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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

It is held in this curve until dry. Noble.Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. distant. The pieces are then dressed round. Ontario. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 1. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. To throw a boomerang. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. as shown in Fig. away. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. grasp it and hold the same as a club. --Contributed by J. long will make six boomerangs. Toronto. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A piece of plank 12 in. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. apart. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 2. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. as shown in Fig. 1. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Fig. wide and 2 ft. 1. with the hollow side away from you. 2. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 2 -. E. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.

These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. A very light. but about 12 in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and with a movable bottom. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. or rather no bottom at all. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. blocks . one inside of the circle and the other outside. forcing it down closely. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. minus the top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. dry snow will not pack easily. long. First. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. 6 in. A wall. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. made of 6-in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. If the snow is of the right consistency. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. which makes the building simpler and easier. high and 4 or 5 in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and it may be necessary to use a little water. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. the block will drop out. thick. however.

If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The piece of wood. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. above the ground. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Fig. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. A nail. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. 3 -. wide. is 6 or 8 in. Goodbrod. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 1. It also keeps them out. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. There is no outward thrust. Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. Fig. which is about 1 ft. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. or an old safe dial will do. Union. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. D. 3. 2. long and 1 in. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. C. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 2. Ore. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. a. --Contributed by Geo. which can be made of wood.

allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Merrill. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. the box locked . as the weight always draws them back to place. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. S. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. says the Sphinx. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. If ordinary butts are used. Syracuse. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. New York. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. one pair of special hinges.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board.

Fig. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle.and the performer steps out in view. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. on drawing paper. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Place the piece in a vise. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Augusta. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Ga. All . Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. 1. as shown in Fig. If they do not. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. With the metal shears. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 3. about 1-32 of an inch. To make a design similar to the one shown. proceed as follows: First. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. draw one-half of it. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. If the measuring has been done properly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It remains to bend the flaps. When the sieve is shaken. as shown. -Contributed by L. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 2. smooth surface. as shown in Fig. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. allowing each coat time to dry. one for each corner. Alberta Norrell. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth.

H. long. causing it to expand. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The current. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. A piece of porcelain tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. R. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. When the current is turned off. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. In boring through rubber corks. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . 25 German-silver wire. Galbreath. A resistance. as shown at AA. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. if rolled under the shoe sole. which is about 6 in. should be in the line. --Contributed by R. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. To keep the metal from tarnishing. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. in diameter. The common cork. of No. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. and in the positions shown in the sketch. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. from the back end. heats the strip of German-silver wire. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. in passing through the lamp. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. used for insulation. After this has dried. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. If a touch of color is desired. 25 gauge German-silver wire. B. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose.the edges should be left smooth. Denver. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Colo. about 6 in. C. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. with thin strips of wood. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.bottom ring. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. 2. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fig. Kansas City. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. . The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. between them as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 3. Purchase two long book straps. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 1. as shown in Fig. Mo. --Contributed by David Brown.

having a gong 2-1/2 in. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. N. C. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. as . to form a handle. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 4. --Contributed by James M. Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Doylestown. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. are mounted on the outside of the box. Y. 2. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The string is then tied. and a pocket battery. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. one weighing 15 lb. These are shown in Fig. When the aeroplane tips.. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. just the right weight for a woman to use. 1. and tack smoothly. which is the right weight for family use. The folds are made over the string.An ordinary electric bell. Fig. 1. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Syracuse. 36 in.. long. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. A. 3. in diameter. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 1. Pa. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. --Contributed by Katharine D. Two strips of brass. Kane. Morse. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and one weighing 25 lb.

bent as shown in Fig. four washers and four square nuts. 1. Floral Park. N. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 3/32 or 1/4 in. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Y. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Frame Made of a Rod . machine screws. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. long. such as brackets. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. and many fancy knick-knacks. 2. in diameter. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. The saw. two 1/8 -in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. --Contributed by Louis J. Day. AA. if once used.

use them in place of the outside nuts. as well as the depth of etching desired. 1 part nitric acid. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Watch Fob For coloring silver. An Austrian Top [12] . Rub off the highlights. Scranton. if copper or brass. allowing each time to dry. Michigan. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Silver is the most desirable but. though almost any color may be obtained. A. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. of course. If it colors the metal red. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Apply two coats. The buckle is to be purchased. File these edges. of water in which dissolve. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should.. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. be covered the same as the back. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Of the leathers. after breaking up. or silver. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. 1 part sulphuric acid. treat it with color. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. of water. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. using a swab and an old stiff brush. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. For etching. copper. it has the correct strength. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. green and browns are the most popular. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. With carbon paper trace these on the metal.may be made of either brass. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. therefore. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. --Contributed by W. In the design shown. Detroit. as well as brass and copper. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. the most expensive.

thick. Michigan. pass one end through the 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. A 1/16-in. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. wide and 3/4 in. 3/4 in. .All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole. is formed on one end. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. long. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Tholl. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Bore a 3/4-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. in diameter. When the shank is covered. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. Ypsilanti. The handle is a piece of pine. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 1-1/4 in. 5-1/4 in.F. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood.

Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. having no sides. Ga. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Northville. Alberta Norrell. A. tarts or similar pastry. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Houghton. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The baking surface. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. For black leathers. Mich. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --Contributed by Miss L. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. --A. Augusta.

glass fruit jar. two turns will remove the jar. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Stringing Wires [13] A. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. says Studio Light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. the same as shown in the illustration. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. then solder cover and socket together. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Centralia. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. When you desire to work by white light. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Mo.

square by 62 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 4 Vertical pieces. . The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1-1/4 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Wis. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. They are fastened. Janesville. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 4 Braces. so it can be folded up. 16 Horizontal bars. and not tip over. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 12 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws.

Rosenthal. If the loop is tied at the proper place. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. -Contributed by Charles Stem. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The whole. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. --Contributed by Dr. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Cincinnati. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. H. The front can be covered . O. After rounding the ends of the studs. New York. from scrap material. after filling the pail with water. C. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and a loop made in the end. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Phillipsburg. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig.

If the gate is raised slightly. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Wehr. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The results will be poor. principally mayonnaise dressing. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Develop them into strong prints. sickly one. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. FIG. 1 FIG. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. the mouth of which rests against a. thoroughly fix.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you are. The . and. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. the color will be an undesirable. Md. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Baltimore. In my own practice. By using the following method. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. by all rules of the game. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. either for contact printing or enlargements. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. if you try to tone them afterward.

where it will continue to bleach.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. --Contributed by T. Iodide of potassium . This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. but.. When the desired reduction has taken place. Gray...... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Cal. etc. three times. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. long to admit the angle support... without previous wetting.. in this solution. A good final washing completes the process. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison..." Cyanide of potassium .......... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. 2...... Water .. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 5 by 15 in...... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.... It will bleach slowly and evenly.. preferably the colored kind. The blotting paper can ... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. 2 oz.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. when it starts to bleach... wide and 4 in. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. 16 oz. transfer it to a tray of water. to make it 5 by 5 in. With a little practice.... 20 gr.. in size... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. Place the dry print.. L..... San Francisco. 1 and again as in Fig....

The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Oshkosh. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and a length of 5 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. --Contributed by L. Wisconsin. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 3. Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Wilson Aldred Toronto.J. Make a design similar to that shown. Monahan. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 20 gauge. the shaft 1 in. wide below the . Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. the head of which is 2 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. --Contributed by J. wide.

Apply with a small brush. after folding along the center line. 4. Pierce a hole with a small drill. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. deep. 1 part nitric acid. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. For coloring olive green. With files. using turpentine. 2. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then coloring. then put on a second coat. 3. 1. After the sawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. freehand. With the metal shears. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. as shown in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. Trace the design on the metal. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. After this has dried. The metal must be held firmly. being held perpendicular to the work. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using carbon paper. Allow this to dry. .FIG. Make one-half of the design. Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. but use a swab on a stick. 1 Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. using a small metal saw. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. which gives the outline of the design Fig.

Cal. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. When this is cold. Richmond. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. --Contributed by M. M. Conn. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Syracuse. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Ii is an ordinary staple. on a chopping board. as shown. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Burnett. After the stain has dried. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Carl Cramer. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. . --Contributed by H. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. attach brass handles. it does the work rapidly. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. then stain it a mahogany color. thick. Morse. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. East Hartford. New York.

The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. as shown in Fig. 4. saucers or pans. --Contributed by W. Florida.. and several 1/8-in. brass. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. thick. Jaquythe. about 3/16 in. Atwell. . indicating the depth of the slots. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Richmond. not over 1/4 in. 1. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. A. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. H. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. L. WARNECKE Procure some brass. thick and 4 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. machine screws. Fig. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. two enameled. one shaft. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. as shown at A. Cal. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Kissimmee. square. in width at the shank. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. --Contributed by Mrs. also locate the drill holes. or tin. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. holes. some pieces of brass. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 53 steel pens. 1/4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots.

3. The shaft hole may also be filed square. with 1/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. thick. These are connected to a 3/8-in. long by 3/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. machine screws. each about 1 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing.. in diameter and 1/32 in. 5. 6. can be procured. 7. wide. with the face of the disk. and pins inserted. 2. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 1. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. supply pipe. about 1/32 in. hole. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Fig. using two nuts on each screw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. thick. hole in the center. 3.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. as shown. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole is drilled to run off the water. with a 3/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. long and 5/16 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. a square shaft used. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. lead should be run into the segments. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. as in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. machine screws and nuts. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . brass and bolted to the casing. If the shaft is square. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Bend as shown in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. into the hole. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. If metal dishes. A 3/4-in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 2. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Fig. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used.

square and 30-1/2 in. long. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. With a string or tape measure. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. --Contributed by F. from the bottom end of the legs. V. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Cooke. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. from the top of the box. make these seams come between the two back legs. to make the bottom. or more in diameter. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. screws. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Be sure to have the cover. Stain the wood before putting in the . When assembling. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. using four to each leg. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. deep over all. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Canada. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. 8-1/2 in. high and 15 in. Ill. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. three of which are in the basket. The lower part. La Salle. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. we will call the basket. deep and 1-1/4 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Smith. --Contributed by S. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in. Hamilton.

the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. 2. Fig.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. you can. Packard. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. --also the lower edge when necessary. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Cover them with the cretonne. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines.lining. 1. Baltimore. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. sewing on the back side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Boston. When making the display. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. and gather it at that point. wide and four strips 10 in. Mass. as shown in the sketch. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. wide. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. If all the parts are well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stanley H. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Md. The side.

Y. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Fig. Cross Timbers. It is cleanly. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. When through using the pad.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Mo. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. 3. N. and. Crockett. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. with slight modifications. --Contributed by B. saving all the solid part. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. --Contributed by H. L. Gloversville. Orlando Taylor.

take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. and secure it in place with glue or paste. across the face. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Texas. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. El Paso. and scrape out the rough parts. Lowell. Lane. it should be new and sharp. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. After this is done. remove the contents. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. After stirring. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mass. Both of these methods are wasteful. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. are shown in the diagram. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. -Contributed by C. Bourne. S.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. If a file is used. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. --Contributed by Edith E. or if desired.

and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Ill. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Greenleaf. Canton. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The process works well and needs no watching. Those having houses . If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask.cooking utensil. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Geo. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Ill. Iowa. --Contributed by Marion P. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Turl. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Des Moines. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. After several hours' drying. As these were single-faced disk records. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The insects came to the light. Oregon. Wheeler. Oak Park. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. F.

and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Only three pieces are required. 6 in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. plane and pocket knife. Conn. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and the second one for the developing bench. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and both exactly alike. Dobbins. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.. The single boards can then be fixed. the best material to use being matched boards.. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Glenbrook. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Worcester. Rosenberg. one on each side of what will be the . Lay the floor next. not even with the boards themselves. Mass. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but for cheapness 3/4 in. will do as well. material. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. 6 in. by 2 ft. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. the bottom being 3/8 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. --Contributed by Thomas E. boards are preferable. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. thick. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. --Contributed by Wm. Both sides can be put together in this way. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design.

three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. In hinging the door. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. is cut. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 2 in section. 6 and 9. hinged to it. as shown in Figs. At the top of the doorway. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 9). so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 6. The roof boards may next be put on. 11. and should be zinc lined. 9 by 11 in. the closing side as at B. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. It is shown in detail in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 3 and 4. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. by screwing to the floor.doorway. 8. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. which is fixed on as shown . 5. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. wide. 10). A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. so that the water will drain off into the sink.. and the top as at C in the same drawing. Fig. brown wrapping paper. and act as a trap for the light. below which is fixed the sink. 6. and to the outside board of the sides. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 7. of the top of the door for the same reason. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. etc.. and in the middle an opening. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.

Details of the Dark Rook .

16. four coats at first is not too many. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 14. hole bored in the center for a handle. and a 3/8-in. 6. Karl Hilbrich. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air.in Fig. as at I. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Fig. 2. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A circular piece about 2 in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. screwing them each way into the boards. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 17. are fastened in the corners inside. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 15. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. though this is hardly advisable. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. which makes it possible to have white light. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. mixing flour and water. Fig. as in Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 13. --Contributed by W. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. these being shown in Fig. Erie. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. but not the red glass and frame. as at M. 20. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Pennsylvania. 13. and a tank stand on it. For beating up an egg in a glass. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. after lining with brown paper. The handle should be at least 12 in. as shown in the sections. it is better than anything on the market. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. In use. preferably maple or ash. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. if desired. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 19. 18. or red light as at K. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 1.

as shown in the sketch. New York. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. about 3/8 in. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. G. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. L. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. --Contributed by L. -Contributed by E. Mitchell. long. which. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Eureka Springs. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. when put together properly is a puzzle. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. --Contributed by Wm. Mo. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .copper should be. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Ark. D. Kansas City. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. To operate. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. for a handle. Schweiger. Yonkers. Smith.

to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. especially for filling-in purposes. Having completed the bare box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. A number of 1/2-in. If the sill is inclined. as is usually the case. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 2. which binds them together. After the box is trimmed. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. as well as improve its appearance. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 3. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1. as shown in Fig. to make it set level. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. . The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. the rustic work should be varnished. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. need them. The design shown in Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. for the moment. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. holes should be drilled in the bottom. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers.

They eat all they can and carry away the rest. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. too dangerous. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. 4. life in the summer time is a vexation. it's easy. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 2. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. being partly eaten into. Each long projection represents a leg. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. But I have solved the difficulty. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. . can't use poison. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. 1. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. share the same fate. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 3. Traps do no good. F. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily.. and observe results. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. etc. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. drilled at right angles. cabbages. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night.

The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. strips. of No. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Iowa. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. About 9-1/2 ft. the coil does not heat sufficiently. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. long. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. . The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. -. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. If. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The solution can be used over and over again.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. by trial. cut in 1/2-in. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. cut some of it off and try again.

Knives. Fig 2. Texas. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Stir and mix thoroughly. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. of oleic acid with 1 gal. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. and a strip. Dallas. C. --Contributed by James M. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Do not wash them. of gasoline. D. --Contributed by Katharine D. . to cause the door to swing shut. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Pa. Y. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Syracuse. it falls to stop G. is a good size--in this compound. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Kane. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. but with unsatisfactory results. Morse. In cleaning silver. forks. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. as shown in the sketch. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. 1) removed. of whiting and 1/2 oz. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Doylestown. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. N. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. hot-water pot. coffee pot.

The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Ill. New Orleans. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. . later fixed and washed as usual. Waverly. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Harrisburg. using the paper dry. negatives. --Contributed by Oliver S. Fisher. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. but unfixed. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which is. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Theodore L. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. La. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Pa. Sprout.

Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. then . while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. a harmonograph is a good prescription. 1. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. metal. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Fig. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The harmonograph. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. To obviate this difficulty. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis.

R. one-fifth. K. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. A pedestal. such as a shoe buttoner. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. exactly one-third. 1. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Another weight of about 10 lb. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A weight. is about right for a 10-ft. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. or the lines will overlap and blur. G. provides a means of support for the stylus.. ceiling. as shown in the lower part of Fig. etc. Arizona. A small table or platform. --Contributed by Wm. one-fourth. A small weight.. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. for instance. of about 30 or 40 lb. A length of 7 ft. in diameter. with a nail set or punch. Holes up to 3 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. as long as the other. to prevent any side motion. Chicago. Rosemont. in the center of the circle to be cut. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. what is most important. Ingham. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. as shown in Fig. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. J. that is. 1. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. --Contributed by James T. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. is attached as shown at H. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. The length of the short pendulum H. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Punch a hole. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. 1-3/4 by 2 in. and unless the shorter pendulum is. makes respectively 3. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. which can be regulated. Gaffney.

The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. --Contributed by J. The capacity of the vise. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side.H. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. a correspondent of .A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. one for the sender and one for the receiver. and proceed as before. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Fig. of course. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The two key cards are made alike. Chicago. 2. 6. then put 2 at the top. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 4. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 5. 1. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Cruger. Fig. and 4 as in Fig. 3. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. N. dividing them into quarters.J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cape May City.J. distributing them over the whole card. Morey. then 3 as in Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. -Contributed by W.

citrate of iron and ammonia. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. wood-screws. of ferricyanide of potash. Augusta. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. of the uprights. Cut through the center. 22 gauge German-silver wire. sheet of well made asbestos paper. respectively. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Ga. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. remove the prints. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. After securing the tint desired. from the top and bottom. 30 gr. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. of water. If constructed of the former. drill 15 holes. To assemble. the portion of the base under the coil. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. deep. --Contributed by L. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Asbestos board is to be preferred. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 6 gauge wires shown. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. After preparing the base and uprights.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. long. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Alberta Norrell. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. says Popular Electricity. of 18-per-cent No. 1/4 in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 1/2 oz. Wind the successive turns of . The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. acetic acid and 4 oz. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place.

The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material.. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . 14 gauge. Small knobs may be added if desired. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. N. Ampere. rivets. 16 gauge copper wire. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. which. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Labels of some kind are needed.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. if one is not a smoker. square. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Y. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. --Contributed by Frederick E. etc. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Ward. screws. but these are not necessary. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. then fasten the upright in place.

Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. lead. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. sandpaper or steel wool. D. --Contributed by A. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. a piece of solder. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Copper. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Kenosha. Larson. zinc. and rub the point of the copper on it. This is considerable annoyance. of water. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Richmond. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Eureka Springs. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. --Contributed by W. Ark. C. Jaquythe. tinner's acid. California. The material can be of any wood. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. it must be ground or filed to a point. In soldering galvanized iron.14 oz. Wis. then to the joint to be soldered. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. the pure muriatic acid should be used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. particularly so when the iron has once been used. of glycerine to 16 oz. S. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. E and F. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Heat it until hot (not red hot). melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. tin. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. B. . If the soldering copper is an old one. as shown in the sketch. being careful about the heat. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning.. A. especially if a large tub is used. or has become corroded. G. brass. and labeled "Poison. galvanized iron. --C. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. and one made of poplar finished black. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.

The punch A. wide. B. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. -Contributed by H. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. nut. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Take a 3/4-in. Apart from this. and drill out the threads. which gives two bound volumes each year. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. round iron. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. This completes the die. however. 7/8 in. Troy. Hankin. Y. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. N.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 1. with good results. The covers of the magazines are removed. W. C. The disk will come out pan shaped. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. such as copper. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Fig. in diameter. This will leave a clear hole. Place the band. Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Six issues make a well proportioned book. a ring may be made from any metal. brass and silver. in diameter. I bind my magazines at home evenings. thick and 1-1/4 in. 2. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The dimensions shown in Fig. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. D.

and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Coarse white thread. Five cuts. C. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 5. The sections are then prepared for sewing. allowing about 2 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. then back through the notch on the right side. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. If started with the January or the July issue. 1 in Fig. 1. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. deep. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 1/8 in. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. is nailed across the top.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig.4. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. 2. 1. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Start with the front of the book. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The string No. 1. The covering can be of cloth. and a third piece. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. After drawing the thread tightly. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. using . the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. size 16 or larger. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. and then to string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. which is fastened the same as the first. as shown in Fig. of the ends extending on each side. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. on all edges except the back. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. threaded double. is used for the sewing material. . which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections.

Place the cover on the book in the right position. Encanto. round iron. --Contributed by Clyde E. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. and mark around each one. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Cal. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Nebr.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. College View. Tinplate. at opposite sides to each other. and. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Divine. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. on which to hook the blade.

Ohio. thick. in order to drill the holes in the ends. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and another piece (B) 6 in. C. bore. by 1 in. as shown. -Contributed by Willard J.. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Then on the board put . Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). hydraulic pipe. by 4-1/2 in. Miss. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. B. or double extra heavy. with a steel sleeve. fuse hole at D. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in. Make the blade 12 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. and 1/4 in. On the upper side. and a long thread plug. as it is sometimes called. and file in the teeth. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Moorhead. E. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. thick. Summitville. with 10 teeth to the inch. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. A. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. F. long. Hays. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. at the same end. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.

and some No. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Philadelphia. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. If you are going to use a current of low tension. as from batteries. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 4 jars. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. some sheet copper or brass for plates. about 5 ft. Connect up as shown. H. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. the jars need not be very large. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. A lid may be added if desired. high around this apparatus. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. of rubber-covered wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. --Contributed by Chas. using about 8 in.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Boyd.

however. long by 22 in. by 1-1/4 in. B. 1 and so on for No. The illustration shows how to shape it. 34 in. First sandpaper all the wood. . making them clear those in the front runner. by 6 in. by 1-1/4 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 4 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 1 on switch. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. The top disk in jar No. and bolt through. 2 is lower down than in No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 16-1/2 in. B and C. or source of current. sheet brass 1 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 3. wide by 3/4 in. A 3/4-in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 2. as they "snatch" the ice. long. is used to reduce friction. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. C. At the front 24 or 26 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Use no screws on the running surface. two for each jar. In proportioning them the points A. To wire the apparatus. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. and four pieces 14 in. On the door of the auto front put the .. The current then will flow through the motor. For the brass trimmings use No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. two pieces 34 in. long. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. long. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 3 and No. direct to wire across jars. C. 2 in. thick.. 27 B. 2 and 3. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 1 is connected to point No. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 4) of 3/4-in. 3 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The stock required for them is oak. apart.. & S. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. No.the way. 1. B. 5 on switch. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 4. and plane it on all edges. A variation of 1/16 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Fig. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. by 5 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. long. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. wide. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 2. steel rod makes a good steering rod. by 1 in. An iron washer. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Their size also depends on the voltage. are important. square by 14 ft. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes.. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. two pieces 30 in. wide and 3/4 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars.. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Use no nails. on No. gives full current and full speed. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. thick. Put arm of switch on point No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. oak boards. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 15-1/2 in. two pieces 14 in. Z. by 2 in. as they are not substantial enough. 30 in. by 2 in. with the cushion about 15 in. wide and 2 in. above the ground.. beginning at the rear. and for the rear runners: A. See Fig. 2. Construct the auto front (Fig. 11 in. 7 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. The connection between point No. by 5 in.

Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. long. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. cutting it out of sheet brass. such as burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. etc. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Then get some upholstery buttons. by 30 in. a brake may be added to the sled. If desired. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. cheap material. lunch. Fasten a horn. to the wheel. to improve the appearance. or with these for $25. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. may be stowed within. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. which is somewhat moist. brass plated. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. by 1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. a number of boys may share in the ownership. parcels. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. overshoes. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. fasten a cord through the loop. If desired. such as used on automobiles.

--Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Lexington.

which. First take the case of a small gearwheel. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. 2. a compass. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. London. sheet metal. Draw a circle on paper. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. The first tooth may now be cut. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. will be over the line FG. Fig. when flat against it. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. 3. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. with twenty-four teeth. the cut will be central on the line. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. by drawing diameters. thick. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. CD. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. made from 1/16-in. E. A small clearance space. 1. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. so that the center of the blade. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. from F to G. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. The straight-edge. 4). mild steel or iron. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The Model Engineer. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. This guide should have a beveled edge. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. the same diameter as the wheel. though more difficult. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Fig. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. FC. say 1 in. some files.

Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Make a hole in the other. transmitter. each in the center. as shown in Fig. 1. . 2. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. some wire and some carbons. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. or several pieces bound tightly together. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. either the pencils for arc lamps. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. electric lamp. A bright. R. B. Then take one outlet wire. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. If there is no faucet in the house. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. B.Four Photos on One Plate of them. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and the other outlet wire. No shock will be perceptible. ground it with a large piece of zinc.

They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Several battery cells. or more of the latter has been used. and again wind the wire around it. Ashland. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by 12 in. Dry batteries are most convenient. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . 36 wire around it. If desired. serves admirably. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Then set the whole core away to dry. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Wrenn. D D are binding posts for electric wires. as shown. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Slattery. and about that size. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. But in this experiment. of course. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. B. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. by 1 in. at each end for terminals. one at the receiver can hear what is said. They have screw ends. and will then burn the string C. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. A is a wooden block. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Pa. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. under the gable. as indicated by E E. leaving about 10 in. J. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. For a base use a pine board 10 in. are also needed. Emsworth. --Contributed by Geo. One like a loaf of bread. Ohio. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft.

These should have hollow ends. At one side secure two receptacles. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. for the . E. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles.. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Jr. 12 or No. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. F. D. and one single post switch. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. connecting lamp receptacles. 2. the terminal of the coil. while C is open. C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. C. The oven is now ready to be connected. The coil will commence to become warm. First make a support. Newark. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. D. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Fig.wire. Connect these three to switch. as shown. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. in parallel. B B. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. as shown. Place 16-cp. and the lamps. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. B B. and switch. From the other set of binding-posts. Ohio. Turn on switch. in series with bindingpost. 14 wire. Fig. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. run a No. 1. until the hand points to zero on the scale.

At a point a little above the center. Fig. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. drill through the entire case and valve. long and make a loop. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. D.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. wide and 1/8 in. drill a hole as shown at H. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. remove the valve. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. To make one. --Contributed by J.E. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 4. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. is made of wire. 4 amperes. where A is the homemade ammeter. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 14 wire. long. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Fig. is then made and provided with a glass front. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. deep. a battery. and D. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. until the scale is full. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 36 magnet wire instead of No. from the lower end.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. a standard ammeter. 7. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3.or 4-way valve or cock. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 1/2 in. Montreal. 10 turns to each layer. 3. It is 1 in. Fig. Dussault. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 6.. although copper or steel will do. A wooden box. etc. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. long. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 1/4 in. 4 in. Mine is wound with two layers of No. drill in only to the opening already through. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. high. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. The core. E. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. B. wind with plenty of No. inside measurements. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Fig. although brass is better. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. This may be made of wood. 3 amperes. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. but if for a 4way. The pointer or hand. to prevent it turning on the axle. wide and 1-3/4 in. 2. This is slipped on the pivot. a variable resistance. 14. The box is 5-1/2 in. C. If for 3-way. D. as shown in the cut. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 1. After drilling. thick. 5. is made of iron. 1. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 5.

B. and the arc light. This stopper should be pierced. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. high. To start the light. and a metal rod. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. which is used for reducing the current. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. making two holes about 1/4 in. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. in thickness . In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.performing electrical experiments. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. A. One wire runs to the switch. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. D. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and the other connects with the water rheostat. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. as shown. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. E. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. F. in diameter. By connecting the motor. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. provided with a rubber stopper. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place.

In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 1. Y. Turn on the current and press the button. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Jones. Carthage. To insert the lead plate. 1. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. A. As there shown. --Contributed by Harold L. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. If the interrupter does not work at first. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. If all adjustments are correct. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. N. Fig. B. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 2. Fig. 1. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. as shown in C. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. long. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. A piece of wood.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. as shown in B. Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Fig. Having finished the interrupter.

The skeleton is made of papier maché. and can be bought at Japanese stores. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. L and M. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. high. with the exception of the glass. and must be thoroughly cleansed. All . inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. and wave his arms up and down. light-colored garments. by 7 in. as the entire interior. The glass should be the clearest possible. If everything is not black. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. could expect from a skeleton. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. should be colored a dull black. which can be run by three dry cells. dressed in brilliant. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. figures and lights. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. especially the joints and background near A. from which the gong has been removed.. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. loosejointed effect. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. inside dimensions. the illusion will be spoiled. They need to give a fairly strong light. A. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. giving a limp. especially L.coffin. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. until it is dark there. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. to aid the illusion. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. If it is desired to place the box lower down. should be miniature electric lamps. The lights. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. is constructed as shown in the drawings. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The model. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. within the limits of an ordinary room. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. by 7-1/2 in. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down.

Two finishing nails were driven in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. as shown in the sketch. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. square block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. fat spark. San Jose. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Fry. If a gradual transformation is desired. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. W. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. --Contributed by Geo. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. placed about a foot apart. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. after which it assumes its normal color. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Cal. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.that is necessary is a two-point switch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs.

and should be separated about 1/8 in. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. Cohen. into the receiver G. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. soldered in the top. F. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. If a lighted match . The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. This is a wide-mouth bottle. as shown. with two tubes. hydrogen gas is generated. -Contributed by Dudley H. New York. 1. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. B and C. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. A (see sketch). 1 is seen the sending apparatus. to make it airtight. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. In Fig. or a solution of sal soda. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. the remaining space will be filled with air. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. The plates are separated 6 in. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.

is then coiled around the brass tube. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. 1/2 in. as is shown in the illustration. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. long. A nipple.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. by means of the clips. 1. London. either by passing a current of electricity around it. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. from the bottom. N. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. The distance between the nipple. Fig. 1-5/16 in. which is plugged up at both ends. copper pipe. is made by drilling a 1/8in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. long. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. P. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and the ends of the tube. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A. A. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. of No. A 1/64-in. which forms the vaporizing coil. One row is drilled to come directly on top. or by direct contact with another magnet. N. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A. If desired. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. then a suitable burner is necessary. 2 shows the end view. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 6 in. A piece of 1/8-in. says the Model Engineer. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. B. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. copper pipe. C C. Fig. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner.

smoothing and creasing as shown at A. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Turn the book over and paste the other side. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. with a fine saw. about 8 or 10 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 2). Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Take two strips of stout cloth. Fig. trim both ends and the front edge. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 3. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. longer and 1/4 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Fig. fold and cut it 1 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). at the front and back for fly leaves. but if the paper knife cannot be used. boards and all. taking care not to bend the iron. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 1. duck or linen. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. smoothly. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . this makes a much nicer book. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. larger all around than the book. cut to the size of the pages. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 1/4 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips.lamp cord.

B. is made the same depth as B. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. --Contributed by Joseph N. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. without a head. in diameter and 30 in. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. C. pasting them down (Fig. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. the joint will be gas tight. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is perforated with a number of holes. Noble. 18 in. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. 4). Another can. is turned on it. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. as shown in the sketch. of tank A is cut a hole. Va. --Contributed by James E. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. This will cause some air to be enclosed. . which will just slip inside the little can. but its diameter is a little smaller. Toronto. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Parker. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A gas cock. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. In the bottom. and a little can. is fitted in it and soldered. or rather the top now. is soldered onto tank A. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. H.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Bedford City. as shown. A. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Another tank. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. D. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. deep. Ont. E. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this.

but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Beverly. are shown in detail at H and J. which may be either spruce. which moves to either right or left. and sewed double to give extra strength. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. 2.. basswood or white pine. The bridle knots. S. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. If the pushbutton A is closed. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. fastened in the bottom. A A. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. exactly 12 in. The wiring diagram. Fig. and the four diagonal struts. as shown at C. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. and about 26 in. The armature. thus adjusting the . as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. A. should be 3/8 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. B. B. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. 1. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. D. J. -Contributed by H. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Bott. square by 42 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. should be cut a little too long. shows how the connections are to be made. by 1/2 in. with an electric-bell magnet. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. tacks. D. Fig. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. The diagonal struts. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. C. B. long. If the back armature. long. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. when finished. The small guards. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. should be 1/4 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. The longitudinal corner spines. H is a square knot. E. to prevent splitting. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. making the width. N.

How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. that refuse to slide easily. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. thus shortening G and lengthening F. --Contributed by A. for producing electricity direct from heat. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. E. --Contributed by Edw. Closing either key will operate both sounders. D.lengths of F and G. Harbert. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. can be made of a wooden . A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. and. A bowline knot should be tied at J. as shown. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. with gratifying results. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Stoddard. and if a strong wind is blowing. Kan. the batteries do not run down for a long time. to prevent slipping. If the kite is used in a light wind. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Chicago. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Clay Center. shift toward F. however.

with a pocket compass. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. C. E. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. with a number of nails. and the current may then be detected by means. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. spark. E. When the cannon is loaded. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 14 or No. F. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. and also holds the pieces of wood. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. A. The wood screw. placed on top.frame. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A.. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . by means of machine screws or. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. which conducts the current into the cannon. --Contributed by A. 16 single-covered wire. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. or parallel with the compass needle. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. B. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. C. Fasten a piece of wood. to the cannon. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. Chicago. in position. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. C. Then. D. A and B. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction.

square and 3/8 in. press the button. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. L. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. Ohio. To unlock the door. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. requiring a strong magnet. when in position at A'. Keil. 1. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. to receive the screw in the center. To reverse.the current is shut off. A and S. Mich. Fig. A hole for a 1/2 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. 1. Marion. Connect as shown in the illustration. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. where there is a staple. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Henry Peck. A. Chicago. H. Bend the strips BB (Fig. within the reach of the magnet. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. --Contributed by Joseph B. in this position the door is locked. 1. To lock the door. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. screw is bored in the block. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. In Fig. now at A' and S'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Big Rapids. but no weights or strings. A and S. . hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. B. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. with the long arm at L'.

and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The standard and base. and may be made at very slight expense. pipe with 1-2-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. J. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. are enameled a jet black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. long. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. West Somerville. or for microscopic work. put in the handle. if enameled white on the concave side. hole. Thread the other end of the pipe. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Rand. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. When ready for use. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. When the holes are finished and your lines set. gas-pipe. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Mass. --Contributed by C. about 18 in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and if desired the handles may . makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night.

Mass. Fig. high by 1 ft. North Easton. as shown at A in the sketch. long and 8 in. inside the pail.. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. which shall project at least 2 in. 1. across. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 8 in. Warren. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. E. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Fig. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. M. 1. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. across. D. --Contributed by C. A. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.be covered with leather. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. with a cover.

projecting from each end (Fig. 1). 1330°. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. wider than the kiln. the firing should be gradual. 2 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. 60%. and cut it 3-1/2 in. Whatever burner is used. full length of iron core. of fine wire. 2. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.. pipe 2-ft. E. passing wire nails through and clinching them. This done. in diameter.mixture of clay. pipe. It is placed inside the kiln. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. W. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. let this dry thoroughly. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. as is shown in the sketch. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. C. and varnish. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. hotel china. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. L. such . It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. carefully centering it. and 3/8 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. Wind about 1/8 in. Fig. thick. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen.-G. to hold the clay mixture. or make one yourself. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and graphite. 1). long. but it will burn a great deal of gas. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and with especial caution the first time. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 1390°-1410°. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. strip of sheet iron. and 3/4 in. After removing all the paper. 15%. Cover with paper and shellac as before. which is the hottest part. say 1/4 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. thick. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. Line the pail.. and your kiln is ready for business. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. When lighted. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. pack this space-top. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. and on it set the paper wrapped core. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. as dictated by fancy and expense. diameter. Fit all the parts together snugly. After finishing the core. sand. 25%. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. C. if you have the materials. 3) with false top and bottom. but will be cheaper in operation. If the cover of the pail has no rim. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. the point of the blue flame. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. C. The 2 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about.. about 1 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. hard porcelain. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. if there is to be any glazing done. layer of the clay mixture. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. bottom and sides. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. make two wood ends. in diameter.

. diameter. R. and discharges into the tube. around the coil. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. and plane off about 1/16 in. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. procure a new deck. 2). D. Chicago. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. as in Fig. Take the red cards. B.53 in. 2. Washington. C. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. and divide it into two piles. C. A. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. square them up. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. a regulator must be had for the vibrator.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Then. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. The funnel. as in Fig. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. length of . The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Then take the black cards. 1. about 1/16 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. T. all cards facing the same way. C. red and black. square them up and place in a vise. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. 2. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. the next black. with a plane. . Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. leaving long terminals. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. overlaps and rests on the body. every alternate card being the same color. Next restore all the cards to one pack. 8 in. and so on. bind tightly with black silk. as shown in the sketch herewith. Of course. You can display either color called for. taking care to have the first card red. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. --Contributed by J.

All the horizontal pieces. E. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. as the difficulties increase with the size. E. Long Branch. The upright pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. stove bolts. through the holes already drilled. to form a dovetail joint as shown.J. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. When the glass is put in the frame a space. The cement. B. and then the frame is ready to assemble.C. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and this is inexpensive to build. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. B. so that when they are assembled. thus making all the holes coincide. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. of the frame. angle iron for the frame. Let . and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. B. the first thing to decide on is the size. about 20 in. The bottom glass should be a good fit. To find the fall of snow. C. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. It should be placed in an exposed location. A. stove bolts. F. 1 gill of fine white sand. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. the same ends will come together again. Fig. N. 1 gill of litharge. A. 1.. D. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in.

A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. having a swinging connection at C. if desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Aquarium Finished If desired. Fig. a centerpiece (A. and. on the door by means of a metal plate. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. to the door knob. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. D. Fasten the lever. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

2 is an end view. and Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. D. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A small piece of spring brass. Fig. C. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 26 in. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Y. 1. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Cut two of them 4 ft. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Fig. PAUL S. long. Fig. B. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. F. 2 at GG. approximately 1 ft. N. 2 ft. White. 6 in. 1 . 3 shows one of the paddles. 1 is the motor with one side removed. 1. hoping it may solve the same question for them. several lengths of scantling 3 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. will open the door about 1/2 in. wide by 1 in. Cut two pieces 30 in. and another. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. E. To make the frame. from the outside top of the frame. soldered to the end of the cylinder. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Fig. another. Do not fasten these boards now. Two short boards 1 in. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. another. screwed to the door frame. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. --Contributed by Orton E. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. for the top. as at E. They are shown in Fig. long. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. AA. according to the slant given C. Fig. long. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. but mark their position on the frame. Buffalo. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. wide . to keep the frame from spreading. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long.. to form the slanting part. with a water pressure of 70 lb. thus doing away with the spring. which is 15 in. I referred this question to my husband.

Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 24 in. then drill a 3/16-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. iron. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. 2) and another 1 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole through their sides centrally. Take the side pieces. (I. 2) with a 5/8-in. GG. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . steel shaft 12 in. thick. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. and drill a 1/8-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Fasten them in their proper position. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. 1. remove the cardboard. after which drill a 5/8 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole through the exact center of the wheel. 4. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. take down the crosspieces. 2) form a substantial base. Fig. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig.burlap will do -. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. When it has cooled. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. from one end by means of a key. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. long and filling it with babbitt metal. that is.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole through its center. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and drill a 1-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. as shown in Fig. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. hole through them. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. thick (HH. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. tapering from 3/16 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. by 1-1/2 in. pipe. hole to form the bearings. Drill 1/8-in. Fig. Tack one side on. and a 1/4 -in. iron 3 by 4 in. to a full 1/2 in. in diameter. Make this hole conical. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. holes. Now block the wheel. These are the paddles. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in.

or what is called a process plate. as this makes long exposure necessary. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Darken the rest of the window. but now I put them in the machine. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. of course. says the Photographic Times. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. If the bearings are now oiled. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Drill a hole through the zinc.a water-tight joint. it would be more durable. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. sewing machine. Do not stop down the lens. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. any window will do. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. remove any white curtains there may be. Raise the window shade half way. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Focus the camera carefully. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. on the lens. drill press. start the motor. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. . it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and leave them for an hour or so. and as near to it as possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. light and the plate. and the subject may move. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. It is obvious that. but as it would have cost several times as much. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. place the outlet over a drain. as shown in the sketch at B. If sheet-iron is used. Correct exposure depends. ice-cream freezer. shutting out all light from above and the sides.

but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. 2. and without fog. 2. and a base. which is made of iron and cork. The current required is very small. or wood. as shown in Fig. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as a slight current will answer. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The core C. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. C. full of water. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. On completing . with binding posts as shown. The glass tube may be a test tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. hard rubber. a core. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. a glass tube. by twisting. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. B. until the core slowly rises. or an empty developer tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. D. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. the core is drawn down out of sight. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. A. With a piece of black paper. without detail in the face. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. or can be taken from an old magnet.

water and 3 oz. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1 lb. is Benham's color top. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. according to his control of the current. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. 1. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. finest graphite.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. white lead. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. whale oil. and are changed by reversing the rotation. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. The colors appear different to different people. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and make a pinhole in the center. and one not easy to explain. 1 pt. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard.

The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. In prize games. Chicago.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown.B. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. before cutting. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. C. A. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. especially if the deck is a new one. when the action ceases. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. fan-like. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. As this device is easily upset. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. or three spot. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. nearly every time. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. -Contributed by D. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. deuce.L. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. In making hydrogen. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus partly filling bottles A and C. B. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack.

connecting the bottom by cross pieces. --Contributed by F. in diameter. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. --Contributed by C. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. (Fig. long. Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. S. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Bently. W. in length and 3 in. Jr. Huron. that will fit loosely in the tube A. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Detroit. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. S. J. 3).requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 9 in. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Form a cone of heavy paper. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Fig. 1.. 10 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 2. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. long and 3 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 4. 12 in. Make a 10-sided stick. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Dak. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. ..

push back the bolt. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. A piece of tin. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Denver. making it three-ply thick. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. will cause an increased movement of C. and walk in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. C. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . about the size of a leadpencil. E. --Contributed by Reader. Remove the form. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. but bends toward D. Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. A second piece of silk thread. allowing 1 in. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. long. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a pin driven in each end. bend it at right angles throughout its length. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. A. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Fortunately. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. 6. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. it is equally easy to block that trick. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. on one side and the top. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces.

R. posts. The reverse switch. 4 ft. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.. --Contributed by J.strip. The upper switch. Minn. Two wood-base switches. A. are 7 ft. Paul. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is connected each point to a battery. put together as shown in the sketch. Jr. will last for several years. The feet. B. as shown. S S. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. while the lower switch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. long. By this arrangement one. West St. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. are made 2 by 4 in. and rest on a brick placed under each end.. long. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. or left to right. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The 2 by 4-in. S. B. Fremont Hilscher. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. W. S.

or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The base is made of wood. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The hose E connects to the boiler. H and K. with two washers. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 2 and 3. and in Fig. is an old bicycle pump.every house. and valve crank S. Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and the crank bearing C. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 2. pulley wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. which is made of tin. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. In Fig. which will be described later. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 1. FF. the size of the hole in the bearing B. thick. cut in half. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The steam chest D. E. 3/8 in. and a cylindrical . Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. Fig. and has two wood blocks. the other parts being used for the bearing B.

as shown in Fig. This engine was built by W. as it is merely a trick of photography. and saturated with thick oil. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. of Cuba. San Jose. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. 1. This is wound with soft string. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Fig. Wis. using the positive wire as a pen. and the desired result is obtained. W. is cut out of tin. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. --Contributed by Geo. Schuh and A. G. The valve crank S. powder can. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Cal. J. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. 4. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. G. can be an old oil can. to receive the connecting rod H. . and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and a very amusing trick. at that. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. or galvanized iron. The boiler. Fig. Eustice. First. 3. Fry. C.piece of hard wood. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled.

first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. C. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. and Fig. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Fig. diameter. 1 will be seen to rotate. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. to cross in the center. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. 1 by covering up Figs. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and place a bell on the four ends. as shown at AA. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. as shown. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. and pass ropes around .A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. B. Cut half circles out of each stave. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Fig. They may be of any size. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. The smaller wheel. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. When turning. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.

from the transmitter. such as clothes lines. which allows the use of small sized ropes. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. as shown in the illustration. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. procure a wooden spool. which accounts for the sound.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B..G. Mo. produces a higher magnifying power). Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. A (a short spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. --Contributed by H. From a piece of thin .M. To make this lensless microscope. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. but not on all. St. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. Louis. W. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. long.

and at the center. cut out a small disk. which costs little or nothing to make. 2. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. the diameter will appear three times as large. D. darting across the field in every direction. i. H. To use this microscope. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. Viewed through this microscope. is fastened at each end by pins. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. otherwise the image will be blurred. which are pieces of hard wood. and look through the hole D. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. Fig. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. and so on. or 64 times. as in all microscopes of any power. An innocent-looking drop of water. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. C. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. E. C. if the distance is reduced to one-half.) But an object 3/4-in. (The area would appear 64 times as large. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. 1. 3. is made from an old electric-bell magnet.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The lever. B. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. place a small object on the transparent disk. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. fastened to a wooden base. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. . e. is made of iron. can be made of brass and the armature. The pivot. A. D. bent as shown. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and.. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. held at arm's length.. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The spring. B. the diameter will appear twice as large. by means of brads. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. in which hay has been soaking for several days. if the distance is reduced to one-third. the object should be of a transparent nature. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.

As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. . The base of the key. fastened near the end. brass or iron soldered to nail. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. DD. coils wound with No. long by 16 in. B. The binding posts. Cut the top. wide. should be about 22 in. brass. can be made panel as shown. thick. Fig. long. wide. between the armature and the magnet. 1. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wide. is cut from a board about 36 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. F. brass: B. wide. in length and 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide and about 20 in. HH. D. 16 in. wood. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. binding posts: H spring The stop. long and 14-1/2 in. wide and set in between sides AA. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wood: F. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. soft iron. 2. Each side. B. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. AA. wood: C. connection of D to nail. A. which are made to receive a pivot. K.SOUNDER-A. similar to the one used in the sounder. nail soldered on A. and are connected to the contacts. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. E. D. KEY-A. or a single piece. C. D. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. C. 26 wire: E. The back. K. A switch. 16 in. FF. brass: E. The door. Fig.

In operation. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Ill. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. long.. cut in them. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Make 12 cleats.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. material. Garfield. E. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. as shown. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. AA. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. 13-1/2 in. with 3/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. as shown in the sketch. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. brads. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.

through which a piece of wire is passed. B. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Pushing the wire. A.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Brown. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Fairport. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. the magnet. The cord is also fastened to a lever. down into the water increases the surface in contact. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. A. --Contributed by John Koehler. will give a greater speed. When the pipe is used. pulls down the armature. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. in order to increase the surface. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. filled with water. F. Y. and. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. E. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A (see sketch). The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. C. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. --Contributed by R. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Ridgewood. and thus decreases the resistance. J. when used with a motor. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A fairly stiff spring. N. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance.

A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Borden. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm.for the secret contact. B. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Of course. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. --Contributed by Perry A. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. even those who read this description. N. Gachville. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. if desired.

-Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. thick and 12-in. 2. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. as shown in Fig. Connect switch to post B. E. From a piece of brass a switch.whenever the bell rings. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves.. for 10in. Cal. C. for 6-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Washington. wide. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. long and full 12-in. wide. wide. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. --Contributed by H. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Compton. long and 5 in. Jr. N. records. where the other end of wire is fastened. A. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. deep and 3/4 in. 1. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. . Mangold. J. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. D. from the bottom. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. --Contributed by Dr. wide. C. wide. With about 9 ft. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Dobson. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. H. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Two drawers are fitted in this space. records and 5-5/8 in. apart. The top board is made 28-in. East Orange. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. in a semicircle 2 in.

Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . which in operation is bent. B. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. as shown in Fig. E. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. closed. to which is fastened a cord. Roanoke. Va. A. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. 1. as shown by the dotted lines. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. When the cord is passed over pulley C.

Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Fig. thick.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. one in each end. through one of these holes. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 3. In these grooves place wheels. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. apart. If the wheels fit too tightly. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. square and 7/8 in. thick (A. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Bore two 1/4 in. Cut two grooves. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. in diameter. Fig. holes (HH. B. E. they will bind. The crankpin should fit tightly. CC. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 5) when they are placed. Fig. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 1 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. in diameter. against which the rubber tubing. In the sides (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. Figs. 1. 3). as shown in the illustration. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. deep. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. they will let the air through. Figs. in diameter. which should be about 1/2 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. is compressed by wheels. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. wide. wide. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Now put all these parts together. 1 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Put the rubber tube. Do not fasten the sides too . On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. long. it too loose. D. excepting the crank and tubing. E. deep and 1/2 in.

of material. 17-1/2 in. Kan. from each end. Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. To use the pump. A in Fig. 1. long. costing 10 cents. because he can . the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. --Contributed by Dan H. 15 in. Idana. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. from the bottom and 2 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. AA. 2. mark again. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. and 3-1/2 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. from each end. The screen which is shown in Fig. Take the center of the bar. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. mark for hole and 3 in. though a small iron wheel is better. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. 1. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Hubbard. 1. from each end. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. AA. Fig. 2. as it gives steadiness to the motion. In the two cross bars 1 in. Cut six pieces. iron. Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from that mark the next hole. and mark for a hole. If the motion of the wheels is regular. B. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. as shown in Fig. is all the expense necessary. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. and are 30 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. beyond each of these two. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. tubing. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. stands 20 in. The three legs marked BBB. For ease in handling the pump. the other wheel has reached the bottom. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Fig. the pump will give a steady stream.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. a platform should be added.

take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Meyer. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. 1) must be prepared. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. until it is within 3 in. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. of the top. Philadelphia. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig.see through it: when he enters. acid 1 part). If it is wet. shuts him in. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. rub the zinc well. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. but if one casts his own zinc. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. To cause a flow of electricity. there is too much liquid in the jar. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Place the carbon in the jar. If the battery has been used before. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. some of it should be poured out. and the solution (Fig. stirring constantly. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. giving it a bright. When through using the battery. When the bichromate has all dissolved. 4 oz. dropping. silvery appearance. . it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. potassium bichromate. The battery is now complete. add slowly. or small electric motors. C. sulphuric acid. of water dissolve 4 oz. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. --Contributed by H. The truncated. however. It is useful for running induction coils. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. If the solution touches the zinc. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. 14 copper wire. and touches the bait the lid is released and. The battery is now ready for use. The mercury will adhere. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. or. long having two thumb screws. 2).

A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. pressing the pedal closes the door. Wis. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. the jump-spark coil . and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. however. while the coal door is being opened. Madison. The price of the coil depends upon its size. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. If. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. i. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.. the battery circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. After putting in the coal. which opens the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.Fig. with slight changes. e. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.

in a straight line from top to bottom. which is made of light copper wire. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. . will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 6. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. as shown in Fig. W W. 6. the full length of the coil. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This will make an excellent receiver. and closer for longer distances. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. being a 1-in. made of No.7. in a partial vacuum. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 5. W W. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. 7. diameter. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. After winding. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig.described elsewhere in this book. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Now for the receiving apparatus. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. while a 12-in. apart. This coil. 7). In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 7.

Figs. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. 1). to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. are analogous to the flow of induction. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 90°. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. I run my lathe by power. in the air. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required. 1 to 4. may be easily made at very little expense. to the direction of the current. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. being at right angles. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. at any point to any metal which is grounded. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. Run a wire from the other binding post. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. B the bed and C the tailstock. For an illustration. These circles. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 90°. but it could be run by foot power if desired. No. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. being vertical. A. . 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. where A is the headstock. but simply illustrates the above to show that. after all. which will be described later. using an electric motor and countershaft. only. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. as it matches the color well.The aerial line.6 stranded. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. and hence the aerial line. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. above the ground.

B. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. deep. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Heat the babbitt well. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. one of which is shown in Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. The headstock. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The bolts B (Fig. Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. After pouring. and Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. A. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. tapered wooden pin. 6. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. too. 4. 4. The bearing is then ready to be poured. If the bearing has been properly made. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. on the under side of the bed. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. which are let into holes FIG. Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 5. To make these bearings. but not hot enough to burn it. thick. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. just touching the shaft. 2 and 3. 5. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft.

Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. they may be turned up after assembling. so I had to buy one. Newark. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.J. and a 1/2-in. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. A. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. The tail stock (Fig. This prevents corrosion. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. the alarm is easy to fix up. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. B. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. N. of the walk . Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. embedded in the wood. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. lock nut. FIG. If not perfectly true. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. If one has a wooden walk.other machines. Oak Park. Ill. Take up about 5 ft.

about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. leaving a clear solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. (A. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Finally. 2). and the alarm is complete. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. so that they will not touch. Jackson. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Minn. water. Then make the solution . dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. --Contributed by R. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. before dipping them in the potash solution. Connect up an electric bell. S. silver or other metal. of water. clean the articles thoroughly. hang the articles on the wires. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. to roughen the surface slightly. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. save when a weight is on the trap. to remove all traces of grease. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. To avoid touching it. Minneapolis. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Fig. add potassium cyanide again.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily.

of clothesline rope and some No. 10 in. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. German silver. On brass. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Fig. a circuit is completed. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Where Bunsen cells are used. 3) directly over the hole. as shown in Fig. Then. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. light strokes. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. silver can be plated direct. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Repeat six times. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. with the pivot 2 in. and 4 volts for very small ones. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. shaking. hole in its center. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. 1). thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. A (Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1). I. A 1/4 in. from the lower end. lead. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. with water. will serve for the key. pewter. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. but opens the door. must be about 1 in. If accumulators are used. about 25 ft.up to 2 qt. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Make a somewhat larger block (E. a hand scratch brush is good. and then treated as copper. piece of broomstick.5 to 4 volts. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. use 2 volts for large articles. as at F. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. make a key and keyhole. B should be of the same wood. copper. Take quick. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. with water. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. 18 wire. if one does not possess a buffing machine. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 1. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. such metals as iron. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. and the larger part (F. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. which . square. Can be made of a 2-in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 1 in. which is held by catch B. This solution. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. The wooden block C. which is advised. When all this is set up. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. In rigging it to a sliding door. Fig. With an electric pressure of 3. nickel and such metals. long. Before silver plating. 3. 3) strikes the bent wire L. To provide the keyhole. saw a piece of wood. Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Screw the two blocks together. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. long. If more solution is required. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 1 not only unlocks. of water. zinc. The wooden catch. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. also. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. thick by 3 in. --Model Engineer. Having finished washing the precipitate.

The box must be altered first. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. B. Objects appear and disappear. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. The interior must be a dead black. 2. heighten the illusion. Fig. between the parlor and the room back of it. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. 2. New Jersey. To prepare such a magic cave. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. --Contributed by E. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. One end is removed. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Fig. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well.. H.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. he points with one finger to the box. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and finally lined inside with black cloth. and plenty of candles. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. One thing changes to another and back again. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. no painting inside is required. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. surrounding a perfectly black space. In front of you. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. enlarged. Fig. some black cloth. Thus. . he tosses it into the cave. H. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. the requisites are a large soap box. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. some black paint. 0. which unlocks the door. 116 Prospect St. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). He removes the bowl from the black box. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Next. Next. should be cut a hole. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. H. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. with the lights turned low. with a switch as in Fig. and black art reigns supreme. spoons and jackknives. although a little more trouble. the illumination in front must be arranged. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Heavy metal objects. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Klipstein. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. floor. sides and end. or cave. 3. 1. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 1. is the cut through which the rope runs. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Fig. cut in one side. half way from open end to closed end. in his shirt sleeves. so much the better. and a slit. and hands its contents round to the audience. such as forks. East Orange. to throw the light toward the audience. a few simple tools. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Receiving the bowl again. one-third of the length from the remaining end. On either side of the box. top. shows catch B. The magician stands in front of this. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key.

who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and several black drop curtains. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Consequently. The illusion. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The audience room should have only low lights.Finally. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. of course. if. the room where the cave is should be dark. had a big stage. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. into the eyes of him who looks. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. of course. But illusions suggest themselves. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. only he. and if portieres are impossible. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. in which are oranges and apples. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. as presented by Hermann. you must have an assistant. one on each side of the box. and pours them from the bag into a dish. his confederate behind inserts his hand. which are let down through the slit in the top. a screen must be used. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which can be made to dance either by strings. was identical with this. The exhibitor should be . The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. is on a table) so much the better. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding.

The action of the switch is shown in Fig. f2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. Finally. if you turn handle K to the right. by means of two wood screws. d. Then. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. or b2. A. FIG. and c4 + electricity. 1. making contact with them as shown at y. terminal c3 will show +. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). so arranged that. held down on it by two terminals. A represents a pine board 4 in. c4. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. On the disk G are two brass strips. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. b2. c3. respectively. b3. at L. terminal c3 will show . 2). and a common screw. is shown in the diagram.a boy who can talk. c1. b3. as shown in Fig.. held down on disk F by two other terminals. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. respectively. or binding posts. b1. held down by another disk F (Fig.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. and c2 to the zinc. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. 2. respectively. c2. with three brass strips.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. square. vice versa. their one end just slips under the strips b1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. b2. Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. when handle K is turned to one side. and c1 – electricity. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. e1 and e2. 1. 2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. by 4 in.

4. E. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. and then hold the receiver to your ear.. from four batteries. B is a onepoint switch. 5.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. when A is on No. and C and C1 are binding posts. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. jump spark coil. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. from three batteries. . Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and when on No. you have the current of one battery. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. -Contributed by A. when on No. 3. from five batteries. Jr. --Contributed by Eugene F. Joerin. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 1. Ohio. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 2 you receive the current from two batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Newark. Tuttle. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving.

Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. is the device of H. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. A. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. of Burlington. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The device thus arranged. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. per second. as shown in the sketch.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Handy Electric Alarm . New Orleans. Thus. When you do not have a graduate at hand. rule. so one can see the time. A. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Redmond. La. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. E. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. mark. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and supporting the small weight. over the bent portion of the rule. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. traveled by the thread. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. per second for each second. P. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which may be a button or other small object. A. Wis. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. B. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in.. mark.

fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Instead. Lane. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then if a mishap comes. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. S. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. but may be closed at F any time desired. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Crafton. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. When the alarm goes off. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. and with the same result. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. --C. which illuminates the face of the clock. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. wrapping the wire around the can several times. . Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Pa.which has a piece of metal. C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. soldered to the alarm winder. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. for a wetting is the inevitable result. B. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. --Contributed by Gordon T.

bearings. small machinery parts. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. as shown in Fig. models and miniature objects. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Macey. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. engines. Two cleats. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . which in turn support the mold while it is being made. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. New York City. but it is a mistake to try to do this. when it is being prepared. L. 1 . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. as shown. With the easily made devices about to be described. and duplicates of all these. cannons. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. battery zincs. and many other interesting and useful articles. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. A. It is possible to make molds without a bench. whence it is soon tracked into the house. --Contributed by A. ornaments of various kinds. binding posts. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. AA. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. C. BE. 1. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. which may. If there is no foundry Fig.

which is used for a parting medium in making the molds.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. 2. and a sieve. which can be made of a knitted stocking. E. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The dowels. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and saw it in half longitudinally. 1. If desired the sieve may be homemade. D. and this. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. and the "drag.How to Make a Mold [96] . J. A slight shake of the bag Fig. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. high. try using sand from other sources. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and the lower pieces. which can be either aluminum. Fig. is made of wood. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. CC. is filled with coal dust. is shown more clearly in Fig. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. is about the right mesh. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. 1. Fig. CC. An old teaspoon. say 12 in. but this operation will be described more fully later on. F. as shown. will be required. H. previous to sawing. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is nailed to each end of the cope. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. DD." or lower part. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. by 6 in. It is made of wood and is in two halves. by 8 in. which should be nailed in. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. II . Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A good way to make the flask is to take a box.near at hand. The rammer. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. makes a very good sieve. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. the "cope. G. 2 . The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. white metal. The cloth bag. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. as shown." or upper half. The flask. If the box is not very strong. A A. A wedge-shaped piece.

as shown. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. It is then rammed again as before. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. where they can watch the molders at work. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at D. turn the drag other side up. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as described. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. After ramming. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. the surface of the sand at . or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or "cope. as shown at E. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and scatter about 1/16 in. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. and by grasping with both hands. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as shown at C. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. Place another cover board on top. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. in order to remove the lumps." in position. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. In finishing the ramming. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and thus judge for himself. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. The sand is then ready for molding. and if water is added. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. and then more sand is added until Fig. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. or "drag. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as it is much easier to learn by observation.

as shown at F. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. thus making a dirty casting. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. Place a brick or other flat. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. after being poured. place the cope back on the drag. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. it shows that the sand is too wet. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. . After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. made out of steel rod. as shown in the sketch. to give the air a chance to escape. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. deep. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. in diameter. as shown at H. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. The "sprue. in order to prevent overheating. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing.E should be covered with coal-dust. and then pour. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. is next cut. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at G. thus holding the crucible securely. III. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. This is done with a spoon. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. wide and about 1/4 in. After drawing the pattern. The next operation is that of cutting the gate.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at J. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick." or pouring-hole. Fig.

The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. used only for zinc. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. babbitt. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. If a good furnace is available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. battery zincs. Morton. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. 15% lead. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. white metal and other scrap available. --Contributed by Harold S. and. Referring to the figure. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In my own case I used four batteries. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. the following device will be found most convenient. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. but any reasonable number may be used. Although the effect in the illustration . although somewhat expensive. is very desirable. Minneapolis. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. may be used in either direction. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes.

By replacing the oars with paddles. Chicago. 3/4 in. To make it take a sheet-iron band. outward. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. The bearings. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. A. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Make one of these pieces for each arm. may be made of hardwood. Fig. Put a sharp needle point. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. connected by cords to the rudder. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Then walk down among the audience. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Then replace the table. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. If desired. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. backward. The brass rings also appear distorted. B. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . as shown at A.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. 2. shaft made. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. as shown in the illustration. which will be sufficient to hold it. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table.

should be made of wood. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The covers. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. W. 1. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. when it will again return to its original state. being simply finely divided ice. and a weight. 3. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. In the same way. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. E. D. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. but when in motion. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 2. It may seem strange that ice . 1. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. Snow. C. If galvanized iron is used. The hubs. If babbitt is used. or the paint will come off. as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Fig. A block of ice. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. as shown in Fig.melted babbitt. A. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. spoiling its appearance. or under pressure. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece.

and assume the shape shown at B. it will gradually change from the original shape A. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Crafton. Pa. which resembles ice in this respect. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. in. by 2 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. square. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. or supporting it in some similar way. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. by 5 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below.. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . but by placing it between books. but. brass. Lane. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pressing either push button. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. no matter how slow the motion may be. sometimes only one or two feet a day. B.should flow like water. as per sketch. The rate of flow is often very slow. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 1/4. thus giving a high resistance contact. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. --Contributed by Gordon T. P. as shown on page 65. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 1/2 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.

H. A is the circuit breaker. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. weight. In the wiring diagram. about the size used for automobiles. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. K . A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. vertical lever. wooden supports. B. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. as shown. and five dry batteries. draft. The parts are: A. The success depends upon a slow current.000 ft. I. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Indianapolis. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. draft chain. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. D. E.thumb screws. furnace. J. --Contributed by A. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Pa. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. C. horizontal lever. pulleys. G. Ward. cord. the induction coil. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. as shown. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. Wilkinsburg. F. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. the battery. G. B. alarm clock. and C. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat.

The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Mich. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. where house plants are kept in the home. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Kalamazoo. such as used for a storm window. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. material framed together as shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. 2 are dressed to the right angle. as well as the bottom. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The frame (Fig.

for some time very satisfactorily. Halifax. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. as indicated by Fig. and cost 27 cents FIG. and will give the . i. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. one can regulate the batteries as required. and the instrument will then be complete. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. multiples of series of three. Thus.. so as to increase the current.. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. However. in diameter. --Contributed by Wm. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. in any system of lamps. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary.. and a suitable source of power. which sells for 25 cents. However. 1 each complete with base. after a rest. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. as if drawn upon for its total output. S. It must be remembered. Push the needle into the cork. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. is something that will interest the average American boy. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. since a battery is the most popular source of power. W. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Canada. a cork and a needle. can be connected up in series. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. e. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. N. This is more economical than dry cells. in this connection. by connecting them in series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. where they are glad to have them taken away. The 1/2-cp.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. A certain number of these. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. this must be done with very great caution. 1 cp. Grant. 1. but maintain the voltage constant. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in.

lamps. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. If wound for 10 volts. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. generates the power for the lights. In conclusion. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and then lead No. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. . double insulated wire wherever needed. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. for display of show cases. 3. lamp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. although the first cost is greater. where the water pressure is the greatest. lamps. which is the same as that of one battery. These will give 3 cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and for Christmas trees. 11 series. and running the series in parallel. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Fig.proper voltage. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 18 B & S. 2 shows the scheme. 1-cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. by the proper combination of these. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. as in Fig. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. So. Thus. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. Chicago. each. to secure light by this method. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. according to the water pressure obtainable. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. However. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. or 22 lights. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps.. we simply turn on the water. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. Thus. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. making. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. if wound for 6 volts. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and diffused light in a room. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. FIG. especially those of low internal resistance.

B. A. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. a bait of meat. outside points of switch. brushes of motor. and C. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Santa Clara. To reverse the motor. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Parker. CC. DD. . and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. center points of switch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. and the sides. are cut just alike. BB. simply change the switch. as shown in the sketch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. --Contributed by F. Ind. thus reversing the machine. bars of pole-changing switch. B. Plymouth. A indicates the ground. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. or from one pattern. we were not bothered with them. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. field of motor. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. --Contributed by Leonard E. Emig. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. or a tempting bone. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. AA. After I connected up my induction coil. Cal. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch.

If it is not. 903 Vine St. or would remain locked.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The button can be hidden. San Jose. Cal. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. as it is the key to the lock. A. and a table or bench. Minn. Melchior. merely push the button E. When the circuit is broken a weight. one cell being sufficient. Fry. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. a hammer. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.. a piece of string. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. attached to the end of the armature B. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The experiment works best . The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. which is in the door. -Contributed by Claude B. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. To unlock the door. thus locking the door. W. Hutchinson.

18 Gorham St. Madison. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Canada. When the alarm rings in the early morning. 1). On another block of wood fasten two wires. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. 2. the stick falls away. run through a pulley. Wis. --Contributed by Geo. -. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Ontario. A. Tie the ends of the string together. . 3.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.. Crawford Curry. Culebra. D. W. Brockville. forming a loop. where it will remain suspended as shown. 4). the key turns. in the ceiling and has a window weight. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. as shown in Fig. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. P. attached at the other end. 3.Contributed by F. C. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Porto Rico. I. releasing the weight. which pulls the draft open. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. the current flows with the small arrows. Schmidt.

but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and .Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. J. Jr. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and break the corners off to make them round. Camden. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Use a barrel to work on. Farley. square and 1 in. running one direct to the receiver. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. N. or from a bed of flowers. 6 in. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. S. thence to a switch. --Contributed by Wm. and the other to the battery. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and then to the receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. made with his own hands. D. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. First. which fasten to the horn. thick. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. The cut shows the arrangement. get two pieces of plate glass.. R. Connect two wires to the transmitter. or tree. including the mouthpiece. J.

also rotate the glass. When polishing the speculum. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. by the side of the lamp. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and is ready for polishing. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Fig. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. When dry. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. a round 4-in.. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Have ready six large dishes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. wet till soft like paint. 2. and label. melt 1 lb. and a large lamp. and spread on the glass. wide around the convex glass or tool. Then warm and press again with the speculum. the coarse grinding must be continued. In a dark room.. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. spaces. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. using straight strokes 2 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. while walking around the barrel. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. with pitch. so the light . 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. When done the glass should be semitransparent. wetting it to the consistency of cream. twice the focal length away. set the speculum against the wall. Fasten. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. then take 2 lb. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then 8 minutes. Use a binger to spread it on with. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. in length. and the under glass or tool convex. or it will not polish evenly. or less. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. as in Fig. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. 1. 2. L. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. A. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. with 1/4-in. Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. of water. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel.

840 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Place the speculum S. Then add 1 oz. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.……………. If not. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 39 gr. must be procured. 2. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). face down..Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass... of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Fig. also how the rays R from a star . Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.……………………………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. then ammonia until bath is clear. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. or hills. fill the dish with distilled water. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.………………………………. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. as in K. longer strokes.. When dry. 100 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 4 oz. the speculum will show some dark rings. Fig. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Nitric acid . 4 oz. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. cement a strip of board 8 in. that was set aside. long to the back of the speculum. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Fig. Now add enough of the solution A. When the focus is found. with distilled water. 2. Silver nitrate ……………………………. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. The polishing and testing done. Then add solution B. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. if a hill in the center. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Two glass or earthenware dishes. from the lamp. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.. and pour the rest into the empty dish. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Place the speculum. deep.100 gr. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. 25 gr. With pitch. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.. touched with rouge.

is a satisfactory angle. slightly wider than the lens mount. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. About 20. cover with paper and cloth. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. . but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. two glass prisms. telescope can be made at home. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Mellish. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. My telescope is 64 in. stop down well after focusing. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. deg. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Make the tube I of sheet iron. long and cost me just $15. Place over lens. Thus an excellent 6-in. The flatter they are the less they will distort. using strawboard and black paper.. which proves to be easy of execution.John E. with an outlay of only a few dollars. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. and proceed as for any picture. Then I made the one described.

To unlock. The paper is exposed. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. says the Master Painter. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The rays of the clear. then add a little sulphate of potash. Do not stir it. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. through the lens of the camera and on the board. D.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. or powdered alum. Fig. add the plaster gradually to the water. as shown in Fig. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. complete the arrangement. Ill. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. but will not preserve its hardening. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. -Contributed by A. push the button D. B. instead of the contrary. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. . which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Boody. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. A. 1. unobstructed light strike the mirror. and reflect through the negative. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Zimmerman. 2.

Fasten on the switch lever. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. also provide them with a handle. but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 2. 1). as shown in the sketch. Then blow through the spool. throw . This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. use a string. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 3. so that it can rotate about these points. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. To reverse. as in Fig. Fig. as at A and B.

Thomas. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. carbons.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. --Contributed by R. Levy. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Tex. . B. Tex. as shown in the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. --Contributed by Geo. In the sketch. C C. Neb. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Push one end of the tire into the hole. San Antonio. -Contributed by Morris L. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. the armature. and rub dry with linen cloth. rinse in alcohol. and E E. binding posts. although this is not necessary. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Go McVicker. D. North Bend. carbon sockets. San Marcos. wash in running water. L. A is the electricbell magnet. Take out.

an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. --Contributed by Joseph B. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Brooklyn. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. 36 magnet wire. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. By means of two or more layers of No. wound evenly about this core. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 16 magnet wire. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . long or more.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 14 or No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length.

and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 4. or 8 in. as shown in Fig. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The condenser is next wrapped . a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. A 7/8-in. When cut and laid in one continuous length. 1. with room also for a small condenser. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. making two layers. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. 2 yd. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. in diameter. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. about 6 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. In shaping the condenser. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and finally the fourth strip of paper. which is an important factor of the coil. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. then the strip of tin-foil. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This makes a condenser which may be folded. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. Beginning half an inch from one end. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. wide. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. one piece of the paper is laid down. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The following method of completing a 1-in. a box like that shown in Fig. After the core wires are bundled. coil illustrates the general details of the work. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. which is desirable. but if it is not convenient to do this work. at a time. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. in length. hole is bored in the center of one end. No. long and 5 in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. diameter. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. as the maker prefers. long and 2-5/8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired.which would be better to buy ready-made. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The primary is made of fine annealed No.

and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. 3. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. wide. shows how the connections are made. spark. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. 4 in. and the other sheet. The alarm key will turn and drop down. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. D. go. C. bell. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. A. long to key.securely with bands of paper or tape. ready for assembling. which allows wiring at the back. shelf for clock. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. whole length. long and 12 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. copper lever with 1-in. round so that the inside . I. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. forms the other pole or terminal. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the letters indicate as follows: A. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. switch. by 12 in. F. lines H. which is insulated from the first. E. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Fig. B.) The wiring diagram. flange turned on one side. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. one from bell. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard.. open switch C. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. to the door. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. B. and one from battery. battery . then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. V-shaped copper strip. G.

. Use a glass or metal shade. but add 5 or 6 oz. do not shortcircuit. of zinc sulphate. The circuit should also have a high resistance. 2 in. instead of close to it. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. and the battery is ready for use. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Line the furnace. That is what they are for. but with the circuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat.. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. of blue stone. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Short-circuit for three hours. says the Model Engineer. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb.diameter is 7 in. London. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This is for blowing. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. from the bottom. If desired for use immediately. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. and then rivet the seam. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.

Try it and see. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and then. To operate the trick. At least it is amusing. If any or your audience presume to dispute. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Outside of the scientific side involved. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. affects . and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for others the opposite way. Enlarge the hole slightly. porcelain and paper. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the second finger along the side. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. 1. long. imparting to them a violet tinge. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. thus producing two different vibrations. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. grip the stick firmly in one hand. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. while for others it will not revolve at all. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. for some it will turn one way.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. or think they can do the same let them try it. oxygen to ozone. If too low. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. 2. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Very few can make it turn both ways at will..9 of a volt. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. changes white phosphorus to yellow. g. square and about 9 in. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. herein I describe a much better trick." which created much merriment. Ohio. below the bottom of the zinc. This type of battery will give about 0. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. as in the other movement. but the thing would not move at all. and therein is the trick.

It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. To the front board is attached a box. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. earth. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and. but not essential. an old tripod screw. insects.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. chemicals. a means for holding it vertical. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. if possible. and one of them is photomicrography. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a short-focus lens. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. but this is less satisfactory. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. but small flowers. says the Photographic Times. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. however.

11 ft. A line. 381 24 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. which is 15 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. If the balloon is 10 ft. 7-1/2 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 1. 905 57 lb. 113 7 lb. in diameter. 6 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft.--Contributed by George C. wide from which to cut a pattern. or 3 ft. AB. balloon. 12 ft. 5 ft. 65 4 lb. Boston. while it is not so with the quill. The following table will give the size. Mass. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Cap. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 697 44 lb. Madison. 7-1/2 in. 5 in. 7 ft. 8 ft. long and 3 ft. or 31 ft. 9 ft. CD. 268 17 lb. and a line. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Ft Lifting Power. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Fig. in Cu. 179 11 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.

Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. 4. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. on the curved line from B to C. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The pattern is now cut. and so on. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 3. The cloth segments are sewed together. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Repeat this operation four times. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 2. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. of the very best heavy body. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. using a fine needle and No. cutting all four quarters at the same time. of beeswax and boil well together. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 70 thread. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. keeping the marked part on the outside. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This test will show if the bag is airtight. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Procure 1 gal. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD.

it is not fit to use. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. leaving the hand quite clean. 5. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. but if any grease remains on the hand. or a fan. which may sound rather absurd. . this should be repeated frequently. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. to the bag. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. All FIG. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. with the iron borings. with water 2 in. B. 150 gr. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. A. Vegetable oils should never be used. of gas in one hour. a clean white rag. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. 5 . The outlet. if it is good it will dry off. B. as shown in Fig. 1 lb. with 3/4in. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. . C. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. of water will make 4 cu. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. C. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. ft. Fill the other barrel.ft. After washing a part. of iron borings and 125 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. Water 1 oz. About 15 lb.Green Iron ammonium citrate . and the teeth of the escapement wheel. B. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock.. capacity and connect them. ]. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. In the barrel. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. When the clock has dried. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. above the level of the water in barrel A. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. 1 lb. until no more dirt is seen. oil the spindle holes carefully. balloon are 125 lb. A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. The 3/4-in. of sulphuric acid. or dusting with a dry brush. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. should not enter into the water over 8 in. pipe. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of iron. by fixing. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. using a fine brush.

Dry in the dark. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. to avoid blackened skin. . or battery. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Exposure. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Port Melbourne.. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. This aerial collector can be made in .000 ft. The miniature 16 cp. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. 20 to 30 minutes. fix in hypo. The positive pole. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. and a vigorous negative must be used. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. and keep in the dark until used. toning first if desired. Printing is done in the sun. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. A longer exposure will be necessary. . at the time of employment. of any make. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. of the cell is connected to a ground wire.Water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. says the Moving Picture World. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. A cold. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. or carbon. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Dry the plates in the dark. dry atmosphere will give best results. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. The negative pole. or zinc. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.

How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. If the wave ceases. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. making a ground with one wire. As the telephone offers a high resistance. 5 in. holes . lay a needle. long. forming a cup of the pipe. as described below. This will complete the receiving station. both positive and negative. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. will soon become dry and useless. when left exposed to the air. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station.various ways. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. lead pipe. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. and have the other connected with another aerial line. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. the resistance is less. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. in diameter. The storage cell. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. a positive and a negative. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. If the waves strike across the needle.

an oblong one and a triangular one. a round one. namely: a square hole. When mixing the acid and water. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. on each end. one to the positive. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. or tube B. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This box can be square. by soldering the joint. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The other plate is connected to the zinc. This support or block. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. B.as possible. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. except for about 1 in. or tube C. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. does not need to be watertight. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. of course. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Two binding-posts should be attached. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. says the Pathfinder. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. and the other to the negative. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. D.

as shown in Fig. 2. thick cut two pieces alike. . The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. This punt. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. about 20 in. C. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 1. deep and 4 ft. in place on the wood. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. 3. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. A and B. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. all around the edge. as shown in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Ill. Only galvanized nails should be used. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. were fitted by this one plug. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. wide. C. leaving about 1/16 in. back and under. Chicago. 2. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as it is not readily overturned. 1. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. wide. and match them together. long. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The third piece of brass. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. is built 15 ft. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. In Fig. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. gas pipe. square (Fig 2). A piece of 1/4-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. B. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . is cut 1 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Wash. A. thick and 3-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.

" has no connection with the outside circuit. In designing. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. The winding of the armature. it had to be borne in mind that. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no special materials could be obtained. with the exception of insulated wire. which the writer has made.--Contributed by Charles H. and to consume. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. if possible. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. which can be developed in the usual manner. says the Model Engineer. may be of interest to some of our readers. or "rotor.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. without auxiliary phase. Wagner. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. lamp. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. no more current than a 16-cp.

which runs about 35 sheets to the inch.the field-magnet. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. no steel being obtainable. being used. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. holes. C. 4. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The stator is wound full with No. Holes 5-32 in. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. or "stator. 2. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. and all sparking is avoided. Unfortunately. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. They are not particularly accurate as it is. while the beginnings . B. with the dotted line. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. A. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. about 2-1/2 lb. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. as shown in Fig. wrought iron. 1. After assembling a second time. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. were then drilled and 1/4-in. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. as shown in Fig. thick. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. 3. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and filled with rivets. to be filed out after they are placed together. this little machine is not self-starting. also varnished before they were put in. bolts put in and tightened up. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 5. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. in diameter were drilled in the corners.

brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and would not easily get out of order. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. and especially of colored ones. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. McKinney. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. a regulating resistance is not needed. as shown in Fig. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. having no commutator or brushes. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. as a means of illustrating songs. If too late for alcohol to be of use. as before stated. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 1. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. 2. it would be very simple to build. The image should . depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. N. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. E. exactly the same as a print is made on paper.. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. Newark. 3-Contributed by C. J. In making slides by contact. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. This type of motor has drawbacks. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The rotor is wound with No. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. No starting resistance is needed. and the other by reduction in the camera. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. and as each layer of wire was wound. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. if applied immediately. and all wound in the same direction. film to film. Jr. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. One is by contact. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.

and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film.appear in. A. 1. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 4. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 2. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. about a minute. as shown in Fig. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Select a room with one window. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. if possible. B. Being unbreakable. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. If the exposure has been correct. C. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. the formulas being found in each package of plates. over the mat. a little extra work will be necessary. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. It is best. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. 5. to use a plain fixing bath. also. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. D. they are much used by travelers. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. as shown in Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Draw lines with a pencil. except that the binding is different. and then a plain glass. 3. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide.

from the ends. These longer pieces can be made square. Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Corinth. If the star is in front of the left eye. from the center of this dot draw a star. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. as shown at B. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. long. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. wide and 50 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. is to be used for the seat. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes bored in the end pieces. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. 2. Vt. Hastings. as shown in Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. or other stout cloth. A piece of canvas. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. while the dot will be in front of the other. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. in diameter and 40 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. in diameter and 20 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. 1. long. known as rods and cones. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. 16 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. as shown at A. from the end piece of the chair. Fig. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in.

made from an ordinary sash cord. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A disk 1 in. per square inch. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. 2. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. J. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. Auburn. as shown in Fig. A belt. 1. in thickness and 10 in. O'Gara. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Cal. . Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.-Contributed by P. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. as well as to operate other household machines. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.

thick and 2-1/2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Put the bolt in the hole. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. A simple. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. will be the thickness of the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. leaving it shaped like a bench. . and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. then removing the object. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. square for a support. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. it serves a very useful purpose. fairly accurate. to the top of the bench. Bore a 1/4-in. screwing it through the nut. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. with as fine a thread as possible. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. wide. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. 3/4 in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. long. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. says the Scientific American. direction. or inconvenient to measure. and the construction is complete. The part of a rotation of the bolt.

Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Place a 3/4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. which show up fine at night. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Santa Maria. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Oal. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. The wheel should be open . beyond the end of the wood. long. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. bolt in each hole. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. globe that has been thrown away as useless. material 12 ft. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long is used for the center pole. piece of wood 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets.

bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of brass 2 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A cross bar. to be operated by the magnet coil. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. square and 3 or 4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. The spool . made of the same material. B. thick is used for the armature. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another.Side and Top View or have spokes. C. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. The boards may be nailed or bolted. from the top end. is soldered. A. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. and the lower part 61/2 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in.-Contributed by A. wide and 1/8 in. in diameter. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. and on its lower end a socket. long. long. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. H and J. L. long. pieces used for the spokes. from the ends. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. which should be 1/4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The coil. long. thick. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. at the top and 4 in. Tex. Graham. 1/2 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. O. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. of the ends with boards. C. at the bottom. Fort Worth. thick. P.

000. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. 1. for insulating the brass ferrule. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which may be had by using German silver wire. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When you slide the pencil along the casing.E. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. then with a firm. is drilled. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. S. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. F. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. C. S. B. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. Randolph. Mass. one without either rubber or metal end. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. R. The armature. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. --Contributed by Arthur D. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. 2. do it without any apparent effort. long.J. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.is about 2-1/2 in. and in numerous other like instances. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Bradlev. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core.--A. At the bottom end of the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. 2 the hat hanging on it. or a water rheostat heretofore described. A. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. and directly centering the holes H and J. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. by soldering. that holds the lower carbon. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. A soft piece of iron.000 for irrigation work. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and place it against a door or window casing. D and E. .

How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. F. is constructed in the usual manner. and then 1. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 1. The vibrator. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. Fig. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. S. about 3/16 in. B. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. is connected to a flash lamp battery. with a 3/16-in. in diameter and 2 in. A. may be made from a 3/8-in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. from the core and directly opposite. 1. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The vibrator B. in diameter and 1/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. for the primary. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. about 1/8 in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. C. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. thick. leaving the projections as shown. The switch. S. hole in the center. about 1 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. long. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. mixed with water to form a paste. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. D. long and 1 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. for adjustment. About 70 turns of No. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. wide.500 turns of No. The core of the coil. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. in diameter. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter. Experiment with Heat [134] . 2. for the secondary.

1. The lock. and then well clinched. with which to operate the dial. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 16 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The tin is 4 in.Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 1. Fig. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. which is only 3/8-in. board. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. between the boards. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. it laps down about 8 in. wide. as shown. . The three screws were then put in the hasp. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. thick on the inside. brass plate. The hasp. and the same distance inside of the new board. 2 to fit the two holes. in an ordinary water glass. long and when placed over the board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which is cut with two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. which seemed to be insufficient. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown in the sketch. lighted. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling.

or in the larger size mentioned. but when the front part is illuminated.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. square and 10-1/2 in. and the back left dark. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. clear glass as shown. If the box is made large enough. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . the glass. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. not shiny. When the rear part is illuminated. When making of wood. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. which completely divides the box into two parts. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. one in each division. black color. high for use in window displays. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. square and 8-1/2 in.

place the goods in one part and the price in the other. a tank 2 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. When using as a window display. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. alternately. . as shown at A in the sketch. into the other. above the top of the tank. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. long and 1 ft. When there is no electric current available. and with the proper illumination one is changed. wide will be about the right size. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as it appears.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

and boring two holes with a 1-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. 2 ft. with a length of 13 in. hole. under sides together. square. If a planing mill is near. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. gauge for depth. wide. dried and mixed with linseed oil. from the ground. however. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and a solution of iron sulphate added. square and 40 in. using a 3/4-in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. bit.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Shape the under sides first. as shown. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. hole bored the full length through the center. or ferrous sulphate. thick and 3 in. is built on the front. bore from each end. 6 in. but with a length of 12 in. lines gauged on each side of each. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. each. The 13-in. The pieces can then be taken out. 5 ft. This hole must be continued . This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. O. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. A small platform. one for each side. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. wide. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and a door in front. two pieces 1-1/8 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Columbus. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. high. and 6 ft. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. is the green vitriol. radius. long. long. Three windows are provided. This precipitate is then washed. Iron sulphate. 1 in.

To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. When the filler has hardened. Directions will be found on the filler cans." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. thick and 3 in. For art-glass the metal panels are . Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. A better way. if shade is purchased. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. When this is dry. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. If the parts are to be riveted. Electric globes--two. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler.through the pieces forming the base. hole in each block. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The sketch shows one method of attaching. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. apply two coats of wax. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Saw the two blocks apart. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. three or four may be attached as shown. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE . as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the object and the background. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . the other. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. as in ordinary devices. one way and 1/2 in. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The arms holding the glass. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Figure 1 shows the side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. and Fig. as shown in the sketch. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. 2 the front view of this stand. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in.

Before mounting the ring on the base.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as shown in the cut. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . pointing north and south. and an inside diameter of 9 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. about 1-1/4 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Put the ring in place on the base. in diameter. as shown in the sketch. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. long. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. thick 5/8-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. uncork and recork again. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. channel in the circumference of the ring. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. outside diameter. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. in diameter for a base. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. If the light becomes dim. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. wide and 11 in. and swinging freely. wide and 6-5/16 in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. An ordinary pocket compass. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. as it is very poisonous. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Cut another circular piece 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. thus forming a 1/4-in.

of the top. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Place on top the so- . in diameter and 8 in. B. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. EE. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. are mounted on a base. 1 oz. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.420 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. black oxide of copper. AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. above the half can. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. CC.600 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Corresponding mirrors. and north of the Ohio river. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.715 .500 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.088 .289 . from the second to the third. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. and mirrors.182 .865 1. into these cylinders. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.

1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. 62 gr. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. In Fig. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Colo. says Metal Worker. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. always remove the oil with a siphon. which otherwise remains clear. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. alcohol. University Park. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 31 gr. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. of pulverized campor. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. When renewing. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Put the solution in a long. little crystals forming in the liquid. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . slender bottle.

about 1-1/4 in. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Solder in the side of the box . The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. floating on a solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Attach to the wires. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. will allow the magnet to point north and south. on the under side of the cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. A paper-fastener box. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and copper are used. Lloyd Enos. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If zinc and carbon are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. This is used in place of the spoon.

long.Contributed by J. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. C. D. A. wide and 2-1/2 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Thos. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. F. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Use a board 1/2. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. C. long. E. Bore holes for binding-posts. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer.1-in. thick. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. or made with a little black paint. The spring should be about 1 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 3 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. of No. B. and then solder on the cover. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. 14 wire will do. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. H. can be made of oak. The standard. D. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Put ends. 1/2.in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. glass tubing . The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. hole. E. The base. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. 1-1/4 in. brass tubing. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. as shown in Fig. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. stained and varnished. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. A circular piece of cardboard. If the hose is not a tight fit. Take a small piece of soft iron. C. Rhamstine. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. away. Wind evenly about 2 oz. to it. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.in. one on each side of the board. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. . The bottom of the box. 1. piece of 1/4-in. long that has about 1/4-in. B. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. G--No.not shorter than 18 in. 10 wire about 10 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. and on the other around the glass tube. D. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. A. wide and 6 in. is made from a piece of No. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.

5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. . four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Teasdale. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. about 1 in. 3 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. When the glass becomes soft. long. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. four hinges. canvas. Milwaukee. Cuba. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. of 8-oz. is drawn nearer to the coil. 5. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. J. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 3. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. from the right hand. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 2. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. The iron plunger. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. D. long are used for the legs. Smith. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Y. of mercury will be sufficient. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. N. 3-in. E. two pieces 2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by R. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 1. in diameter. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.of the coil. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. of No. long. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. making a support as shown in Fig. Wis. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts.

The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. --Contributed by David A. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. 3. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Toronto. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Take 1/2 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Can. Break off the piece of glass. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. of vacuum at the top. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. long. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame.. This tube as described will be 8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. leaving 8 in. Keys. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. thus leaving a. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 5. Measure 8 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. small aperture in the long tube. 6. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The tube now must be filled completely. 2.. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. 4. holding in the left hand. expelling all the air. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread.

thick. and the single projection 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. long. 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. wood screws. long. These are bent and nailed. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. 4. 9 in. 5. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. thick. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. from the end of same. Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 2.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. thick. 3 in. as in Fig. Four blocks 1/4 in. 1. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. 3 in. thick. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. 1 in.6 -. 6. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 12 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wide and 3 in. but yellow pine is the best. with each projection 3-in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. This forms a slot. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. long. FIG. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. joint be accurately put together. 3. in diameter. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 7. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 4 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . as shown in Fig.

which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. first removing the crank. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Manhattan. Kan. says Photography. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Welsh. above the runner level. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. R. by 1-in. Water 1 oz. . Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. --Contributed by C.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice.

--Contributed by Edward M. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 3. . as shown in Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 2. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. from an ordinary clamp skate. also. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 1. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Treasdale. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Wallace C. Mass. Newton. of water. 1 oz. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. and very much cheaper. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Leominster. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. The print is washed. Printing is carried rather far.

A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Church. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. square piece. Then. Fig. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. long. high. 2. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. from one end. Fig. --Contributed by H. 1 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. 1. 1-1/2 ft. fasten a 2-in. high for rabbits. and to the bottom. Va. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. causing the door to swing back and up. Take two glass tubes. The swing door B. which represents the back side of the door. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. too. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. with about 1/8-in. wide and 4 in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. and 3 ft. hole. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. F. Alexandria. say. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. extending the width of the box. Place a 10-in. about 10 in. as shown in the sketch. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. and bend them as shown in the sketch. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. wide. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The thread is broken off at the . so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. A.

On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. says Camera Craft. being 1/8 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 1 in. say 8 in. plates.by 7-in. -Contributed by William M. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. D. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Take two pieces of pasteboard. as shown in Fig. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Chicago. long. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 2. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. 1. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box.by 5-in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. C. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. black surfaced if possible. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. and exactly 5 by 7 in. . long. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Out two rectangular holes. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. shorter. wide. in size. 10 in. but cut it 1/4 in. to be used as a driving pulley. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. in size. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Jr. camera and wish to use some 4. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Paste a piece of strong black paper. trolley cars. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in.proper place to make a small hole. A and B. and go in the holder in the same way. shorter at each end. 3. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Fig. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. horses and dogs. wide and 5 in. This opening. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Crilly. B.. automobiles. Fig. inside of the opening. high and 12 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. wide.

The needle will then point north and south. long and 6 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. making a . This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. wide will be required.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. if it has previously been magnetized. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. in diameter. into which the dog is harnessed. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.

layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Form a 1/2-in. of the top. only the joints. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. in which P is the pan. pull out the wire as needed. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. This makes the wire smooth. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. one that will hold about 1 qt. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. in diameter and 6 in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. fuel and packing purposes. plaster of paris. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. B is a base of 1 in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. pine. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 3/4 lb. for a connection. and a notch between the base and the pan. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. 1 lb. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. sal ammoniac. . when the paraffin is melted. long which are copper plated. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. of the plate at one end. filter. File the rods to remove the copper plate. says Electrician and Mechanic. 1/4 lb. A is a block of l-in. Pack the paste in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a.watertight receptacle. with narrow flanges. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Do not paint any surface. under the spool in the paraffin. F is a spool. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Place the pan on the stove. short time. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. fodder. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side.in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. beeswax melted together. of rosin and 2 oz. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. zinc oxide. of water. leaving about 1/2-in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base.

By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and he finally. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. let them try it. long. or think they can do the same. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. g. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Ohio. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. but the thing would not move at all. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics." which created much merriment. At least it is amusing. Enlarge the hole slightly. for some it will turn one way. by the Hindoos in India. Try it and see.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. If any of your audience presume to dispute. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and one friend tells me that they were . Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. 2. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. as in the other movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and therein is the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. square and about 9 in. from vexation. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and then. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Toledo. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. for others the opposite way. thus producing two different vibrations.

while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. the rotation may be obtained. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. Speeds between 700 and 1. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. m. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. secondly. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. gave the best results. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 2. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Thus a circular or . this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 4. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. rotation was obtained. p. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action.100 r. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. by means of a center punch. and I think the results may be of interest. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The experiments were as follows: 1. 3. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 6. no rotation resulted. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. To operate. 7. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 5. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. If the pressure was upon an edge. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands.

A wire is tied around the can. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. a piece of wire and a candle. and the resultant "basket splash. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.D." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. as shown. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Duluth. if the pressure is from the left. Sloan. D. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. . unwetted by the liquid. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Ph. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). the upper portion is. Washington.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A.. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by M. C. it will be clockwise. or greasy. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. forming a handle for carrying. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Minn. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. at first. so far as can be seen from the photographs. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Lloyd. is driven violently away. --Contributed by G.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

as shown. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. as shown in Fig. thick and 1 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. 1. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. flange and a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. hole drilled in the center. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. long. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. in diameter. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal.

2. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. These ends are fastened together. wood. If the ends are to be soldered. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. is made from a piece of clock spring. 5. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. with cardboard 3 in. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 3/4 in. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Texas. lamp in series with the coil. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 3. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. San Antonio. 1 from 1/4-in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . wide and 16 in. 2. or main part of the frame. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 4. The motor is now bolted. Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. bent as shown. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Fuller. holes 1 in. bottom side up. A trolley. long. 3. 6. This will save buying a track.50. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Fig.brass. --Contributed by Maurice E. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. is made from brass. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. as shown in Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. of No. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. which must be 110 volt alternating current. and the locomotive is ready for running. as shown in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. are shown in Fig. The first piece. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. each in its proper place. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The current. The parts. put together complete.

but do not heat the center. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Cincinnati. When cold treat the other end in the same way. as shown in Fig. 3. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The quarter will not go all the way down. 1. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. then continue to tighten much more. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. the length of a paper clip. and holes drilled in them. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. as shown in Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O. Fig. and as this end . How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. 2. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Fig 1. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned.

A pair of centers are fitted. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. When the cutter A.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. In the sketch. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the trick is to be performed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. and adjusted . which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. or apparent security of the knot. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. 2 and 1 respectively. has finished a cut for a tooth. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe.

twisted around itself and soldered. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. if but two parts. or one-half of the design. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. holding it in place with the left hand. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. if four parts are to be alike. trace the outline. about 1-1/2 in. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). tea cosey. Fig.) Place the paper design on the leather and. (6.) Make on paper the design wanted. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. --Contributed by Samuel C. (1. long.to run true. draw center lines across the required space. (4. above the surface. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Second row: -Two book marks. watch fob ready for fastenings.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (5. gentleman's card case or bill book. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. book mark. (3. Bunker. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . blotter back. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (2. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. swing lathe. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. 2. such as brass or marble. 1. lady's belt bag. at the same time striking light. An ordinary machine will do. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Fold over along these center lines. N. and a nut pick. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. In this manner gears 3 in. dividing it into as many parts as desired. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. lady's card case. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. When connecting to batteries. The frame holding the mandrel. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. --Contributed by Howard S. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. coin purse. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Bott. tea cosey. Y.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. note book. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Brooklyn. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.

Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. C. A. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and bore a hole through the center. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. and push it through a cork. into which fit a small piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. If the needle is not horizontal. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The electrodes are made . Florida. where it condenses.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. B. from Key West. a distance of 900 miles.C. Thrust a pin. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. D. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.

as shown in Fig. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 3. To make a glide. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. or flying-machine. If 20-ft. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. several strips 1/2 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Washington. All wiring is done with No.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. which is tacked to the front edge. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 1. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 2 arm sticks 1 in. slacken speed and settle. thick. Powell. Connect as shown in the illustration. as shown in Fig. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. both laterally and longitudinally. long. wide and 3 ft. thick. use 10-ft. wide and 4 ft long. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. lengths and splice them. long. long. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long for the body of the operator. free from knots. 2 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. apart and extend 1 ft. D. 12 uprights 1/2 in. long. wide and 4 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. lumber cannot be procured. Four long beams 3/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The operator can then land safely and . You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. thick. 1. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 1/2. 1. 2. using a high resistance receiver. take the glider to the top of a hill. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. wide and 4 ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other.in. long. thick. thick. 16 piano wire. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. C. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. wide and 3 ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. --Contributed by Edwin L. 2. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1-1/4 in. square and 8 ft long. 1-1/2 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. by 3/4 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be .

Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2. half man and half horse. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. M.exercised in making landings. Olson. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 1. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Bellingham. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. When heated a little. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. which causes the dip in the line. --Contributed by L. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. a creature of Greek mythology. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying.

When through with the lamp place the cover over it. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. square. 14 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The light from the . wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. at the other. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. long. in diameter. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. making it 2-1/2 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. While at the drug store get 3 ft. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. this will cost about 15 cents. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. will complete the material list. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. about the size of door screen wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. long and about 3/8 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. of small rubber tubing. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. about the size of stove pipe wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. outside the box.

. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. --Photo by M. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in the sketch. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. If done properly the card will flyaway. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. M. as shown in Fig. 1. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. This is very simple when you know how. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Dayton. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. O. Hunting.

When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. place the other two. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. as shown. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. hold the lump over the flame. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as before. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. This game is played by five persons. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Cool in water and dry. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . as described. If a certain color is to be more prominent. When the desired shape has been obtained. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs." or the Chinese students' favorite game. closing both hands quickly. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. then put it on the hatpin head. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.

After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. or more in width.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges . Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.

The plates are trued up.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. in diameter. are made from solid. or teeth. The plates. and of a uniform thickness. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long. 3. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. the side pieces being 24 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The collectors are made. GG. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and pins inserted and soldered. turned wood pieces. C C. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. EE. 1. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter. are made from 7/8-in. as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. 1-1/2 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. long. 4. in diameter. These pins. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. wide. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. 3. Two solid glass rods. 3/4 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. RR. The two pieces. Fig. Two pieces of 1-in. in diameter. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 1 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The drive wheels. wide at one end. in diameter and 15 in. D. and the outer end 11/2 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. to which insulating handles . after they are mounted. The fork part is 6 in. free from wrinkles. long and the shank 4 in. as shown in Fig. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. material 7 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and 4 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. 2. at the other.

in diameter. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. which are bent as shown. --Contributed by C.are attached. KK. long. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk.. 12 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Colorado City. Lloyd Enos. wide and 22 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. D. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Colo. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. one having a 2-in. and the work was done by themselves. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.

The key will drop from the string. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. as at A. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. pens . string together. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. bit. yet such a thing can be done. deep. using a 1-in. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread.is a good one. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.

Draw one-half the design free hand. 6.. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. also trace the decorative design. slim screw. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. inside the second on all. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. This is to make a clean. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 3. unless it would be the metal shears. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. 23 gauge. Having determined the size of the tray. etc. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. stamp the background promiscuously. Use . at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.and pencils. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. above the metal. very rapid progress can be made. 5. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Inside this oblong. Proceed as follows: 1. 8. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears.. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. then the other side. or cigar ashes. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. they make attractive little pieces to have about. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. flat and round-nosed pliers. 9. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. two spikes. They are easily made. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. sharp division between background and design. Raise the ends. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. etc. and the third one 1/4 in. inside the first on all. When the stamping is completed. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 7. The second oblong was 3/4 in. 4. file. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. using a nail filed to chisel edge. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. about 3/4-in. 2.

Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. In the first numbering. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The eyes. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. and the effect will be most pleasing. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are .the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. and fourth fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. first fingers. 7. 6. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 10. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. second fingers. 8. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 9. third fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.

Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12.. there are no fingers above. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 11.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. etc. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. the product of 12 times 12. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. etc. and the six lower fingers as six tens. In the second numbering. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 12. or 60. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. renumber your fingers. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. which tens are added. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. first fingers. 25 times 25. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. . At a glance you see four tens or 40. or the product of 8 times 9. 400. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Let us multiply 12 by 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. above 20 times 20. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. which would be 70. or 80. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. as high as you want to go. 600. etc. if we wish. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Two times one are two. Put your thumbs together. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. thumbs. or numbers above 10. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4.. viz. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or the product of 6 times 6. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Still. which would be 16. 2 times 2 equals 4. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70.

were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. And the lump sum to add. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. being 80). whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. thirties. 3. 7. the value of the upper fingers being 20. first fingers 22. and so on. etc. . such as an used for lighting gas-burners. when he removes his spectacles. and. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the lump sum to add. any two figures between 45 and 55. Take For example 18 times 18. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. or from above or from below. adding 400 instead of 100. thumbs. Proceed as in the second lumbering. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. whether the one described in second or third numbering. as one might suppose. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 8. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 2. twenties. lastly. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. forties. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. at the will of the observer.. further. It takes place also. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. beginning the thumbs with 16. the value which the upper fingers have. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 21. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. not rotation. in the case of a nearsighted person. Oppose the proper finger tips as before.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. about a vertical axis. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the revolution seems to reverse. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 75 and 85. however. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the inversion takes place against his will. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. first finger 17. For figures ending in 6. For example. or what. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.

sometimes the point towards him. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the other appearance asserts itself. tee. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. as . Looking at it in semidarkness. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. when he knows which direction is right. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. A flat slide valve was used. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The ports were not easy to make.

if continued too long without proper treatment. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Beating copper tends to harden it and. secure a piece of No. Springfield. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. saw off a section of a broom handle. The steam chest is round. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Ill. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. bottom side up. and make in one end a hollow. apart. pipe. about 2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Next take a block of wood. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. While this engine does not give much power. . The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. it is easily built. in diameter. as in a vise. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. H. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. pipe 10 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. -Contributed by W. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Fasten the block solidly. inexpensive. such as is shown in the illustration.. The eccentric is constructed of washers. deep. Kutscher. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. across and 1/2 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. If nothing better is at hand. across the head.

Hay. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. as it softens the metal. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Vinegar. and. Camden. This process is called annealing. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid.will cause the metal to break. the other to the left. To produce color effects on copper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. S. O. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. --Contributed by W. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. C. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper.

while both eyes together see a white background. The further apart the pictures are. In order that the picture shall be "plastic.stereoscope. however. So with the stereograph. the further from the card will the composite image appear. not two mounted side by side. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. from the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. the one for the left eye being blue. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because. and without any picture. because of the rays coming from them. with the stereograph. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. disappears fully. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. But they seem black. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. it. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. It is just as though they were not there. orange. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. as for instance red and green." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. although they pass through the screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. that for the right. . would serve the same purpose. only the orange rays may pass through. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. diameter. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. they must be a very trifle apart. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. In order to make them appear before the card. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. in the proper choice of colors. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. and lies to the right on the picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide.

The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. or the middle of the bottle. wireless. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Cal. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The weight of the air in round . which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Place a NO. 1/4 in. A small round bottle about 1/2 in.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. San Francisco. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. etc.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. thick. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. A No. in the shape of a crank. wide and 1 in. 12 gauge wire. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.

a glass tube 1/8 in. In general. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. the contrary. or a column of mercury (density 13. But if a standard barometer is not available. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31.6) 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch.. inside diameter and 2 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. 34 ft. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The 4 in. a bottle 1 in. . Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. pine 3 in. or. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. long. the instrument. will calibrate itself. but before attempting to put in the mercury. internal diameter and about 34 in. 30 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. and a slow fall. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. long. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. square. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. wide and 4 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. long. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. square. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. wide and 40 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. if you choose. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. high. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. thick. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. Before fastening the scale. if accurately constructed. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used.numbers is 15 lb. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner.

This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. wide and 10 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. the size of the outside of the bottle. long. 2. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Mark out seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. and place them as shown in Fig. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 6 and 7. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. which is slipped quickly over the end. 1. Number the pieces 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Procure a metal can cover. 5. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. 3.

3 over No. 2. which is the very best material for the purpose. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Cape May Point. 1. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. long and 2 ft. To make such a tent. Move ll-Jump No. 5 over No. 3. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 9-Jump No. Move 13-Move No.-Contributed by W. Move 5-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 12-Jump No. Woolson. procure unbleached tent duck. 2's place. Move 14-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. using checkers for men. Move 15-Move No. in diameter. 2 . Move 3-Move No. 7's place. 5. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. N. 3. 5's place. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No.J. each 10 ft. 5's place. 6. 3.Position of the Men move only one at a time. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 8-Jump No. as shown in Fig. L. 6. Move 4-Jump No. 1 into No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 7 over No. 7 over No. 7. 6 into No. 1. 6 over No. 5 over No. 6 to No. l over No. 1 to No. 6 in. 3 into No. 2 over No. Move 2-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2 over No. 3 to the center. Move 10-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. 2's place. Move 6-Move No. shaped like Fig. Make 22 sections. 2.

use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. about 9 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide at the bottom. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. diameter. 5. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Fig.J. 2. Pa. round galvanized iron. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. long. fill with canvas edging. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. from the top. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 9 by 12 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. After transferring the design to the brass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. high. 5) stuck in the ground. 3 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. made in two sections. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. will do. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 6-in. These are ventilators. Have the tent pole 3 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. 6. long and 4 in. in diameter. In raising the tent. Tress. Fig. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. wide by 12 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. --Contributed by G. leaving the rest for an opening.. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. added. wide at the bottom. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. As shown in the sketch. Use blocks. to a smooth board of soft wood. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 2 in. Emsworth. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in.in. Punch holes in the brass in . wide at the bottom and hem the edges. as in Fig. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass.

The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. bend into shape. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. excepting the 1/4-in. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The pattern is traced as before. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When the edges are brought together by bending. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. . It will not. apart. but before punching the holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. around the outside of the pattern. Chicago. When all the holes are punched. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. cut out the brass on the outside lines. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. Corr.

Que. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. pipe. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. between which is placed the fruit jar. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. G. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. E. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. pipe is used for the hub. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. If a wheel is selected. A cast-iron ring. or. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Mayger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. partially filled with cream. Oregon. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. or less. --Contributed by H. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. Badger. --Contributed by Geo. A 6-in. allowing 2 ft. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. These pipes are .. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. better still. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Dunham.however. Stevens.

A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe clamps. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Four braces made from 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.

and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and the guide withdrawn. The performer. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. 3. as shown in Fig. 1. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and dropped on the table. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within.

2. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. and second. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Harkins.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. in diameter on another piece of tin. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. it requires no expensive condensing lens. in a half circle. -Contributed by C. 1. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Louis. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. --Contributed by H. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Denver. Mo. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. St. first. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. White. F. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The box can be made of selected oak or . the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. D. Colo. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.

An open space 4 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. wide and 6-1/2 in. high and must . Two strips of wood 1/2 in. long. long and should be placed vertically. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. focal length. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. 2. The door covering this hole in the back. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. high and 11 in. as shown in Fig. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide and 5 in. wide by 5 in. and 2 in. AA. fit into the runners. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 1. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. This will be 3/4 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. from each end of the outside of the box. 5-1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in.mahogany. and. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. from each end. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 3-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. long. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. but not tight.

Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. This process is rather a difficult one. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. --Contributed by Chas.. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. as it requires an airtight case. 1. Ohio. Bradley. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles." etc. then the second knuckle will be March. April. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. calling that knuckle January. C. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. June and November. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. West Toledo. provided it is airtight. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. the article may be propped up . The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. and so on. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling this February. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.

The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. or suspended by a string. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. one of lead and one of aluminum. The top of a table will do. Pour in a little turpentine. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. in.with small sticks. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. . --Contributed by J. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. H. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. but waxed. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. and set aside for half a day. In each place two electrodes. taking care to have all the edges closed. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. fruit jars are required. Y. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and the lead 24 sq. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. in. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. In both Fig. the lid or cover closed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. N. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. 1. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1 and 2. giving it an occasional stir. 2. Schenectady. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Crawford. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier.

have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. This trick is very simple. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. which you warm with your hands. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. you remove the glass. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. he throws the other. O. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. as you have held it all the time.. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Cleveland. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. After a few seconds' time. as well as others. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. He.

cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. in diameter in the center. Colo. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. but in making one. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. near a partition or curtain. Victor.-Contributed by E. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. on a table. Be sure that this is the right one. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Crocker. . it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. if any snags are encountered. but by being careful at shores. Pull the ends quickly. J. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can.take the handiest one. put it under the glass. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.

Both ends are mortised. 11 yd. thick and 3/4 in. of rope. 1 mast. 1 piece. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. of 1-yd. wide and 12 ft. one 6 in. square by 16 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. Fig. wide 12-oz. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1. at the ends.. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 50 ft. screws and cleats. 1 in. wide. ducking. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 2 in. 3 in. drilled and fastened with screws. and. from the stern. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. The keelson. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1/8 in. 2 gunwales. of 1-1/2-yd. from each end to 1 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. for the stern piece. 4 outwales. 7 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. for center deck braces. 1 in. long. 3 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. for cockpit frame. by 12 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. from the bow and the large one. and fastened with screws. by 16 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 8 in. 8 in. long. 1 in. and the other 12 in. long. wide and 12 ft. long. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 14 rib bands. 9 ft. by 15 ft. 8 yd. 1/4 in. 1 in. selected pine. 3 and 4. apart.. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. is 14 ft. 1 piece. wide unbleached muslin. by 2 in. for the bow. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. by 2 in. by 16 ft. by 10 ft. clear pine. as illustrated in the engraving.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Paint.

yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. Braces. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. 1 in. 9. wide and 3 ft. The deck is not so hard to do. wide. long is well soaked in water. 1 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. and fastened to them with bolts. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 6 and 7. apart. wide. thick. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. thick and 12 in. long. These are put in 6 in. This block. A 6-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Fig. from the bow. Before making the deck. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 4 in. A block of pine. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. wide and 24 in. 1/4 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. long. screws. thick. a piece 1/4 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 7 and 8. is cut to fit under the top boards. wood screws. thick 1-1/2 in. also. gunwales and keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Fig. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide and 14 in. in diameter through the block. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. doubled. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The 11-yd. 6. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. long. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 6 in. . form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 3-1/2 ft. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. is a cube having sides 6 in. Figs. corner braces. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The trimming is wood. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A seam should be made along the center piece. 5. A piece of oak. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. They are 1 in. thick and 1/2 in.

The mast has two side and one front stay. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Fig. The house will accommodate 20 families. long. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The sail is a triangle. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. . 11. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. long. --Contributed by O. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Wilmette. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. each 1 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. is 6 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. wide at one end and 12 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. at the other. The keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. apart in the muslin. thick by 2 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. are used for the boom and gaff. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 12. in diameter and 10 ft. A strip 1 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 10 with a movable handle. Tronnes. E. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. wide. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Ill. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in.

as shown in Fig. and 3 ft. Ill. square. 4. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. wide and 30 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long. Take this and fold it over . wide. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. wide. and the other 18 in. wide and 2 ft. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 3. flat-headed screws. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 2-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Cut the maple. 5. Tronnes. long. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. --Contributed by O. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 1. E. five 1/2-in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. with the ends and the other side rounding. long and five 1/2-in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Fig. 1 yd. one 11-1/2 in. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Wilmette. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. about 5/16 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. flat on one side. 2 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one.into two 14-in. 2-1/2 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. thick. flat headed screws. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in.

D. wide and 4-1/2 in. thick. C. square. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out.once. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. is set. A. long. Fig. --Contributed by W. Cut another piece of board. long. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. thick and 3 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. The front. long. F. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3/8 in. long. C. are rounded. as well as the edges around the opening. 3 in. Glue a three cornered piece. soaked with water and blown up. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. If carefully and neatly made. St. Mo. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. the top and bottom. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. 5 from 1/16-in. After the glue. wide and 2-1/2 in. 6-1/2 in. then centered. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. square. of each end unwound for connections. pieces 2-5/8 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. about 3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. 2 and 3. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. thick. forming an eye for a screw. E. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. and the four outside edges. 1-1/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. wide and 5 in. wide and 3 ft. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. wide . but can be governed by circumstances. 3-1/4 in. 1. A. this square box is well sandpapered. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 2-3/4 in. When the glue is set. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Louis. long. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Another piece. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. About 1/2 in. B. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. The bag is then turned inside out. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. and take care that the pieces are all square. Bliss. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Figs.

Chapman. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. long. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and as the part Fig. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Richmond Hill. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Yorkshire. bored in the back. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. wide and 2-1/2 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. and the farther apart they will be forced. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. hole is fastened to the pointer. C. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. W. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Austwick Hall. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The base is a board 5 in. Like poles repel each other. thick. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The stronger the current. Fig. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. 5. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle.R. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Fig. I. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . F. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. the same size as the first. These wires should be about 1 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. the part carrying the pointer moves away. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. wide and 9 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. in diameter. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. board. 1/4 in. from the spindle. Place the tin. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. G. 1/16 in. Another strip of tin. --Contributed by George Heimroth. long. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. 4. 4.A. R. 5-1/2 in. and fasten in place. that has the end turned with a shoulder. from one end. A pointer 12 in. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. When the current flows through the coil. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. so it will just clear the tin. long. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The resistance is now adjusted to show . 4 is not movable. The end of the polar axis B.and 2-5/8 in. L. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.S.

Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. at 9 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. thus: 9 hr.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. shows mean siderial. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. and vice . M. say Venus at the date of observation. 30 min. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 1881.

m. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Robert W. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. owing to the low internal resistance. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Hall. Conn. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. New Haven. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. . or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. or. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.f. if one of these cannot be had. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.

long. The boring bar.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. as shown in the accompanying picture. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. cover up with the same. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. especially for cooking fish. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. thick. fresh grass. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. arsenic to every 20 lb. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . leaves or bark. put the fish among the ashes. 1. Fig. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. When the follower is screwed down. Then. inside diameter and about 5 in. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 3/8 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of alum and 4 oz. 1-3/4 in. Wet paper will answer. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and heap the glowing coals on top.

When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. pipe. fastened with a pin. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and threaded on both ends. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. about 1/2 in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. when they were turned in.

The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 2. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. If the valve keeps dripping. a jump spark would be much better. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. was then finished on an emery wheel. The rough frame. Fig. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. but never one which required so little material. Fig. 30 in. A 1-in. then it should be ground to a fit. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. long. labor and time.valve stems. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. wide. thick and 3 in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 5. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. however. This plate also supports the rocker arms. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Iowa. as the one illustrated herewith. square iron. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Clermont. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 3. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and which gave such satisfactory results. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. It . 4. bent in the shape of a U. the float is too high.

square. rope is not too heavy. from the center. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. A malleable iron bolt. Nieman. The seats are regular swing boards. 12 ft. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. in fact. W. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. being held in position by spikes as shown. A 3/4 -in. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The illustration largely explains itself. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and a little junk. long is the pivot. so it must be strong enough. extending above. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. hole bored in the post. for the "motive power" to grasp. set 3 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. timber. square and 2 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. butting against short stakes. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. square and 5 ft. in diameter and 15 in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. from all over the neighborhood. If it is to be used for adults. long. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. 3/4 in. --Contributed by C." little and big. long. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. long." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. It looks like a toy. This makes an easy adjustment. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. in the ground with 8 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. and. strong clear material only should be employed. completes the merry-go-round.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. with no trees or buildings in the way. As there is no bracing. no matter what your age or size may be. Use a heavy washer at the head. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet.

therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. then it is securely fastened.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 2. light and strong. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. square. long. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. A reel is next made. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. and sent to earth. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The bow is now bent. if nothing better is at hand. The backbone is flat. To wind the string upon the reel. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. Having placed the backbone in position. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. one for the backbone and one for the bow.the fingers. 4. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. away. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. 1. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.2 emery. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. Both have large reels full of . 1/4 by 3/32 in. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. and 18 in. These ends are placed about 14 in. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. a wreck. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. as shown in Fig. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer.

Y. Bunker. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. the balance. or glass-covered string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. common packing thread. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Newburyport. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. If the second kite is close enough. he pays out a large amount of string. N. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. often several hundred yards of it. The handle end is held down with a staple. Brooklyn. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Mass. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string.-Contributed by S. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. First. Moody. C. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.

then a dust protector. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Vt. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. --Contributed by Earl R. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. must be attached to a 3-ft. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. each the size of half the table top. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. If the table is round. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Corinth. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. such as mill men use. square (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. length of 2-in. lengths (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. cutting the circular piece into quarters. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Hastings. then draw the string up tight. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.

non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Oakland. 6-1/4 in. G to H. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Moisten the . trace this or some other appropriate design on it.9-1/4 in. trace the design carefully on the leather. Calif. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. which spoils the leather effect. from E to F. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Use a smooth.-Contributed by H. and E to G. 2-1/4 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.. Wharton.. hard pencil. 16-1/4 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. . 17-1/2 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. E. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.. from C to D. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.

A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. G-J. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. apart. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Cut it the same size as the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Trace the openings for the handles. To complete the bag. H-B. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. place both together and with a leather punch. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. I made this motor . make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and lace through the holes. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and E-G. wide. Now cut narrow thongs. also lines A-G. is taken off at a time. if not more than 1 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. about 1/8 in.

Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. each being a half circle. --Contributed by J. B. as shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 2. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Pasadena.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. 1. 2-1/4 in. in length. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. of No. Shannon. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. . 1. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. iron. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. D. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws.M. 24 gauge magnet wire. long. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Calif.

The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. 1. high. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. pasted in alternately. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The gores for a 6-ft. near the center. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . or a little over half way from the bottom to the top.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. balloon should be about 8 ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. are the best kind to make. and the gores cut from these. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. from the bottom end. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.

Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 1. Fig. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 5. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. These are to hold the wick ball. lap on the edges. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 2. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. 3. leaving a long wake behind. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. E. Staunton. --Contributed by R. As the boat is driven forward by this force. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. If the gores have been put together right. as shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. After washing. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. somewhat larger in size. in diameter. In removing grease from wood. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . so it will hang as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. using about 1/2-in. A. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. coming through the small pipe A. B. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace.widest point. In starting the balloon on its flight. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. 4. The steam. as shown in Fig. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The boat soon attains considerable speed. saturating it thoroughly.

leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. In using either of the two methods described. long and each provided with a handle. long. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. in bowling form. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Second. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. 1. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. wide by 6 in. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. apart on these lines. high and 8 in. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. There are three ways of doing this: First. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. as is shown in Fig. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Third. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife.

Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Y. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig. Albany. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. thick. being careful not to dent the metal. Rinse the plate in cold water.Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. N. Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. --Contributed by John A. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in.

S. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. are screwed to the circular piece. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Break off the frame. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. and Fig. 1 Fig. A circular piece of wood. thick. and. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. In Fig. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. CC. Corner irons. with a set screw. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Richmond.upon any particular object. These corner irons are also screwed to. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. wide and of any desired height. B. 6 in. long for the base. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Va. With this device. 5 in. Paine. --Contributed by R. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. 2 the front view. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. A. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. which is 4 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. wide and 8 in. in diameter. A. and not produce the right sound. through which passes the set screw S. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims.

Ill. This horn. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. R. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. pine boards. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. in diameter of some 1-in. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Lake Preston. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. This will make a very compact electric horn. Kidder. . A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. thus producing sound waves. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. La Salle. I made a wheel 26 in. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. -1. D. S. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. as only the can is visible. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.-Contributed by John Sidelmier.

--Contributed by C. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the same thickness as the coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The frame is made of a heavy card. 1. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. 1. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James R. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. square. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. If there is a large collection of coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. O. Ghent. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Kane. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. thick and 12 in. Doylestown. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Purdy. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. A. 2. Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. B. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides.

A rivet punch is desirable. cut and grooved. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. thick. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. for after the slides have been shown a few times. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. --Contributed by August T. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Wis.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Cal. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The material required is a sheet of No. into which to place the screws . Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. melted and applied with a brush. and then glued together as indicated. --Contributed by R. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. a hammer or mallet. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. It will hold 4 oz. Noble. Toronto. plus a 3/8-in. though not absolutely necessary. several large nails. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. A lead pencil. Smith. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. --Contributed by J.J. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. One Cloud. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide.E. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. border all around. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. of developer. Milwaukee. Neyer. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. they become uninteresting. If desired. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Canada.

Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . never upon the metal directly. both outline and decoration. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. and file it to a chisel edge. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. draw one part. screws placed about 1 in. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. like the one shown. using 1/2-in. Take the nail. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Fasten the metal to the board firmly.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn.

of 11-in. 1. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. l-1/8 in.wall. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. as shown in Fig. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. in the other. 3/4 in. for the top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Do not bend it over or flatten it. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. each 1 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. two lengths. About 1/2 yd. The pedal. 2. long. Provide four lengths for the legs. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Rivet the band to the holder. square and 181/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 11 in. for the lower rails. . long. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 3. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. up from the lower end. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. long. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. using a 1/2in. being ball bearing. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. and two lengths. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor.

having quite a length of threads. Attalla. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Ala. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by John Shahan. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. New York City.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by W. F. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Quackenbush.

one about 1 in. and two holes in the other. --Contributed by C. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . wide and 8-1/4 in. The desired emblem. something that is carbonated. in depth. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and 3/8 in. college or lodge colors. Ironwood. wide and 4-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. long. using class. making a lap of about 1 in. long. Mich. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. the end of the other piece is folded over. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Assemble as shown in the sketch. initial. Luther. each 1-1/4 in.. D. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. from one end. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Two pieces of felt. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. from the end. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class.

Schatz. Ind. about 2 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or more in height. or a pasteboard box. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. and the cork will be driven out. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . which can be procured from a plumber. A piece of lead. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. from the center and opposite each other. This method allows a wide range of designs. Indianapolis. as shown at B. 1. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Punch two holes A. 1/4 in. --Contributed by John H. in diameter and 2 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. 2. Fig. in the cover and the bottom.

The pieces of tin between the holes A. . A piece of thick glass. 3. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. metal. When the can is rolled away from you. as shown in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. on both top and bottom. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. and the ends of the bands looped over them. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. or marble will serve. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. O. it winds up the rubber band. putting in the design. 1. are turned up as in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. 4. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. 5. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. Columbus.

or more thick on each side. thicker than the pinion. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. New York City. face up. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. I secured a board 3/4 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. mark over the design. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. wide and 20 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. from each end. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. and. long and bored a 1/2-in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. If it is desired to "line" the inside. 1 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. hole through it.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. 3 in. deep in its face. thick. After this has been done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.

New York. 4 guides. --Contributed by A. 2 side rails. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Syracuse. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. lag screws as shown. pieces for the vise slides. 2 end rails. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 36. Y. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 2 crosspieces. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 top board. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 screw block. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Fig. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Make the lower frame first. 1 top board. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Cut the 2-in. in diameter. M. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Rice. N. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1 by 9 by 80 in. Now fit up the two clamps. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 piece for clamp. 1.in the board into the bench top. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 back board. and fit it in place for the side vise. thick top board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Brooklyn. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 piece for clamp. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2 by 12 by 77 in.

The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 marking gauge. 1 claw hammer.. Only the long run. 1 brace and set of bits. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 nail set. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.screws.. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. it can be easily found when wanted. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. as well as the pattern maker. 1 compass saw.. 1 wood scraper. 2 screwdrivers. 1 pair pliers. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pair dividers. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pocket level. 1 rip saw. 24 in. 1 cross cut saw. in diameter. rule. 1 jack plane or smoother. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. . As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 24 in. 1 countersink. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The amateur workman. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 monkey wrench. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 set chisels. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 set gimlets. The bench is now complete. 1 2-ft. 3 and 6 in.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Kane. try square. ---Contributed by James M. being softer. 2. becomes like A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.1 6-in. Fig. will be easier to work. the projecting point A. Pa. The calf skin. will sink into the handle as shown at D. after constant use.1. No. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. but will not make . 1. 3. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Doylestown.

as rigid a case as the cow skin. New York City. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Having prepared the two sides. Two pieces will be required of this size. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. will do just as well. -Contributed by Julia A. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. which steam. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. . It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. then prepare the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. lay the design on the face. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If cow hide is preferred. After the outlines are traced. such as copper or brass. the same method of treatment is used. cover it completely with water enamel and. when dry. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. If calf skin is to be used. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. but a V-shaped nut pick. White. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Turn the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. First draw the design on paper. secure a piece of modeling calf. water or heat will not affect. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster.

if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Cobb. Portland. Maine. --Contributed by W. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. . Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Jaquythe. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. New York City. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cal. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chester L. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. as shown in the sketch. A. Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. Herrman. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. C. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel.

The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. B. A thick piece of tin. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg.. for instance. --Contributed by Geo. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Conn. an inverted stewpan. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Middletown. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Cambridge. Roberts. Wright. . especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. This was very difficult. --Contributed by Wm. was marked out as shown. Mass. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time.

as shown. face down. There was no quicklime to be had. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. A beautifully bound book. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Herbert. Bone. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. apply powdered calcined magnesia. which has been tried out several times with success. but only an odor which soon vanished. so some bones were quickly calcined. pulverized and applied. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. well calcined and powdered.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. . and quite new. such as chair seats. on a clear piece of glass. --Contributed by Paul Keller. If any traces of the grease are left. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. F. Ind. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Illinois. When dry. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. L. of boiling water. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. --Contributed by C. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Indianapolis.. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. used as part of furniture. Chicago. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. and the grease will disappear. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. but not running over. If the article is highly polished. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane.

2 in. says Scientific American. 6 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make..Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. A. set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo. wide and 12 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. the pieces . Tarrytown. If properly adjusted. Howe. deep and 5 in. thick. New York. long.

E. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. no doubt. says Camera Craft. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. A sharp knife. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. albums and the like.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. for sending to friends. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The seat is a board. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Their size depends on the plate used. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . If the letters are all cut the same height. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. to the underside of which is a block. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. they will look remarkably uniform. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.

and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So made. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. using care to get it in the right position. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. mount them on short pieces of corks. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. after. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. photographing them down to the desired size. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. The puzzle is to get . In cutting out an 0. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. pasting the prints on some thin card. for example. and. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. So arranged. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters.

the tube righting itself at once for another catch. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. G. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.-Contributed by I. N. of its top. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. hung on pivots. snow or anything to hide it. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Cape May Point. Bayley. long that will just fit are set in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. with the longest end outside. He smells the bait. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. says the American Thresherman. so they will lie horizontal. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic . A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in.

--Contributed by Charles Graham. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Parker.faced up. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. or rub the hands a little before doing so. then spread the string. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Szerlip. Rhode Island. E. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Press the hands together. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pawtucket. N. --Contributed by L. Pocatello. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Y. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. Idaho. then expose again.

are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper.. they will look very much like the genuine article. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. in building up his work from the illustrations. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. end of the blade. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown.. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. full size. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. 4 on the blade. narrower. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. dark red.Genuine antique swords and armor. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 1 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. thick. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. or a complete suit of armor. says the English Mechanic. whether he requires a single sword only. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 2 Fig. or green oil paint. 1. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. in width. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. 3 Fig. near the point end. wipe the blade . Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. wide and 2 in. Glue the other side of the blade. long. The handle is next made. When the whole is quite dry. and if carefully made. if any. The blade should be about 27 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. The pieces.

A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 1. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. In the finished piece. 1. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 2. The length of the handle. 1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. as it is . The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the length of the blade 28 in. In making. 1/8 in.. the illustration. long. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 4. This sword is about 68 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the other is flat or halfround. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 3. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. 1.with light strokes up and down several times. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. about 1-1/2 in. of course. thick and 5 in. and 3 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. preferably of contrasting colors. not for use only in cases of tableaux. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. shows only two sides. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. square and of any length desired. in diameter. Fig. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. should be about 9 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig.. in the widest part at the lower end. In making this scimitar. the other is flat or half-round. 2. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. take two pieces of wood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the other two are identical. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 3. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. follow the directions as for Fig.

The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. 2 in. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. as there was some at hand. Franklin. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. square. --Contributed by John Blake. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. about 3/8 in. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Both can be made easily. or an insecure fastening. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Syracuse. however. N. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Mass. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Morse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. long. and. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. A piece of mild steel. It is made of a plank. at the lower end. The thinness of the plank. as shown in the sketch. piping and jackets by hard water. in an attempt to remove it. Doctors probed for the button without success. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. and if so. Y. as can the pitch bed or block. each about 1 ft.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. On each edge of the board. A cold . took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.

. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. When this has been done. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. To put it in another way. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 18 gauge. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. When the desired form has been obtained. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. tallow. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. plaster of Paris. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. design down.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. secure a piece of brass of about No. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Trim up the edges and file them . place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. 5 lb. on the pitch. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. a file to reduce the ends to shape. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. To remedy this. using a small metal saw. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 5 lb.

That is lifting 33. and still revolve. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. lb. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 30 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight.000 lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. or 550 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. in diameter (Fig.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. lb. The smaller is placed within the larger. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. but not to stop it. or fraction of a horsepower. over the smaller vessel. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. it may be well to know what horsepower means. space between the vessels with water. per second. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. one 18 in. in one second. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. and hang a bird swing. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. to keep it from floating. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 3. 1 ft. 1) and the other 12 in. per minute. Fig. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 2). in one minute or 550 lb. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Before giving the description. Fill the 3-in. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. . in diameter (Fig. make an unusual show window attraction. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.000 ft. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. 1 ft. Cutter. A.smooth. This in turn divided by 33. in the center. living together in what seems like one receptacle. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. using powdered pumice with lye.

Somerville. The effect is surprising. N. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed by J. 2 Fig. Diameter Fig. Campbell. Diameter 12 in. 1 Fig. --Contributed.3 Fig. F. Szerlip. Y. Brooklyn. or on a pedestal. Mass.18 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. by L. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.

The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which may be of wood or tin. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. to keep the metal from tarnishing. with the pliers. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. after which it is ready for use. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. as a rule. often render it useless after a few months service. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Rivet the cup to the base. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. then by drawing a straightedge over it. away from the edge. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. In riveting. which.copper of No. using any of the common metal polishes. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Polish both of these pieces. the same as removing writing from a slate. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. unsatisfactory. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and then. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. keeping the center high. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. and cut out the shape with the shears. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. and the clay . with other defects. is. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This compound is impervious to water. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine.

Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. DeLoof. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Mich. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. A. long. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. -Contributed by Thos. Mich. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. --Contributed by John T. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. as shown in Fig. 1. Shettleston.can be pressed back and leveled. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Northville. Dunlop. . 3/4 in. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Grand Rapids. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. in diameter and 5 in. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Scotland. 2. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. the device will work for an indefinite time. Houghton. --Contributed by A. It is made of a glass tube.

in width and 2 in.FIG. stilettos and battle-axes. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. This sword is 4 ft. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.1 FIG. long. London. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. put up as ornaments. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. 1. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to .

2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 9. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. glue and put it in place. Three large. sharp edges on both sides. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The sword shown in Fig. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. In Fig. the upper part iron or steel. The ball is made as described in Fig. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. in length. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 4. The handle is of wood. is shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. Cut two strips of tinfoil. This sword is about 4 ft. in length. small rope and round-headed nails. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 20 spike. paint it a dark brown or black. Both handle and axe are of steel. 11 were used. one about 1/2 in. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil.represent copper. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. with both edges sharp. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. 3 is shown a claymore. The crossbar and blade are steel. the axe is of steel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. which is about 2-1/2 ft. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. When dry. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. very broad. The lower half of the handle is of wood. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. with wire or string' bound handle. narrower. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 8. This stiletto has a wood handle. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the same as used on the end of the handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 6. This weapon is also about 1 ft. with both edges of the blade sharp. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. 5. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. sometimes called cuirass breakers. long with a dark handle of wood. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. In Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. string. In Fig. 7. in width. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. When the whole is quite dry. wood with a keyhole saw. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. firmly glued on. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. studded with brass or steel nails. A German stiletto. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. then glued on the blade as shown. long.

Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 10. W. . together as shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.described in Fig. Chicago. 2. will pull where other belts slip. so the contents cannot be seen. Old-Time Magic . --Contributed by E.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. such as braided fishline. high. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. This will make a very good flexible belt. When wrapped all the way around.

3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. S.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The dotted lines in Fig. some of the liquid. --Contributed by A. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. apparently. about one-third the way down from the top. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. These wires are put in the jar. As zinc is much lighter than iron. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. an acid. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Calif. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. 2. Bridgeton. 1 and put together as in Fig. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. with the circle centrally located. filled with water.J. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Macdonald. in a few seconds' time. Before the performance. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. There will be no change in color. Oakland. causing the flowers to grow. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. four glass tumblers. or using small wedges of wood. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. N. held in the right hand.

2 for height. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Jaquythe. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. and kept ready for use at any time. and equally worthy of individual treatment. says a correspondent of Photo Era. 4 for width and No. which are numbered for convenience in working. A. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. not only because of the fact just mentioned. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. practical and costs nothing. unless some special device is used. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Cal. Richmond. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] .It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. If the size wanted is No. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. --Contributed by W. This outlines the desired opening. When many slides are to be masked. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in.

possibly. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. may be changed. using the carbon paper. and do not inhale the fumes. not the water into the acid. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. and the extreme length 7 in. which is dangerous. is about right for the No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. This done. The one shown is merely suggestive. the margin and the entire back of the metal. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. or. 16 gauge. too. but they can be easily revived. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. When etched to the desired depth. Draw a design. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. With a stick. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a little less acid than water. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. paint the design. The decoration. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. or a pair of old tongs. about half and half. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. the paper is folded along the center line. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Secure a sheet of No. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired.

If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. the bell will ring. 1. 5. thick.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 3/8 in. Fig. Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. A. . 5. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. so that when it is pressed down. as shown in Fig. 3. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. long and 1 ft. 2. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. it will touch post F. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. through it. with the wires underneath. J is another wire attached in the same way. about 2-1/2 in. C and D. Then get two posts. attached to a post at each end. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 2. repeat as many times as is necessary. as at H. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 8 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. or more wide. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. high. 0 indicates the batteries. Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. about 1 in. and bore two holes. Fig. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 2. about 3 ft. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. wide and of the same length as the table. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. The connections are simple: I. wide. and about 2-1/2 ft. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 4. Paint the table any color desired. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Nail a board. as in Fig. 24 parts water. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. to the table. When the button S is pressed. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Cut out a piece of tin.

These rings can be carved out. says the English Mechanic. The circle is marked out with a compass. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. long. handle and all. The imitation articles are made of wood. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. This weapon is about 22 in.Imitation Arms and Armor . mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. 1. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A wood peg about 2 in. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. but they are somewhat difficult to make.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. such as . is to appear as steel. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. After the glue is dry. 2. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire weapon. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the wood peg inserted in one of them. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel.

long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Its length is about 3 ft. covered with red velvet. the hammer and spike. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. etc. 6. leaves. used at the end of the fifteenth century. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. or the amateur cannot use it well. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. 5. . the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. The entire handle should be made of one piece. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. 2. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. All of these axes are about the same length. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. flowers. The lower half of the handle is wood. as shown. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. also. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. The handle is of steel imitation. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. This weapon is about 22 in.ornamental scrolls. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 8. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. 3. The spikes are cut out of wood. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. as described in Fig. The axe is shown in steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. as before mentioned. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle is of wood. long.

as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. calls for a home run. and so on for nine innings. 5. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 3. Fig. Chicago. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 7) calls for one out. 1.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. then the other plays. 4). Each person plays until three outs have been made. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as shown in Fig. 2. . Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 6. the knife resting on its back. a three-base hit.

with the rope laced in the cloth. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. of water for an hour or two. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. hypo to 1 pt. If it is spotted at all. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. 2. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.-Contributed by J. F. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Somerville. as shown in Fig. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Campbell. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Mass. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. one of them burning . He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. while the committee is tying him up. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. 1. This he does.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 3. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Old-Time Magic . of the rope and holds it. as shown in Fig. It may be found that the negative is not colored.

but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Brown. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Evans. He then walks over to the other candle. thus causing it to light. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. of turpentine. bolt. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. shades the light for a few seconds. of sugar. of plumbago. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood.Contributed by Andrew G. Thome. 3/4 in. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. B. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. with which he is going to light the other candle.brightly. --Contributed by L. of water and 1 oz. invisible to them (the audience). 4 oz. the other without a light. etc. Drill Gauge screw. 4 oz. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. . The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. and. Ky.. thick. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. showing that there is nothing between them. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. New York City. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Louisville. --Contributed by C. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Lebanon. Ky. The magician walks over to the burning candle. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand.

A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Pulteney. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. about 5 in. diameter. for the material. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. To make the porous cell. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. which will give a strong. Its current strength is about one volt. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. H. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Do not add water to the acid. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. In making up the solution. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. 5 in. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. into a tube of several thicknesses. thick. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Y. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. --Contributed by C. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. but is not so good. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. or blotting paper. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. long. steady current. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. N. Denniston. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. but can be made up into any required voltage in series.

steel. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.) may be obtained. Finally. a positive adjustment was provided. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. After much experimentation with bearings.station. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. steel. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. One hole was bored as well as possible. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. but somewhat lighter. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The . The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. carrying the hour circle at one end. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. the other holding them apart. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. long with a bearing at each end. As to thickness. one drawing them together. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. To insure this. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. while the other end is attached by two screws.

in each direction from two points 180 deg. need not be changed. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. When properly set it will describe a great circle. excepting those on the declination axis.. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. is provided with this adjustment. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. and 15 min. The pointer is directed to Alpha. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The pole is 1 deg. To find a star in the heavens. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Declination is read directly. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. 45 min. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. are tightened. Instead. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Cassiopiae. save the one in the pipe. turn the pointer to the star. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Set the declination circle to its reading. All these adjustments. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. once carefully made. All set screws. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. To locate a known star on the map." When this is done. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. apart. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Each shaft. and if it is not again directed to the same point. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. subtract 24. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so." Only a rough setting is necessary. The aperture should be 1/4 in. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. when the pointer should again cut at the same place.. If the result is more than 24 hours. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. It is. Point it approximately to the north star. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer.

A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Strosnider.. add a little more benzole. a great effect will be produced. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. as shown in the sketch. New Orleans. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. cannon balls. La. If this will be too transparent. The ball is found to be the genuine article. benzole. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. long. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Plain City. In reality the first ball. 3 or 4 in. of ether. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. which is the one examined. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ohio. then add 1 2-3 dr. taking care not to add too much. the others . Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. is the real cannon ball. is folded several times. The dance will begin. -Contributed by Ray E.

--Contributed by J. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. as shown in the illustration. F.. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. small brooches. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. San Francisco. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Somerville. Cal. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. without taking up any great amount of space. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Wis. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. 1). When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. etc. Fig. Milwaukee. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. 2. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Campbell. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Mass. In boxes having a sliding cover. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Return the card to the pack. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. taps.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig.

This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Connecticut.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. from the bottom of the box. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Hartford. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. prints. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. round pieces 2-1/4 in. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. thus giving ample store room for colors. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. . At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. as shown in the illustration. Beller.

will answer the purpose. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Fill the upper tub. 2). and pour water on it until it is well soaked. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. with well packed horse manure. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. or placed against a wall. West Lynn. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Mass. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. -Contributed by C. . tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 1). a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. costing 5 cents. about threefourths full. holes in the bottom of one. O. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. FIG. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. When the ends are turned under.

Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. oil or other fluid. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. M. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. and each bundle contains . At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out. when they are raised from the pan. Eifel. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. if this is not available. cutting the cane between the holes. they should be knocked out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Chicago. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If plugs are found in any of the holes.

after having been pulled tight. then across and down. 1. as shown in Fig. In addition to the cane. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. a square pointed wedge. No plugs . which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. held there by inserting another plug. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as it must be removed again. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off.

3 in. All added to the lesser or 40°. and for 1° it would be . Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. If you have a table of natural functions. the next smallest. is the base (5 in. It consists of a flat circular table. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. 41°-30'.= 4. using the same holes as for the first layer. as shown in Fig. 41 °-30'. we have 4. There are several different designs of sundials. it is 4. Fig. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. as shown in Fig. 1 lat. 1. Even with this lubrication. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. W. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.15+. From table No. This will make three layers. and for lat. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 40°. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Fig.2 in. When cool. 42° is 4. 5. Michigan. No weaving has been done up to this time.5 in.42 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Patrick. -Contributed by E. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. the height of the line BC. 4. After completing the second layer. the height of which is taken from table No. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. called the gnomon. If handled with a little care. as for example. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.2+.15 in. Detroit. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. as the height of the line BC for lat. trim off the surplus rosin. lat. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. Their difference is . During the weaving. and the one we shall describe in this article. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. is the horizontal dial. or the style. but the most common. 3.075 in. The style or gnomon. 5 in. 3. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. D. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 1. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.075 in. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. R. --Contributed by M. 1. as it always equals the latitude of the place. in this case) times the . stretch the third one. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. for 2°. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.

Fig. For latitudes not given. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.83 27° 2.66 48° 5. 2.81 4.37 54° 6.55 30° 2. Its thickness. . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.85 1.32 6.10 6.57 3.93 6.23 6.91 58° 8. which will represent the base in length and thickness. Chords in inches for a 10 in. or more.87 4. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.87 1. if of metal. gives the 6 o'clock points.12 52° 6.07 4.38 .59 2.02 1.68 5-30 6-30 5.26 4. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.29 4-30 7-30 3. and intersecting the semicircles.20 60° 8.56 .55 46° 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.06 2.57 1.99 2.18 28° 2. long. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.30 2. with a radius of 5 in.00 40° 4.79 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.40 34° 3. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.96 32° 3.89 50° 5.49 30 .46 .94 1.16 1. Draw two semi-circles. circle Sundial.19 1. base.14 5. and for this size dial (10 in.93 2.46 3.44 44° 4.76 1.42 45 .tangent of the degree of latitude.41 38° 3.39 . 1.64 4 8 3.40 1.88 36° 3.03 3.50 26° 2.30 1. or if of stone. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.27 2.33 .82 5. Draw the line AD. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. according to the size of the dial.85 35 .42 .77 2. an inch or two. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . and perpendicular to the base or style. To layout the hour circle.49 3.82 3.42 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. 2 for given latitudes. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. Table NO. 2. using the points A and C as centers.66 latitude.28 .97 5 7 4.33 42° 4.82 2.66 1.55 4.11 3.16 40 .37 5.55 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.63 56° 7.

57 1.63 1.34 5. April 16..46 4. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.37 2.12 5. Mitchell. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 3.87 6.14 1.79 6.68 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 900 Chicago. E. it will be faster.98 4. Each weapon is cut from wood. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.50 55 . and on these dates the dial needs no correction.93 6. An ordinary compass. and the . The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. Sun time to local mean time. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.from Sundial lime. As they are the genuine reproductions. Sioux City.49 5.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 25. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. The + means that the clock is faster.46 5. London.77 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.49 3. after allowing for the declination. says the English Mechanic.24 5. if west. then the watch is slower. adding to each piece interest and value.21 2. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. each article can be labelled with the name. Iowa.10 4. 2 and Dec. --Contributed by J.89 3.30 2.08 1.54 60 .71 2. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. This correction can be added to the values in table No.50 . or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.53 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.add those marked + subtract those Marked . will enable one to set the dial.82 3.72 5. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.19 2. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. June 15.06 2.01 1. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. 3. Sept. and for the difference between standard and local time.52 Table No. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.60 4. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.

Partisan. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. 3. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. When putting on the tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. . 1..

long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. the holes being about 1/4 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 5. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. in diameter. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. 7. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long with a round staff or handle. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The extreme length is 9 ft. which are a part of the axe. The edges are sharp. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used about the seventeenth century. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. press it well into the carved depressions. 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long.. about 4 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. It is about 6 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. This weapon is about 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods.which is square. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. . The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear is steel. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. long with a round wooden handle. sharp on the outer edges. A gisarm or glaive. long. 8. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in.

as shown in Fig. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 4.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. used for spacing and binding the whole together. the most durable being bamboo. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 2 and 3. are put in place. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. B. The twisted cross cords should . the cross cords. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. or in holes punched in a leather strap. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. 1. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This is important to secure neatness. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Ohio. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. are less durable and will quickly show wear. They can be made of various materials. apart. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. In Figs. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. H. 5. Substances such as straw. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Workman.-Contributed by R. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Loudonville. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Cut all the cords the same length. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig.

and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. shaped as shown at C. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. wide. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. in which was placed a piece of glass. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . near the top of the can and their points turned outward. for a length extending from a point 2 in. This was turned over the top of the other can. as shown at B. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. La. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail.be of such material. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Harrer. M. below the top to within 1/4 in. bamboo or rolled paper. To remedy this. of the bottom. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. New York. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. New Orleans. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. 3 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A slit was cut in the bottom.

--Contributed by Joseph H.tape from sticking to the carpet. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Ill. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. N. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. wide. Newburgh. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. This plank. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by Chas. This should be done gradually. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. giving the appearance of hammered brass. After this is finished. Sanford. and two along the side for attaching the staff. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. turned over but not fastened. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Shay. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. the brass is loosened from the block. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. do not throw away the gloves. Cal. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by W. is shown in the accompanying sketch. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Maywood. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Schaffner. Y. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Pasadena. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. H.

bent as shown. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond. A. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. --E. K. Unlike most clocks. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Marshall. Ill. Cal. Jaquythe. -Contributed by W.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park.

the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. high. 5/16 in. is an electromagnet. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. The construction is very simple. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. only have the opposite side up. high. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. . The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Now place the board to be joined. 6 in. 3/4 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. by 1-5/16 in. 7-1/2 in. bar. Chicago. B. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. says the Scientific American. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. the center one being 2-3/4 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. C. wide.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. such as this one. Two uprights. bearing on the latter. to the first one with screws or glue. Secure a board. Fasten another board. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first.. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. thick. are secured in the base bar. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. in diameter. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. A. high and 1/4 in. away. about 6 in. long and at each side of this. on the board B. Metzech. wide that is perfectly flat. In using this method. about 12 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. high. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and the other two 2-5/8 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. --Contributed by V. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end.

the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 1. 4. The trigger. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. Fig. wide and 1 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. or more. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Vanderslice. A rectangular hole 3/16 in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. . 1. long. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square inside. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. is fastened in the hole A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. as shown at A. wide and 5 in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. square. Pa. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 2. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Fig. Phoenixville. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. --Contributed by Elmer A. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 3. by driving a pin through the wood. from one end.

when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. one-half the length of the side pieces. by weight. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Fostoria. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 2 parts of whiting.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. rubbing varnish and turpentine. square. -Contributed by J. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. as shown in the illustration. which allows 1/4 in.A. if only two bands are put in the . Ohio. 5 parts of black filler. Simonis.

Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Mass. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and.lower strings. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. long. wide and about 1 ft. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. says the English Mechanic. DeLoof. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. is set at an angle of 45 deg. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Grand Rapids. A mirror. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Abner B. which may be either of ground or plain glass. is necessary. as shown in Fig. In use. A double convex lens. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Michigan. 8 in. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. London. A piece of metal. If a plain glass is used. Shaw. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. preferably copper. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and the picture can be drawn as described. in the opposite end of the box. and it may be made as a model or full sized. II. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. In constructing helmets. place tracing paper on its surface. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. --Contributed by Thos. deep. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. G. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. No. Dartmouth. It must be kept moist and well . 1.

This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses.kneaded. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as shown in Fig. will be necessary. brown. and over the crest on top. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . cut out the shape from a piece of wood. joined closely together. 1. and left over night to soak. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. with a keyhole saw. 3. as in bas-relief. or some thin glue. a few clay-modeling tools. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. All being ready. This being done. shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and the deft use of the fingers. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 1. The clay. take. on which to place the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 2. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. Scraps of thin. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. the clay model oiled.

with the exception of the vizor. then another coating of glue. and the ear guards in two pieces. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and so on. 1. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The whole helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. When the helmet is off the model. which should be no difficult matter. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. In Fig. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. a few lines running down. one for each side. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. In Fig. Indiana. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Indianapolis. The band is decorated with brass studs. the skullcap. will make it look neat. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. or. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 7. Before taking it off the model. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. owing to the clay being oiled. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. This contrivance should be made of wood. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch.as possible. the piecing could not be detected. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. a crest on top. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The center of the ear guards are perforated. When dry. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. When perfectly dry. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. They are all covered with tinfoil. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. as shown: in the design. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. square in shape. 9. 5. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet.

is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. in diameter and 9 in. and. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4. 2. FF. 4. long. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The plate. 1. 1. as shown in Fig. one small switch. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. is shown in Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. long. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. high. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. two ordinary binding posts. as it stands a higher temperature. 22 gauge resistance wire. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4 lb. Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 12 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. This will allow the plate. thick. about 80 ft. as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. AA. This will make an open space between the plates. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. If asbestos is used. 1. about 1 lb. 3. thick sheet asbestos. and two large 3in. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. German-silver wire is better. above the collar. and C. 4. one oblong piece of wood. 4. The mineral wool. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. if the measurements are correct. 4. wide and 15 in. should extend about 1/4 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. to receive screws for holding it to the base. GG. the fuse block.same size. Fig. 1 in. 4. long. as shown in Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. The reverse side of the base. 2. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. for connections. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. until it is within 1 in. when they are placed in opposite positions. E and F. of mineral wool. of the top. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. AA. Fig. one glass tube. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. or. screws. of No. 4. one fuse block. Fig. of fire clay. The two holes. is then packed down inside the collar. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 2. 1. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. AA. 1. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. each 4-1/2 in. JJ. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 3 in. about 1/4 in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. with slits cut for the wires. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. also the switch B and the fuse block C. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay .

When the tile is in place. causing a short circuit. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. St. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. above the rim. Richmond. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. as the turns of the wires. Fig. allowing a space between each turn. Jaquythe. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. then. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. steam will form when the current is applied. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Cal. II. As these connections cannot be soldered. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. If it is not thoroughly dry. H. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should not be set on end. It should not be left heated in this condition. While the clay is damp. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Next. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. when heated. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A file can be used to remove any rough places. using care not to get it too wet. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. when cool. Cnonyn. 2. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. it leaves a gate for the metal. Can. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. When this is done. apart. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The clay. Cover over about 1 in. and pressed into it. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. --Contributed by W. This point marks the proper length to cut it. KK. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Catherines. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. A. 4. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. so that the circuit will not become broken. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. This completes the stove. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. will slip and come in contact with each other. Cut a 1/2-in. Fig. --Contributed by R. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. more wire should be added. If this is the case. deep.

Louisville. Then clip a little off the . thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. but 12 by 24 in. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. says the Photographic Times. as shown. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. constructed of 3/4-in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. --Contributed by Andrew G." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the pie will be damaged. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the frame set near a window. square material in any size. and the prints will dry rapidly. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. is large enough. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Thorne. Ky.

The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 1/2 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Fig. A 1/8-in. As the shaft revolves. thereby saving time and washing. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The upright B. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. An offset is bent in the center. wide. causing a break in the current. Fig. Le Mars. The driving arm D. W. 1. long. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. as shown. high. 4 in. high. 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. Figs. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. slip on two cardboard washers.Paper Funnel point. 1. 14 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 3. long. Iowa. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 22 gauge magnet wire. 2. thick and 3 in. 1. each 1/2 in. 1 and 3. Herron. 1. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 2-1/2 in. open out. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. thick and 3 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The connecting rod E. Fig. high. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. thick. wide and 7 in. allowing each end to project for connections. in diameter. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Two supports. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. at GG. long. wide and 3 in. long. in diameter and about 4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. for the crank. -Contributed by S. The board can be raised to place . which gives the shaft a half turn. each 1 in.

in height.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Stecher. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. bottom side up. Dorchester. --Contributed by William F. making a framework suitable for a roost. 3 in. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. In designing the roost. as shown in the sketch. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Place the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Mass. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. on a board. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used.

Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. odd corners. Fig. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. in diameter. The bottom part of the sketch. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. without any corresponding benefit. adopt the method described. windows. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. grills and gratings for doors.. if it is other than straight lines. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. 1. preferably. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. when combined. ordinary glue. F. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Wind the . Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. that it is heated. F. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. paraffin and paint or varnish.. The materials required are rope or. 1. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. will produce the pattern desired. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. shelves. and give it time to dry.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. as shown in Fig. etc.

Fig. N. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. 2. Harrer. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. Y. M. Fig.

makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. will be retained by the cotton. This piece of horse armor. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. etc. London. says the English Mechanic.. As the . Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. chips of iron rust. when it will be observed that any organic matter. which was used in front of a horse's head. but no farther. etc.. 1. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.

and will require less clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. This triangularshaped support. This being done. as the surface will hold the clay. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This can be made in one piece. as shown in the sketch. except the thumb and fingers. with the exception of the thumb shield. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. and therefore it is not described. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. All being ready. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. the same as in Fig. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. then another coat of glue. which is separate. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. the rougher the better. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 6 and 7. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. but the back is not necessary. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. 2. and the clay model oiled. An arrangement is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. In Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. which can be made in any size. This will make the model light and easy to move around. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 4. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The armor is now removed from the model. but for . 8.

Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. but 3-1/2 in. . Goshen. the two pieces of foil will draw together.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. in depth. are glued to it. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Fasten a polished brass ball to. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Redondo Beach. Calif. Buxton. --Contributed by John G. A piece of board. When locating the place for the screw eyes. cut into the shape shown in Fig. will be about right. 9. La Rue. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. fastened to the rod. long. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two in each jaw. wide and 1/2 in. 1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. and the instrument is ready for use. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. each about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Ralph L. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. N. running down the plate. the top of the rod. If it does not hold a charge. are better shown in Fig. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. the foils will not move. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The two pieces of foil. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. 2. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Y. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint.

the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Texas. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. M. as this will cut under the water without splashing. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Mrs. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Corsicana. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. At a point 6 in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. long. as indicated in the . The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. The can may be bronzed. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. silvered. about 15 in. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. Bryan. 2-1/2 in. A.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. pine board. When a fish is hooked. from the smaller end. hole bored through it. is made of a 1/4-in.

as shown. and trace upon it the design and outline. punch the holes. Polish the metal. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. then with a nail. or even pine. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Having completed the drawing. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Any kind of wood will do. take a piece of thin wood. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. A good size is 5 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. If soft wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. long over all. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Basswood or butternut. such as basswood or pine was used. Next prepare the metal holder. thick. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. using powdered pumice and lye. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. When it has dried over night. 3/8 or 1/4 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. wide by 6 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. using a piece of carbon paper. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.Match Holder accompanying sketch.

This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. If one has some insight in carving. . the whole being finished in linseed oil. Richmond. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 2 in. It is useful for photographers. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. of pure olive oil. wide and 5 in. is used for the base of this instrument. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Cal. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Two wire nails. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. long. thick. each 1 in. Jaquythe. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Instead of the usual two short ropes. A. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. 1/2 in. can be made on the same standards. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. are used for the cores of the magnets. long. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. If carving is contemplated. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. --Contributed by W.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. the paper covering put on. except that for the legs. as shown by the dotted lines. About 1 in. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. says the English Mechanic. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A rubber band. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. London. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. when the key is pushed down. then covered with red. about No. in the shape shown in the sketch. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. cloth or baize to represent the legs. A piece of tin. Lynas. 1. as shown in Fig.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. leaving about 1/4 in. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. --Contributed by W. 3. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. cut in the shape of the letter T. at A. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. acts as a spring to keep the key open. . similar to that used in electric bells. H. All of the parts for the armor have been described. 25 gauge.

So set up. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. holes. about 1 in. Fig. In one end of the piece.. at each end. for the sake of lightness. can be made in a few minutes' time. Silver paper will do very well. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. in the other end. 1 and drill a 1/4in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. or ordinary plaster laths will do. says Camera Craft. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Take the piece shown in Fig. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 3 in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. completes the equipment. The two pieces are bolted together. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. not too tight. These can be purchased at a stationery store. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Secure two strips of wood. flat headed carriage bolt. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. and eight small holes. A 1/4-in. drill six 1/4-in. 2. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 1 in. long. apart. one to another .Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. apart. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. hole in the center. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. By moving the position of the bolt from. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Instead of using brass headed nails.

in Fig. Fig. but instead of reversing . almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. for instance. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. and lay it over the one to the right. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 1. Then take B and lay it over A. D over A and C. as shown in Fig. 4. the one marked A. In this sketch. 2. Start with one end. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. long. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. of the ends remain unwoven. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. lay Cover B and the one under D. 2. then B over C and the end stuck under A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in.of the larger holes in the strip. doubled and run through the web of A. C over D and B. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. as in portraiture and the like. A round fob is made in a similar way. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. taking the same start as for the square fob. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and the one beneath C. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger.

It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Other designs can be made in the same manner. over the one to its right. especially if silk strings are used. as in making the square fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 3. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. long. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. --Contributed by John P. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side. always lap one string. as B. is to be made of leather. 5. as at A in Fig. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. the design of which is shown herewith. Monroeville. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. A loop. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 1-1/2 in. Ohio.

Any smooth piece of steel. beeswax or paraffin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. door facing or door panel.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. using the reverse side. it can be easily renewed. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. . filling them with wax. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Mich. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Northville. A. Houghton. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. pressing it against the wood. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. -Contributed by A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. When the supply of wax is exhausted. such as a nut pick. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

and after wetting. those on matte paper will work best. nearly as wide as the envelope is long.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. E and F. long. New York. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. --Contributed by O. Thompson. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. J. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. remaining above the surface of the board. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Select the print you wish to mount. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. thick. Petersburg. . apart and driven in only part way. says Photographic Times. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. it is best to leave a plain white margin. although tin ones can be used with good success. place it face down in the dish. Ill. N. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. if blueprints are used. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. leaving about 1/4 in. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and about 12 in. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Fold together on lines C. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. The tacks should be about 1 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Enough plaster should. D. Y.

The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. filling the same about onehalf full. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. without mixing the solutions. bell flowers. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. roses. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water.. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. as shown in the right of the sketch. etc. violets. One of the . will be rendered perfectly white. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.

Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. not too tightly. L. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. about 1/8s in. thick. 3. long. Fig.. turned a little tapering. The tin horn can be easily made. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Millstown. South Dakota.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. should be soldered to the box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. --Contributed by L. and at the larger end. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. to keep the core from coming off in turning. When soldering these parts together. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. long and made of wood. made of heavy tin. 1-7/8 in. 2. but which will not wobble loose. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 1. in diameter and 1 in. The sound box. A rod that will fit the brass tube. shading. The first point should be ground blunt. as shown. or delicate tints of the egg. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The diaphragm. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Shabino. is about 2-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle.

The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Colo. and weighted it with a heavy stone. E.Contributed by E. mice in the bottom. wondering what it was. Gold. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. put a board on top. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Jr. says the Iowa Homestead. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Victor. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Ill. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.

-Contributed by Albert O'Brien.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Ottawa. Y. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. . The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Can. Pereira. N. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.

and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. through which several holes have been punched. cut round. A. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. by means of a flatheaded tack. --Contributed by W. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Put a small nail 2 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. as shown.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. De Loof. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Grand Rapids. Mich. This cart has no axle. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. Richmond. and at one end of the stick fasten. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. a piece of tin. longer than the length of the can. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. above the end of the dasher. Cal.

as shown. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1 ft. 2 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide and as long as the box. Notches 1/8 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch.1. cut in the center of the rounding edge. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. thick. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. deep and 3 in. apart. wide. --Contributed by James M. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 2. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Fig. 1. of course. 1-1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. La. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. 1/4 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. A wedge-shaped piece of . The candles. long. Doylestown. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Kane. Pa. board. I reversed a door gong. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The baseboard and top are separable. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. New Orleans.

After completing the handle. will. scissors. For the handle. 1. West Union. the shelf could not be put on the window. can be picked up without any trouble. Cover the block with rubber. dressing one surface of each piece. wide rubber bands or felt. 3. when placed as in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. When not in use. The block can also be used as a paperweight.Book Back Holders metal. Wood. the blade is put back into the groove . Ia. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. as one end must be dropped in place before the other.. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Mass. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. it can be removed without marring the casing. by cutting away the ends. etc. wide into each side of the casing. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Worcester. to prevent its scratching the desk top. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. take two pieces of hard wood. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. stone or wood. A. the reason being that if both were solid. After the glue has dried. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Needles. This device is very convenient for invalids. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. --Contributed by G.

A notch is cut in one side. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. --Contributed by H. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 1. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Malden. 1 in. -Contributed by W. is shown in the accompanying sketch. long. . Hutchins.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Mass. --Contributed by Maud McKee. thus carrying the car up the incline. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Cleveland. S. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Erie. Ohio. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If desired. A. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Pa. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. as shown in Fig. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. square and 4 in. 2. as shown in Fig. Jacobs. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute.

The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and an awl and hammer. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.J. One sheet of metal. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. a board on which to work it. If one such as is shown is to be used. This will insure having all parts alike. N. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. The letters can be put on afterward. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Prepare a design for the front.. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Cape May Point. . will be needed. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.

The stick may be placed by the side of. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. if desired. 2 parts white vitriol. 1 part. The music will not sound natural." In all appearance. varnish. One coat will do. only the marginal line is to be pierced. a violin. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 1/4 part. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. turpentine. paste the paper design right on the metal. mandolin or guitar. On the back. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. flat brush. applied by means of a brush. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. . says Master Painter. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. but weird and distant. as shown. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. behind or through the center of a table leg. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. which is desirable. to right angles. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. that can be worked in your own parlor. So impressive are the results. or. in the waste metal. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal.Fasten the metal to the board. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. placed on a table. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Remove the metal. 3/4 part. If any polishing is required. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal.

long and measuring 26 in. apart. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. square bar iron. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 28 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. and is easy to construct. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. each 6 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. long and spread about 8 in. without them. is bent square so as to form two uprights. London. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. . With proper tools this is easy. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. wide. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. it might be difficult. long. round-head machine screws. are shaped as shown in Fig. says Work. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Two pairs of feet. The longest piece. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. across the top. 3. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.

This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. A. is held by the brads. B. While the piece of lead D. and the base border. lead. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. 6. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the latter being tapped to . and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. on it as shown. in the grooves of the borders. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. 5. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. After the joints are soldered. 7. After the glass is cut. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. special flux purchased for this purpose. The design is formed in the lead. using rosin as a flux. better still. Place the corner piece of glass. 4. as shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The brads are then removed. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. cut a long piece of lead. Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. or. C. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder.

Fasten the plates to the block B. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. This ring can be made of 1-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. then drill a 3/4-in. long. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Jr. 8. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. wood screws in each washer. H. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Camden. Bore a 3/4-in. and two wood blocks. The post is now ready to be set in the ground.. N. The center pin is 3/4-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Secure a post. long. Bore a 5/8-in. J. in diameter and 1/4 in. bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. plates. This . Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. as shown in Fig. long. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. --Contributed by W. Dreier. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. not less than 4 in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. plank about 12 ft. bolt. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Make three washers 3-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. thick and drill 3/4-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. and round the corners of one end for a ring. one on each side and central with the hole.the base of the clip. in diameter and about 9 in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. holes through their centers. rocker bolt. rounded at the top as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. then flatten its end on the under side. square and of the length given in the drawing. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. A and B. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours.

This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. can make a first class gymnasium. 1. apart for a distance of 3 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. maple. hickory. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. long and 1 piece. and some one can swing an axe. straight-grained hickory. 4 filler pieces. 4 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. because it will not stand the weather. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. horse and rings. 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. If trees are convenient. 1 by 7 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. long. 3 in. from one edge. 9 in. 1-1/4in. La.will make an excellent cover for a pot. boards along the side of each from end to end. 3/4 by 3 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long. New Orleans. bolts and rope. of 1/4-in. by 2 ft. 4 pieces. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. bit. 50 ft. shanks. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. chestnut or ash. To substitute small. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. in diameter and 7 in. 16 screws. 7 in. 1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. long. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The four 7-in. 4 pieces. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. screws. by 6-1/2 ft. square by 5 ft.

The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. each 3 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. deep and remove all loose dirt. from the end. piece of wood. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. apart. 2. 8 in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. so the 1/2-in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. apart. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. at each end. boards coincide. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. then buried to a depth of 2 ft..bored. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.

not even the tumbler. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. not much to look at in daytime. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. but most deceptive at dusk. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem.. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and ascends the stem. When the interest of the crowd. in an endless belt. it is taken to the edge of the foot. passing through a screweye at either end. which at once gathered. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. about 100 ft. just visible against the dark evening sky. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. it follows the edge for about 1 in. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement." which skimmed along the distant horizon. . in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. disappearing only to reappear again. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. was at its height. and then passes in a curve across the base. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. W. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. the effect is very striking. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and materially heightened the illusion. If the tumbler is rotated. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. apart. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. And all he used was a black thread. He stretched the thread between two buildings.

2 bars of straight grained hickory. 6 in. 8 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. A wire about No. 2 by 3 in. 2 base pieces. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 side braces. 8 in. 1. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. beginning at a point 9 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 in. long. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Bevel the ends of . 2 cross braces. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Chisel out two notches 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long and 1 doz. 2 by 4 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. by 7 ft. New Orleans. long. The cork will come out easily. from either side of the center. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. long. long. 4 bolts. 2 in. and turned in a spiral D. large spikes. 8 bolts. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 3 ft. by 10 ft. deep. La. square and 6 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. long. preferably cedar. 4 knee braces. 8 in. 4 in. 7 in. by 2 ft. Fig.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. To make the apparatus. 4 wood screws. square and 51/2 ft. 2 by 4 in. so the point will be on top. wide and 1 in. 2 by 4 in.

of 7 ft. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr.. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. as shown in the diagram. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Cal. If using mill-cut lumber. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. which face each other. A. and countersinking the heads.the knee braces. using four of the 7-in bolts. jellies. but even unpainted they are very durable. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. These will allow the ladle to be turned. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Two endpieces must be made. so the bolts in both will not meet. Richmond. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. --Contributed by W. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. additional long. except the bars. .) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. equipped with a strainer. After the trenches are dug. ( To be Continued. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. The wood so treated will last for years. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. leave it undressed. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. screws. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. A large sized ladle. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. etc. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. leaving the strainer always in position. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Jaquythe. save the bars.

In order to accomplish this experiment.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a barrier for jumps. A. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. which seems impossible. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. milling machine. or various cutting compounds of oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. drill press or planer. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. of sufficient 1ength. . Oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.

It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Procure from a saw mill. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 bases. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. by 3 ft. bolt. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. long. long. 1 cross brace. is a good length. by 3 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. but 5 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. two 1/2-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. To construct. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. long. ten 1/2-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. These are well nailed in place. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. by 3 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. The round part of this log must be planed. 3 in. Hand holds must be provided next. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4 in. and free from knots. from each end. bolts. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. apart in a central position on the horse. 4 in. wood yard or from the woods. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. long. 2 adjusting pieces. long. 2 by 4 in.. to fasten the knee braces at the top. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 2 by 4 in. long. in diameter--the larger the better. projections and splinters. apart. These are placed 18 in. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. square by 5 ft. bolts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 4-1/2 in. 1 in. in the ground. 4 knee braces.. bolts. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in.

The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Richmond. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. etc. pipe and fittings. but nevertheless. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead.horse top. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. snow. water.--Contributed by W. Also. Jaquythe. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. over and around. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. A. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. then bending to the shape desired. such as a dent. no one is responsible but himself. it is caused by an overloaded shell. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by some obstruction. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon.

Noble. France. --Contributed by James E. Joerin. 1. when straightened out. Ontario.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. will give the length. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. when complete. in width and 1/32 in. are all the tools necessary. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. The end elevation. --Contributed by Arthur E. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Paris. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. thick. then run a string over each part. --Contributed by J. Vener. W. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. 2. Mass. Boston. at E and F. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. which. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. These. is much better than a wood sled. Toronto. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. .

3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. It is best to use soft water.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. AA and BB. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 4. 3. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. . After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. and the latter will take on a bright luster. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The method shown in Figs. are nailed. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. nor that which is partly oxidized.

as shown in Fig. 8 and 9. class ice-yacht. or various rulings may be made. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 4. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. or unequal widths as in Fig. 3. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 2. 1). the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. . Percy Ashley in Rudder. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. Broad lines can be made. The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

pipe. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The headstock is made of two tees. bent and drilled as shown. A good and substantial homemade lathe. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. a tee and a forging. 1-Details of Lathe sort. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. Both the lower . A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. It can be made longer or shorter. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. a larger size of pipe should be used. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. long. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. about 30 in. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. out from the collar. but if it is made much longer.Fig. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. 1. pins to keep them from turning.

These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 3/4 or 1 in. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. as shown in Fig. To do this. Musgrove. or a key can be used as well. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 2. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. M. and will answer for a great variety of work. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. --Contributed by M. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Cal. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 2. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. . but also their insulating properties. Laporte. Fruitvale. 1. UpDeGraff. as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Man. thick as desired. 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. W. Indiana. Held. a corresponding line made on this. Boissevain. It is about 1 in. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by W. else taper turning will result. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient.

The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Ft. In use. --Contributed by E. The handle is of pine about 18 in. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. To obviate this. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. as shown. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . J. Cline. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Smith. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Ark. long.

This prevents the drill from wobbling. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. After being entered. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. New Orleans. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. --Contributed by Walter W. La. and when once in true up to its size.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. which should be backed out of contact. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. take . making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Denver. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. face off the end of the piece. on starting the lathe. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Colo. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. the drill does not need the tool. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. centering is just one operation too many. White. if this method is followed: First. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread.

says the Sphinx. a long piece of glass tubing. by applying caustic soda or . and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. After the wand is removed. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. all the better. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. In doing this. is put into the paper tube A. shown at C. a bout 1/2 in. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. vanishing wand. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and can be varied to suit the performer. after being shown empty. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shorter t h a n the wand. as shown in D. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. It can be used in a great number of tricks. unknown to the spectators. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief rod. The glass tube B. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover.

and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. and glue it to the neck at F. End. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. across the front and back to strengthen them. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. thick. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. cut to any shape desired. Glue strips of soft wood. with the back side rounding. As the cement softens. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The sides. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 Bottom. 1 End. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. long. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 3/16. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1/4 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. can be made by the home mechanic. Glue the neck to the box. as shown by K. preferably hard maple. square and 1-7/8 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in.potash around the edges of the letters. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1. 1 Neck. and if care is taken in selecting the material. With care and patience. 2 Sides. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. This dimension and those for the frets . Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples.

When it is completed you will have a canoe. 1) on which to stretch the paper. H. toward each end. or backbone. Carbondale. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. in diameter. A board 1 in. -Contributed by J.Pa. but it is not. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. E. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. O. Stoddard. Six holes. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Norwalk. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Frary. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. --Contributed by Chas. long is used for a keel. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.should be made accurately. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and beveled . 3/16 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. wide and 11-1/2 ft. thick and about 1 ft.

3/8 in. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. as shown in Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. some tight strips of ash. such as hazel or birch. 13 in. but before doing this. B. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. but twigs of some other trees. probably. Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. C. Fig. C. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. a. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. as they are apt to do. 1 and 2. and are not fastened. will answer nearly as well. 4. two twigs may be used to make one rib. apart. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Any tough. such as is used for making chairbottoms. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Fig. b. long. 2). which are easily made of long. are next put in. two strips of wood (b. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. slender switches of osier willow. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fig. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. in thickness and should be cut. 3). For the gunwales (a. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. wide by 26 in. as shown in Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. thick. b. or other place. thick. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. These are better. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. as before described. Fig. and. with long stout screws. long are required. . 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. 2. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. procure at a carriage factory. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 1. The cross-boards (B. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. In drying. The ribs. 2). or similar material. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. in such cases. Osiers probably make the best ribs. 3. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. by means of a string or wire. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. when made of green elm. Green wood is preferable. 3).. Shape these as shown by A. 4). 3.) in notches. and so. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh.

if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Being made in long rolls. however. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and as soon as that has soaked in. Fig. tacking it to the bottom-board. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and light oars. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. It should be smooth on the surface. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wide. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. If the paper be 1 yd. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. You may put in . For this purpose buy about 18 yd. When thoroughly dry. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and steady in the water. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. but neither stiff nor very thick. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. preferably iron. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and held in place by means of small clamps. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. apply a second coat of the same varnish. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. The paper is then trimmed. B. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. 5). varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. after wetting it. and very tough. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. When the paper is dry. If not. Then take some of the split rattan and. but with less turpentine.

Drive the lower nail first. and if driven as shown in the cut. 5. 5). where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 1 and the end in . For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. fore and aft.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. to fit it easily. We procured a box and made a frame. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 1. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. and make a movable seat (A.

The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. this makes the tube airtight. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the glass. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 3. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and the result is. A good way to handle this work. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes.Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Pa. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 5. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pittsburg. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. This way has its drawbacks. This is an easy . A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast.

with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Sixth. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. rivet punch. above the metal. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. thin screw. metal shears. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. very rapid progress can be made. second. four. then reverse. fifth. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. or six arms. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. flat and round-nosed pliers. also trace the decorative design. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. with a piece of carbon paper. Oswald. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears.way to make a thermometer tube. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Seventh. 23 gauge. After the bulb is formed. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. Give the metal a circular motion. fourth. The candle holders may have two. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. -Contributed by A. above the work and striking it with the hammer. file. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. extra metal all around. third. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. three. By holding the nail about 1/4 in.

Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. Metal polish of any kind will do. Having pierced the bracket. drip cup.

sugar 1 part. using a steel pen. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. all the rest I found. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Mother let me have a sheet. and add the gelatine. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. The gaff. Twenty cents was all I spent. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. thus it was utilized. I steer with the front wheel. except they had wheels instead of runners. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. winding the ends where they came together with wire. and water 24 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. N. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. smooth it down and then remove as before. Shiloh. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. and it will be ready for future use. and in a week . It will bear a perfect copy of the original. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. when it will be ready for use. on a water bath. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. alcohol 2 parts. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. The boom. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. hammer. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Fifty. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. is a broomstick. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Heat 6-1/2 oz. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and brace and bit were the tools used. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. glycerine 4 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. J. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. F. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and other things as they were needed. Soak 1 oz. A saw. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. they were like an ice boat with a sail. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. deep. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. The wind was the cheapest power to be found.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

slide to about 6 ft. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. at a distance of 24 ft. E. This ring is made up from two rings.. about 2 ft. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. 1. The slide support. and the work carefully done. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. well seasoned pine. 8 in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. and 14 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. above the center. Fig. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. wide and 15 in. thick. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. high. as desired. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. provided the material is of metal. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wire brads. and. and a projecting lens 2 in. and the lens slide. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. DD. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. are . The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A table. G. long. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. H. focus enlarging a 3-in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The board is centered both ways. but if such a box is not found. or a lens of 12-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. A and B. or glue. describe a 9-in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. at a point 1 in. If a small saw is used. 3. 1/2 to 3/4 in. wide. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size.

constructed to slip easily on the table. P. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. E. and when the right position is found for each. the strips II serving as guides. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. St. Small strips of tin. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The arrangement is quite safe as. should the glass happen to upset. but not long enough. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Paul. of safe. the water at once extinguishes the flame. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. light burning oil. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.-Contributed by G. placed on the water. To reach the water. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Minn. JJ. B. A sheet .

12 ft. --Contributed by J. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Schenectady. 3. N. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 4. 1. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Fig. 3 in. to cover the mattresses. 9 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. from a tent company. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. then the corners on one end are doubled over. If one of these clips is not at hand.H. I ordered a canvas bag. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. by 12 ft. Y. Crawford. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig..

The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. drill two 3/16 in. through which the indicator works. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 2. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Teasdale. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fig. Denver. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 3/4 in. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 1/2 in. Warren. so as to form two oblong boxes. wide. insulating them from the case with cardboard. to the coil of small wire for volts. An arc is cut in the paper. and insert two binding-posts. long and 3/16 in. first mark the binding-post A. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1. V. A rubber band. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. to keep it from unwinding.each edge. To calibrate the instrument. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 1. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 2. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. C. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. long. Attach a piece of steel rod. 1/2 in. apart. in the center coil. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. --Contributed by Edward M. holes in the edge. Colo. for amperes and the other post. 3 to swing freely on the tack. --Contributed by Walter W. as shown in Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. open on the edges. 2. White. Pa. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fig. thick. 3/4 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. D.

Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. O. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Place this can on one end of the trough. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. --Contributed by M. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Dayton. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in. with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

2. 3/4 in. long. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Upper Troy. Whitehouse. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. but not very thick. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. 1.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. wide and 4 in.Y. Place the small bottle in as before. thick. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Auburn. many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. as shown in the sketch. provided the bottle is wide. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. --Contributed by Fred W. If the small bottle used is opaque. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Ala. If the cork is adjusted properly. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. N. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. This will make a very pretty ornament.

Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. On a 1000-ft. Milter. 4. W. K. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. The 21/2-in. even in a light breeze. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. was 1/4in. thick. 2. A staple. G. high without the upper half. I. in diameter and 1 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. 2 ft. long. If a transmitter is used. such as blades and pulleys. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. which was nailed to the face plate. line. which extended to the ground. by the method shown in Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. were constructed of 1-in. B. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. which gave considerable power for its size. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. was keyed to shaft C. Its smaller parts. The shaft C. pulley F. 1. iron rod. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. to the shaft. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. --Contributed by D. 1. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. Fig. 1. The bearing blocks were 3 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick and 3 in. which was 6 in. pulley. wide. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1 in. thick. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. sugar pine on account of its softness. 3. The wire L was put .

G. 1) 4 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The power was put to various uses. If you have no bell. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Fig. 1. through the latter. The bed plate D. long and bend it as shown at A. for instance. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. apart in the tower. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. was 2 ft. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. To make the key. washers were placed under pulley F. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. a 1/2-in. long. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 0. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 6. 5. in the center of the board P. 1. cut out another piece of tin (X. hole for the shaft G was in the center. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. so that the 1/4-in. 25 ft. 3 in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. R. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. 2. long and bend it as . long and 3 in. strips. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. with all parts in place. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. across the thin edge of a board. wide and 1 in. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 1. The smaller one. as. 6. There a 1/4-in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. top down also. pine 18 by 12 in. hole was bored for it. when the windmill needed oiling. The other lid. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Fig. in diameter. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. This completes the receiver or sounder. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 1. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Fig. was tacked.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. To lessen the friction here. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. H. square to the board P at the top of the tower. long and 1/2 in. long. This board was 12 in.

through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. leaving the other wire as it is. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. and. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Going back to Fig. 1. By adjusting the coils. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Thus a center drive is made. Now. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. 2. fitted with paddles as at M. at the front. like many another device boys make. McConnell. -Contributed by John R. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. using cleats to hold the board frame. although it can be made with but two. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. When tired of this instrument.shown. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Before tacking it to the board. as shown at Water. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. causing a buzzing sound. The rear barrels are.

as shown in Fig. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. 3. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. or even a little houseboat. feet on the pedals.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. there will not be much friction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. 1. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. There is no danger. which will give any amount of pleasure. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. If the journals thus made are well oiled. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. copper piping and brass tubing for base. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. To propel it. The speed is slow at first. can be built. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left.

Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. 2. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. B. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. and so creating a false circuit. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. D. A. Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Fig. 1. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Then melt out the rosin or lead. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. C. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If magnifying glass cannot be had. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 2. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. If it is desired to make the light very complete.

To get the cylinder into its carriage. 3/8 in. if too small. Throw lever off from the right to center. and pulled tight. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. set alarm key as shown in diagram. T. E. such as is used for cycle valves. To throw on light throw levers to the left. When alarm goes off. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used.india rubber tubing. Ogden. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. G. 5-1/4 by 10 in. after two turns have been made on the key. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Chatland. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . wire from light to switch. wire from batteries to switch. long. while lying in bed. brass rod. Pa. after setting alarm.. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. bracket. thick. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The parts indicated are as follows: A. switch. H. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. bell. To operate this. 4 in. Swissvale. by having the switch on the baseboard. Utah. In placing clock on shelf. or 1/4in. wire from bell to switch. long. X. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. --Contributed by Geo. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. C. near the bed. dry batteries. --Contributed by C. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. wide and 1/16 in. key of alarm clock. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. S. contact post. copper tubing. Brinkerhoff. J. F. I. brass strip. C. shelf. B. 4-1/2 in. D. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. which stops bell ringing. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. some glue will secure them.

Minn. 3. as at B. 1. Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Chas. wide. will do the heating. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Chapman. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 2. as at A. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Fig. 2. 4 in. beyond the end of the spindle. for instance. Make a shoulder. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. a bed warmer. Fig. from one end. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. in diameter. long. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. which can be made of an old can. S. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. This is to form the fuse hole. as at A. 1. A flannel bag. making it as true and smooth as possible. Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. letting it extend 3/4 in. Lanesboro. as in Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. being careful not to get the sand in it. about 6 in. as . The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening.

and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and a trifle over 3 ft. thick. 11/2 in. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and 3/8 in. A piece of tin. this is to keep the edges from splitting. or hickory. A piece of oak.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 1. wide and 3 ft. ash. long. 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick. spring and arrows. wide and 6 ft. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The illustration shows how this is done. deep. 5/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. good straight-grained pine will do. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. 6 in. long. thick. 1 in. Joerin. will be sufficient to make the trigger.

The trigger. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. thick. as shown in Fig. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. To shoot the crossbow. Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Trownes. When the trigger is pulled. 4. wide at each end. A spring. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. from the end of the stock.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it lifts the spring up. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. as shown in Fig. E. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. or through the necessity of. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 7. Ill. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . --Contributed by O. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Fig. 8. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 2. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. having the latter swing quite freely. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Wilmette. To throw the arrow. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. place the arrow in the groove. 9. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The stick for the bow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 3. which is 1/4 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. from the opposite end. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 6. in diameter. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. better still. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws.

Moreover. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. from the ground.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. is used as a door. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. The hinged cover E. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. respectively. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. says Photo Era. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. apart. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Remove the bottom of the box. it is the easiest camp to make. Remove one end. the bark lean-to is a . Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. The cut should be about 5 ft. This lamp is safe. and nail it in position as shown at A. since the flame of the candle is above A. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. and replace as shown at B. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. from the ground. making lighting and trimming convenient. C. By chopping the trunk almost through. make the frame of the wigwam. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead.

Where bark is used. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and cedar. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. 3 ft. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. spruce. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. In the early summer. make the best kind of a camp bed.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. selecting a site for a camp. long. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. are a convenient size for camp construction. Sheets of bark. 6 ft. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. piled 2 or 3 ft. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. thick. makes a good pair of tongs. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Tongs are very useful in camp. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. long and 1-1/2 in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. . wide. A piece of elm or hickory. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. For a permanent camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. a 2-in. and when the camp is pitched. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 2 or 3 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. wide and 6 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and split the tops with an ax. deep and covered with blankets. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. will dry flat.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

to another . When the temperature outside is 10 deg.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. about 4 in. Kane. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Fig. A. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. wide. the interior can. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. 1. and provide a cover or door. deep and 4 in. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Doylestown. B. Pa. --Contributed by James M. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. I drove a small cork. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell.. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. changing the water both morning and night. be kept at 90 or 100 deg.

and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them.glass tube. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. a liquid. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. limit. The diagram. The current is thus compelled. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. fused into one side. 3. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. for instance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. 4 and 5). C. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. for instance. if necessary. Fig. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. to pass through an increasing resistance. This makes . and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. such as ether. E. 2. until.

larger than the dimensions given. These holes are for the bearing studs. 1. Fig. Alpena. two holes. clamp the template. brass. or even 1/16 in. or pattern. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. as shown in Fig. drill the four rivet holes. thick. The bearing studs are now made. thick. 4-1/2 in. 3-3/8 in. After the template is marked out. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. between centers. hole is . brass or iron. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Michigan. which may be of any thickness so that. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 3. making it 1/16 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 3-3/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Fig. assemble and rivet them solidly. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. which will make it uniform in size. when several pieces are placed together. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. on a lathe. If the thickness is sufficient. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. but merely discolored. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. in diameter. Before removing the field from the lathe. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. When the frame is finished so far. in diameter. therefore. mark off a space. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. 2. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Then the field can be finished to these marks. is composed of wrought sheet iron. as shown in the left-hand sketch. by turning the lathe with the hand. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. A. After cleaning them with the solution. thicker. and for the outside of the frame. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. A 5/8in. tap. cannot be used so often.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. they will make a frame 3/4 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. to allow for finishing. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. set at 1/8 in. screws.

is turned up from machine steel. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. When the bearings are located. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. or otherwise finished. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The shaft of the armature. soldered into place. 4.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. brass rod is inserted. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports.

Procure 12 strips of mica. 3. then drill a 1/8-in. washers. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 9. as shown in Fig. inside diameter. to allow for finishing to size. by 1-1/2 in. After the pieces are cut out. 7. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 6. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. wide. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 1/8 in. The pins are made of brass. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick are cut like the pattern. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. or segments. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside.. 1-1/8 in. Rivet them together. When annealed. Make the core 3/4 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. wide. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. brass rod. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and then they are soaked in warm water. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. sheet fiber. thick. thick. Armature-Ring Core. After they . True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 3. The sides are also faced off and finished. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. threaded. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 3/4 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. When this is accomplished. as shown in Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. being formed for the ends. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. as shown in Fig. 6. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and held with a setscrew. as shown m Fig. 8. thick. deep and 7/16 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. holes through them for rivets. 3/4 in. 5. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. thick and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig.

wide and 1 in. and wind on four layers. shown at B. 1. they are glued to the core insulation.have dried. The winding is started at A. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. To connect the wires. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. sheet fiber. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. or side. of the end to protrude. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. sheet fiber. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. thick. Fig. the two ends of the wire. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. and bring the end of the wire out at B. shown at A. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 8 in. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. When the glue is set. long. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The field is wound with No. After one coil. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. yet it shows a series of . All connections should be securely soldered. being required. 6 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. This winding is for a series motor. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. of the wire. by bending the end around one of the projections. 1. In starting to wind. 5. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. after the motor is on the stand. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Run one end of the field wire. Fig. The two ends are joined at B. of No. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. until the 12 slots are filled. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. which will take 50 ft. are soldered together. about 100 ft. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on.

one from each of the eight contacts. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. which serves as the ground wire. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. and one. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. A 1/2-in. Nine wires run from the timer. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. is fastened to the metallic body. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. or.

Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. board. thus giving 16 different directions. It should be . The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Covering these is a thin.The Wind Vane. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. 6 in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. long. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. 45 deg. Without this attachment. circle. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. of the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.

long to give the best results. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. is most satisfactory. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. . the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. thus making a universal joint. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. also a piece of new carpet. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Fill the box with any handy ballast. and securely nail on the top of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Blackmer. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. N. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. will be sufficient. however. To make it. will answer the purpose just as well. high. Before tacking the fourth side. or. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. making it heavy or light. will be enough for the two sides. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. according to who is going to use it. though a special knife. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. 14 by 18 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Cut 3-in. To work these outlines. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Y." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. if not too high. -Contributed by James L.about 6 ft. Place the leather on some level. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. called a chip carving knife. and about 6 in. Buffalo. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.

A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

and put the solution in thin glass bottles. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. away from it. of common salt and 10 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. B. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. as in cases of a sprained ankle. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. and tie them together securely at the bottom. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Morse. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Syracuse. If a fire breaks out. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. rather than the smooth side. of water. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Y. or a hip that has been wrenched. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show.will do if a good stout needle is used. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. N. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. temporary lameness. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. a needle and some feathers. and fasten the feathers inside of it. square and tying a piece of .

A small wooden or fiber end. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. --Contributed by John A. as shown. the corners being wired. etc. and the receiver is ready for use. but not sharp. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. . is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. N. Ashland. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. made up of four layers of No. which is the essential part of the instrument. deep. long. laying poisoned meat and meal. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. One end is removed entirely. --Contributed by J. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. E. G. and a coil of wire. The coil is 1 in. thus helping the rats to enter. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. This not only keeps the rats out. high. There is a 1-in. A. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. cut to the length of the spool.J.string to each corner. The body of the receiver. The diaphragm C. The strings should be about 15 in. B. Albany. wide and 1/16 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Gordon Dempsey. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. 1/8 in. F. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. letting it go at arm's length. and tacked it to the boards. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Paterson. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. Wis. commonly called tintype tin. wound on the head end. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft.. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Hellwig. board all around the bottom on the inside. long. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. is cut on the wood. The end is filed to an edge. N. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Y. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. setting traps. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.

Take a piece of string or. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The vase is to have three supports. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. A single line will be sufficient. better still. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. to . Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. wide. To clean small articles. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. and bend each strip in shape. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. a piece of small wire. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. begin with the smallest scrolls. gold. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.

A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Fold the leather on the line EF. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. After taking off the pattern. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Press or model down the leather all around the design. as shown in the sketch. 4-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Work down the outside line of the design. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. from C to D. from the lines EF on the piece. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out.. About 1 in. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from E to F. using a duller point of the tool. 3-1/4 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 6-3/8 in. Trace also the line around the purse. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. through which to slip the fly AGH. . Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. and does not require coloring.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. thus raising it. sharp pencil. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. wide when stitching up the purse.

1/2 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. It is neat and efficient. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Make the lug 1/4 in. with a compass saw. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. deep.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. b. the "open" side. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and which will be very interesting. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. long. as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. 3. being cast in wooden molds. by 12 ft. thick. This also should be slightly beveled. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Now take another piece of wood. deep. and the projections B. Then nail the wheel down firmly. 1. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and. 1 was cut. and a model for speed and power. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with the open side down. then nail it. around the wheel. with pins or small nails. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with the largest side down. When it is finished. all the way around. and tack the other piece slightly. It can be made without the use of a lathe. leaving the lug a. and cut it out as shown in Fig. square.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. following the dotted lines. as well as useful. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. 2. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Fit this to the two . The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. First.

place it between two of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole 1/4 in. Take the mold apart. then bolt it together. 1. and clean all the shavings out of it. square pieces of wood. one of which should have a 3/8-in. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in the center of it. and bore six 1/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. holes through it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. and lay it away to dry. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole bored through its center. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. After it is finished. as shown by the . slightly beveled. deep. Now take another of the 12-in. bolts. 4.pieces just finished.

black dots in Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. so that it will turn easily. only the one is left-handed. and bore three 1/4-in. from the one end. and drill them in the same manner. 5. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. 6. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and connect to the boiler. 6. and 3/8-in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Commencing 1-1/2 in. long. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. If there should happen to be any holes or spots.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. true it up with a square. and pour babbitt metal into it. Now cut out one of the 12-in. This is for a shaft. and lay it away to dry. 4. screw down. Let it stand for half an hour. one in the projections. place it under the drill.1. long. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. d. over the defective part. the other right-handed. put the top of the brace through this hole. Put this together in mold No. wide and 16 in. see that the bolts are all tight.1. This will cast a paddle-wheel. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. drill in it. After it is fitted in. and two 1/4-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Find the center of the paddle-wheel.2. This is mold No. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. one in the lug. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and run in babbitt metal again.2. Pour metal into mold No. B. where the casting did not fill out. place the entire machine in a vise. Then bolt the castings together. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. until it is full. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. fasten a 3/8-in. 1. holes. as shown in illustration. This is the same as Fig. Fig. lay it on a level place. and drill it entirely through. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. in diameter must now be obtained. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. b. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. take an ordinary brace. Using the Brace . and the exhaust hole in projection b. Now take mold No. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. as shown by the black dots in Fig. instead of the right-handed piece. A piece of mild steel 5 in. holes at d. and the other in the base.

while it is running at full speed. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. piece and at right angles to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. long. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and. At each end of the 6ft. and the other 8 ft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Plan of Ice Boat . Then take a knife or a chisel. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. with a boss and a set screw. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. one 6 ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and if instructions have been carefully followed.. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. will do good service. Your turbine engine is now ready for work.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.

The tiller. Fig. leaving 1 ft. distant. boards to make the platform. in the top before the skate is put on. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. projecting as in Fig. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter. 1. 3. which may come in handy in heavy winds. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. long. at the butt and 1 in. at the end. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Fig. Make your runners as long as possible. in diameter in the center. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. piece and at right angles to it. bolt the 8-ft. as the runners were fastened. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and about 8 in. plank nail 8-in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. To the under side of the 8-ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. 2 by 3 in. plank. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. This apparatus was plac