left is the one most generally used.

long. 2-1/2 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. hickory. and some one can swing an axe. 3/4 by 3 in. 3 in. long. La. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. from one edge. 1/2 in. chestnut or ash. by 6-1/2 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. by 2 ft. 7 in. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The four 7-in. horse and rings. 4 pieces. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long and 1 piece. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 4 in. by 3 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. straight-grained hickory. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 pieces. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. bit. 1 by 7 in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. screws. 4 filler pieces. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 4 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. New Orleans. in diameter and 7 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 2 by 4 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 50 ft. long. To substitute small. If trees are convenient. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 1-1/4in. 16 screws. 9 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. square by 5 ft. of 1/4-in. maple. because it will not stand the weather. apart for a distance of 3 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. 1. shanks. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. boards along the side of each from end to end. bolts and rope.

.bored. apart. so the 1/2-in. from the end. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. boards coincide. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. piece of wood. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. 8 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. each 3 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . apart. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Bore a 9/16-in. 2. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. at each end. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes.

one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. the effect is very striking.. in an endless belt. apart. W. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. not much to look at in daytime. which at once gathered. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. passing through a screweye at either end. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. just visible against the dark evening sky. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and then passes in a curve across the base. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. not even the tumbler. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. If the tumbler is rotated. was at its height. and ascends the stem. it follows the edge for about 1 in. it is taken to the edge of the foot. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. but most deceptive at dusk. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. . Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals." which skimmed along the distant horizon. He stretched the thread between two buildings. about 100 ft. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. disappearing only to reappear again. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and materially heightened the illusion. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. When the interest of the crowd. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. And all he used was a black thread.

The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. and turned in a spiral D. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. by 7 ft. 2 by 3 in. 8 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 4 in. 2 base pieces. Fig. 4 bolts. 8 bolts. 8 in. 1. 8 in. 2 cross braces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. large spikes. from either side of the center. long. The cork will come out easily. by 10 ft. 2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. square and 51/2 ft. 2 side braces. 2 in. 2 by 4 in. long and 1 doz. by 2 ft. long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. by 3 ft. deep. 6 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. square and 6 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Bevel the ends of . beginning at a point 9 in. New Orleans. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 wood screws. preferably cedar. long. To make the apparatus. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. La. wide and 1 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 4 knee braces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. 7 in. long. 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long. so the point will be on top. 4 in. A wire about No.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside.

A. leaving the strainer always in position. so the bolts in both will not meet. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr.the knee braces. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. but even unpainted they are very durable.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Richmond. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view.. jellies. equipped with a strainer. ( To be Continued. which face each other. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. After the trenches are dug. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Jaquythe. These will allow the ladle to be turned. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. as shown in the diagram. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. A large sized ladle. leave it undressed. If using mill-cut lumber. screws. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. of 7 ft. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. except the bars. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. . etc. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. using four of the 7-in bolts. and countersinking the heads. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. --Contributed by W. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. save the bars. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Two endpieces must be made. Cal. The wood so treated will last for years. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. additional long. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.

An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. milling machine. . it is necessary to place a stick. In order to accomplish this experiment. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. of sufficient 1ength.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. which seems impossible. drill press or planer. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. Oil. thus holding the pail as shown. or various cutting compounds of oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. partly a barrier for jumps.

but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. projections and splinters. long. apart in a central position on the horse. 2 by 4 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. These are well nailed in place. 4 knee braces. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. by 3 ft. long. 1 cross brace. 2 adjusting pieces. bolts. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The round part of this log must be planed. by 3 ft. in the ground. 2 by 4 in. To construct. Hand holds must be provided next. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing.. bolts. from each end. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. long. long.. These are placed 18 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 4 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. square by 5-1/2 ft. bolts. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. 1 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. and free from knots. bolt. stud cut rounding on one edge. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 in. wood yard or from the woods. in diameter--the larger the better. two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. piece of 2 by 4-in. but 5 ft. long. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. ten 1/2-in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 2 bases. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 2 by 4 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 in. apart. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 7 in. 3 in. square by 5 ft. is a good length. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Procure from a saw mill. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4-1/2 in.

including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead.horse top.--Contributed by W. it is caused by some obstruction. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Jaquythe. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. snow. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. such as a dent. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. A. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Richmond. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Also. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. over and around. but nevertheless. pipe and fittings. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. etc. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. then bending to the shape desired. water. Cal. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. no one is responsible but himself. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by an overloaded shell. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.

in width and 1/32 in. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Noble. --Contributed by James E. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Ontario. 1. --Contributed by Arthur E. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. then run a string over each part. --Contributed by J. are all the tools necessary. Paris. The end elevation. These. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. when complete. will give the length. 1/4 or 3/16 in.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Mass. Vener. W. which. Toronto. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. thick. when straightened out. is much better than a wood sled. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. at E and F. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. France. Boston. 2. Joerin. .

These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 4. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. It is best to use soft water. . are nailed. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. and the latter will take on a bright luster. AA and BB. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc.

The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Broad lines can be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 3. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 8 and 9.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. class ice-yacht. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 2. The materials used are: backbone. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. as shown in Fig. 4. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. or various rulings may be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. . 1).

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it.Fig. bent and drilled as shown. 1-Details of Lathe sort. but if it is made much longer. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. long. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. It can be made longer or shorter. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. 1. pipe. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. about 30 in. a larger size of pipe should be used. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. pins to keep them from turning. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The headstock is made of two tees. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. a tee and a forging. Both the lower . The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. out from the collar. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck.

thick as desired. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. Boissevain. . but also their insulating properties. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Laporte. UpDeGraff. Fruitvale. 1. Musgrove. --Contributed by W. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. 2. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. --Contributed by W. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. else taper turning will result. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Indiana. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Held. To do this. M. Man. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. Cal. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 3/4 or 1 in. a corresponding line made on this. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. a straight line should be scratched Fig. W. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. or a key can be used as well. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and will answer for a great variety of work. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 2. 2. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance.

bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Ark. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Smith. To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. J. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. In use. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. long. --Contributed by E. Cline. as shown. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Ft. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The handle is of pine about 18 in.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution.

--Contributed by Walter W. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. take . the drill does not need the tool.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This prevents the drill from wobbling. if this method is followed: First. face off the end of the piece. and when once in true up to its size. Colo. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. New Orleans. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. which should be backed out of contact. centering is just one operation too many. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. La. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. After being entered. on starting the lathe. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Denver. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. White. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual.

is put into the paper tube A. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. shown at C. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The handkerchief rod.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a long piece of glass tubing. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. after being shown empty. shorter t h a n the wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. In doing this. says the Sphinx. all the better. and this given to someone to hold. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. unknown to the spectators. and can be varied to suit the performer. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. a bout 1/2 in. as shown in D. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. the cap is placed over the paper tube. After the wand is removed. The glass tube B.

preferably hard maple. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. can be made by the home mechanic. Cut a piece of hard wood. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper.potash around the edges of the letters. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 2 Sides. 1. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. With care and patience. As the cement softens. with the back side rounding. 1 Bottom. This dimension and those for the frets . Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. thick. and glue it to the neck at F. 1/4 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The sides. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. by 14 by 17 in. 1 Neck. long. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 End. Glue the neck to the box. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. across the front and back to strengthen them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. End. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. square and 1-7/8 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The brace at D is 1 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. as shown by K. Glue strips of soft wood.

in diameter. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Carbondale. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. --Contributed by Chas. E. long is used for a keel. Norwalk. Frary. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. H. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. or backbone. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Stoddard. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. but it is not. When it is completed you will have a canoe. 3/16 in. A board 1 in. Six holes. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.Pa. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. and beveled . HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. 1) on which to stretch the paper. thick and about 1 ft. toward each end. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. O. -Contributed by J. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe.should be made accurately.

and the smaller ends to the gunwales. . or other place. some tight strips of ash. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 1. such as is used for making chairbottoms. by means of a string or wire. b.. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. as shown in Fig. 1 and 2. long are required. as they are apt to do. apart. and so. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. In drying. wide by 26 in. 3). b. are next put in. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 3/8 in. long. when made of green elm. but twigs of some other trees. Any tough. two strips of wood (b. such as hazel or birch. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. slender switches of osier willow. 3). 3. as before described. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. probably. The cross-boards (B. and are not fastened. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 13 in. 2). 3. Green wood is preferable. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. the loose strips of ash (b. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b.) in notches. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 4). in such cases. C. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. b. 2. Fig. or similar material. thick. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. B. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. thick. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. The ribs. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. as shown in Fig. Fig. which are easily made of long. Fig. two twigs may be used to make one rib. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. but before doing this. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Shape these as shown by A. These are better. with long stout screws. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. will answer nearly as well. a. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and. C. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 2). after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Fig. For the gunwales (a. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 4. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. procure at a carriage factory. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig.

after wetting it. and held in place by means of small clamps. If the paper be 1 yd. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. but neither stiff nor very thick. It should be smooth on the surface. wide. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Fig. and light oars. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. If not. but with less turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. preferably iron. of very strong wrapping-paper. You may put in . Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and steady in the water. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. It should be drawn tight along the edges.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Being made in long rolls. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. When the paper is dry. if it has been properly constructed of good material. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. 5). wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. The paper is then trimmed. however. apply a second coat of the same varnish. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. and as soon as that has soaked in. When thoroughly dry. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. B. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and very tough.

and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. Fig. 1. to fit it easily. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. We procured a box and made a frame. and if driven as shown in the cut. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). they will support very heavy weights.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 1 and the end in . The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Drive the lower nail first. fore and aft. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 5. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.

is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. This way has its drawbacks. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the result is. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. This is an easy . The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 5. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the glass. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. this makes the tube airtight. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. A good way to handle this work. 3.Fig. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Pittsburg. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Close the other end with the same operation. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. 4. Pa.

File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. fifth. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. above the metal. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. with a piece of carbon paper. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. three. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design.way to make a thermometer tube. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. Oswald. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Seventh. four. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. or six arms. second. flat and round-nosed pliers. metal shears. rivet punch. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. thin screw. -Contributed by A. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. also trace the decorative design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Give the metal a circular motion. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. then reverse. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. After the bulb is formed. very rapid progress can be made. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. extra metal all around. Sixth. file. third. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. fourth. The candle holders may have two. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 23 gauge. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.

It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Small copper rivets are used. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Having pierced the bracket. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Metal polish of any kind will do. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. and holder.

smooth it down and then remove as before. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. thus it was utilized. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. alcohol 2 parts. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. on a water bath. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and other things as they were needed. J. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. the stick at the bottom of the sail. if it has not absorbed too much ink. The boom. I steer with the front wheel. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. N. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and water 24 parts. is a broomstick. of glycerine to about 200 deg. winding the ends where they came together with wire. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Fifty.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Mother let me have a sheet. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The gaff. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. except they had wheels instead of runners. and add the gelatine. Heat 6-1/2 oz. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and in a week . I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. F. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Shiloh. Soak 1 oz. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. sugar 1 part. Twenty cents was all I spent. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and brace and bit were the tools used. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. hammer. glycerine 4 parts. using a steel pen. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and it will be ready for future use. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. all the rest I found. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. A saw. when it will be ready for use. deep. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. well seasoned pine. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. slide to about 6 ft. 1. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. and. The slide support. DD. wide and 15 in. are . The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. or a lens of 12-in. thick. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. 3.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. but if such a box is not found. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. wide. E. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. describe a 9-in. G. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 1/2 to 3/4 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. A table. about 2 ft. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. If a small saw is used. as desired. The board is centered both ways. at a distance of 24 ft. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. at a point 1 in. focus enlarging a 3-in. This ring is made up from two rings. A and B. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. and a projecting lens 2 in. H. and the lens slide. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. 8 in. and the work carefully done. and 14 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in.. Fig. above the center. long. provided the material is of metal. wire brads. or glue. high. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size.

P. the water at once extinguishes the flame. B. Small strips of tin. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. but not long enough. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. A sheet . Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr.constructed to slip easily on the table.-Contributed by G. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. E. the strips II serving as guides. JJ. should the glass happen to upset. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The arrangement is quite safe as. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Minn. Paul. St. light burning oil. To reach the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. placed on the water. apply two coats of shellac varnish. of safe. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.

The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig.. by 12 ft. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. I ordered a canvas bag. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. 2. 3.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. to cover the mattresses. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3 in. 4. N. Y. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.H. from a tent company. Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. 1. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 9 in. If one of these clips is not at hand. 12 ft. Crawford. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Schenectady. --Contributed by J.

to keep it from unwinding. Warren. C. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. V. 3/4 in. White. long. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Walter W. wide. Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. insulating them from the case with cardboard. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 1/2 in. 2. 1. drill two 3/16 in. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 2. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. An arc is cut in the paper. Denver. A rubber band. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. in the center coil. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. first mark the binding-post A. for amperes and the other post. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 1. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. through which the indicator works. 3 to swing freely on the tack. so as to form two oblong boxes. open on the edges. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. and insert two binding-posts. to the coil of small wire for volts. as shown in Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig.each edge. D. To calibrate the instrument. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Pa. A Film Washing Trough [331] . A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 2. Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Attach a piece of steel rod. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. long and 3/16 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. apart. 1/2 in. Teasdale. thick. Do not use too strong a rubber. Colo. 3/4 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. holes in the edge.

Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Wood Burning [331] . O. with the large hole up. --Contributed by M. Dayton. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Hunting.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. M. Cut a 1/4-in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Place this can on one end of the trough.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

Whitehouse. wide and 4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Place the small bottle in as before. 2.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. If the cork is adjusted properly. Upper Troy. N. 3/4 in. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the small bottle used is opaque. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. provided the bottle is wide. as shown in the sketch.Y. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Auburn. --Contributed by John Shahan. thick. long. Ala. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. but not very thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. --Contributed by Fred W. This will make a very pretty ornament. 1.

to the shaft. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. which was nailed to the face plate. such as blades and pulleys. by the method shown in Fig. Its smaller parts. pulley. thick. Both bearings were made in this manner. which was 6 in. 1. thick. The shaft C. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. The wire L was put . was keyed to shaft C. 1 in. wide. The 21/2-in. If a transmitter is used. W. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. high without the upper half. in diameter and 1 in. thick and 3 in. 1. long. as shown in Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. On a 1000-ft. which extended to the ground. 2 ft. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 4. Fig. B. 1. 1. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. --Contributed by D. 1. sugar pine on account of its softness. were constructed of 1-in. Milter. 2. 3. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. K.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. iron rod. even in a light breeze. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. was 1/4in. Fig. line. A staple. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. G. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. I. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. pulley F. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Fig.

6. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. washers were placed under pulley F. long and bend it as shown at A. The power was put to various uses. 25 ft. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 2. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. wide and 1 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. R. as. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Fig. 1) 4 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 3 in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. long and bend it as . 6. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. long and 1/2 in. Fig. a 1/2-in. 1. for instance. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. There a 1/4-in. and was cut the shape shown. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long and 3 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. If you have no bell. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 5. with brass headed furniture tacks. so that the 1/4-in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. in diameter. hole was bored for it. The smaller one. in the center of the board P. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 1. was 2 ft. 0. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. with all parts in place. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. G. H. when the windmill needed oiling. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. apart in the tower. long. was tacked. long. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. pine 18 by 12 in. Fig. 1. The bed plate D. cut out another piece of tin (X. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. strips. through the latter. This completes the receiver or sounder. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. across the thin edge of a board. This board was 12 in. To lessen the friction here. The other lid. top down also. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fig. To make the key.

The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. leaving the other wire as it is. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. causing a buzzing sound. Now. Before tacking it to the board. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Going back to Fig. McConnell. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. The rear barrels are. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. fitted with paddles as at M. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. When tired of this instrument. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. By adjusting the coils. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. although it can be made with but two. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 2. 1. using cleats to hold the board frame. as shown at Water. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig.shown. -Contributed by John R. after the manner of bicycle wheels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. and. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Thus a center drive is made. at the front. like many another device boys make. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels.

When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . feet on the pedals. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The speed is slow at first. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. There is no danger. 3. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. as shown in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. To propel it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. or even a little houseboat. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. which will give any amount of pleasure. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. 1. there will not be much friction. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. can be built.

trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If magnifying glass cannot be had. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 2. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. A. If it is desired to make the light very complete. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 1. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. C.of pleasure for a little work. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Then melt out the rosin or lead. then the glass disc and then the other ring. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. D. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Turn a small circle of wood. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. B. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. 2. and so creating a false circuit. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig.

bell. shelf. 5-1/4 by 10 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. while lying in bed. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. 4-1/2 in. F. brass rod. 3/8 in. Pa. Brinkerhoff. wire from light to switch. S. wide and 1/16 in. wire from bell to switch. In placing clock on shelf. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. E. by having the switch on the baseboard. Swissvale. which stops bell ringing. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. contact post. G. near the bed. switch. set alarm key as shown in diagram. thick. after setting alarm. Utah. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Throw lever off from the right to center. Ogden. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. some glue will secure them. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. J. T. D. dry batteries. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. and pulled tight. To get the cylinder into its carriage. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. after two turns have been made on the key.india rubber tubing. I. such as is used for cycle valves. or 1/4in. C. key of alarm clock. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. brass strip. wire from batteries to switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . long.. long. 4 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. To operate this. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. H. --Contributed by C. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. --Contributed by Geo. bracket. if too small. Chatland. copper tubing. X. The parts indicated are as follows: A. C. B. When alarm goes off.

1. Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as . Pull out the nail and stick. gives the heater a more finished appearance. place stick and all in a pail of sand. All that is required is a tin covering. from one end. 2. beyond the end of the spindle. a bed warmer. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. This is to form the fuse hole. as in Fig. S. long. 1/4 in. in diameter. Make the spindle as in Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Having finished this. Minn. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. A small lamp of about 5 cp. about 3-1/2 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as at A. will do the heating. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 1. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Chapman. 3. Fig. wide. which can be made of an old can. about 6 in. in diameter. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 4 in. A flannel bag. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Fig. --Contributed by Chas. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Make a shoulder. making it as true and smooth as possible. as at A. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 2. Lanesboro. for instance. letting it extend 3/4 in. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. as at B.

wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 11/2 in. long. deep. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. but if this wood cannot be procured. or hickory. --Contributed by Arthur E. The illustration shows how this is done.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. A piece of oak. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. Joerin. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. A piece of tin. 3/8 in. 5/8 in. spring and arrows. thick. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. wide and 6 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 1. ash. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 1 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. 6 in. long. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 3/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick.

To throw the arrow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 9. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. and one for the trigger 12 in. Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. The stick for the bow. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Wilmette. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. in diameter. from the end of the stock. which is 1/4 in. 3. The bow is not fastened in the stock. 7. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. as shown in Fig. Fig. 2. When the trigger is pulled. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. from the opposite end. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. thick. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Ill. --Contributed by O.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. as shown in Fig. wide at each end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The trigger. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. Fig. E. or through the necessity of. 6. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. place the arrow in the groove. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. A spring. Such a temporary safe light may be . Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Trownes. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. better still. To shoot the crossbow. 4. 8. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. having the latter swing quite freely.

Branches and brush can easily be piled up. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. respectively. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. since the flame of the candle is above A. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The cut should be about 5 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Remove the bottom of the box. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. C. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Remove one end. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Moreover. says Photo Era. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The hinged cover E. This lamp is safe. make the frame of the wigwam. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and replace as shown at B. it is the easiest camp to make. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. the bark lean-to is a . The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. apart. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. from the ground. By chopping the trunk almost through. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. making lighting and trimming convenient. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. from the ground. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. is used as a door. and nail it in position as shown at A.

and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. For a permanent camp. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. wide. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. deep and covered with blankets. nails are necessary to hold it in place. selecting a site for a camp. wide and 6 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Where bark is used. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. 6 ft. long and 2 or 3 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. thick. 3 ft. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and cedar. In the early summer. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. long and 1-1/2 in. will dry flat. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. . each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. For a foot in the middle of the stick. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and split the tops with an ax. make the best kind of a camp bed. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. a 2-in. long. makes a good pair of tongs. and when the camp is pitched. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. spruce. piled 2 or 3 ft. Tongs are very useful in camp. Sheets of bark.

. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

changing the water both morning and night. to another . wide. the interior can. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. I drove a small cork. about 4 in. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. B. Pa. deep and 4 in. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. and provide a cover or door. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Fig. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. A. Kane. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. --Contributed by James M. 1.. Doylestown. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.

With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. to pass through an increasing resistance. a liquid. 2. for instance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. Fig. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. limit. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. such as ether. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 4 and 5). if necessary. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them.glass tube. The current is thus compelled. until. 2. E. C. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. This makes . The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which project inside and outside of the tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The diagram. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. fused into one side. 3. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance.

Then the field can be finished to these marks. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. tap. These holes are for the bearing studs. drill the four rivet holes. 2. as shown in the left-hand sketch. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Before removing the field from the lathe. set at 1/8 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. screws. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which are fitted on the studs in the frame.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. is composed of wrought sheet iron. A 5/8in. thick. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. After cleaning them with the solution. If the thickness is sufficient. when several pieces are placed together. brass. hole is . they will make a frame 3/4 in. in diameter. thicker. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. thick. which may be of any thickness so that. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. and for the outside of the frame. Fig. therefore. After the template is marked out. 3-3/8 in. larger than the dimensions given. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. in diameter. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. between centers. When the frame is finished so far. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. to allow for finishing. brass or iron. but merely discolored. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 3. or pattern. which will make it uniform in size. two holes. Alpena. 1. The bearing studs are now made. as shown in Fig. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. clamp the template. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. mark off a space. making it 1/16 in. A. cannot be used so often. Michigan. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Fig. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. assemble and rivet them solidly. 4-1/2 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. or even 1/16 in. 3-3/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. on a lathe.

or otherwise finished. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. When the bearings are located. 4. The shaft of the armature. is turned up from machine steel. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. solder them to the supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . into which a piece of 5/8-in. brass rod is inserted. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. and build up the solder well. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.

and then they are soaked in warm water. thick are cut like the pattern. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Find the centers of each segment at one end. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. After they . The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. thick. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. wide. hole and tap it for a pin. 1/8 in. brass rod. as shown in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The pins are made of brass. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 3. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 9. sheet fiber. 7. or segments. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. When annealed. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Make the core 3/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. being formed for the ends. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. threaded. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Procure 12 strips of mica. inside diameter. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. thick and 1/4 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. holes through them for rivets. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. When this is accomplished. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 8. to allow for finishing to size.. 3/4 in. 6. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. wide. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 1-1/8 in. Rivet them together. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 5. as shown in Fig. and held with a setscrew. as shown m Fig. After the pieces are cut out. thick. The sides are also faced off and finished. by 1-1/2 in. 6. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Armature-Ring Core. deep and 7/16 in. washers. 3. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. thick. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe.

which will take 50 ft. yet it shows a series of . 1. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. shown at A. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Fig. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. by bending the end around one of the projections. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The field is wound with No. The winding is started at A. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. being required. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. until the 12 slots are filled. of the end to protrude. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. after the motor is on the stand. Fig. wide and 1 in. shown at B. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 6 in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. 5. are soldered together. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. or side. they are glued to the core insulation. To connect the wires. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. sheet fiber. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. All connections should be securely soldered. The two ends are joined at B. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. 8 in. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. In starting to wind. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Run one end of the field wire. about 100 ft. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. long. the two ends of the wire. of the wire. of No. 1. The source of current is connected to the terminals.have dried. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. thick. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. After one coil. and bring the end of the wire out at B. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. When the glue is set. sheet fiber. This winding is for a series motor. and wind on four layers.

put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. and one. is fastened to the metallic body. A 1/2-in. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. or. Nine wires run from the timer. still more simply. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. one from each of the eight contacts. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. which serves as the ground wire. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.

one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus giving 16 different directions. 6 in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Without this attachment. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. It should be . Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.The Wind Vane. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 45 deg. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. circle. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Covering these is a thin. of the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. board. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial.

high. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. and securely nail on the top of the box. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. however. To work these outlines." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. 14 by 18 in. making it heavy or light.about 6 ft. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. thus making a universal joint. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Blackmer. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. if not too high. N. called a chip carving knife. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. is most satisfactory. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. though a special knife. Before tacking the fourth side. To make it. Place the leather on some level. Cut 3-in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. according to who is going to use it. will be sufficient. and about 6 in. Buffalo. will answer the purpose just as well. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. will be enough for the two sides. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Y. -Contributed by James L. long to give the best results. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. or. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. . also a piece of new carpet. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

and fasten the feathers inside of it. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. N. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. as in cases of a sprained ankle. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. --Contributed by Katharine D. or a hip that has been wrenched. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. away from it. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. If a fire breaks out. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. B. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. can be thrown away when no longer needed. a needle and some feathers. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Morse. Y. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and tie them together securely at the bottom. temporary lameness. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. square and tying a piece of . Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used. Syracuse. of water. rather than the smooth side. of common salt and 10 lb.

This not only keeps the rats out. which is the essential part of the instrument. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. A small wooden or fiber end. There is a 1-in. B. etc. Gordon Dempsey. G. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. and tacked it to the boards. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. wound on the head end. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The coil is 1 in. high. but not sharp. . The diaphragm C. N. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. laying poisoned meat and meal. Wis. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. cut to the length of the spool. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. N. and a coil of wire. thus helping the rats to enter. commonly called tintype tin. setting traps. board all around the bottom on the inside. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. deep. and the receiver is ready for use. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. E. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. F. made up of four layers of No. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. --Contributed by John A. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The body of the receiver. as shown. One end is removed entirely. The end is filed to an edge. Ashland. is cut on the wood. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. long. 1/8 in.J. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. the corners being wired. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The strings should be about 15 in. A. Albany. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. wide and 1/16 in. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. long. --Contributed by J. Paterson. Hellwig.. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. letting it go at arm's length. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin.string to each corner. Y. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.

Take a pair of round-nose pliers. gold. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The vase is to have three supports. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. better still. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. wide.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. begin with the smallest scrolls. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Take a piece of string or. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. and bend each strip in shape. A single line will be sufficient. to . To clean small articles. a piece of small wire. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase.

Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. . Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Work down the outside line of the design.which the supports are fastened with rivets. and does not require coloring. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. 4-1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. thus raising it. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. using a duller point of the tool. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. through which to slip the fly AGH. sharp pencil. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. from E to F.. as shown in the sketch. After taking off the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Trace also the line around the purse. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Press or model down the leather all around the design. About 1 in. from C to D. Fold the leather on the line EF. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 3-1/2 in. wide when stitching up the purse. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 3-1/4 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. 6-3/8 in.

leaving the lug a. When it is finished. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. deep. Fit this to the two . The entire cut should be slightly beveled. as well as useful. the "open" side. and the projections B. with the open side down. 1/2 in. with a compass saw. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. and tack the other piece slightly. 2. It can be made without the use of a lathe. all the way around. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. being cast in wooden molds. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. around the wheel. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 3. 1 was cut. then place the square piece out of which Fig. It is neat and efficient. b. with pins or small nails. by 12 ft. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. long. Now take another piece of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and a model for speed and power. 1. and. as shown in Fig. then nail it. with the largest side down. First. Cut off six pieces 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. This also should be slightly beveled. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. thick. and which will be very interesting. Make the lug 1/4 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. square. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. deep. following the dotted lines.

then bolt it together. holes through it. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. Take the mold apart. hole 1/4 in. Now take another of the 12-in. 1. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the black dots in Fig. bolts. deep. After it is finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. and boring a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center.pieces just finished. Now put mold No. slightly beveled. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and bore six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 4. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and lay it away to dry. as shown by the . and clean all the shavings out of it.

The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and the exhaust hole in projection b. place the entire machine in a vise. as shown in illustration. Using the Brace . as shown by the black dots in Fig. Then bolt the castings together. only the one is left-handed. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. holes at d. holes. long. Pour metal into mold No. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and lay it away to dry. A piece of mild steel 5 in. drill in it. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. B. Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. 4. see that the bolts are all tight. 5.1. This is for a shaft. Commencing 1-1/2 in. fasten a 3/8-in. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. instead of the right-handed piece. where the casting did not fill out. and drill it entirely through. 1.2. d. and drill them in the same manner. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. from the one end. put the top of the brace through this hole. lay it on a level place. take an ordinary brace.1. long. and pour babbitt metal into it. After it is fitted in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. in diameter must now be obtained. and bore three 1/4-in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and two 1/4-in. Now take mold No. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and connect to the boiler. This is mold No. screw down. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. one in the projections. and run in babbitt metal again.2. until it is full. Put this together in mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. the other right-handed. so that it will turn easily. place it under the drill. This will cast a paddle-wheel. over the defective part. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. true it up with a square. and 3/8-in.black dots in Fig. 6. This is the same as Fig. wide and 16 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. 6. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. b. Let it stand for half an hour. one in the lug. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and the other in the base.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig.

. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. will do good service. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. piece and at right angles to it. and. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and the other 8 ft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and with three small screw holes around the edge. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. one 6 ft. while it is running at full speed. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. At each end of the 6ft. Plan of Ice Boat . Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. with a boss and a set screw. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Then take a knife or a chisel. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. long. and if instructions have been carefully followed.

On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. and about 8 in. in diameter in the center. so much the better will be your boat. 1. long and 2-1/2 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. at the butt and 1 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. 1. 8 a reef point knot. which may come in handy in heavy winds. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. This fits in the square hole. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. at the end. leaving 1 ft. Fig. should be of hardwood. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. long. Fig. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. 3. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. plank. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in the top before the skate is put on. The spar should be 9 ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. projecting as in Fig. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. bolt the 8-ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Make your runners as long as possible. long. tapering to 1-1/2 in. 2 by 3 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. piece and at right angles to it. where they often did considerable damage. distant. as the runners were fastened. The tiller. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . in diameter at the base. plank nail 8-in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in front of the rudder block. in diameter. boards to make the platform. at the top.

Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. B. --Contributed by John D. Its parts are as follows: A. and place it behind a stove. --Contributed by J. Pa. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. Adams. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. to block B. S S. and the alarm bell will ring. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. The arrangement proved quite too effective. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. P. Phoenix. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Comstock. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. allowing the springs to contact at C. small piece of wood. Ariz. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. bent into a hook at each end. so that they come in contact at C. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. The . P. wide. block of wood nailed to A. R. Mechanicsburg.

says the American Boy. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. 2. including the . An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. high. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. 6 in. 1. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or