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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The pieces are then dressed round. away. E. distant. apart. Toronto. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 1. --Contributed by J. with the hollow side away from you. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. It is held in this curve until dry. wide and 2 ft. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 2 -. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. long will make six boomerangs.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. grasp it and hold the same as a club. as shown in Fig. Ontario. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2. To throw a boomerang. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. A piece of plank 12 in.Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Fig. Noble. 2. 1. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. The finished preserver is shown in Fig.

long. thick. A wall. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. or rather no bottom at all. 6 in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. A very light. If the snow is of the right consistency. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. which makes the building simpler and easier. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. one inside of the circle and the other outside. but about 12 in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. forcing it down closely. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. blocks . The top will then have a uniform inward slant. First. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. high and 4 or 5 in. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. minus the top. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and with a movable bottom. however. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. the block will drop out. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. made of 6-in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. it is not essential to the support of the walls. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. dry snow will not pack easily.

and the young architect can imitate them. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. long and 1 in. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 1. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Ore. above the ground. 3 -. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. It also keeps them out. 3. D. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 2. 1. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. A nail. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Fig. Union. Goodbrod. --Contributed by Geo. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. which can be made of wood. The piece of wood. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. which is about 1 ft. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. wide. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. a. 2. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. C. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. or an old safe dial will do. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. is 6 or 8 in. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Fig. There is no outward thrust. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.

For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one pair of special hinges. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. If ordinary butts are used. Syracuse. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Merrill. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. --Contributed by R. S. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. the box locked . New York. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. says the Sphinx. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. as the weight always draws them back to place. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The bolts are replaced in the hinges.

proceed as follows: First. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. one for each corner. as shown in Fig. To make a design similar to the one shown. on drawing paper. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. -Contributed by L. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Alberta Norrell. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 2. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. If the measuring has been done properly. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. as shown. draw one-half of it. Place the piece in a vise. All . Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Augusta. With the metal shears. Ga. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. It remains to bend the flaps. allowing each coat time to dry. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. as shown in Fig. 1. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. If they do not. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 3. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Fig. about 1-32 of an inch.and the performer steps out in view. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. smooth surface. When the sieve is shaken. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly.

as shown at AA. A piece of porcelain tube. from the back end. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. causing it to expand. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. 25 German-silver wire. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. about 6 in. of No. long. is fitted tightly in the third hole.the edges should be left smooth. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Galbreath. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Denver. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . In boring through rubber corks. if rolled under the shoe sole. After this has dried. 25 gauge German-silver wire. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. in diameter. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. A resistance. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. H. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. B. heats the strip of German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. used for insulation. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The current. R. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. C. should be in the line. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. When the current is turned off. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. To keep the metal from tarnishing. which is about 6 in. Colo. If a touch of color is desired. and in the positions shown in the sketch. in passing through the lamp. The common cork.

1. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Fig.bottom ring. as shown in Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Purchase two long book straps. . A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. leaving a space of 4 in. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 3. Mo. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. with thin strips of wood. between them as shown in Fig. Kansas City. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown.

Fig. --Contributed by James M. Two strips of brass. The string is then tied. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. one weighing 15 lb. which is the right weight for family use. and one weighing 25 lb. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Doylestown. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. are mounted on the outside of the box. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Syracuse. 36 in. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. A. 3. These are shown in Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. 1. as . The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. just the right weight for a woman to use. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Fig. Kane. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The folds are made over the string. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. and tack smoothly. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Fig. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. C. to form a handle. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Pa.. in diameter. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 4. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. long.. and a pocket battery. 2. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D.An ordinary electric bell. When the aeroplane tips. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. N. 1. Y.

--Contributed by Louis J. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. long. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 3/32 or 1/4 in. 2. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. two 1/8 -in. and many fancy knick-knacks. Frame Made of a Rod . The rod should be 36 or 38 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. AA. Day. machine screws.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. 2. N. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Y. The saw. in diameter. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. four washers and four square nuts. bent as shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 1. Floral Park. such as brackets.

Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. as well as brass and copper. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.may be made of either brass. as well as the depth of etching desired. If it colors the metal red. File these edges. green and browns are the most popular. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. For etching. therefore. In the design shown. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. A. be covered the same as the back. The buckle is to be purchased. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Scranton. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. of water. allowing each time to dry. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Rub off the highlights.. Drying will cause this to change to purple. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. it has the correct strength. copper. Silver is the most desirable but. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. treat it with color. of course. the most expensive. Of the leathers. Watch Fob For coloring silver. if copper or brass. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Detroit. though almost any color may be obtained. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. after breaking up. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. --Contributed by W. using a swab and an old stiff brush. 1 part nitric acid. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. or silver. An Austrian Top [12] . of water in which dissolve. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. use them in place of the outside nuts. 1 part sulphuric acid. Apply two coats.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Michigan.

Ypsilanti. 3/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. long. hole in this end for the top. pass one end through the 1/16-in. thick. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. --Contributed by J. . The handle is a piece of pine. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. allowing only 1-1/4 in. A 1/16-in. Tholl.F. 1-1/4 in. 5-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. is formed on one end. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. hole. When the shank is covered. Michigan. starting at the bottom and winding upward. in diameter. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. wide and 3/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top.

to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. For black leathers. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. --A. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Northville. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. tarts or similar pastry. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Augusta. Alberta Norrell. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Ga. having no sides. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. A. Houghton. Mich.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle.

--Contributed by Irl Hicks. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. the same as shown in the illustration. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Mo. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. glass fruit jar. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Centralia. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . two turns will remove the jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. then solder cover and socket together. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Stringing Wires [13] A. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. When you desire to work by white light. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. says Studio Light.

square by 12 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.for loading and development. square by 62 in. They are fastened. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. as shown in the cross-section sketch. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. so it can be folded up. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 16 Horizontal bars. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. . The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 4 Braces. Wis. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Janesville. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 4 Vertical pieces. and not tip over.

Rosenthal. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. O. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. After rounding the ends of the studs. Phillipsburg. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. from scrap material. Cincinnati. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The whole. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. H. The front can be covered . -Contributed by Charles Stem. and a loop made in the end.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. --Contributed by Dr. New York. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. If the loop is tied at the proper place. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. C. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. after filling the pail with water. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water.

by all rules of the game. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. and. In my own practice. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. FIG. Develop them into strong prints. the color will be an undesirable. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. By using the following method. thoroughly fix. sickly one. 1 FIG. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Baltimore. Md. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The . The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. principally mayonnaise dressing. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. the mouth of which rests against a. --Contributed by Gilbert A. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. If the gate is raised slightly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. if you try to tone them afterward.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. either for contact printing or enlargements. Wehr. you are. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. The results will be poor. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing.

Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... L..." Cyanide of potassium .. 16 oz. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. in this solution. 1 and again as in Fig. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects... 5 by 15 in. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. etc..... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. without previous wetting. as it will appear clean much longer than the white... The blotting paper can . The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes...... Water . transfer it to a tray of water. but... Gray. Place the dry print... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper..... preferably the colored kind.... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... San Francisco.. --Contributed by T... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. when it starts to bleach.. where it will continue to bleach. three times.. 2 oz. Iodide of potassium . 20 gr... With a little practice.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. When the desired reduction has taken place..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison....... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. wide and 4 in. long to admit the angle support.. in size. to make it 5 by 5 in. Cal. 2. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.... A good final washing completes the process. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in......

Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Corners complete are shown in Fig. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.J. and a length of 5 in. 20 gauge.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. the shaft 1 in. Monahan. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. the head of which is 2 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Wisconsin. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by J. Make a design similar to that shown. 3. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide. wide below the .

using turpentine. For coloring olive green. which gives the outline of the design Fig. With files. With the metal shears. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in.FIG. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. The metal must be held firmly. 1 part sulphuric acid. After this has dried. Pierce a hole with a small drill. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. freehand. deep. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Allow this to dry. 4. Do not put the hands in the solution. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 part nitric acid. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 2. Apply with a small brush. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then put on a second coat. Fig. then coloring. Make one-half of the design. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. after folding along the center line. using carbon paper. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 1 Fig. . 1. Trace the design on the metal. being held perpendicular to the work. using a small metal saw. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. After the sawing. 3. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. as shown in Fig. then trace the other half in the usual way. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. but use a swab on a stick.

Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by Katharine D. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. as shown. thick. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. --Contributed by M. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. New York. Morse.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. it does the work rapidly. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Ii is an ordinary staple. Burnett. Cal. After the stain has dried. attach brass handles. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. . as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by H. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. East Hartford. then stain it a mahogany color. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. When this is cold. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Richmond. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Carl Cramer. Conn. on a chopping board. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Syracuse. M.

H. holes. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Richmond. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. one shaft. 1/4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. 53 steel pens. 4. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. about 3/16 in. and several 1/8-in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. --Contributed by W.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. A. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Kissimmee. Fig. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. also locate the drill holes. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. saucers or pans. --Contributed by Mrs. Atwell. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Cal.. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. as shown at A. some pieces of brass. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. machine screws. square. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. brass. Florida. in width at the shank. thick and 4 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. indicating the depth of the slots. two enameled. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. 1. L. or tin. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. not over 1/4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. . thick. as shown in Fig. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Jaquythe.

The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. 3. can be procured. and the ends filed round for the bearings. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Fig. supply pipe. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. as shown in Fig. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 2. each about 1 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 1. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and pins inserted. wide. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. 6. If metal dishes. A 3/4-in. lead should be run into the segments. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass.. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. Fig. Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. using two nuts on each screw. 5. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. machine screws.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The shaft hole may also be filed square. If the shaft is square. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. with 1/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 7. long by 3/4 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. These are connected to a 3/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. There should be a space of 1/16 in. thick. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. a square shaft used. into the hole. hole. 3. long and 5/16 in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. as shown. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. in diameter and 1/32 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. with the face of the disk. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. machine screws and nuts. Bend as shown in Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. thick. wide and bend as shown in Fig. as in Fig. with a 3/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. brass and bolted to the casing. hole in the center. 2. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. about 1/32 in.

With a string or tape measure. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. or more in diameter. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. using four to each leg. Canada. Smith. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. When assembling. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Now you will have the box in two pieces.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. high and 15 in. to make the bottom. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. --Contributed by S. Be sure to have the cover. La Salle. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. we will call the basket. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. square and 30-1/2 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. from the bottom end of the legs. screws. Cooke. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The four legs are each 3/4-in. long. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The lower part. Stain the wood before putting in the . V. from the top of the box. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Ill. Fasten with 3/4-in. --Contributed by F. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. three of which are in the basket. Hamilton. deep over all. 8-1/2 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in.

When making the display.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The side. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. --also the lower edge when necessary. wide. and gather it at that point. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. wide and four strips 10 in. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Packard. Md. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. sewing on the back side. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. you can. as shown in the sketch. Cover them with the cretonne.lining. Sew on to the covered cardboards. 2. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. 1. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Baltimore. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Mass. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Boston. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. -Contributed by Stanley H. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Fig.2 Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. If all the parts are well sandpapered. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.

These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. 3. Crockett. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fig. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Mo. When through using the pad. Y. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Gloversville. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. L. saving all the solid part. It is not difficult to . A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. with slight modifications. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by B. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. --Contributed by H. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. It is cleanly. Cross Timbers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. N. and. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch.

Texas. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After stirring. are shown in the diagram. -Contributed by C. and scrape out the rough parts. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. After this is done. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. --Contributed by Edith E. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Lowell. El Paso. S. it should be new and sharp. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. across the face. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. If a file is used. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Both of these methods are wasteful. Lane.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. remove the contents. or if desired. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mass. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Bourne. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.

Ill. --Contributed by Marion P. Oregon. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Turl. Canton. Oak Park. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The process works well and needs no watching. Wheeler. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Iowa. --Contributed by Loren Ward. He captured several pounds in a few hours. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Ill. Those having houses .cooking utensil. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. F. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Greenleaf. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. A Postcard Rack [25]. As these were single-faced disk records. Des Moines. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Geo. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The insects came to the light. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them.

. and the second one for the developing bench. one on each side of what will be the . boards are preferable. not even with the boards themselves. Mass. by 2 ft. Worcester. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. the best material to use being matched boards. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. plane and pocket knife. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. --Contributed by Thomas E. The single boards can then be fixed.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Rosenberg. 6 in. --Contributed by Wm. thick. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. the bottom being 3/8 in. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. material. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Dobbins. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Glenbrook. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and as they are simple in design. and both exactly alike. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. will do as well. Only three pieces are required. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. but for cheapness 3/4 in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Both sides can be put together in this way.. Conn. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Lay the floor next.

. so that it will fit inside the sink. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. 11. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. the closing side as at B. The developing bench is 18 in. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 10). below which is fixed the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. In hinging the door. etc. and the top as at C in the same drawing. hinged to it. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 8. At the top of the doorway. of the top of the door for the same reason. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.. 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 5. and to the outside board of the sides. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. It is shown in detail in Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 6 and 9. 7. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and in the middle an opening.. as shown in Figs. The roof boards may next be put on. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. by screwing to the floor. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. fix a narrow piece between the side boards.doorway. wide. 9 by 11 in. is cut. Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. brown wrapping paper. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. which is fixed on as shown . and act as a trap for the light. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 9). 6. 2 in section. and should be zinc lined. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 3 and 4.

Details of the Dark Rook .

screwing them each way into the boards. A circular piece about 2 in. --Contributed by W. 13. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. which makes it possible to have white light. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Fig. 2. For beating up an egg in a glass. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. as at I. 14. Pennsylvania. 16. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. mixing flour and water. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. after lining with brown paper. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. hole bored in the center for a handle. Karl Hilbrich. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 20. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. as in Fig. Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. but not the red glass and frame. or red light as at K. 17. are fastened in the corners inside. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. Fig. In use. 19. 13. as shown in the sections. 18. 1. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Erie. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. as at M. Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. or the room may be made with a flat roof. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig.in Fig. though this is hardly advisable. preferably maple or ash. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. it is better than anything on the market. 6. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. these being shown in Fig. and a 3/8-in. The handle should be at least 12 in. 15. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and a tank stand on it. 16. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. if desired.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Mitchell. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Ark. Yonkers. Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . when put together properly is a puzzle. which. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Wm. Kansas City. --Contributed by L. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. -Contributed by E. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. L. long. To operate. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. G. Schweiger. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. D. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue.copper should be. New York. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. for a handle. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Eureka Springs.

2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. as shown in Fig. 3. A number of 1/2-in. If the sill is inclined. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. which binds them together.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as is usually the case. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 2. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. to make it set level. 3. . as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. for the moment. as well as improve its appearance. need them. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. especially for filling-in purposes. Having completed the bare box. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 1. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The design shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The corks in use are shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. as shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. holes should be drilled in the bottom. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. in order to thoroughly preserve it. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box.

but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Traps do no good. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 2. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. it's easy. being partly eaten into. F. 1. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. But I have solved the difficulty. can't use poison. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. etc.. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. and observe results. as shown in Fig. too dangerous. . cabbages. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 3. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. share the same fate. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. life in the summer time is a vexation. 4. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Each long projection represents a leg.

Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. strips. by trial. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. . so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. the coil does not heat sufficiently. About 9-1/2 ft. The solution can be used over and over again.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. If. and made up and kept in large bottles. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. cut in 1/2-in. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. long. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Iowa. cut some of it off and try again. -. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. of No.

coffee pot. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Dallas. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Syracuse. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. D. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Y. Stir and mix thoroughly. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. N. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. as shown in the sketch. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. C. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Knives.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. hot-water pot. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. to cause the door to swing shut. --Contributed by James M. it falls to stop G. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Doylestown. is a good size--in this compound. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. 1) removed. Kane. . of oleic acid with 1 gal. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Do not wash them. Morse. Pa. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Texas. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Fig 2. and a strip. but with unsatisfactory results. of gasoline. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. In cleaning silver. forks.

To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. New Orleans. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. which is. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Harrisburg. Ill. Sprout. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Fisher. of course. --Contributed by Oliver S. negatives. . later fixed and washed as usual. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. La.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Waverly. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. but unfixed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Theodore L. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. using the paper dry. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Pa.

Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. then . which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. To obviate this difficulty. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Fig. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. a harmonograph is a good prescription. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. metal. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. 1. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The harmonograph. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.

ceiling.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. as shown in Fig. provides a means of support for the stylus. A small weight. R. as long as the other. Another weight of about 10 lb. is about right for a 10-ft. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. what is most important. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. exactly one-third. in diameter. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Holes up to 3 in. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A small table or platform. Arizona. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis.. G. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Chicago.. Gaffney. to prevent any side motion. one-fifth. and unless the shorter pendulum is. of about 30 or 40 lb. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. 1. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A weight. Ingham. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. --Contributed by Wm. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. K. The length of the short pendulum H. which can be regulated. A length of 7 ft. A pedestal. makes respectively 3. Rosemont. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. with a nail set or punch. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. --Contributed by James T. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. for instance. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. 1. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Punch a hole. one-fourth. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. that is. in the center of the circle to be cut. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. or the lines will overlap and blur. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. as shown in the lower part of Fig. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. J. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. such as a shoe buttoner. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. is attached as shown at H. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. etc.

2. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. of course. a correspondent of . and 4 as in Fig.J. distributing them over the whole card. The two key cards are made alike. 1. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. dividing them into quarters. Cape May City. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.H. then put 2 at the top. Chicago. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Morey. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. -Contributed by W. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. then 3 as in Fig.J. Cruger. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. N. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. and proceed as before. 4. The capacity of the vise. 3. Fig. 6. 5. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. --Contributed by J.

1/2 oz. drill 15 holes. from the top and bottom. Cut through the center. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Augusta. of the uprights. of water. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Ga. 30 gr. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. To assemble. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. citrate of iron and ammonia. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. deep. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. 6 gauge wires shown. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. --Contributed by L. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Wind the successive turns of . It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. acetic acid and 4 oz. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. the portion of the base under the coil. Asbestos board is to be preferred. says Popular Electricity. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. wood-screws. respectively. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. After securing the tint desired. If constructed of the former.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. 1/4 in. Alberta Norrell. remove the prints. long. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. sheet of well made asbestos paper. After preparing the base and uprights. of ferricyanide of potash. of 18-per-cent No. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining.

When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. but these are not necessary. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding .wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Labels of some kind are needed. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Y. Ward. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. screws. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. --Contributed by Frederick E. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Ampere. square. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. which. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. as they are usually thrown away when empty. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. then fasten the upright in place. if one is not a smoker. N. 16 gauge copper wire. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers.. Small knobs may be added if desired. 14 gauge. The case may be made of 1/2-in. etc. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. rivets.

C. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. or has become corroded. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. --Contributed by W. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Richmond. Heat it until hot (not red hot). tinner's acid. as shown in the sketch. and one made of poplar finished black. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. tin. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. --C. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Larson. G. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Kenosha. The parts are put together with dowel pins. lead. --Contributed by A. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. brass. zinc. In soldering galvanized iron.14 oz. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Copper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. California. Ark. it must be ground or filed to a point. D. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. particularly so when the iron has once been used. galvanized iron. of water. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Wis. S. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. E and F. Eureka Springs.. being careful about the heat. The material can be of any wood. . The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. then to the joint to be soldered. a piece of solder. Jaquythe. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. This is considerable annoyance. of glycerine to 16 oz. especially if a large tub is used. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. B. and labeled "Poison. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. If the soldering copper is an old one. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. sandpaper or steel wool. and rub the point of the copper on it. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. A. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks.

such as copper. Troy. Brass rings can be plated when finished. nut. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. round iron. Take a 3/4-in. -Contributed by H. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 2. Fig. The disk will come out pan shaped. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. 1. Hankin. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The punch A. brass and silver. 7/8 in. Place the band. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. I bind my magazines at home evenings. This completes the die. in diameter. with good results. Six issues make a well proportioned book. a ring may be made from any metal. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. and drill out the threads. thick and 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. B. however. which gives two bound volumes each year. W. Y. D. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. N. C. Apart from this. The covers of the magazines are removed. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. wide.

The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. is nailed across the top. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. using . 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. then back through the notch on the right side. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. and a third piece. threaded double. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 1. Coarse white thread. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. on all edges except the back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. If started with the January or the July issue. as shown in Fig. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. deep. The covering should be cut out 1 in. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. The covering can be of cloth. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. allowing about 2 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 5. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 1 in Fig. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. through the notch on the left side of the string No. which is fastened the same as the first. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. The string No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Start with the front of the book.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. and place them against the strings in the frame.4. and then to string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. size 16 or larger. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. After drawing the thread tightly. of the ends extending on each side. Five cuts. 2. 2. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. C. 1/8 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. . passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. is used for the sewing material. 1. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge.

zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. at opposite sides to each other. Encanto. and. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and mark around each one. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Tinplate. Divine. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. on which to hook the blade. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Cal. College View. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Nebr. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. --Contributed by Clyde E. Place the cover on the book in the right position. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. For the blade an old talking-machine . round iron.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.

Hays. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. B. with a steel sleeve. long. and file in the teeth. by 1 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and a long thread plug. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. bore. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. -Contributed by Willard J. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. thick. E. and 1/4 in. hydraulic pipe. fuse hole at D. by 4-1/2 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Then on the board put . On the upper side. A. Ohio. thick. Make the blade 12 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. as it is sometimes called. Miss. in order to drill the holes in the ends. F.. as shown.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. C. and another piece (B) 6 in. at the same end. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Moorhead. or double extra heavy. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Summitville. by means of a U-bolt or large staple.

some sheet copper or brass for plates. about 5 ft. Connect up as shown. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . of wire to each coil. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Philadelphia. A lid may be added if desired. high around this apparatus. H. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. of rubber-covered wire. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. the jars need not be very large. using about 8 in. --Contributed by Chas. and some No. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. If you are going to use a current of low tension. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Boyd. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 4 jars.

long.. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. by 5 in. In proportioning them the points A. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 2 and 3. 2 in. 3 and No. wide and 3/4 in.. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. A variation of 1/16 in. 3. 4.the way. steel rod makes a good steering rod. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 34 in. 11 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. as they "snatch" the ice. thick. Equip block X with screw eyes. 2. 2. Use no screws on the running surface. wide and 2 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 4 in. 16-1/2 in. 3 in. Z. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Use no nails. are important. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. apart. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Their size also depends on the voltage. 1 is connected to point No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 2. B. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. is used to reduce friction. by 2 in. with the cushion about 15 in. by 1-1/4 in. long. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. and for the rear runners: A. A 3/4-in. direct to wire across jars. Put arm of switch on point No. by 2 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The connection between point No.. oak boards. B and C. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in.. B. two pieces 30 in. two pieces 14 in. 1. 1 on switch. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. then apply a coat of thin enamel. sheet brass 1 in. above the ground. Construct the auto front (Fig. To wire the apparatus. The current then will flow through the motor. wide by 3/4 in. 2 is lower down than in No. 7 in. 30 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. 5 on switch. The stock required for them is oak. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. wide. and plane it on all edges. thick. C. on No. by 6 in.. C. long. The top disk in jar No. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. An iron washer. At the front 24 or 26 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. two for each jar. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. by 1-1/4 in. making them clear those in the front runner. by 5 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. For the brass trimmings use No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. and bolt through. gives full current and full speed. See Fig. and four pieces 14 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. as they are not substantial enough. & S. No. however. 27 B. long. First sandpaper all the wood.. The illustration shows how to shape it. beginning at the rear. On the door of the auto front put the . . The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 4) of 3/4-in. two pieces 34 in. or source of current. 15-1/2 in. 1 and so on for No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. long by 22 in. by 1 in. square by 14 ft. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Fig.. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution.

to improve the appearance. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. such as burlap. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. such as used on automobiles. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. lunch. cheap material. overshoes. If the expense is greater than one can afford. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. by 30 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . or with these for $25. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. parcels. brass plated. If desired. Then get some upholstery buttons. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. a brake may be added to the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Fasten a horn. cutting it out of sheet brass. to the wheel. long. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. etc. by 1/2 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. The best way is to get some strong. fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. If desired. may be stowed within.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. a number of boys may share in the ownership. which is somewhat moist. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Then put a leather covering over the burlap.

Leland.tree and bring. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . Ill.

but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. the same diameter as the wheel. Fig. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. The first tooth may now be cut. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 2. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. With no other tools than a hacksaw. mild steel or iron. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. the cut will be central on the line. outside diameter and 1/16 in. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. sheet metal. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. so that the center of the blade. with twenty-four teeth. by drawing diameters. Fig. thick. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. a compass. A small clearance space. CD. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. made from 1/16-in. This guide should have a beveled edge. which. will be over the line FG. E. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. some files. The straight-edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. London. Draw a circle on paper. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. FC. 4). when flat against it. from F to G. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 1. though more difficult. Fig. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. 3. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. say 1 in. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. The Model Engineer. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades.

B. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and the other outlet wire. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. R. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Make a hole in the other. electric lamp. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. B. transmitter. Focus the camera in the usual manner. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. . as shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. No shock will be perceptible. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. or several pieces bound tightly together. If there is no faucet in the house. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 1.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 1. ground it with a large piece of zinc. either the pencils for arc lamps. A bright. 2. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. each in the center. some wire and some carbons. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Then take one outlet wire. as shown in Fig. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide.

But in this experiment. and again wind the wire around it. For a base use a pine board 10 in. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. and will then burn the string C.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Pa. by 12 in. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. One like a loaf of bread. Then set the whole core away to dry. They have screw ends. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Several battery cells. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. or more of the latter has been used. by 1 in. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. under the gable. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. at each end for terminals. are also needed. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. D D are binding posts for electric wires. --Contributed by Geo. serves admirably. leaving about 10 in. of course. and about that size. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. a transmitter which induces no current is used. If desired. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. 36 wire around it. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. as indicated by E E. Wrenn. Ohio. Emsworth. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . J. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. A is a wooden block. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Dry batteries are most convenient. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. B. as shown. Ashland. Slattery.

by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. First make a support. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Newark. The oven is now ready to be connected. and one single post switch. These should have hollow ends.. and the lamps. C. F. The coil will commence to become warm. 14 wire. in series with bindingpost. connecting lamp receptacles. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Turn on switch. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. as shown. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. D. Jr. 2. C. D. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. E. the terminal of the coil. Fig. run a No. Fig. while C is open. B B.wire. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. for the . B B. At one side secure two receptacles. and switch. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Connect these three to switch. 1. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. 12 or No. Place 16-cp. as shown. until the hand points to zero on the scale. From the other set of binding-posts. in parallel. Ohio.

3. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. 2. 7. until the scale is full. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. although brass is better. 3 amperes. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 4 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. If for 3-way. long and make a loop. a battery. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. After drilling. etc. 36 magnet wire instead of No. from the lower end. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. --Contributed by J. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a variable resistance. inside measurements. Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 1/2 in.E. 4. long. The box is 5-1/2 in. a standard ammeter. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. and D. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Dussault. 14 wire. The pointer or hand.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Montreal. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. C.or 4-way valve or cock. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. D. high. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. is made of iron. 1. drill through the entire case and valve. long. To make one. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. B. wind with plenty of No. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. A wooden box. E. Mine is wound with two layers of No. deep. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 1/4 in. The core. This is slipped on the pivot. At a point a little above the center. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. but if for a 4way. 10 turns to each layer. 5. is made of wire. is then made and provided with a glass front. Fig. drill a hole as shown at H. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. It is 1 in. drill in only to the opening already through. 4 amperes. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. D. as shown in the cut. This may be made of wood. to prevent it turning on the axle.. Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 1. thick. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. wide and 1-3/4 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 5. 14. 6. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. remove the valve. although copper or steel will do.

In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.performing electrical experiments. F. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. which is used for reducing the current. high. making two holes about 1/4 in. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. This stopper should be pierced. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. in thickness . How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. B. E. and a metal rod. By connecting the motor. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. A. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and the arc light. One wire runs to the switch. D. as shown. in diameter. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. provided with a rubber stopper. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. To start the light. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point.

A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. A piece of wood. As there shown. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Carthage. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. where he is placed in an upright open . In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Having fixed the lead plate in position. --Contributed by Harold L. Turn on the current and press the button. 1. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Having finished the interrupter. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. If the interrupter does not work at first. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. To insert the lead plate. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. If all adjustments are correct.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. N. Jones. B. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 2. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. as shown in B. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Fig. 1. Y. 2. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in C. 1. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. long. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. A.

should be miniature electric lamps. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The lights. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. The skeleton is made of papier maché. They need to give a fairly strong light. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. dressed in brilliant. with the exception of the glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. within the limits of an ordinary room. should be colored a dull black.. Its edges should nowhere be visible. figures and lights. giving a limp. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. especially the joints and background near A.coffin. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. by 7 in. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. to aid the illusion. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. and must be thoroughly cleansed. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The glass should be the clearest possible. by 7-1/2 in. high. and wave his arms up and down. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. A white shroud is thrown over his body. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. as the entire interior. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. light-colored garments. especially L. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. All . The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. until it is dark there. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. inside dimensions. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. A. which can be run by three dry cells. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. the illusion will be spoiled. could expect from a skeleton. and can be bought at Japanese stores. is constructed as shown in the drawings. from which the gong has been removed. loosejointed effect. If everything is not black. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. L and M. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The model.

With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Fry. --Contributed by Geo. fat spark. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Cal. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. as shown in the sketch. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. If a gradual transformation is desired. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. W. San Jose. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. square block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. placed about a foot apart.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Two finishing nails were driven in. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth.

which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. B and C. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The plates are separated 6 in. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. One of these plates is connected to metal top. soldered in the top. Cohen. If a lighted match . the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. the remaining space will be filled with air. In Fig. to make it airtight. 1. F. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. into the receiver G. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. as shown. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. This is a wide-mouth bottle. and should be separated about 1/8 in. hydrogen gas is generated. -Contributed by Dudley H. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. with two tubes. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. New York. or a solution of sal soda. A (see sketch).

The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. If desired. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. which is plugged up at both ends. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in diameter and 6 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A 1/64-in. 36 insulated wire. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. 2 shows the end view. The distance between the nipple. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. 1/2 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. B. long. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. is made by drilling a 1/8in. C C. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. N. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. and the ends of the tube. 1. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. 1-5/16 in. says the Model Engineer. copper pipe. or by direct contact with another magnet. A piece of 1/8-in. copper pipe. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Fig. should be only 5/16 of an inch. either by passing a current of electricity around it.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. then a suitable burner is necessary. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. long. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. as is shown in the illustration. from the bottom. A. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. P. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. London. A nipple. A. of No. Fig. by means of the clips. which forms the vaporizing coil. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. N.

smoothly. boards and all. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. longer and 1/4 in. 1. 2). passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. duck or linen. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Turn the book over and paste the other side. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. about 8 or 10 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. taking care not to bend the iron. this makes a much nicer book. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. A disk of thin sheet-iron. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 3. Cut four pieces of cardboard. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. larger all around than the book. Fig. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . with a fine saw. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Fig. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. Take two strips of stout cloth. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board.lamp cord. fold and cut it 1 in. trim both ends and the front edge. should be cut to the diameter of the can. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed.

Another tank. Another can. is perforated with a number of holes. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. . from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. without a head. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. which will just slip inside the little can. is soldered onto tank A. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. H. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. is fitted in it and soldered. --Contributed by Joseph N. but its diameter is a little smaller. of tank A is cut a hole. is made the same depth as B. 4). B. and a little can. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. --Contributed by James E. the joint will be gas tight. Ont. pasting them down (Fig. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Va. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. D. Parker. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. or rather the top now. 18 in. C. as shown in the sketch. Toronto. as shown.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. E. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Bedford City. A gas cock. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Noble. A. In the bottom. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. in diameter and 30 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. deep.

The longitudinal corner spines. which may be either spruce. and sewed double to give extra strength. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. to prevent splitting. A A. and about 26 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. -Contributed by H. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. basswood or white pine. should be 3/8 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. exactly 12 in. by 1/2 in. A. with an electric-bell magnet. and the four diagonal struts. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. which moves to either right or left. shows how the connections are to be made. S. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1.. If the back armature. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. J. If the pushbutton A is closed. 2. long. should be cut a little too long. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Beverly. B. Fig. as shown at C. H is a square knot. The wiring diagram. The bridle knots. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. square by 42 in. E. fastened in the bottom. tacks. Bott. The small guards. C. B. Fig. D. D. 1. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. and the edges should be carefully hemmed.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. The diagonal struts. long. when finished. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The armature. are shown in detail at H and J. B. N. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. thus adjusting the . making the width. should be 1/4 in.

D. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. thus shortening G and lengthening F. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Closing either key will operate both sounders. and if a strong wind is blowing. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. to prevent slipping. shift toward F. If the kite is used in a light wind. A bowline knot should be tied at J. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. --Contributed by A.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by Edw. Chicago. the batteries do not run down for a long time. can be made of a wooden . that refuse to slide easily. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. E. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. and. for producing electricity direct from heat. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Stoddard. Kan. Clay Center. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Harbert. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. as shown. with gratifying results. however.

How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. spark. Chicago. A. in position. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. C. and the current may then be detected by means. Then.. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. with a pocket compass. to the cannon. and also holds the pieces of wood. A. by means of machine screws or. A and B. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. C. F. E. 14 or No. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. if there are no trunnions on the cannon.frame. placed on top. D. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. --Contributed by A. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . with a number of nails. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. 16 single-covered wire. The wood screw. When the cannon is loaded. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. C. A. Fasten a piece of wood. B. which conducts the current into the cannon. E.

To unlock the door. 1. Marion. Fig.the current is shut off. now at A' and S'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. screw is bored in the block. H. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Bend the strips BB (Fig. To lock the door. Chicago. Connect as shown in the illustration. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Big Rapids. A. within the reach of the magnet. --Contributed by Henry Peck. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. A and S. In Fig. in this position the door is locked. when in position at A'. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. B. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Ohio. A hole for a 1/2 in. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. but no weights or strings. --Contributed by Joseph B. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. where there is a staple. requiring a strong magnet. Keil. press the button. to receive the screw in the center. A and S. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. L. with the long arm at L'. . Mich. To reverse. square and 3/8 in. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 1. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm.

The standard and base. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. are enameled a jet black. or for microscopic work. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. Mass. and may be made at very slight expense. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. --Contributed by C. and if desired the handles may . hole. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and C is a dumbbell. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. put in the handle. West Somerville. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. gas-pipe. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Rand. if enameled white on the concave side. long. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. Thread the other end of the pipe. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. pipe with 1-2-in. When ready for use. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. J. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. about 18 in. When the holes are finished and your lines set.

Warren. D. which shall project at least 2 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Any old pail which is thick enough will do. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Fig. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. B. long and 8 in. Fig. M. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.. E. Make a cylindrical core of wood.be covered with leather. high by 1 ft. inside the pail. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 8 in. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. across. A. Mass. across. --Contributed by C. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. North Easton. with a cover.

layer of the clay mixture. pack this space-top. C. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. C. or make one yourself. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. This done. in diameter. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. projecting from each end (Fig. It is placed inside the kiln.. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. pipe 2-ft. diameter. and varnish. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. such . 15%. and on it set the paper wrapped core. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and 3/8 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. long over the lid hole as a chimney. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. the firing should be gradual. thick. as is shown in the sketch. and with especial caution the first time. If the cover of the pail has no rim. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 1330°. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. to hold the clay mixture. 2 in. 1390°-1410°. thick. about 1 in. 60%. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends.. hard porcelain. After removing all the paper. hotel china. 2. sand.-G. Cover with paper and shellac as before. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. long. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. the point of the blue flame. which is the hottest part. full length of iron core. After finishing the core. 25%. W. 3) with false top and bottom. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Whatever burner is used. When lighted. L. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. cutting the hole a little smaller. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. wider than the kiln. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. let this dry thoroughly. Line the pail. in diameter. pipe. Wind about 1/8 in. make two wood ends. and 3/4 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. if there is to be any glazing done. of fine wire. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 1). Fig. and graphite. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. as dictated by fancy and expense. but will be cheaper in operation. if you have the materials. Fit all the parts together snugly. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. The 2 in. say 1/4 in.mixture of clay. E. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. carefully centering it. bottom and sides.. and your kiln is ready for business. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. C. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. 1). strip of sheet iron.

and discharges into the tube. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and plane off about 1/16 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. Then. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. square them up and place in a vise. as in Fig. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. C.53 in. 2. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and divide it into two piles. Washington. C. --Contributed by J. A. T. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. and so on. as shown in the sketch herewith. every alternate card being the same color. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. with a plane. overlaps and rests on the body. R. Then take the black cards. The funnel. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. around the coil. C. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. 1. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Of course. 2. procure a new deck. all cards facing the same way. diameter.. 8 in. length of . Next restore all the cards to one pack.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. red and black. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. leaving long terminals. You can display either color called for. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. as in Fig. taking care to have the first card red. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. . we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. bind tightly with black silk. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Take the red cards. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. the next black. Chicago. D. B. 2). about 1/16 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. square them up.

This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. A. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. When the glass is put in the frame a space. the same ends will come together again. about 20 in. 1. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris.J. B. the first thing to decide on is the size. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. E. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. stove bolts. B. A. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. It should be placed in an exposed location. 1 gill of fine white sand. and then the frame is ready to assemble.C. The bottom glass should be a good fit. stove bolts. The cement. D. thus making all the holes coincide. F. All the horizontal pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. Fig. so that when they are assembled. and this is inexpensive to build. C. To find the fall of snow. angle iron for the frame. B. through the holes already drilled.. of the frame. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Drill all the horizontal pieces. 1 gill of litharge. N. The upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Long Branch. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Let . to form a dovetail joint as shown. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. E.

to the door knob. A.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. D. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. on the door by means of a metal plate. Fig. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. a centerpiece (A. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Aquarium Finished If desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. if desired. Fasten the lever. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. having a swinging connection at C.

All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. White. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Y. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. another. approximately 1 ft. --Contributed by Orton E. N. for the top. showing the paddle-wheel in position. to keep the frame from spreading. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. B. Cut two pieces 30 in. which is 15 in. I referred this question to my husband. 2 ft. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. PAUL S. Do not fasten these boards now. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. another. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 26 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. thus doing away with the spring. wide . nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 2 at GG. according to the slant given C. A small piece of spring brass. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Two short boards 1 in. F. to form the main supports of the frame. soldered to the end of the cylinder. long. D. from the outside top of the frame. C. long. 1 . thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. AA. Fig. wide by 1 in. to form the slanting part. screwed to the door frame. 1. 1 is the motor with one side removed. as at E. Buffalo. They are shown in Fig. To make the frame. and another. Fig. 2 is an end view. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole.. 3 shows one of the paddles. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Fig. and Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 1. 6 in. long. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. long. but mark their position on the frame. E.

hole through them. 24 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and a 1/4 -in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. iron.along the edges under the zinc to form . hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. remove the cardboard. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.burlap will do -. to a full 1/2 in. hole to form the bearings. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. 1. Fig. Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. holes. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. 2) and another 1 in. GG. steel shaft 12 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. (I. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. hole through the exact center of the wheel. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. iron 3 by 4 in. from one end by means of a key. take down the crosspieces. Fasten them in their proper position. and drill a 1-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Take the side pieces. and drill a 1/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. 2) form a substantial base. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Make this hole conical. that is. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole through its center. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. These are the paddles. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. then drill a 3/16-in. by 1-1/2 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. pipe. Tack one side on. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. thick. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole through their sides centrally. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. in diameter. 4. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. long to the wheel about 8 in. thick (HH. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Now block the wheel. Drill 1/8-in. tapering from 3/16 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. Next secure a 5/8-in. as shown in Fig. When it has cooled.

If sheet-iron is used. and leave them for an hour or so.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. light and the plate. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. It is obvious that. Correct exposure depends. . getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and as near to it as possible. as this makes long exposure necessary. sewing machine. says the Photographic Times. on the lens. of course. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. or what is called a process plate. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Drill a hole through the zinc. shutting out all light from above and the sides. any window will do. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. it would be more durable. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. The best plate to use is a very slow one. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Focus the camera carefully. but now I put them in the machine. as shown in the sketch at B. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. drill press. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Raise the window shade half way. Darken the rest of the window. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. If the bearings are now oiled. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and the subject may move. place the outlet over a drain. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Do not stop down the lens. start the motor. but as it would have cost several times as much. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick.a water-tight joint. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. remove any white curtains there may be. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. ice-cream freezer.

2. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. On completing . but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. B. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The core C. until the core slowly rises. and without fog.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by twisting. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. a core. or wood. which is made of iron and cork. and a base. full of water. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The current required is very small. The glass tube may be a test tube. With a piece of black paper. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. hard rubber. the core is drawn down out of sight. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. an empty pill bottle may be used. A. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. D. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. a glass tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. or an empty developer tube. 2. without detail in the face. with binding posts as shown. C. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. as shown in Fig. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. as a slight current will answer. or can be taken from an old magnet.

Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. white lead. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and make a pinhole in the center. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1 pt. finest graphite. water and 3 oz. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. according to his control of the current. The colors appear different to different people. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and one not easy to explain. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and are changed by reversing the rotation. 1 lb. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. whale oil.

When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. C. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. when the action ceases. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. deuce. As this device is easily upset. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. before cutting. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. fan-like. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. B. nearly every time. thus partly filling bottles A and C. In prize games. especially if the deck is a new one. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. or three spot. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. In making hydrogen. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.B. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end.L. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. A. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by D. Chicago. 2 can cut the cards at the ace.

that will fit loosely in the tube A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Jr. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 12 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. W.. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. in length and 3 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer.. 10 in. . Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Detroit. Bently. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 3). in diameter. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 4. --Contributed by F. Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. (Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 9 in. S. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. --Contributed by C. Huron. Make a 10-sided stick. S. J. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 2. Form a cone of heavy paper. long and 3 in. long. Dak.

C. Denver. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. will cause an increased movement of C. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. A piece of tin. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. E. 6. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. but bends toward D. allowing 1 in. Cut out paper sections (Fig. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Remove the form.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. push back the bolt. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. on one side and the top. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. A. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. it is equally easy to block that trick. about the size of a leadpencil. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Fortunately. making it three-ply thick. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. and walk in. A second piece of silk thread. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. long. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. with a pin driven in each end. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. --Contributed by Reader. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge.

is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. and rest on a brick placed under each end. R. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. as shown. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. will last for several years. By this arrangement one. B. are made 2 by 4 in.strip.. The 2 by 4-in. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. A. long. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. put together as shown in the sketch. Paul.. Two wood-base switches. The upper switch. Jr. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S. B. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . --Contributed by J. Fremont Hilscher. W. while the lower switch. The feet. S S. Minn. is connected each point to a battery. posts. 4 ft. West St. are 7 ft. or left to right. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. long. The reverse switch. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.

2 and 3. Fig. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and valve crank S. cut in half. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. thick. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The steam chest D. The hose E connects to the boiler. FF. which will be described later. 2. with two washers. The base is made of wood. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and a cylindrical . and the bearing B is fastened by staples. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. is an old bicycle pump. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The piston is made of a stove bolt. H and K. pulley wheel. and the crank bearing C. 1. the size of the hole in the bearing B. E. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Fig. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. which is made of tin. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and has two wood blocks. and in Fig. 3/8 in. The valve motion is shown in Figs. or anything available.every house. In Fig.

The boiler. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. at that. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. This is wound with soft string. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. W. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. --Contributed by Geo. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. C. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. G. can be an old oil can. and the desired result is obtained. Fig. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Eustice. Wis. and a very amusing trick. is cut out of tin. Schuh and A. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. G. to receive the connecting rod H. Fig. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. 1. Cal. This engine was built by W. 4. 3. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. J. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. . The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. of Cuba. Fry. San Jose. and saturated with thick oil. as it is merely a trick of photography.piece of hard wood. as shown in Fig. using the positive wire as a pen. or galvanized iron. First. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. powder can. The valve crank S. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then.

the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. 1 by covering up Figs. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. They may be of any size. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. Cut half circles out of each stave. as shown. as shown at AA. to cross in the center. and place a bell on the four ends. B. and pass ropes around . C. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 will be seen to rotate. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. diameter. When turning.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin.

This in turn will act on the transmitter. which accounts for the sound. which allows the use of small sized ropes. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.M. but not on all. St. produces a higher magnifying power). The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. long.G. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. procure a wooden spool. A (a short spool. as shown in the illustration. W. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. From a piece of thin .Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Mo. from the transmitter.. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. such as clothes lines. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. --Contributed by H. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Louis. To make this lensless microscope.

cut out a small disk. which are pieces of hard wood. as in all microscopes of any power. i. The spring. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. is made of iron. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The pivot. darting across the field in every direction. B. D. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. by means of brads. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. held at arm's length. (The area would appear 64 times as large. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. 3. . How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. E. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. can be made of brass and the armature. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. An innocent-looking drop of water. is fastened at each end by pins. fastened to a wooden base. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. A. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. C.. or 64 times. C. and at the center. in which hay has been soaking for several days. the object should be of a transparent nature. D. which costs little or nothing to make. if the distance is reduced to one-third. e. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. if the distance is reduced to one-half. The lever. the diameter will appear twice as large. B. place a small object on the transparent disk. bent as shown. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. Viewed through this microscope. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. H. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand.. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and look through the hole D. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore.) But an object 3/4-in. 2. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. Fig. To use this microscope. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. the diameter will appear three times as large. 1. and so on. otherwise the image will be blurred.

wide. The binding posts. D. and are connected to the contacts. Cut the top. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. A. AA. binding posts: H spring The stop. brass. 1.SOUNDER-A. thick. KEY-A. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 26 wire: E. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. The base of the key. coils wound with No. Fig. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide and about 20 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. DD. K. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide. B. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. long by 16 in. brass: E. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. should be about 22 in. E. B. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 16 in. wood. brass: B. long. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. K. wood: F. 2. in length and 16 in. . FF. wide and set in between sides AA. D. fastened near the end. connection of D to nail. C. A switch. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. nail soldered on A. wide. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. which are made to receive a pivot. C. The door. wood: C. 16 in. D. long and 14-1/2 in. The back. soft iron. F. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. Fig. HH. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. is cut from a board about 36 in. can be made panel as shown. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. between the armature and the magnet. or a single piece. Each side.

When the electrical waves strike the needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. with 3/4-in. In operation. as shown. AA. Garfield. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 2 and made from 1/4-in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. brads. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. long. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. material. Make 12 cleats. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. 13-1/2 in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Ill. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. as shown in the sketch.

--Contributed by John Koehler. E. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. in order to increase the surface. N. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. pulls down the armature. When the pipe is used. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. A fairly stiff spring. A. J. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A (see sketch). a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Brown. when used with a motor. through which a piece of wire is passed. C. N. --Contributed by R. F. Pushing the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. will give a greater speed. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. filled with water. Ridgewood. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. the magnet. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. The cord is also fastened to a lever. B. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. and thus decreases the resistance. Fairport. Y. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. and. A.

the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder .for the secret contact. if desired. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. N. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Of course. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Gachville. --Contributed by Perry A. B. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Borden. even those who read this description. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.

The top board is made 28-in. Mangold. Dobson. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. A. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. N. as shown in Fig. C. apart. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. --Contributed by H. D. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Washington. wide. . Two drawers are fitted in this space. With about 9 ft. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. East Orange.whenever the bell rings.. for 10in. Connect switch to post B. Cal. wide. long and 5 in. for 6-in. J. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. records and 5-5/8 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. E. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. thick and 12-in. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. --Contributed by Dr. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. long and full 12-in. records. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Nails for stops are placed at DD. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. from the bottom. C. as shown in Fig. 1. Jr. and on both sides of the middle shelf. 2. deep and 3/4 in. From a piece of brass a switch. H. Compton.

to which is fastened a cord. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. A. 1. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Va. E. closed. which in operation is bent. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown by the dotted lines. B. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.

deep. deep and 1/2 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. If the wheels fit too tightly. against which the rubber tubing. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Put the rubber tube. wide. thick (A. 5) when they are placed. in diameter. CC. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Fig. Figs. it too loose. E. 1 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. In the sides (Fig. one in each end. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Do not fasten the sides too . they will bind. holes (HH. Figs. In these grooves place wheels. as shown in the illustration. apart. thick. Now put all these parts together. Fig. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Fig. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. wide. is compressed by wheels. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. excepting the crank and tubing. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. which should be about 1/2 in. D. E. 3. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 3). long. in diameter. they will let the air through. in diameter. The crankpin should fit tightly. B. in diameter. Cut two grooves. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. square and 7/8 in. through one of these holes. but a larger one could be built in proportion. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 1 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum.

a platform should be added. Fig. 1. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. A in Fig. 1. beyond each of these two. because he can . the other wheel has reached the bottom. Take the center of the bar. from each end. mark again. Hubbard. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Then turn the crank from left to right. The three legs marked BBB. costing 10 cents. as shown in Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. long. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. 2. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. from each end. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. though a small iron wheel is better. Fig. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Kan. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from each end. tubing. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. mark for hole and 3 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. iron. the pump will give a steady stream. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. AA. and are 30 in. and 3-1/2 in. B. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. from the bottom and 2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. 1. stands 20 in. For ease in handling the pump. Idana.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 15 in. To use the pump. --Contributed by Dan H. Fig. Fig. Cut six pieces. is all the expense necessary. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. 17-1/2 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. from that mark the next hole. If the motion of the wheels is regular. and mark for a hole. of material. Two feet of 1/4-in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. AA. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. In the two cross bars 1 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides.

To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. or. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Meyer. To cause a flow of electricity. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The battery is now ready for use. some of it should be poured out. of water dissolve 4 oz. Place the carbon in the jar. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. until it is within 3 in. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. The battery is now complete. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. stirring constantly. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. potassium bichromate. or small electric motors. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. When the bichromate has all dissolved. It is useful for running induction coils. dropping. giving it a bright. acid 1 part). sulphuric acid. When through using the battery. The mercury will adhere. there is too much liquid in the jar. shuts him in. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. of the top. and touches the bait the lid is released and. The truncated. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. If it is wet. long having two thumb screws. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 2). If the solution touches the zinc. Philadelphia. 14 copper wire. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. rub the zinc well.see through it: when he enters. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. and the solution (Fig. 4 oz. C. --Contributed by H. 1) must be prepared. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. If the battery has been used before. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. . and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. silvery appearance. add slowly. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. however. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. but if one casts his own zinc. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys.

After putting in the coal. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the jump-spark coil . When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. If. i. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however.. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. which opens the door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door.Fig. while the coal door is being opened. the battery circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. Wis. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. e. with slight changes. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. Madison. The price of the coil depends upon its size.

apart. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. being a 1-in. made of No. 7). Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Change the coil described. and closer for longer distances. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. while a 12-in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 6. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. coil. as shown in Fig. which is made of light copper wire. W W. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. . 7. as shown in Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 5. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. W W. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points.7. in a partial vacuum. This will make an excellent receiver. in a straight line from top to bottom. diameter. After winding. the full length of the coil. This coil. 7. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 6. Now for the receiving apparatus. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core.described elsewhere in this book.

The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. B the bed and C the tailstock. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. 1 to 4.6 stranded. may be easily made at very little expense. A. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. and hence the aerial line. being vertical. as it matches the color well. to the direction of the current. are analogous to the flow of induction. being at right angles. For an illustration. The writer does not claim to be the originator. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 1). only. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. These circles. after all. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 90°. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire.The aerial line. Figs. but simply illustrates the above to show that. . The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. above the ground. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. in the air. using an electric motor and countershaft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). which will be described later. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. No. at any point to any metal which is grounded. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. 90°. where A is the headstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. I run my lathe by power. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection.

and it is well to have the shaft hot. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 6. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. If the bearing has been properly made. The headstock. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. which are let into holes FIG. 5. Heat the babbitt well. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. just touching the shaft. steel tubing about 1/8 in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. tapered wooden pin.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. pitch and 1/8 in. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. After pouring. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 2 and 3. 4. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. To make these bearings. 5. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. deep. on the under side of the bed. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. The bolts B (Fig. Fig. Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. A. one of which is shown in Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. too. thick. 6 Headstock Details D. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 4. which pass through a piece of wood. B. Fig. Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. but not hot enough to burn it. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and Fig.

Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. and a 1/2-in. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. If one has a wooden walk. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Ill. FIG. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Newark. the alarm is easy to fix up. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. A.J. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Take up about 5 ft. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. The tail stock (Fig. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. they may be turned up after assembling. Oak Park. of the walk . embedded in the wood. If not perfectly true. lock nut. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. This prevents corrosion. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.other machines. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. N. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. B.

Fig. Finally. add potassium cyanide again. so that they will not touch. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. (A. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. clean the articles thoroughly. save when a weight is on the trap. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. and the alarm is complete. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Minneapolis. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. --Contributed by R. to remove all traces of grease. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. water. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. silver or other metal.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. To avoid touching it. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Jackson. Then make the solution . 2). leaving a clear solution. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Do not touch the work with the hands again. to roughen the surface slightly. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Connect up an electric bell. of water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. S. before dipping them in the potash solution. hang the articles on the wires. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Minn. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated.

such metals as iron. use 2 volts for large articles. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Repeat six times. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. but opens the door. B should be of the same wood. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. about 25 ft. 3) directly over the hole. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. saw a piece of wood. long. from the lower end. The wooden catch. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. This solution. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Fig. a hand scratch brush is good. With an electric pressure of 3. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. German silver. A (Fig. 1. A 1/4 in. Then. If accumulators are used. which . 1). Take quick. pewter. and then treated as copper. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. also. 3. if one does not possess a buffing machine. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The wooden block C. a circuit is completed. Where Bunsen cells are used. and the larger part (F. Before silver plating. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 1 in. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. an old electric bell or buzzer. Make a somewhat larger block (E. light strokes. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. thick by 3 in. To provide the keyhole. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. piece of broomstick. of water. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. silver can be plated direct. make a key and keyhole. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. when the point of the key touches the tin. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. I. which is advised. will serve for the key. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. copper. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. must be about 1 in. When all this is set up. hole in its center. Screw the two blocks together. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 10 in. Fig. of clothesline rope and some No.up to 2 qt. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. zinc. --Model Engineer. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 3) strikes the bent wire L. with the pivot 2 in. If more solution is required. In rigging it to a sliding door. square. nickel and such metals. lead. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. shaking. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. as at F. with water. On brass. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. with water. 1 not only unlocks. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1). Having finished washing the precipitate. as shown in Fig. which is held by catch B. Fig.5 to 4 volts. 18 wire. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. long.

the box should be painted black both inside and out. so much the better. In front of you. between the parlor and the room back of it. and a slit. a few simple tools.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. East Orange. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. heighten the illusion. floor. the requisites are a large soap box. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. H. He removes the bowl from the black box. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. such as forks. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. 1. or cave. spoons and jackknives. One end is removed. Thus. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. 2. and plenty of candles. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. To prepare such a magic cave. in his shirt sleeves. with the lights turned low. New Jersey. The magician stands in front of this. 3. cut in one side. Objects appear and disappear. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. 2. H. with a switch as in Fig. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. enlarged. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. H. half way from open end to closed end. the illumination in front must be arranged. some black cloth. some black paint. and finally lined inside with black cloth. although a little more trouble. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. B. 0. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. is the cut through which the rope runs. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. top. to throw the light toward the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. surrounding a perfectly black space. sides and end. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The interior must be a dead black. Next. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Fig. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and hands its contents round to the audience. should be cut a hole. Next. Fig. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Klipstein. 1. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. where immediately appears a small white china bowl.. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. he points with one finger to the box. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and black art reigns supreme. he tosses it into the cave. On either side of the box. 116 Prospect St. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. --Contributed by E. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Fig. . and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Receiving the bowl again. Fig. The box must be altered first. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. One thing changes to another and back again. which unlocks the door. shows catch B. Heavy metal objects. one-third of the length from the remaining end. no painting inside is required.

The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. as presented by Hermann. The audience room should have only low lights. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. Consequently. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. one on each side of the box.Finally. in which are oranges and apples. into the eyes of him who looks. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and if portieres are impossible. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. only he. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. The exhibitor should be . his confederate behind inserts his hand. a screen must be used. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which can be made to dance either by strings. was identical with this. the room where the cave is should be dark. had a big stage. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The illusion. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. is on a table) so much the better. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and pours them from the bag into a dish. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. if. of course. you must have an assistant. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. of course. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and several black drop curtains. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. But illusions suggest themselves.

On the disk G are two brass strips. 1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. when handle K is turned to one side. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. and c4 + electricity. and c1 – electricity. b1. square. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. 2). It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. e1 and e2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). so arranged that. if you turn handle K to the right. A represents a pine board 4 in. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig.. terminal c3 will show . Fig. at L. by means of two wood screws. b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. 2. by 4 in. b3. and c2 to the zinc. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. held down by another disk F (Fig. c3. FIG. d. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. 1.a boy who can talk. Finally. held down on it by two terminals. f2. c1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Then. 2. and a common screw.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or b2. vice versa. b2. respectively. respectively. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. A. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b2. with three brass strips. making contact with them.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. terminal c3 will show +. is shown in the diagram. or binding posts. their one end just slips under the strips b1. making contact with them as shown at y. held down on disk F by two other terminals. c2. c4. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. respectively.

I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. When switch B is closed and A is on No. when on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. jump spark coil. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Newark. from five batteries. when A is on No. from three batteries. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and when on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 4. B is a onepoint switch. Ohio. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). and C and C1 are binding posts. 5. -Contributed by A. Jr.. you have the current of one battery. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Joerin. Tuttle. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. . 1. 3. when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. E. from four batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F.

The device thus arranged. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. rule. The alarm clock rests on a shelf.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. of Burlington. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. mark. as shown in the sketch. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. A. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. mark. over the bent portion of the rule. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Redmond. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. traveled by the thread. P. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Handy Electric Alarm . is the device of H. per second. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. which may be a button or other small object. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. so one can see the time. E. Wis. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. B. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. and supporting the small weight. Thus. La. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. New Orleans. per second for each second.

fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it.which has a piece of metal. Lane. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then if a mishap comes. When the alarm goes off. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --Contributed by Gordon T. . Instead. and with the same result. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. but may be closed at F any time desired. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. B. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --C. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. which illuminates the face of the clock. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. S. C. Pa. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. wrapping the wire around the can several times. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. for a wetting is the inevitable result. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. soldered to the alarm winder. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Crafton.

to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. when it is being prepared. which in turn support the mold while it is being made.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . and duplicates of all these. 1 . the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. A. and many other interesting and useful articles. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. AA. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. engines. Macey. New York City. With the easily made devices about to be described. battery zincs. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. BE. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. cannons. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. but it is a mistake to try to do this. small machinery parts. binding posts. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. C. ornaments of various kinds. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. It is possible to make molds without a bench. bearings. The first thing to make is a molding bench. whence it is soon tracked into the house. L. 1. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. which may. If there is no foundry Fig. as shown in Fig.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. --Contributed by A. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Two cleats. as shown. models and miniature objects.

and the lower pieces. previous to sawing. as shown. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which should be nailed in. which can be either aluminum. is filled with coal dust. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. J. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is nailed to each end of the cope. If desired the sieve may be homemade. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. but this operation will be described more fully later on. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Fig. CC. will be required. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A wedge-shaped piece. H. high. E. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. and a sieve. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and the "drag. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The cloth bag. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. as shown. by 6 in. A A. 1. II . which can be made of a knitted stocking. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.How to Make a Mold [96] . A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. 2. is made of wood. try using sand from other sources. The flask. It is made of wood and is in two halves. Fig. The dowels. The rammer. DD. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. the "cope. makes a very good sieve.near at hand. by 8 in. white metal. 1. F. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. An old teaspoon. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. D. G. say 12 in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. If the box is not very strong. and this. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. is about the right mesh." or upper half. CC." or lower part. 2 . and saw it in half longitudinally.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. is shown more clearly in Fig. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A good way to make the flask is to take a box.

the surface of the sand at . It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. and thus judge for himself. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or "cope. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. In finishing the ramming. as described. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. and scatter about 1/16 in. The sand is then ready for molding. It is then rammed again as before. After ramming. as shown at D. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and if water is added. turn the drag other side up. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as it is much easier to learn by observation. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. where they can watch the molders at work. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown at E. and by grasping with both hands. as shown. in order to remove the lumps. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. or "drag." in position.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as shown at C. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. Place another cover board on top. but care should be taken not to get it too wet.

These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. made out of steel rod. after being poured. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as shown at H. is next cut. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at J. it shows that the sand is too wet. After drawing the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. in diameter. in order to prevent overheating. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. Fig. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown in the sketch. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus holding the crucible securely. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. deep. The "sprue. . Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and then pour. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. III. The next operation is that of cutting the gate." or pouring-hole. thus making a dirty casting. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at F. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured.E should be covered with coal-dust. as shown at H. Place a brick or other flat. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. to give the air a chance to escape. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. place the cope back on the drag. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. as shown at G. This is done with a spoon. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. wide and about 1/4 in.

although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. but any reasonable number may be used. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. --Contributed by Harold S. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. If a good furnace is available. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Although the effect in the illustration . The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. is very desirable. battery zincs. the following device will be found most convenient. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. white metal and other scrap available. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and the casting is then ready for finishing. 15% lead. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. used only for zinc. In my own case I used four batteries. may be used in either direction. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Minneapolis. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. babbitt.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. or from any adjacent pair of cells. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. although somewhat expensive. Referring to the figure. and. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Morton. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal.

may be made of hardwood. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. The brass rings also appear distorted. Make one of these pieces for each arm. outward. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. --Contributed by Draughtsman. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. backward. 2. Then walk down among the audience. connected by cords to the rudder. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. By replacing the oars with paddles. A. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. shaft made. 3/4 in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. B. Then replace the table. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. If desired. as shown in the illustration.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. which will be sufficient to hold it. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. B. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Fig. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The bearings. Put a sharp needle point. as shown at A. To make it take a sheet-iron band. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Chicago.

Snow. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. If babbitt is used. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. or under pressure. Fig. but when in motion. spoiling its appearance. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 3. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. A block of ice. when it will again return to its original state. D. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. being simply finely divided ice. 2. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The covers. and a weight. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards.melted babbitt. E. A. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 2 and 3. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. should be made of wood. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. as shown in Fig. 1. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. as shown in Fig. C. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 1. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 1. It may seem strange that ice . In the same way. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. If galvanized iron is used. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. W. The hubs. or the paint will come off.

by 1/2 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. it will gradually change from the original shape A. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. and assume the shape shown at B. but by placing it between books.. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. by 2 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. P. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. The rate of flow is often very slow. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. no matter how slow the motion may be. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. but. whenever there is any connection made at all. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. as per sketch. as shown on page 65. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. brass. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. B. square. sometimes only one or two feet a day. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pa.should flow like water. thus giving a high resistance contact. Crafton. in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 1/4. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. or supporting it in some similar way. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 5 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. which resembles ice in this respect. Pressing either push button. Lane. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.

about the size used for automobiles. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. B. draft. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. cord. and five dry batteries.000 ft. In the wiring diagram. I. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. furnace.thumb screws. Indianapolis. Pa. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The success depends upon a slow current. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Ward. horizontal lever. E. alarm clock. vertical lever. weight. H. The parts are: A. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. wooden supports. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. F. K . B. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. C. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. draft chain. the battery. Wilkinsburg. D. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. and C. as shown. the induction coil. G. A is the circuit breaker. as shown. --Contributed by A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. J. pulleys. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. G.

is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. material framed together as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . will fit nicely in them. where house plants are kept in the home. 2 are dressed to the right angle. as well as the bottom. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Kalamazoo. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The frame (Fig. 3. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. such as used for a storm window. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. Mich.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. which will provide a fine place for the plants.

1 cp. e. However.. as indicated by Fig. since a battery is the most popular source of power. and cost 27 cents FIG. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. and a suitable source of power. multiples of series of three. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. It must be remembered. is something that will interest the average American boy. The 1/2-cp. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. one can regulate the batteries as required. However. 1 each complete with base. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. by connecting them in series. A certain number of these. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. This is more economical than dry cells. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. so as to increase the current. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. in any system of lamps. Canada. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Thus. i. --Contributed by Wm. and the instrument will then be complete. 1. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. this must be done with very great caution. for some time very satisfactorily. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Grant.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Halifax. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. and will give the . bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. but maintain the voltage constant. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs.. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. can be connected up in series. in this connection. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. which sells for 25 cents. after a rest.. as if drawn upon for its total output. where they are glad to have them taken away. N. a cork and a needle. S. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. in diameter. Push the needle into the cork. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. W.

And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. generates the power for the lights. we simply turn on the water. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and for Christmas trees. lamps. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. or 22 lights. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Thus. which is the same as that of one battery. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. double insulated wire wherever needed. Fig. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. 1-cp. These will give 3 cp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. each. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Chicago. where the water pressure is the greatest. to secure light by this method. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. In conclusion. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and then lead No. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. 3. according to the water pressure obtainable. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. if wound for 6 volts. although the first cost is greater. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. 11 series. making.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. lamp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. especially those of low internal resistance. and running the series in parallel. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. . it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Thus. and diffused light in a room. 18 B & S. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. 2 shows the scheme. However. lamps. So. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. FIG. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. by the proper combination of these.proper voltage. as in Fig.. If wound for 10 volts. for display of show cases.

CC. field of motor. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. simply change the switch. AA. To reverse the motor. Parker. bars of pole-changing switch. brushes of motor. center points of switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. or a tempting bone. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. A. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. thus reversing the machine. DD. or from one pattern. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. --Contributed by Leonard E. B. the letters indicate as follows: FF.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Emig. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A indicates the ground. switch. BB. as shown in the sketch. Santa Clara. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. . and the sides. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. outside points of switch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Cal. --Contributed by F. Plymouth. B. Ind. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. are cut just alike. and C. we were not bothered with them. After I connected up my induction coil. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. a bait of meat. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush.

-Contributed by Claude B.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo.. or would remain locked. Minn. thus locking the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The button can be hidden. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Melchior. The experiment works best . merely push the button E. one cell being sufficient. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a piece of string. and a table or bench. 903 Vine St. San Jose. A. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. When the circuit is broken a weight. which is in the door. Cal. as it is the key to the lock. a hammer. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Hutchinson. If it is not. Fry. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. W.

Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. D. 3. forming a loop.. the stick falls away. 3. run through a pulley. P. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. --Contributed by Geo. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Crawford Curry. Madison. -. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. where it will remain suspended as shown. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. When the alarm rings in the early morning. which pulls the draft open. 1). Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. 2. 4). attached at the other end.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Schmidt. C. Wis. Culebra. Porto Rico. the key turns. . Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Canada.Contributed by F. 18 Gorham St. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. in the ceiling and has a window weight. the current flows with the small arrows. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. W. A. Brockville. Ontario. as shown in Fig. releasing the weight. On another block of wood fasten two wires. I.

First. and the other to the battery. --Contributed by Wm. thence to a switch. Camden. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Use a barrel to work on. N. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. S. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and then to the receiver. get two pieces of plate glass. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. which fasten to the horn. 6 in. D. and break the corners off to make them round. running one direct to the receiver. The cut shows the arrangement. Jr. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. square and 1 in. made with his own hands. and . J. R. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Farley. thick.. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Connect two wires to the transmitter. or from a bed of flowers. including the mouthpiece. J. or tree.

work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When dry. with 1/4-in. set the speculum against the wall. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. wide around the convex glass or tool. and the under glass or tool convex. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. 2. 2. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum.. in length. 1. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. In a dark room. Fig. or less. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Use a binger to spread it on with. also rotate the glass. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. and spread on the glass. and a large lamp. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife.. and is ready for polishing. Fig. A. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. using straight strokes 2 in. melt 1 lb. while walking around the barrel. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. by the side of the lamp. and label. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Fasten. the coarse grinding must be continued. wet till soft like paint. Have ready six large dishes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. L.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. of water. spaces. or it will not polish evenly. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. wetting it to the consistency of cream. so the light . twice the focal length away. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. When done the glass should be semitransparent. as in Fig. with pitch. a round 4-in. then take 2 lb. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. then 8 minutes. When polishing the speculum. flour emery and mix in 12 qt.

Now add enough of the solution A. Place the speculum. the speculum will show some dark rings. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Nitric acid .……………………………. as in K. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 100 gr. If not. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. longer strokes. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. The polishing and testing done. Two glass or earthenware dishes.……………. 2. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).. 2.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Then add solution B. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Then add 1 oz. also how the rays R from a star . Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. from the lamp. Fig. Alcohol (Pure) ……………... touched with rouge. 25 gr. Solution D: Sugar loaf . and pour the rest into the empty dish. Fig. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Silver nitrate ……………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. 4 oz. When dry.100 gr. long to the back of the speculum. or hills.. 39 gr.. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. With pitch. When the focus is found. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.………………………………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. the speculum is ready to be silvered. then ammonia until bath is clear. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. must be procured. 4 oz. with distilled water. face down.. Place the speculum S. 840 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. that was set aside.. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. cement a strip of board 8 in. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. if a hill in the center. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. fill the dish with distilled water. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.. deep. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Fig.

is a satisfactory angle. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. deg. Thus an excellent 6-in. The flatter they are the less they will distort. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. slightly wider than the lens mount. using strawboard and black paper. with an outlay of only a few dollars. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Place over lens. Make the tube I of sheet iron. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. and proceed as for any picture. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. About 20. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. . The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Mellish. two glass prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. long and cost me just $15.John E. stop down well after focusing.. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. which proves to be easy of execution. Then I made the one described. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. telescope can be made at home. cover with paper and cloth. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. My telescope is 64 in. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.

Do not stir it. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. push the button D. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Boody. and reflect through the negative. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. . It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The paper is exposed. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. but will not preserve its hardening. through the lens of the camera and on the board. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. unobstructed light strike the mirror. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. A. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The rays of the clear. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. instead of the contrary. or powdered alum. add the plaster gradually to the water. then add a little sulphate of potash. Fig. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. -Contributed by A. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. D. To unlock. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. complete the arrangement. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Zimmerman. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. as shown in Fig. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. 2. B. 1. says the Master Painter.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. Ill. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.

as in Fig. as at A and B. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 3. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. To reverse. use a string. Fasten on the switch lever. also provide them with a handle. throw . so that it can rotate about these points. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. Fig. as shown in the sketch. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Then blow through the spool. 1). Connect the wires as shown in Fig.

the armature. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. as shown in the sketch. . When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. rinse in alcohol. D.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. San Marcos. -Contributed by Morris L. wash in running water. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. San Antonio. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. binding posts. and rub dry with linen cloth. Tex. L. Thomas. In the sketch. although this is not necessary. Go McVicker. Levy. C C. carbons. North Bend. --Contributed by R. Push one end of the tire into the hole. B. Take out. carbon sockets. A is the electricbell magnet. Neb. --Contributed by Geo. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. and E E. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired.

Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. 14 or No. 16 magnet wire. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. By means of two or more layers of No. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Brooklyn. --Contributed by Joseph B. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Bell. long or more. wound evenly about this core. 36 magnet wire.

The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. When cut and laid in one continuous length. or 8 in. making two layers. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. as the maker prefers.which would be better to buy ready-made. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. hole is bored in the center of one end. one piece of the paper is laid down. at a time. wide. After the core wires are bundled. long and 5 in. then the strip of tin-foil. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. The following method of completing a 1-in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is desirable. a box like that shown in Fig. No. as shown in Fig. In shaping the condenser. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. diameter. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. Beginning half an inch from one end. in diameter. A 7/8-in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. in length. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. with room also for a small condenser. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. which is an important factor of the coil. and the results are often unsatisfactory. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. The condenser is next wrapped . the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The primary is made of fine annealed No. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 4. long and 2-5/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 1. 2 yd. the entire core may be purchased readymade. about 6 in.

long to key. bell. open switch C. wide. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. which is insulated from the first. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. round so that the inside . I. one from bell. to the door. B. D. long and 12 in. battery . the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. 4 in. by 12 in. G. and one from battery. shelf for clock. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. 3. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.securely with bands of paper or tape. go. copper lever with 1-in.) The wiring diagram. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. E. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. the letters indicate as follows: A. shows how the connections are made. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. and the other sheet. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. ready for assembling. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. which allows wiring at the back. C. switch. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. flange turned on one side. A. Fig. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. V-shaped copper strip. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter.. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. spark. F. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. lines H. forms the other pole or terminal. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. B. whole length. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.

but with the circuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. of zinc sulphate. That is what they are for. and the battery is ready for use. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Short-circuit for three hours.. from the bottom. of blue stone. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. and then rivet the seam. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. do not shortcircuit. Use a glass or metal shade. The circuit should also have a high resistance. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Line the furnace. says the Model Engineer. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. London. but add 5 or 6 oz. instead of close to it. If desired for use immediately. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. 2 in. This is for blowing. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.diameter is 7 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. . To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb.

and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. long. the second finger along the side. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. thus producing two different vibrations. Enlarge the hole slightly. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. affects . the thumb and second finger changing places: e. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches." which created much merriment. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. If too low. and therein is the trick. square and about 9 in. porcelain and paper. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. grip the stick firmly in one hand. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. oxygen to ozone. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. imparting to them a violet tinge. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. This type of battery will give about 0. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Ohio. but the thing would not move at all. and then. for others the opposite way.. below the bottom of the zinc. or think they can do the same let them try it. At least it is amusing. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. 2. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. changes white phosphorus to yellow. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. while for others it will not revolve at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. for some it will turn one way. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.9 of a volt. g. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. To operate the trick. as in the other movement. 1. Outside of the scientific side involved. herein I describe a much better trick.

and. a means for holding it vertical. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. if possible. earth. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. an old tripod screw. but not essential. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and one of them is photomicrography. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. insects. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. chemicals. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. however. a short-focus lens. but this is less satisfactory. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . says the Photographic Times. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. but small flowers. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. To the front board is attached a box.

Cap. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. The following table will give the size. 6 ft. 5 in. in Cu. 9 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 381 24 lb. which is 15 ft. 8 ft. 113 7 lb. A line. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. wide from which to cut a pattern. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. or 31 ft. Madison. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. balloon. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 179 11 lb. Mass. 268 17 lb. Boston. 1. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. while it is not so with the quill. AB.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 12 ft. 697 44 lb. 7-1/2 in. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. or 3 ft. 7-1/2 in. Ft Lifting Power. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 5 ft. and a line. CD. 65 4 lb. 7 ft. in diameter. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. If the balloon is 10 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 905 57 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Fig. 11 ft.--Contributed by George C. long and 3 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.

Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. of beeswax and boil well together. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Procure 1 gal. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. of the very best heavy body. and so on. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 2. Repeat this operation four times. The amounts necessary for a 10- . making a double seam as shown in Fig.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. 3. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. using a fine needle and No. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. cutting all four quarters at the same time. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 70 thread. The pattern is now cut. 4. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The cloth segments are sewed together. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. keeping the marked part on the outside. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. on the curved line from B to C. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.

For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. ]. When the clock has dried. leaving the hand quite clean. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. Water 1 oz. C. of gas in one hour. of iron borings and 125 lb. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. pipe. ft. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed.ft. as shown in Fig. above the level of the water in barrel A. by fixing.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. of sulphuric acid. In the barrel. The 3/4-in. capacity and connect them. if it is good it will dry off. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. 5 . should not enter into the water over 8 in. All FIG. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. About 15 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. using a fine brush. of water will make 4 cu. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. with the iron borings. oil the spindle holes carefully. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. but if any grease remains on the hand. Fill the other barrel. 150 gr. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. this should be repeated frequently. balloon are 125 lb. B. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. which may sound rather absurd. 1 lb.Green Iron ammonium citrate . Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. until no more dirt is seen.. Vegetable oils should never be used. B. to the bag. A. of iron. C. . Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. A. a clean white rag. 5. 1 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. or dusting with a dry brush. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. with water 2 in. After washing a part. or a fan. The outlet. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. with 3/4in. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. it is not fit to use.

Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Port Melbourne. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. . or carbon. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. dry atmosphere will give best results. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. of any make.000 ft. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. The positive pole. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Printing is done in the sun. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. The miniature 16 cp. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. The negative pole. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. toning first if desired. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. says the Moving Picture World. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or battery. to avoid blackened skin. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Exposure. 20 to 30 minutes. Dry the plates in the dark. and a vigorous negative must be used. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Dry in the dark. keeping the fingers out of the solution. or zinc. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. fix in hypo. A cold. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. .. A longer exposure will be necessary.Water 1 oz. and keep in the dark until used. at the time of employment. This aerial collector can be made in . may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.

the resistance is less. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. lay a needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and as less current will flow the short way. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. holes . This will complete the receiving station. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. a positive and a negative. both positive and negative. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. in diameter. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. long. lead pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. 5 in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle.various ways. as described below. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. forming a cup of the pipe. when left exposed to the air. and have the other connected with another aerial line. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. If the wave ceases. If the waves strike across the needle. will soon become dry and useless. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. making a ground with one wire. As the telephone offers a high resistance. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe.

an oblong one and a triangular one. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. D. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The other plate is connected to the zinc. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This support or block. of course. or tube B. and the other to the negative. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. namely: a square hole. Two binding-posts should be attached. except for about 1 in. on each end. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. does not need to be watertight. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. one to the positive. says the Pathfinder. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This box can be square.as possible. by soldering the joint. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. When mixing the acid and water. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. B. or tube C. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. a round one. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . This.

A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 3. Only galvanized nails should be used. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. back and under. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 1. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. as shown in Fig. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 2. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A and B. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The third piece of brass. 2. wide. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. and match them together. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 1. C. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. about 20 in. were fitted by this one plug. deep and 4 ft. thick cut two pieces alike. leaving about 1/16 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Ill. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Chicago. wide. C. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. and has plenty of good seating capacity. This punt. as it is not readily overturned.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. is built 15 ft. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. all around the edge. in place on the wood. . long.

square (Fig 2). gas pipe. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. is cut 1 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Wash. A. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Tacoma. B. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. thick and 3-1/2 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.

lamp. says the Model Engineer. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate.--Contributed by Charles H. if possible. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. H. no special materials could be obtained. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Wagner. with the exception of insulated wire. and to consume. In designing." has no connection with the outside circuit. which the writer has made. may be of interest to some of our readers. The winding of the armature. which can be developed in the usual manner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. it had to be borne in mind that. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. without auxiliary phase. or "rotor. no more current than a 16-cp. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.

and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. or "stator. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. 2. C. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 5. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. They are not particularly accurate as it is. B. about 2-1/2 lb. no steel being obtainable. to be filed out after they are placed together. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. Unfortunately. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. also varnished before they were put in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. holes. as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and all sparking is avoided. 4. being used. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips.the field-magnet." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. 3. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. A. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and filled with rivets. while the beginnings . this little machine is not self-starting. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. with the dotted line. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. wrought iron. in diameter were drilled in the corners. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The stator is wound full with No. 1. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. bolts put in and tightened up. Holes 5-32 in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. thick. as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe.

In making slides by contact. McKinney. and would not easily get out of order. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. If too late for alcohol to be of use. if applied immediately. as shown in Fig. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Newark. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. No starting resistance is needed. Jr. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. E. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and the other by reduction in the camera. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The rotor is wound with No. as before stated. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 3-Contributed by C. N. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. This type of motor has drawbacks. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. One is by contact. a regulating resistance is not needed. as a means of illustrating songs. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and as each layer of wire was wound. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 1. and all wound in the same direction.. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. The image should . it would be very simple to build. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. J. and especially of colored ones. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. having no commutator or brushes. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. 2. film to film. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The lantern slide is a glass plate.

HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. a little extra work will be necessary. they are much used by travelers. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Being unbreakable. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 5. also. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Draw lines with a pencil. 3. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. These can be purchased from any photo material store. about a minute. and development should be over in three or four minutes. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. It is best. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. the formulas being found in each package of plates. except that the binding is different. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. A. C. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. B. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and then a plain glass. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. to use a plain fixing bath. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Select a room with one window. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 1.appear in. if possible. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Fig. over the mat. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. D. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 2. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 4. If the exposure has been correct. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots.

holes bored in the end pieces.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. long. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Fig. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. long. wide and 50 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. long. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Vt. known as rods and cones. is to be used for the seat. Hastings. 2. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. as shown at B. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. 16 in. or other stout cloth. in diameter and 20 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. as shown at A. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the ends. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. in diameter and 40 in. These longer pieces can be made square. 1. 1. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Corinth. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. A piece of canvas. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. from the end piece of the chair.

The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig. A belt. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. made from an ordinary sash cord. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as well as to operate other household machines. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. 2. Auburn. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. per square inch. J. as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Cal. O'Gara. 1. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. in thickness and 10 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.-Contributed by P. A disk 1 in. . and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft.

Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and the construction is complete. then removing the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. thick and 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. says the Scientific American. screwing it through the nut. A simple. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Put the bolt in the hole. it serves a very useful purpose. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. wide. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. . will be the thickness of the object. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Bore a 1/4-in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. square for a support. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. 3/4 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. or inconvenient to measure. with as fine a thread as possible. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. leaving it shaped like a bench. long. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. to the top of the bench. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. direction. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer.

which show up fine at night. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. bolt in each hole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. long. Santa Maria. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. piece of wood 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Place a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Oal. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. beyond the end of the wood. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. The wheel should be open . the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in.

Tex. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. and the lower part 61/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. The spool . at the bottom. at the top and 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. L. thick. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. O. wide and 1/8 in. Graham. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. long.Side and Top View or have spokes. to be operated by the magnet coil. and on its lower end a socket. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. 1/2 in. A cross bar. long. H and J.-Contributed by A. C. of the ends with boards. from the ends. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. P. made of the same material. Fort Worth. A. from the top end. The boards may be nailed or bolted. square and 3 or 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The coil. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. is soldered. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. which should be 1/4 in. thick. pieces used for the spokes. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. thick is used for the armature. in diameter. B. C.

S. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. . which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. B. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Randolph.E. The armature. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. which may be had by using German silver wire. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.000 for irrigation work. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.000. do it without any apparent effort. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. 2 the hat hanging on it. by soldering. C. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. R. 2.--A. 1. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. S. one without either rubber or metal end. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. When you slide the pencil along the casing. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. This is a very neat trick if performed right. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. long. or a water rheostat heretofore described. This tie can be used on grain sacks. F. for insulating the brass ferrule. Mass. is drilled. A soft piece of iron. and in numerous other like instances. Bradlev.is about 2-1/2 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. D and E. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.J. and directly centering the holes H and J. --Contributed by Arthur D. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. A. then with a firm. and place it against a door or window casing. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. At the bottom end of the frame. that holds the lower carbon. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig.

Experiment with Heat [134] . The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. from the core and directly opposite.500 turns of No. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The vibrator B. 2. S. may be made from a 3/8-in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. is constructed in the usual manner. for the primary. hole in the center. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. long. for the secondary. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. about 3/16 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. thick. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. long and 1 in. leaving the projections as shown. and then 1. in diameter and 1/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. mixed with water to form a paste. in diameter. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The vibrator. about 1/8 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. wide. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. A. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. C.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. about 1 in. The switch. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. About 70 turns of No. F. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. Fig. with a 3/16-in. 1. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. S. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. D. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. for adjustment. in diameter and 2 in. in diameter. Fig. B. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. is connected to a flash lamp battery. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The core of the coil. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery.

lighted. and the same distance inside of the new board. The three screws were then put in the hasp. with which to operate the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. between the boards. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. 1. The knob on the dial extends out too far. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. as shown in the sketch. board. thick on the inside. which is only 3/8-in. 16 in. The tin is 4 in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial.Place a small piece of paper. long and when placed over the board. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. and then well clinched. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. in an ordinary water glass. which seemed to be insufficient. The hasp. brass plate. . Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The lock. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. wide. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. as shown. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. it laps down about 8 in. which is cut with two holes.

which completely divides the box into two parts. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. the glass. any article placed therein will be reflected in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. not shiny. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. one in each division. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When making of wood. or in the larger size mentioned. When the rear part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. high for use in window displays. and the back left dark. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. clear glass as shown. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . square and 10-1/2 in. square and 8-1/2 in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. but when the front part is illuminated. If the box is made large enough. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. black color.

Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. and with the proper illumination one is changed. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. above the top of the tank. into the other.. wide will be about the right size. alternately. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. . place the goods in one part and the price in the other. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. When using as a window display. a tank 2 ft. long and 1 ft. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. as shown in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as shown at A in the sketch. When there is no electric current available.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

each. A small platform.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. Shape the under sides first. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. radius. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. thick and 3 in. wide. dried and mixed with linseed oil. square and 40 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. long. and boring two holes with a 1-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. bore from each end. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. square. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. If a planing mill is near. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. is built on the front. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. using a 3/4-in. one for each side. This precipitate is then washed. The 13-in. The pieces can then be taken out. lines gauged on each side of each. and 6 ft. 1 in. This hole must be continued . Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. two pieces 1-1/8 in. 2 ft. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. hole. high. Iron sulphate. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Columbus. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. bit. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. under sides together. with a length of 13 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. but with a length of 12 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. O. and a solution of iron sulphate added. long. or ferrous sulphate. is the green vitriol. 5 ft. gauge for depth. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. wide. from the ground. as shown. hole bored the full length through the center. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. however. and a door in front. Three windows are provided. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. 6 in.

at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. three or four may be attached as shown. Directions will be found on the filler cans. A better way. if shade is purchased. When the filler has hardened. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. If the parts are to be riveted. thick and 3 in. apply two coats of wax. Saw the two blocks apart. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright.through the pieces forming the base. Electric globes--two. The sketch shows one method of attaching." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. When this is dry. hole in each block. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. For art-glass the metal panels are . The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. square and drawing a diagonal on each.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade . as brass. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. the other. one way and 1/2 in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and Fig. as in ordinary devices. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. 2 the front view of this stand. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. Figure 1 shows the side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. the object and the background. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The arms holding the glass. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.

These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. uncork and recork again. channel in the circumference of the ring. and swinging freely. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Put the ring in place on the base. in diameter. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. pointing north and south. as shown in the cut. thus forming a 1/4-in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . wide and 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. An ordinary pocket compass. and an inside diameter of 9 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. If the light becomes dim. long. Before mounting the ring on the base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick 5/8-in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. in diameter for a base. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as it is very poisonous. outside diameter. about 1-1/4 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Cut another circular piece 11 in. as shown in the sketch.

Corresponding mirrors. in diameter and 8 in. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Place on top the so- .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and north of the Ohio river. and mirrors. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. 1 oz. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. black oxide of copper. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. B. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. from the second to the third. CC. AA.600 .420 . above the half can. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.865 1. of the top.715 . are mounted on a base.289 . into these cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.500 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. EE.088 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.182 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.

during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Colo. Put the solution in a long. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 31 gr. alcohol. says Metal Worker. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. When renewing. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. In Fig. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . slender bottle. 62 gr. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. which otherwise remains clear. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. University Park. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. little crystals forming in the liquid. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. of pulverized campor.

will allow the magnet to point north and south. about 1-1/4 in. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. in diameter will serve very well for the box A.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and carbon are used. Solder in the side of the box . floating on a solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. on the under side of the cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. --Contributed by C. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If two of them are floating on the same solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. A paper-fastener box. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Attach to the wires. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.

so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. C. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Thos. long. of No. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. is made from a piece of No. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. 10 wire about 10 in.in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. wide and 6 in. A.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. The standard. Take a small piece of soft iron. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Rhamstine. long. B. brass tubing. or made with a little black paint. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. G--No. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. E. The base.Contributed by J. away.in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . thick. H. C. 1/2. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Bore holes for binding-posts. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. 1.not shorter than 18 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. E. The spring should be about 1 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. D. and on the other around the glass tube. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Use a board 1/2. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. B. stained and varnished. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. one on each side of the board. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. and then solder on the cover. long that has about 1/4-in. 1-1/4 in. A. hole. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 3 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. 14 wire will do. The bottom of the box. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. . D. If the hose is not a tight fit. Wind evenly about 2 oz.1-in. piece of 1/4-in. wide and 2-1/2 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. glass tubing . Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. F. can be made of oak. D. A circular piece of cardboard. to it. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Put ends. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. C. as shown in Fig.

of No. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. canvas. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. of mercury will be sufficient. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. long. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. 3 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. as shown in Fig. Wis. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Cuba. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. N.of the coil. 2. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Smith. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work.--Contributed by Edward M. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. About 1-1/2 lb. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 1. two pieces 2 ft. from the right hand. of 8-oz. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. . Milwaukee. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. D. Y. four hinges. J. 5. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 3-in. long. When the glass becomes soft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 3.--Contributed by R. about 1 in. making a support as shown in Fig. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Teasdale. The iron plunger. in diameter. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. long. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. E.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil.

take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. leaving 8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The tube now must be filled completely. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Take 1/2 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 3. 2. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly.. long. Break off the piece of glass. small aperture in the long tube. Keys. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point.. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Can. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Measure 8 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. thus leaving a. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Toronto.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 6. 4. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. This tube as described will be 8 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of vacuum at the top. Fig. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 5. holding in the left hand. expelling all the air. --Contributed by David A.

thick. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 6.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick. 4 in.6 -. as shown in Fig. long. long. thick. wide and 3 in. 3 in. 7. The large pulley is about 14 in. with each projection 3-in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 1 in. These are bent and nailed. 3. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. joint be accurately put together. 2. 3 in. from the end of same. Four blocks 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. 4. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. wide and 12 in. wide and 5 ft. in diameter. wide and 5 ft. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 5. long. as shown in Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. and 1/4 in. wood screws. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as in Fig. material 2 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. This forms a slot. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 9 in. but yellow pine is the best. FIG. 1 in. 1. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.

by 1-in. Kan. above the runner level. says Photography. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Manhattan. . The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Water 1 oz. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. R. attach runners and use it on the ice. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. first removing the crank. --Contributed by C. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Welsh. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.

2. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Printing is carried rather far. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Edward M. Treasdale. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. from an ordinary clamp skate. also. --Contributed by Wallace C. Mass. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Newton. as shown in Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The print is washed. 1. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. as shown in Fig. 1 oz. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. of water. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. 3. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Leominster. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. . and very much cheaper. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr.

high for rabbits. which represents the back side of the door. hole. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. about 10 in. The thread is broken off at the . and 3 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Fig. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1. Take two glass tubes. as shown in the sketch. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and to the bottom. 2. Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. F. Place a 10-in. from one end. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. fasten a 2-in. --Contributed by H. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. 1. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Then. A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Church. too. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The swing door B. say. high. square piece. wide and 4 in. wide. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. 1-1/2 ft. Alexandria. Va. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. extending the width of the box. and bend them as shown in the sketch. 1 ft.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. causing the door to swing back and up. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. long. with about 1/8-in.

The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. high and 12 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. and go in the holder in the same way. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. black surfaced if possible. shorter at each end. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. but cut it 1/4 in. automobiles. Crilly. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. to be used as a driving pulley. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. shorter. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. say 8 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. inside of the opening. wide and 5 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Cut an opening in the other piece. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. plates. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. 10 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. camera and wish to use some 4. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera.by 5-in.proper place to make a small hole.. trolley cars. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Out two rectangular holes. long. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Jr.by 7-in. as shown in Fig. long. says Camera Craft. This opening. in size. Take two pieces of pasteboard. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. B. . and exactly 5 by 7 in. -Contributed by William M. 1. Chicago. 1 in. A and B. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. in size. D. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. wide. being 1/8 in. C. 3. wide. horses and dogs. 2. Fig. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.

This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A cell of this kind can easily be made. long and 6 in. into which the dog is harnessed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. wide will be required. The needle will then point north and south. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. if it has previously been magnetized. in diameter. making a . The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.

3/4 lb. Place the pan on the stove. 1 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. A is a block of l-in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. short time.watertight receptacle. Do not paint any surface.in. fodder. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. plaster of paris. . long which are copper plated. Pack the paste in. B is a base of 1 in. of water. one that will hold about 1 qt. with narrow flanges. filter. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. This makes the wire smooth. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. says Electrician and Mechanic. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. 1/4 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. of the plate at one end. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Form a 1/2-in. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. pull out the wire as needed. of rosin and 2 oz. for a connection. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. when the paraffin is melted. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. sal ammoniac. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of the top. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. in which P is the pan. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. beeswax melted together. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. leaving about 1/2-in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. fuel and packing purposes. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. under the spool in the paraffin. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. only the joints. in diameter and 6 in. F is a spool. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. and a notch between the base and the pan. zinc oxide.

To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time." which created much merriment. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. let them try it. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. as in the other movement. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. At least it is amusing. Ohio. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Toledo. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. for some it will turn one way. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and then. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. but the thing would not move at all. square and about 9 in. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. or think they can do the same. while for others it will not revolve at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. g. and he finally. Try it and see. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. If any of your audience presume to dispute. by the Hindoos in India. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. long. and one friend tells me that they were . Enlarge the hole slightly. and therein is the trick. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. for others the opposite way. from vexation. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. 2..

It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. the rotation may be obtained. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. m. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. by means of a center punch. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. no rotation resulted. 5. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 3. The experiments were as follows: 1. 2. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. Speeds between 700 and 1. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. rotation was obtained. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 4. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the pressure was upon an edge. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 6. To operate. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. Thus a circular or . gave the best results. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 7. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin.100 r. and. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. secondly. and I think the results may be of interest. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. A square stick with notches on edge is best. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. p. The depth of the notches was also unimportant.

so far as can be seen from the photographs. C. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Minn. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by M. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. A wire is tied around the can. at first. Washington. Sloan.. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Duluth. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Lloyd. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. G. a piece of wire and a candle. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. forming a handle for carrying." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. or greasy. as shown. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the upper portion is. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Ph. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.. D. --Contributed by G.D. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A. it will be clockwise. if the pressure is from the left. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. is driven violently away. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. and the resultant "basket splash. . unwetted by the liquid.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

1. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. long. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. as shown. about 2-5/8 in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . hole drilled in the center. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. with a 1/16-in. axle. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. flange and a 1/4-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. thick and 1 in. in diameter.

The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Fuller. The parts. 3/4 in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 2. long. The motor is now bolted. wide and 16 in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. If the ends are to be soldered. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. as shown in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. put together complete. The current. wood. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. A trolley. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . holes 1 in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. Texas. or main part of the frame. These ends are fastened together. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. and the locomotive is ready for running. with cardboard 3 in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. --Contributed by Maurice E. each in its proper place. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Fig. 6. as shown in Fig. Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 3. 5. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them.50. bent as shown. San Antonio. are shown in Fig. of No. 3. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 2.brass. lamp in series with the coil. is made from brass. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. bottom side up. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. is made from a piece of clock spring. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 4. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The first piece. This will save buying a track.

Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. then continue to tighten much more. as shown in Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. the length of a paper clip. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. and as this end . Cincinnati. 2. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fig 1. The quarter will not go all the way down. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. as shown in Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 1. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. but do not heat the center. 3. and holes drilled in them. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. O.

one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. When the cutter A. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the trick is to be performed. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A pair of centers are fitted. or apparent security of the knot. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. and adjusted . tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. has finished a cut for a tooth. 2 and 1 respectively. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. In the sketch. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe.

or one-half of the design. twisted around itself and soldered. 1. tea cosey. note book. lady's belt bag. (5. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. book mark. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. long. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. The frame holding the mandrel. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . if but two parts. An ordinary machine will do. holding it in place with the left hand. --Contributed by Samuel C. Fig. draw center lines across the required space. watch fob ready for fastenings. When connecting to batteries. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. if four parts are to be alike. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. 2. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. (3. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Second row: -Two book marks. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Brooklyn.) Make on paper the design wanted. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. lady's card case. at the same time striking light. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. blotter back.to run true. (1. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. N. Y. (6. dividing it into as many parts as desired.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. trace the outline.) Place the paper design on the leather and. such as brass or marble. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. tea cosey. --Contributed by Howard S. coin purse. Bunker. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. above the surface. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. gentleman's card case or bill book. (2. (4. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. In this manner gears 3 in. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Bott.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Fold over along these center lines. about 1-1/2 in. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). swing lathe.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. and a nut pick.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

A.. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. B. C. a distance of 900 miles. If the needle is not horizontal. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Thrust a pin. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. D. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. where it condenses.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.C. The electrodes are made . and bore a hole through the center. Florida. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. from Key West. and push it through a cork. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. into which fit a small piece of tube.

Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. and also to keep it steady in its flight. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. both laterally and longitudinally. as shown in Fig. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. wide and 4 ft. thick. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 16 piano wire. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. To make a glide. slacken speed and settle. apart and extend 1 ft. using a high resistance receiver. If 20-ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. long for the body of the operator. Washington. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. by 3/4 in. 2. 2 in. 2. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. long. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. long. as shown in Fig. 12 uprights 1/2 in. thick. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The operator can then land safely and . 1. --Contributed by Edwin L. several strips 1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. which is tacked to the front edge. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 3. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. C. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. free from knots. 1. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. thick. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. Connect as shown in the illustration. All wiring is done with No. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. lengths and splice them. thick. Four long beams 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 1. long.in. wide and 3 ft. lumber cannot be procured. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. long. D. take the glider to the top of a hill. or flying-machine. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 4 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft long. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. as shown in Fig. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 20 ft. 1/2. wide and 3 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 1-1/2 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. square and 8 ft long. 3/4 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. thick. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Powell. use 10-ft.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. Great care should be . and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind.

The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 1. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Olson. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. as shown in Fig. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . When heated a little. --Contributed by L. which causes the dip in the line. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Bellingham. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. M. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips.exercised in making landings. 2. a creature of Greek mythology. half man and half horse.

making it 2-1/2 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. square. at the other. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. long. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. a piece of brass or steel wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. about the size of door screen wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. long and about 3/8 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. While at the drug store get 3 ft. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. 14 in. The light from the .Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. will complete the material list. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. of small rubber tubing. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. outside the box. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter.

while others will fail time after time. If done properly the card will flyaway. 1. Hunting. . but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. O. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Dayton. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in the sketch.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. --Photo by M. 2. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon.

If a certain color is to be more prominent. Cool in water and dry. When the desired shape has been obtained. This game is played by five persons. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. closing both hands quickly." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as shown. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. hold the lump over the flame. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . place the other two. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. then put it on the hatpin head.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as before. as described. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly.

square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. these sectors. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. passing through neutralizing brushes. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. or more in width. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.

Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. 2. The plates. D. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the side pieces being 24 in. The collectors are made. in diameter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The drive wheels. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. to which insulating handles . in diameter. GG. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. wide. 1. Fig. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. and this should be done before cutting the circle. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The two pieces. as shown in Fig. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. 3. Two pieces of 1-in. and pins inserted and soldered. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. are made from solid. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1 in. EE. long. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. from about 1/4-in. long. wide at one end. in diameter and 15 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3. after they are mounted. 3/4 in. in diameter. The plates are trued up.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. at the other. 4. free from wrinkles. 1-1/2 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. These pins. brass tubing and the discharging rods. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. material 7 in. turned wood pieces. are made from 7/8-in. in diameter. C C. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. Fig. Two solid glass rods. The fork part is 6 in. long and the shank 4 in. and of a uniform thickness. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and 4 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. or teeth. RR. as shown in Fig. long and the standards 3 in.

in diameter. D. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.. 12 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. --Contributed by C. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.are attached. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . wide and 22 ft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. KK. and the work was done by themselves. ball and the other one 3/4 in. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. long. Lloyd Enos. Colorado City. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. which are bent as shown. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. one having a 2-in. Colo. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement.

The key will drop from the string. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. They can be used to keep pins and needles. using a 1-in. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. deep. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. string together. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. bit. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. pens . HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. yet such a thing can be done.is a good one. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.

With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. also trace the decorative design. Raise the ends. extra metal on each of the four sides. They are easily made. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 5. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Draw one-half the design free hand. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. then the other side. 6. very rapid progress can be made. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. stamp the background promiscuously. file. about 3/4-in. two spikes. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in.. 4. 23 gauge. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. inside the second on all. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. above the metal. inside the first on all. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. slim screw. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. flat and round-nosed pliers.and pencils. 9. above the work and striking it with the hammer. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. 3. When the stamping is completed. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Proceed as follows: 1. Having determined the size of the tray. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Inside this oblong. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 8. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. etc.. The second oblong was 3/4 in. sharp division between background and design. This is to make a clean. Use . and the third one 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 2. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 7. or cigar ashes. unless it would be the metal shears.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 7. first fingers. 10. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 8. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. In the first numbering. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 6. The eyes. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 9. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. second fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and fourth fingers. third fingers.

11. Put your thumbs together. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 25 times 25.. first fingers. or 60. Still. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Two times one are two. or the product of 6 times 6. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. etc. etc. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. In the second numbering. 2 times 2 equals 4.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 12. the product of 12 times 12. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. there are no fingers above. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures.. as high as you want to go. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. but being simple it saves time and trouble. renumber your fingers. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. which would be 70. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. viz. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. At a glance you see four tens or 40. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. above 20 times 20. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. or the product of 8 times 9. 600. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36.. thumbs. above 15 times 15 it is 200. which tens are added. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. which would be 16. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. or 80. if we wish. 400. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or numbers above 10. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.

. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. and so on. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. being 80). in the case of a nearsighted person. lastly. and. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the lump sum to add. It takes place also. any two figures between 45 and 55. 3. or from above or from below. at the will of the observer. first fingers 22. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. not rotation. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. For example. Proceed as in the second lumbering. further. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. first finger 17. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. For figures ending in 6. . Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. And the lump sum to add. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. as one might suppose. 75 and 85. 8. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the value which the upper fingers have. thirties. Take For example 18 times 18. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 2. adding 400 instead of 100. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. however. the revolution seems to reverse. etc. 7. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 21. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. twenties. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the inversion takes place against his will. The inversion and reversion did not take place. forties. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. about a vertical axis. or what. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. whether the one described in second or third numbering.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. thumbs. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. when he removes his spectacles. beginning the thumbs with 16.

the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. when he knows which direction is right. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. sometimes the point towards him. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The ports were not easy to make. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the other appearance asserts itself. and putting a cork on the point. tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. as . and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. A flat slide valve was used.

. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Kutscher. Beating copper tends to harden it and. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. While this engine does not give much power.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. it is easily built. Ill. . secure a piece of No. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. if continued too long without proper treatment. Next take a block of wood. pipe 10 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. such as is shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. across the head. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. bottom side up. The steam chest is round. about 2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. in diameter. apart. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. deep. and make in one end a hollow. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. If nothing better is at hand. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The tools are simple and can be made easily. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. H. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Springfield. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Fasten the block solidly. across and 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. as in a vise. inexpensive. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. pipe. saw off a section of a broom handle. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl.

In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. and. especially when the object is near to the observer. To overcome this hardness. S. C. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To produce color effects on copper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. --Contributed by W. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Camden. Vinegar. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. This process is called annealing. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. the other to the left. O. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. as it softens the metal. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Hay.will cause the metal to break. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.

at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. . The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. and lies to the right on the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. and without any picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. from the stereograph. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. It is just as though they were not there. The red portions of the picture are not seen. because of the rays coming from them. the further from the card will the composite image appear. the one for the left eye being blue. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture.stereoscope. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. would serve the same purpose. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. But they seem black. they must be a very trifle apart. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. however. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. as for instance red and green. in the proper choice of colors. with the stereograph. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. disappears fully. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. In order to make them appear before the card. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. So with the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. while both eyes together see a white background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. orange. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The further apart the pictures are. that for the right. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. not two mounted side by side. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. diameter. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. only the orange rays may pass through. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. although they pass through the screen. because. it. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture.

Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. A No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in the shape of a crank. 12 gauge wire. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Place a NO. San Francisco. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Cal. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. in diameter. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. This should only be bored about half way through the block. thick. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. 1/4 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. wireless. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. wide and 1 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The weight of the air in round .12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. or the middle of the bottle. etc. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. long and a hole drilled in each end. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No.

long. long. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. a glass tube 1/8 in. . but before attempting to put in the mercury. high. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. 34 ft. wide and 40 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. a bottle 1 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. square.numbers is 15 lb. the contrary.. long. if you choose. wide and 4 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. and a slow fall. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. will calibrate itself. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. internal diameter and about 34 in. thick. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. square. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. pine 3 in.6) 1 in. or. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. high. inside diameter and 2 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The 4 in. Before fastening the scale. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. In general. 30 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. if accurately constructed. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. high.

Procure a metal can cover. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 5. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 3. the size of the outside of the bottle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. which is slipped quickly over the end. wide and 10 in. 6 and 7. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Mark out seven 1-in. thick. Number the pieces 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. long. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 1. 2. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. and place them as shown in Fig. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.

7's place. 6. 2. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6. 7 over No. 3. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 4-Jump No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 5 over No. shaped like Fig. 7. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 2 over No. Move 14-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. Woolson. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces.-Contributed by W. 6 into No. 3. This can be done on a checker board. Move 5-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. 1. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 3 into No. Move 13-Move No. To make such a tent. 6 to No. 2's place. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 5's place. 6 in. Move 7-Jump No. 2's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 2 over No. l over No. 1. Move 10-Move No. 3 over No. using checkers for men. Move ll-Jump No. N. 3 to the center. Make 22 sections. L. Move 2-Jump No. 2. each 10 ft. Move 6-Move No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. in diameter. 5's place.J. 1 into No. Move 9-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. long and 2 ft. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 7 over No. Move 15-Move No. Cape May Point. 6 over No. 2 . 1 to No. 5. as shown in Fig. Move 12-Jump No. 5 over No.

Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. long and 4 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 2 in. As shown in the sketch. 9 by 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes.in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. to a smooth board of soft wood. leaving the rest for an opening. Have the tent pole 3 in. --Contributed by G. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. made in two sections. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Fig. 5. Fig. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 5) stuck in the ground. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. in diameter. These are ventilators. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 6-in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Punch holes in the brass in . Emsworth. round galvanized iron.J. as in Fig. In raising the tent. 2. Use blocks. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Tress. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. diameter. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. 3 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. high. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Pa. long. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. added. wide at the bottom. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. 6. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. wide by 12 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. about 9 in. from the top. will do. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. fill with canvas edging. Nail a thin sheet of brass..

I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. cut out the brass on the outside lines. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. When all the holes are punched. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. When the edges are brought together by bending. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. around the outside of the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. It will not. Corr. . The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. Chicago.the spaces around the outlined figures. but before punching the holes. excepting the 1/4-in. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. apart.

This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. pipe. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. --Contributed by Geo. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. pipe is used for the hub. These pipes are . A 6-in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. G. between which is placed the fruit jar.. If a wheel is selected. Dunham. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by H. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. partially filled with cream. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. Mayger. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Que. Badger. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. allowing 2 ft. Oregon. E. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. or. A cast-iron ring. Stevens. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. better still.however. or center on which the frame swings. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. or less.

Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe clamps. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. An extra wheel 18 in. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in.

The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The performer. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. 1. while doing this. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and dropped on the table. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and the guide withdrawn. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. which was placed in an upright position. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. 3. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. as shown in Fig. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin.

The box can be made of selected oak or . Mo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. --Contributed by H. first. in diameter on another piece of tin. 1. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. and second. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. F. Harkins. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. White. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. -Contributed by C. Denver. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. 2. D. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. St. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. it requires no expensive condensing lens. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Louis. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Colo. in a half circle. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in.

The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 5-1/2 in. long. but not tight. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back.mahogany. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. and 2 in. An open space 4 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. high and 11 in. from each end of the outside of the box. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. high and must . These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. 3-1/2 in. from each end. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 1. wide and 5 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. 2. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and. as shown in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. This will be 3/4 in. If a camera lens is used. AA. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. focal length. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide by 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. fit into the runners. The door covering this hole in the back. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards.

provided it is airtight. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. C. 1." etc. June and November. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. --Contributed by Chas. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. the article may be propped up . Ohio. Bradley. calling that knuckle January. April. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. calling this February. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. West Toledo. as it requires an airtight case. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. and so on. then the second knuckle will be March. This process is rather a difficult one. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.

the lid or cover closed. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Pour in a little turpentine.with small sticks. and set aside for half a day. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. N. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. in. giving it an occasional stir. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. 1. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. fruit jars are required. or suspended by a string. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. 1 and 2. H. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. . taking care to have all the edges closed. Y. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. in. In each place two electrodes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Crawford. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. but waxed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. --Contributed by J. The top of a table will do. 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and the lead 24 sq. one of lead and one of aluminum. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Schenectady. In both Fig. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes.

you remove the glass. O. he throws the other. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine.. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. as you have held it all the time. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. After a few seconds' time. Cleveland. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. He. This trick is very simple. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. as well as others. which you warm with your hands.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.

in diameter in the center. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.-Contributed by E. but in making one. but by being careful at shores. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. . allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. if any snags are encountered. Colo. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. near a partition or curtain. on a table. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Be sure that this is the right one. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. J. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Victor.take the handiest one. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. put it under the glass. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Crocker. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Pull the ends quickly.

clear pine. 2 gunwales. by 2 in. Fig. 1 piece. 1 in. for cockpit frame. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 in. of 1-1/2-yd. by 2 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. are as follows: 1 keelson. wide. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 1. for center deck braces. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. long. from the stern. long. wide and 12 ft. for the stern piece. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 2 and braced with an iron band. 4 outwales. 3 in. and the other 12 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 10 ft. 1 piece. 1 in. and. of 1-yd. wide unbleached muslin. wide and 12 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 11 yd. 8 yd. 3 and 4. 1/8 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. drilled and fastened with screws. 9 ft. 14 rib bands. 7 ft. 8 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 16 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. screws and cleats. apart... the smaller is placed 3 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. square by 16 ft. from each end to 1 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 50 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 in. 1/4 in. wide 12-oz. of rope. long. ducking. as illustrated in the engraving. by 16 ft. and fastened with screws. 3 in. at the ends. long. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 8 in. from the bow and the large one. one 6 in. Paint. Both ends are mortised. by 12 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 1 mast. The keelson. for the bow. by 15 ft. is 14 ft. selected pine. 2 in. thick and 3/4 in.

A piece of oak. wide. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 1 in. Fig. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 4 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. screws. long. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Before making the deck. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The deck is not so hard to do. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. gunwales and keelson. 7 and 8. This block.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 6. 1/4 in. long is well soaked in water. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. A 6-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 5. is cut to fit under the top boards. thick. The block is fastened to the keelson. wide and 3 ft. Figs. a piece 1/4 in. . 6 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. doubled. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The 11-yd. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick and 1/2 in. from the bow. Braces. Fig. A block of pine. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick 1-1/2 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. length of canvas is cut in the center. wood screws. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. long. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. corner braces. thick and 12 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. They are 1 in. long. 1 in. apart. is a cube having sides 6 in. wide and 14 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 6 and 7. 9. These are put in 6 in. The trimming is wood. also. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. in diameter through the block. wide and 24 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. 3-1/2 ft. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. and fastened to them with bolts. thick. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.

or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. thick by 2 in. 11. The house will accommodate 20 families. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. is 6 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The mast has two side and one front stay. each 1 in. wide. at the other. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 10 with a movable handle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. . The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. 12. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The sail is a triangle. in diameter and 10 ft. long. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Wilmette. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The keel. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. apart in the muslin. are used for the boom and gaff. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Fig. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. wide at one end and 12 in. A strip 1 in. Ill. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Tronnes. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. long. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. E.

1 yd. Cut the maple. long. long and five 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. flat headed screws. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 2-1/2 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 5. five 1/2-in. wide and 30 in. flat on one side. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. with the ends and the other side rounding. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. --Contributed by O. Ill. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. thick. 2-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 1. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. thick. one 11-1/2 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. Wilmette. square. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 3. thick. long. Tronnes. wide. flat-headed screws. and the other 18 in. 4. and 3 ft. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang.into two 14-in. wide. 2 in. about 5/16 in. wide and 2 ft. E. Take this and fold it over . taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 2. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig.

Bliss. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. When the glue is set. long. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. 3/8 in. After the glue. E. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. and the four outside edges. 3-1/4 in. thick and 3 in. 2 and 3. about 3/8 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. St. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Figs. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. 1. thick. wide and 5 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Cut another piece of board. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. but can be governed by circumstances. then centered. wide and 6-3/4 in. --Contributed by W. pieces 2-5/8 in. is set. as well as the edges around the opening. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. are rounded. long. the top and bottom. of each end unwound for connections. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide and 3 ft. Louis. A. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 6-1/2 in. square.once. long. Mo. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Fig. B. A. forming an eye for a screw. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 3 in. C. the mechanical parts can be put together. leaving a small opening at one corner. Another piece. thick. Make a double stitch all around the edge. The front. If carefully and neatly made. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. wide and 2-3/4 in. 5 from 1/16-in. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. F. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. 6-1/2 in. square. this square box is well sandpapered. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide . About 1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Glue a three cornered piece. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 2-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. C. D.

and as the part Fig. that has the end turned with a shoulder. W. so it will just clear the tin. thick. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. long. L.R. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Another strip of tin. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Like poles repel each other. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The end of the polar axis B. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. wide and 9 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The stronger the current. These wires should be about 1 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. hole is fastened to the pointer. board. The resistance is now adjusted to show .A. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 4. in diameter. Fig. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Austwick Hall. long. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. R. and fasten in place. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. and the farther apart they will be forced. G. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. bored in the back. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Chapman. showing a greater defection of the pointer. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. F. 1/4 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Fig. from the spindle. Place the tin. long. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. 5. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. from one end. the same size as the first.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. C. wide and 2-1/2 in.S. 1/16 in. When the current flows through the coil. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Yorkshire. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Richmond Hill. 5-1/2 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted.and 2-5/8 in. A pointer 12 in. The base is a board 5 in. 4. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. I. the part carrying the pointer moves away. 4 is not movable. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut.

There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. A. M. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. and vice . 10 min. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The following formula will show how this may be found. 1881. at 9 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. thus: 9 hr. shows mean siderial. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. say Venus at the date of observation. 30 min.

and then verify its correctness by measurement. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Robert W. Hall. owing to the low internal resistance. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. if one of these cannot be had. Conn. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.m. or. New Haven. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.f. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. . The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.

it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. as shown in the accompanying picture. 3/8 in. Fig. especially for cooking fish. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. leaves or bark. fresh grass. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. thick. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. cover up with the same. 1-3/4 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. Wet paper will answer. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. of alum and 4 oz. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. When the follower is screwed down. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and heap the glowing coals on top. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The boring bar. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Then. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1. long. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. arsenic to every 20 lb. put the fish among the ashes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream.

about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin. thick. when they were turned in. and threaded on both ends. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. thick and 3 in. A 1-in. however. was then finished on an emery wheel. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. a jump spark would be much better. 2. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. long. The rough frame. square iron. bent in the shape of a U. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Clermont. It . A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. wide.valve stems. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. labor and time. 3. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 30 in. the float is too high. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 5. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. but never one which required so little material. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. This plate also supports the rocker arms. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Fig. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. If the valve keeps dripping. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. Fig. and which gave such satisfactory results. Fig. Iowa. 4. --Contributed by Peter Johnson.

A malleable iron bolt. from the center. long. --Contributed by C. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . square and 5 ft. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Nieman. strong clear material only should be employed. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. and a little junk. 3/4 in. set 3 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. Use a heavy washer at the head. timber. rope is not too heavy. strengthened by a piece 4 in. long is the pivot. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The seats are regular swing boards. completes the merry-go-round. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. extending above. As there is no bracing. in the ground with 8 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. no matter what your age or size may be. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. The crosspiece is 2 in. square and 2 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. If it is to be used for adults." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. 12 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The illustration largely explains itself. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. square. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. with no trees or buildings in the way." little and big. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. long. long. from all over the neighborhood. so it must be strong enough. W. butting against short stakes. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. in diameter and 15 in. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. in fact. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. hole bored in the post. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. A 3/4 -in. being held in position by spikes as shown. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. for the "motive power" to grasp.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. and. It looks like a toy. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. so that there will be plenty of "wobble.

as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly.the fingers. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. long.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. one for the backbone and one for the bow. 1/4 by 3/32 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 1. and sent to earth. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. square. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 2. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. To wind the string upon the reel. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and 18 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. away. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The bow is now bent. light and strong. a wreck. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. then it is securely fastened. Both have large reels full of . The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. if nothing better is at hand. A reel is next made. These ends are placed about 14 in. Having placed the backbone in position. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.2 emery. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. 4. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The backbone is flat. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced.

It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. First. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Newburyport. Bunker. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite.string. --Contributed' by Harry S. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . the first tries to spear him by swift dives. N.-Contributed by S. Moody. If the second kite is close enough. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. C. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. often several hundred yards of it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Mass. Brooklyn. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. the balance. The handle end is held down with a staple. common packing thread. Y. or glass-covered string. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. he pays out a large amount of string.

make the pad as shown in the illustration. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. length of 2-in. Vt. If the table is round. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. each the size of half the table top. then draw the string up tight. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. such as mill men use. --Contributed by Earl R. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Corinth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. lengths (Fig. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Hastings. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . must be attached to a 3-ft. square (Fig. then a dust protector. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad.

16-1/4 in.. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.9-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.-Contributed by H. 2-1/4 in. Calif. which spoils the leather effect. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. G to H. . trace the design carefully on the leather. hard pencil.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Oakland. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Use a smooth. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. from E to F. 17-1/2 in. and E to G. Moisten the . Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Wharton. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. E. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. from C to D. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 6-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.

Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and lace through the holes. Now cut narrow thongs. wide. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. and corresponding lines on the other side. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. also lines A-G. about 1/8 in. place both together and with a leather punch. I made this motor . is taken off at a time. To complete the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and E-G. Cut it the same size as the bag. H-B. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. with the rounded sides of the tools. G-J. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. if not more than 1 in. get something with which to make a lining. apart.

of No. B. 1. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 24 gauge magnet wire. . The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Calif. 1. D. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. iron. each being a half circle. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. in length. Pasadena. --Contributed by J. 2-1/4 in.M. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 2. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Shannon. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. as shown in Fig. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. long. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.

The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. and the gores cut from these. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. pasted in alternately. balloon should be about 8 ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center. The gores for a 6-ft. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. are the best kind to make. from the bottom end. high. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.

A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. leaving the solution on over night. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. As the boat is driven forward by this force. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. 3. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. If the gores have been put together right. after which the paint will adhere permanently. In starting the balloon on its flight. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The boat soon attains considerable speed. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The steam. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler.widest point. using about 1/2-in. In removing grease from wood. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 1. leaving a long wake behind. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 4. as shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Staunton. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. lap on the edges. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. as shown in Fig. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Fig. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. coming through the small pipe A. in diameter. 5. These are to hold the wick ball. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. After washing. B. somewhat larger in size. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. E. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 2. so it will hang as shown in Fig. A. --Contributed by R. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. saturating it thoroughly. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water.

The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. high and 8 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. Second. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. long. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. 1. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. apart on these lines. Third. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. in bowling form. wide by 6 in. as is shown in Fig. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. In using either of the two methods described. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The blocks are about 6 in. long and each provided with a handle.

2. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. N. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Rinse the plate in cold water. Albany. thick. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. --Contributed by John A. being careful not to dent the metal. Y. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Fig.Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Hellwig.

Richmond. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 6 in. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 5 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. In Fig. Paine. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. --Contributed by R. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. B. CC. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. and not produce the right sound. thick. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost.upon any particular object. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 2 the front view. and. A. A. These corner irons are also screwed to. Break off the frame. through which passes the set screw S. wide and 8 in. A circular piece of wood. wide and of any desired height. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Va. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. which is 4 in. With this device. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. in diameter. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 1 Fig. S. and Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Corner irons. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. long for the base. with a set screw.

Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. I made a wheel 26 in. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. pine boards. in diameter of some 1-in.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. . thus producing sound waves. La Salle. Kidder. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. R. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. as only the can is visible. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. This horn. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Ill. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. This will make a very compact electric horn. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. S. D. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. -1. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Lake Preston.

--Contributed by James R. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . O. A. Fig. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 1. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Doylestown. If the collection consists of only a few coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Ghent. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Kane. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the same thickness as the coins.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Purdy. 2. If there is a large collection of coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. --Contributed by C. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. square. B. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. thick and 12 in.

--Contributed by J. Wis. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Noble. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. though not absolutely necessary. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. several large nails. they become uninteresting. plus a 3/8-in. thick.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. a hammer or mallet. --Contributed by August T. One Cloud. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. cut and grooved. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The material required is a sheet of No. A lead pencil. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Canada. melted and applied with a brush. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. border all around. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. A rivet punch is desirable. Milwaukee. into which to place the screws . Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. If desired. --Contributed by R. of developer. It will hold 4 oz. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Neyer. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Toronto. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Smith.J. for after the slides have been shown a few times.E. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. and then glued together as indicated. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Cal. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film.

that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. and file it to a chisel edge. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. both outline and decoration. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Take the nail. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. screws placed about 1 in. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. draw one part. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. never upon the metal directly. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Remove the screws. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. like the one shown. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. using 1/2-in.

Do not bend it over or flatten it. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. 3/4 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. square. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. up from the lower end. square and 181/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. two lengths. long. long. 1. using a 1/2in. each 1 in. . About 1/2 yd. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet.wall. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. l-1/8 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 11 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. 3. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. and two lengths. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for the top. Provide four lengths for the legs. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. being ball bearing. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The pedal. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the lower rails. 2. in the other. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. long. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Rivet the band to the holder. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. of 11-in.

having quite a length of threads. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Quackenbush. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by John Shahan. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Attalla. New York City. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. --Contributed by W.

stitched on both edges for appearance. making a lap of about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. wide and 4-1/4 in. from one end. from the end. and 3/8 in. long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The desired emblem. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. --Contributed by C. initial. each 1-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Ironwood. D. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Purchase a 1/2-in. one about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. long. something that is carbonated. in depth. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. using class. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Mich. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Luther. and the other 2-3/4 in.. college or lodge colors. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and two holes in the other. wide and 8-1/4 in.

if desired by the operator. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. 2. --Contributed by John H. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. This method allows a wide range of designs. as shown in the sketch. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or more in height. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Indianapolis. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 1/4 in. 1. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Ind. Schatz. Fig. or a pasteboard box. Punch two holes A. in the cover and the bottom. A piece of lead. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. in diameter and 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. which can be procured from a plumber. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . about 2 in. as shown at B. and the cork will be driven out.

Columbus. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. metal. allowing the two ends to be free. 3. or marble will serve. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 5. O. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 4. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick.Rolling Can Toy lead. A piece of thick glass. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. on both top and bottom. putting in the design. . non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. are turned up as in Fig. Fig. 1. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. as shown in Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. The pieces of tin between the holes A. it winds up the rubber band.

long and bored a 1/2-in. 3 in. from each end. face up. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. hole through it. A pencil may be used the first time over. deep in its face. The edges should be about 1/8 in. thicker than the pinion. 1 in. thick. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. New York City. wide and 20 in. mark over the design. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. or more thick on each side. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. If it is desired to "line" the inside. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. After this has been done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. I secured a board 3/4 in. Next place the leather on the glass. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. and.

3 by 3 by 36. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 screw block. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Brooklyn. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. N. 2 crosspieces. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 top board. 1 by 9 by 80 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 4 guides. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Fig. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. --Contributed by A. 2 side rails. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Syracuse. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 6 in. in diameter. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Make the lower frame first. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. M. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Fasten the end pieces on with screws. lag screws as shown. Y. pieces for the vise slides. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 back board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. thick top board. 2 end rails. 1 piece for clamp. New York. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Cut the 2-in. Rice. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in.in the board into the bench top. 1 piece. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Now fit up the two clamps.

screws. 1 set gimlets. 1 compass saw. 1 monkey wrench. 1 claw hammer.. 1 pair pliers. 1 2-ft. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. in diameter. 1 pocket level. 1 pair dividers. Only the long run.. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 brace and set of bits. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 24 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 countersink. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set chisels. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 wood scraper. . If each tool is kept in a certain place. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. The amateur workman. it can be easily found when wanted. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker. 1 rip saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 jack plane or smoother. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 marking gauge. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 3 and 6 in. 2 screwdrivers.. rule. 1 nail set. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The bench is now complete. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.

will sink into the handle as shown at D. No. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. Pa. 3. the projecting point A. being softer. The calf skin. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. after constant use. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. will be easier to work. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Doylestown. 1. but will not make . 1. 2. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness.1 6-in. try square. becomes like A. Fig. 1 oilstone. Kane.1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin.

After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. First draw the design on paper. The form can be made of a stick of wood. when dry. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. New York City. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose.as rigid a case as the cow skin. If calf skin is to be used. -Contributed by Julia A. secure a piece of modeling calf. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. will do just as well. After the outlines are traced. Turn the leather. the same method of treatment is used. then prepare the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. . which steam. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. but a V-shaped nut pick. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Having prepared the two sides. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. White. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. water or heat will not affect. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. such as copper or brass. and the length 6-5/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size. If cow hide is preferred. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. lay the design on the face.

Richmond. --Contributed by Chester L. Cobb. Maine.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. as shown in the sketch. Portland. --Contributed by Chas. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. Jaquythe. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Cal. C. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. --Contributed by W. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Herrman. .

--Contributed by Geo. was marked out as shown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Mass. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. . --Contributed by Wm. A thick piece of tin. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Cambridge. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Roberts. This was very difficult. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Middletown. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. B. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. for instance. Wright. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. an inverted stewpan. Conn. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg.

Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Bone. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. If any traces of the grease are left. When dry. and quite new. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. used as part of furniture. Chicago. L. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. but only an odor which soon vanished. . well calcined and powdered. F. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. There was no quicklime to be had.. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. so some bones were quickly calcined. Herbert. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. and the grease will disappear. A beautifully bound book. Illinois. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. such as chair seats. Ind. of boiling water. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. but not running over. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. pulverized and applied. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. as shown. on a clear piece of glass. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Indianapolis. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. The next morning there was no trace of oil. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. face down. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. --Contributed by C. which has been tried out several times with success. If the article is highly polished. --Contributed by Paul Keller.

The pieces marked S are single. thick. A. long. 2 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. set and thumbscrews. --Contributed by Geo.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. says Scientific American. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. New York. Tarrytown. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. deep and 5 in. If properly adjusted. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. Howe. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in. 6 in. the pieces .

so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. A sharp knife. The seat is a board. no doubt. to the underside of which is a block. If the letters are all cut the same height. for sending to friends. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . says Camera Craft. E. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. albums and the like. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Their size depends on the plate used. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. they will look remarkably uniform. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed.

after. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. In cutting out an 0. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. So arranged. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The puzzle is to get . using care to get it in the right position.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. mount them on short pieces of corks. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. pasting the prints on some thin card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. photographing them down to the desired size. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. for example. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. So made. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background.

hung on pivots. G.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. squeezes along past the center of the tube. says the American Thresherman. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.-Contributed by I. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.J. long that will just fit are set in. He smells the bait. A hole 6 or 7 in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. of its top. with the longest end outside. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. so they will lie horizontal. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Cape May Point. N. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Bayley. snow or anything to hide it. Old-Time Magic .

Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string.faced up. Pawtucket. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Brooklyn. Rhode Island. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. N. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Press the hands together. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. E. Idaho. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pocatello. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Parker. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then spread the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Szerlip. or rub the hands a little before doing so. then expose again. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.

4 on the blade. end of the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. When the whole is quite dry. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. if any. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. long. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side.. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. dark red. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. 2 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. says the English Mechanic. thick. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. wipe the blade . narrower. or a complete suit of armor. The handle is next made. near the point end. in width. full size. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. and if carefully made. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. The pieces. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. using a straightedge and a pencil. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. or green oil paint. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. whether he requires a single sword only. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. 1 Fig. 1. in building up his work from the illustrations. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Glue the other side of the blade. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade.. wide and 2 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. 3 Fig. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel.

of course. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece.. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. long. 1. In making. follow the directions as for Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The length of the handle.. 4. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. 2. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. thick and 5 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. and 3 in. the other is flat or halfround. shows only two sides. about 1-1/2 in. 1/8 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. square and of any length desired. 1. as it is . The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. in the widest part at the lower end. take two pieces of wood. preferably of contrasting colors. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 3. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. In the finished piece. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. Fig. the other two are identical. 1. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. In making this scimitar.with light strokes up and down several times. Both edges of the blade are sharp. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. should be about 9 in. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the illustration. in diameter. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the other is flat or half-round. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 2. 3. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side.

The thinness of the plank. as can the pitch bed or block. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. 2 in. at the lower end. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. as there was some at hand. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. It is made of a plank. Mass. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. or an insecure fastening. Both can be made easily. A piece of mild steel. piping and jackets by hard water. Doctors probed for the button without success. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. long. Y. Franklin. as shown in the sketch. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Syracuse.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. each about 1 ft. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. On each edge of the board. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by John Blake. --Contributed by Katharine D. and if so. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. square. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. and. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Morse. N. however. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. A cold . in an attempt to remove it. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel.

secure a piece of brass of about No. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 18 gauge. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. To remedy this. 5 lb.. tallow. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. design down. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. To put it in another way. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Trim up the edges and file them . Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. on the pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. plaster of Paris. When this has been done. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. using a small metal saw.. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. When the desired form has been obtained.

Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. but not to stop it. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 30 ft. That is lifting 33.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. in the center.000 lb. it may be well to know what horsepower means. lb. one 18 in. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. This in turn divided by 33. 3. using powdered pumice with lye. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. A. living together in what seems like one receptacle. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. make an unusual show window attraction. Before giving the description.smooth. per minute. 1 ft. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Cutter. in one second. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. lb. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. The smaller is placed within the larger. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. in diameter (Fig. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. or fraction of a horsepower. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. 1) and the other 12 in. or 550 ft. and hang a bird swing. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. over the smaller vessel. space between the vessels with water. in diameter (Fig. --Contributed by Harold H. and still revolve. to keep it from floating. 2). Fig. . Fill the 3-in. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.000 ft. Clean the metal thoroughly. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. in one minute or 550 lb. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 1 ft. per second.

3 Fig. Campbell.18 in. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. or on a pedestal. The effect is surprising. Diameter Fig. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J. Y. N. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Szerlip. Mass. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Somerville. 2 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. --Contributed. Diameter 12 in. F. Brooklyn. by L.

which may be of wood or tin. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. away from the edge. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. as a rule. Do not be content merely to bend them over. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Polish both of these pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. after which it is ready for use. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. with other defects. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. In riveting. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. the same as removing writing from a slate. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. and the clay . and cut out the shape with the shears. Rivet the cup to the base.copper of No. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. then by drawing a straightedge over it. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. unsatisfactory. which. and then. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. is. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. with the pliers. This compound is impervious to water. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. keeping the center high. often render it useless after a few months service. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. using any of the common metal polishes. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would.

Scotland. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. It is made of a glass tube. Shettleston. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. the device will work for an indefinite time. -Contributed by Thos. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. long. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. 1. --Contributed by John T. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. A. Grand Rapids. --Contributed by A. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Mich. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Northville. Dunlop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. DeLoof. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. 2. . Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Houghton. Mich. in diameter and 5 in.can be pressed back and leveled.

stilettos and battle-axes.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. As the handle is to . The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. This sword is 4 ft. long. put up as ornaments. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. in width and 2 in. 1. London. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. is shown in Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. the axe is of steel. with both edges sharp. 7. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 20 spike. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. the same as used on the end of the handle. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. This weapon is also about 1 ft. sometimes called cuirass breakers. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. 6. In Fig. 8. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. sharp edges on both sides. The crossbar and blade are steel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. In Fig. 5. long. in length. firmly glued on. 4. The sword shown in Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle.represent copper. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. This stiletto has a wood handle. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. This axe is made similar to the one . When the whole is quite dry. When dry. string. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. studded with brass or steel nails. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. with wire or string' bound handle. with both edges of the blade sharp. very broad. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. These must be cut from pieces of wood. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. small rope and round-headed nails. in length. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. In Fig. narrower. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 3 is shown a claymore. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. paint it a dark brown or black. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This sword is about 4 ft. A German poniard is shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. long with a dark handle of wood. The lower half of the handle is of wood. which is about 2-1/2 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. This weapon is about 1 ft. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A German stiletto. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. one about 1/2 in. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. wood with a keyhole saw. glue and put it in place. Three large. 11 were used. Both handle and axe are of steel. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 9. The handle is of wood. in width. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel.

When wrapped all the way around. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. high. --Contributed by E. . together as shown in Fig. Davis. Chicago. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. 2. will pull where other belts slip. This will make a very good flexible belt. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. W. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.described in Fig. Old-Time Magic . and as the tension members are all protected from wear. so the contents cannot be seen. such as braided fishline.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. 10.

pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. held in the right hand. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. or using small wedges of wood. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. 1 and put together as in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. 2. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. four glass tumblers. There will be no change in color. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. These wires are put in the jar. The dotted lines in Fig. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. N. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. apparently. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Calif. with the circle centrally located. Before the performance. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. S.J. in a few seconds' time. filled with water. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. an acid. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Macdonald. causing the flowers to grow. Bridgeton. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. some of the liquid. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Oakland. --Contributed by A.

The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. This outlines the desired opening. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Jaquythe. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. --Contributed by W. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. When many slides are to be masked. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. says a correspondent of Photo Era. 4 for width and No. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. practical and costs nothing. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and equally worthy of individual treatment. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Cal. Richmond. unless some special device is used.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. If the size wanted is No. A. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. and kept ready for use at any time.

With a stick. 16 gauge. but they can be easily revived. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. or a pair of old tongs. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. is about right for the No. a little less acid than water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. and do not inhale the fumes. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. paint the design. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. using the carbon paper. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. possibly. or. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The one shown is merely suggestive. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. the paper is folded along the center line. not the water into the acid. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Draw a design. This done. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. The decoration. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. may be changed. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. about half and half. the margin and the entire back of the metal. too. When etched to the desired depth. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Secure a sheet of No. which is dangerous. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. and the extreme length 7 in.

Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. . long and 1 ft. about 3 ft. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Paint the table any color desired. 2. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 5. 2. as at H. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. thick. Cut out a piece of tin. high. and bore two holes. 2. J is another wire attached in the same way. the bell will ring. Nail a board. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 4. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. attached to a post at each end. Fig. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. or more wide. 3. A. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. and about 2-1/2 ft. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. 24 parts water. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. so that when it is pressed down. as shown in the illustration. about 1 in. about 8 in. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Then get two posts.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. as shown in Fig. 5. in diameter and 1/4 in. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. as in Fig. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. through it. 3/8 in. When the button S is pressed. Fig. to the table. wide. The connections are simple: I. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. C and D. Fig. long. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. repeat as many times as is necessary. Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 0 indicates the batteries. about 2-1/2 in. it will touch post F. with the wires underneath. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 1.

long serves as the dowel.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The entire weapon. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. 2. This weapon is about 22 in. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. These rings can be carved out. The imitation articles are made of wood. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is to appear as steel. says the English Mechanic.Imitation Arms and Armor . the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The circle is marked out with a compass. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. handle and all. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. After the glue is dry. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. A wood peg about 2 in. thick. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. long. such as .

also. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Its length is about 3 ft. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 6. flowers. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. studded with large brass or steel nails. . The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The upper half of the handle is steel. covered with red velvet. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel.ornamental scrolls. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. with a sharp carving tool. 5. 3. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the hammer and spike. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. leaves. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The axe is shown in steel. etc. 8. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 2. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The spikes are cut out of wood. as before mentioned. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The lower half of the handle is wood. as described in Fig. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. used at the end of the fifteenth century. This weapon is about 22 in. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. If such a tool is not at hand. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. as shown. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. long. All of these axes are about the same length. or the amateur cannot use it well.

5. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. calls for a home run. as in Fig. Chicago. Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Each person plays until three outs have been made. the knife resting on its back. then the other plays. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 6. 2. . 1. 4). A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 7) calls for one out. as shown in Fig. 3. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. a three-base hit. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. and so on for nine innings.

Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. hypo to 1 pt. Mass. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. of the rope and holds it. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. while the committee is tying him up.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. This he does. Somerville. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. as shown in Fig. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. one of them burning . The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. If it is spotted at all. 3. Old-Time Magic . F.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 2. 1. Campbell. with the rope laced in the cloth.-Contributed by J. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. of water for an hour or two.

B. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of sugar. thick. Lebanon. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.Contributed by Andrew G. showing that there is nothing between them. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Evans. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of turpentine. Drill Gauge screw. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Thome. Louisville. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole.brightly. shades the light for a few seconds. the other without a light. Ky. The magician walks over to the burning candle. He then walks over to the other candle. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Brown. 4 oz. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. 4 oz. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. bolt. New York City. etc. and. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. . but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Ky. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of water and 1 oz. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. 3/4 in. thus causing it to light. of plumbago. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand.. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. --Contributed by L. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. --Contributed by C. invisible to them (the audience). Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. with which he is going to light the other candle. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.

Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Pulteney. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. about 5 in. but is not so good. H. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. To make the porous cell. In making up the solution. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. diameter. steady current. Its current strength is about one volt. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Y. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. thick. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. or blotting paper. 5 in. Denniston. N. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. for the material. long. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Do not add water to the acid. --Contributed by C. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. into a tube of several thicknesses. which will give a strong. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry.

The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. the other holding them apart. while the other end is attached by two screws. To insure this. One hole was bored as well as possible. After much experimentation with bearings. long with a bearing at each end. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The .) may be obtained. As to thickness. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.station. one drawing them together. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. Finally. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. carrying the hour circle at one end. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. steel. but somewhat lighter. a positive adjustment was provided. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.

It is. are tightened. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All set screws. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. subtract 24. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. All these adjustments. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. To find a star in the heavens.. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Declination is read directly.. turn the pointer to the star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Set the declination circle to its reading. save the one in the pipe. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Point it approximately to the north star. Cassiopiae. and 15 min. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. is provided with this adjustment. If the result is more than 24 hours. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The pointer is directed to Alpha. in each direction from two points 180 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. need not be changed. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. When properly set it will describe a great circle. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. 45 min. The pole is 1 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. excepting those on the declination axis." When this is done. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. apart. Instead. once carefully made." Only a rough setting is necessary. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Each shaft. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. To locate a known star on the map. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer.axis is adjusted by turning these screws.

. Plain City. 3 or 4 in. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. If this will be too transparent. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. of ether. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. as shown in the sketch. is folded several times. In reality the first ball. La. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. taking care not to add too much. cannon balls. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. benzole. is the real cannon ball. add a little more benzole.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. New Orleans. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Strosnider. which is the one examined. long. a great effect will be produced. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. -Contributed by Ray E. Ohio. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. the others . The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The dance will begin. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. then add 1 2-3 dr.

taps. Wis. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. --Contributed by J. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. San Francisco.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Cal. small brooches. F. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Milwaukee. Return the card to the pack. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Fig. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. 2. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. In boxes having a sliding cover. etc. Campbell. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Somerville. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. without taking up any great amount of space. Mass. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. as shown in the illustration. 1). The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first.

slides and extra brushes. prints. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Beller. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This box has done good service. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Connecticut. as shown in the illustration. from the bottom of the box. Hartford. thus giving ample store room for colors. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. . Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Mass. Fill the upper tub. costing 5 cents. -Contributed by C. with well packed horse manure. or placed against a wall. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. . a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. FIG. about threefourths full. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. When the ends are turned under. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 2). 1). Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. West Lynn. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. will answer the purpose. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. tacking the gauze well at the corners. O. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. holes in the bottom of one.

This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. when they are raised from the pan. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and each bundle contains . Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. Chicago. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. --Contributed by L. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. Eifel. if this is not available. If the following directions are carried out. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. oil or other fluid. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. cutting the cane between the holes. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. M.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. they should be knocked out. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane.

First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. after having been pulled tight. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. No plugs . as shown in Fig. a square pointed wedge. 1. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. held there by inserting another plug. In addition to the cane. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. and. then across and down. as it must be removed again.

Even with this lubrication. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. This will make three layers. for 2°. and the one we shall describe in this article. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.15+. If you have a table of natural functions. as shown in Fig. in this case) times the . D. 1. No weaving has been done up to this time.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. the height of which is taken from table No. Fig. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 3. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.3 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. --Contributed by M.42 in. 3. 1. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 40°. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. W. using the same holes as for the first layer. There are several different designs of sundials.15 in. trim off the surplus rosin. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as it always equals the latitude of the place. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. 42° is 4. 1 lat. Fig. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. and for 1° it would be . the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.2+.2 in. lat. as for example. called the gnomon. It consists of a flat circular table. it is 4. as the height of the line BC for lat. and for lat. the height of the line BC. as shown in Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. or the style.075 in. 4. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. stretch the third one. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Detroit. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. is the horizontal dial. R. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. is the base (5 in. -Contributed by E. All added to the lesser or 40°. If handled with a little care. Patrick. From table No. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 1. During the weaving. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. The style or gnomon.= 4.075 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Their difference is . but the most common. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. After completing the second layer. the next smallest. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 41°-30'. 5. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.5 in. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 5 in. we have 4. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. When cool. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. 41 °-30'. Michigan. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.

19 1.37 54° 6. For latitudes not given.55 30° 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.55 46° 5.85 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.82 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.06 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.50 26° 2.33 .12 52° 6. and intersecting the semicircles.55 4.87 1.96 32° 3.93 6. To layout the hour circle.38 .33 42° 4.81 4.49 3.89 50° 5.16 40 .11 3.91 58° 8.20 60° 8.93 2. if of metal.94 1.14 5.03 3. .16 1.66 1.79 4.23 6.76 1.41 38° 3.00 40° 4.56 .87 4. or if of stone. 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. and for this size dial (10 in.99 2. gives the 6 o'clock points. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. base.68 5-30 6-30 5.37 5. circle Sundial.42 1. or more.18 28° 2. with a radius of 5 in. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.30 1.66 48° 5. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.10 6.66 latitude.55 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.97 5 7 4. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. Chords in inches for a 10 in.27 2.07 4. Draw the line AD.49 30 .59 2. long.57 3. Fig. Its thickness. 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.26 4.85 35 . Draw two semi-circles.32 6. 1.88 36° 3.39 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. according to the size of the dial.44 44° 4.77 2.30 2.40 1.83 27° 2. an inch or two.40 34° 3.46 3. and perpendicular to the base or style. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. 2 for given latitudes.64 4 8 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. using the points A and C as centers.42 45 .63 56° 7. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .02 1.42 .82 5.46 . Table NO.28 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD.82 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.57 1.

63 1.93 6.68 3.89 3. London. Sioux City.60 4. 25.30 2. Each weapon is cut from wood. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.72 5. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .add those marked + subtract those Marked . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Sun time to local mean time.53 1.. 900 Chicago. E. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.12 5. 3. The + means that the clock is faster.46 5.46 4. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.57 1.06 2.21 2. June 15.82 3.50 55 . Sept. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.49 3. Iowa. it will be faster.10 4. says the English Mechanic. As they are the genuine reproductions.37 2.14 1.01 1.54 60 .52 Table No.08 1.87 6.49 5. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. April 16. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.19 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.71 2. then the watch is slower. 2 and Dec. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. will enable one to set the dial.77 3. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. each article can be labelled with the name. if west. --Contributed by J.98 4.79 6. Mitchell. and the . 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. after allowing for the declination. An ordinary compass.24 5.from Sundial lime. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.50 . care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.34 5. adding to each piece interest and value. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. and for the difference between standard and local time.

1. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Partisan.. . brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. When putting on the tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.

The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The extreme length is 9 ft. The edges are sharp. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. A gisarm or glaive. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear is steel. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. 7. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. . with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. used about the seventeenth century. long with a round wooden handle. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. the holes being about 1/4 in. 6 ft. in diameter. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. long. long with a round staff or handle. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. 5. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown.which is square. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. long. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. sharp on the outer edges. is shown in Fig. It is about 6 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. This weapon is about 6 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. about 4 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. 8. press it well into the carved depressions. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which are a part of the axe.. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in.

Loudonville. Workman. the most durable being bamboo. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead.-Contributed by R. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are put in place. 2 and 3. B. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. or in holes punched in a leather strap. are less durable and will quickly show wear. H. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. They can be made of various materials. This is important to secure neatness. apart. 5. Ohio. In Figs. The twisted cross cords should . Substances such as straw. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. the cross cords. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 4. as shown in Fig. 1. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired.

remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. bamboo or rolled paper. A slit was cut in the bottom. New York. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The first design shown is for using bamboo. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. in which was placed a piece of glass. To remedy this. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. as shown at B. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy.be of such material. Lockport. 3 in. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Four V-shaped notches were cut. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . shaped as shown at C. wide. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. M. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. -Contributed by Geo. La. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. of the bottom. Harrer. below the top to within 1/4 in. This was turned over the top of the other can.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. It would be well to polish the brass at first. turned over but not fastened. is shown in the accompanying sketch. do not throw away the gloves. Pasadena. --Contributed by Joseph H. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Sanford. This should be done gradually. about 1/16 in. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. wide. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Schaffner. Cal. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Ill.tape from sticking to the carpet. Maywood. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Shay. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Newburgh. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. After this is finished. Y. the brass is loosened from the block. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by Chas. H. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. This plank. N. --Contributed by W. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat.

This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Unlike most clocks. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Oak Park. K. bent as shown. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. in diameter. the pendulum swings . Ill. -Contributed by W. --E. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. A. Jaquythe. Cal. Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

in diameter. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. long and at each side of this. Chicago. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. The construction is very simple. to the first one with screws or glue. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. bar. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. about 12 in. bearing on the latter. about 6 in. C.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. are secured in the base bar. B. and the other two 2-5/8 in. In using this method. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Now place the board to be joined. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. away.. is an electromagnet. Fasten another board. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. 6 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. only have the opposite side up. Two uprights. thick. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. on the board B. high. 5/16 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. 7-1/2 in. --Contributed by V. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. . Secure a board. wide that is perfectly flat. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. high. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. 3/4 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Metzech. high. high and 1/4 in. by 1-5/16 in. A. wide. says the Scientific American.

from one end. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Fig. wide and 5 in. 1. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The trigger. 1. or more. 3. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Vanderslice. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. . wide and 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. long. 1. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. square. 4. --Contributed by Elmer A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. square inside. plates should be made 8 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 2. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Phoenixville.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Pa. as shown at A. is fastened in the hole A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends.

Simonis. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of black filler.A. by weight. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Fostoria. as shown in the illustration. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. square. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. if only two bands are put in the . 2 parts of whiting. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. which allows 1/4 in. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. one-half the length of the side pieces. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Ohio.

Shaw. --Contributed by Thos. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 8 in. as shown in Fig. Michigan. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. -Contributed by Abner B. keeps the strong light out when sketching. It must be kept moist and well . 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Mass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. and it may be made as a model or full sized. is set at an angle of 45 deg. and the picture can be drawn as described. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A double convex lens. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. In constructing helmets. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. In use. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. deep. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. A piece of metal. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. DeLoof. Dartmouth. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. II. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. No. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. preferably copper. Grand Rapids. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. If a plain glass is used. 1. long. says the English Mechanic. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. which may be either of ground or plain glass. wide and about 1 ft. in the opposite end of the box. place tracing paper on its surface. G. is necessary. London. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass.lower strings. A mirror.

the clay model oiled. joined closely together. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. All being ready. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . on which to place the clay. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. as in bas-relief. shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This being done. 2. and over the crest on top. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. brown. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. Scraps of thin. and the deft use of the fingers. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. will be necessary. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. take. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. or some thin glue.kneaded. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 1. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. a few clay-modeling tools. 3. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. as shown in Fig. The clay. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and left over night to soak. 1. with a keyhole saw. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model.

Indiana. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. When perfectly dry. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . Before taking it off the model. then another coating of glue. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. a crest on top. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 9. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 7. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. 1. the skullcap. When dry. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. In Fig. one for each side. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The whole helmet. will make it look neat. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and so on.as possible. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This contrivance should be made of wood. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. In Fig. with the exception of the vizor. Indianapolis. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. They are all covered with tinfoil. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. square in shape. and the ear guards in two pieces. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. as seen in the other part of the sketch. which should be no difficult matter. or. owing to the clay being oiled. When the helmet is off the model. 5. as shown: in the design. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The band is decorated with brass studs. the piecing could not be detected. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. a few lines running down. should be modeled and made in one piece.

1. AA. 4. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. AA. long. thick sheet asbestos. 1. The mineral wool. one oblong piece of wood. JJ. 3. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. about 1/4 in. and. with slits cut for the wires. and C. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 2. 3 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 12 in. the fuse block. long. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. thick. wide and 15 in. and two large 3in. 22 gauge resistance wire. should extend about 1/4 in. FF. is then packed down inside the collar. one fuse block. 1. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. when they are placed in opposite positions. high. as shown in Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron. if the measurements are correct. 4. 1. Fig. one small switch. of fire clay. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. if this cannot be obtained. The reverse side of the base. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. two ordinary binding posts. The plate. one glass tube. of the top. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. 4. screws. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. If asbestos is used. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. of mineral wool. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. until it is within 1 in. Fig. about 80 ft. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. as shown in Fig. long. of No. AA. 4. 4. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. GG. German-silver wire is better. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. is shown in Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 1.same size. or. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Fig. 2. 2. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . This will make an open space between the plates. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. for connections. If a neat appearance is desired. the holes leading to the switch. 4. E and F. The two holes. as shown in Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4 lb. in diameter and 9 in. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. Fig. Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. This will allow the plate. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 1 in. above the collar. about 1 lb. 4.

The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. This completes the stove. A. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. so that the circuit will not become broken. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. --Contributed by W. 2. When this is done. will slip and come in contact with each other. when heated. If it is not thoroughly dry. If this is the case. causing a short circuit. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Fig. Catherines. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. H. Richmond. deep. then. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Cal. St. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. When the tile is in place. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Jaquythe. more wire should be added. As these connections cannot be soldered. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. apart. It should not be left heated in this condition. KK. II.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. While the clay is damp. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Cover over about 1 in. and pressed into it. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Fig. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. it leaves a gate for the metal. as the turns of the wires. A file can be used to remove any rough places. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. 4. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Next. using care not to get it too wet. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Can. It should not be set on end. Cnonyn. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Cut a 1/2-in. --Contributed by R. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. when cool. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. above the rim. allowing a space between each turn. steam will form when the current is applied. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The clay. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends.

Then clip a little off the ." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the frame set near a window. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. says the Photographic Times. Louisville. Thorne. the pie will be damaged. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. square material in any size. and the prints will dry rapidly. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the air can enter from both top and bottom. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. but 12 by 24 in.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. is large enough. Ky. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. constructed of 3/4-in. --Contributed by Andrew G. as shown.

thick and 3 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Iowa. Figs.Paper Funnel point. -Contributed by S. thereby saving time and washing. wide and 7 in. Two supports. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. at GG. wide. each 1/2 in. thick. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. which are fastened to the base. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The driving arm D. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Herron. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. W. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. as shown. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. slip on two cardboard washers. which gives the shaft a half turn. 2-1/2 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1/2 in. A 1/8-in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. An offset is bent in the center. allowing each end to project for connections. 2. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. in diameter. causing a break in the current. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. high. wide and 3 in. Fig. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 22 gauge magnet wire. The board can be raised to place . 1. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Fig. 1. thick and 3 in. 14 in. in diameter and about 4 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. open out. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. long. Le Mars. high. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The connecting rod E. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. As the shaft revolves. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The upright B. high. 1 and 3. each 1 in. 1. for the crank. Fig. 4 in. long. 1/2 in. 3. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in.

Place the pot. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Stecher. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Dorchester. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. bottom side up. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. One or more pots may be used. on a board. making a framework suitable for a roost. Mass. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. . In designing the roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. 3 in. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. as shown in the sketch. in height. --Contributed by William F. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird.

paraffin and paint or varnish. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. without any corresponding benefit. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. and give it time to dry. ordinary glue. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. odd corners. in diameter. when combined. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The bottom part of the sketch. 1. 1. if it is other than straight lines. as shown in Fig. F. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. that it is heated.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. adopt the method described. windows. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. F. Wind the . Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. grills and gratings for doors. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. The materials required are rope or. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges.. etc. preferably. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. shelves.. will produce the pattern desired. Fig. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.

six designs are shown. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Harrer. 2. Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. Y. Lockport. N. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .Fig.

and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. As the . etc. which was used in front of a horse's head. 1. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.. but no farther. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. says the English Mechanic.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. will be retained by the cotton. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. This piece of horse armor. etc. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. London. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. chips of iron rust. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.

An arrangement is shown in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. and the clay model oiled. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which can be made in any size. This will make the model light and easy to move around. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. as shown in the sketch. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. This being done. The armor is now removed from the model. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. 2. 6 and 7. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. except the thumb and fingers. This triangularshaped support. In Fig. which is separate. 2. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. then another coat of glue. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. All being ready. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. but the back is not necessary.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. the same as in Fig. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. as the surface will hold the clay. and will require less clay. with the exception of the thumb shield. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 8. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. but for . after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. and therefore it is not described. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. This can be made in one piece. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. the rougher the better. 4.

Y. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. but 3-1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. If it does not hold a charge. the two pieces of foil will draw together. cut into the shape shown in Fig. La Rue. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Fasten a polished brass ball to. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Redondo Beach. Buxton. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. running down the plate. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The two pieces of foil. 9. Calif. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. are glued to it. Goshen. 1/2 in. the top of the rod. --Contributed by Ralph L. are better shown in Fig. two for the jaws and one a wedge. N. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John G. in depth. . When locating the place for the screw eyes. long. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. A piece of board. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. and the instrument is ready for use. two in each jaw. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. wide and 1/2 in. 2. will be about right. fastened to the rod. each about 1/4 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. the foils will not move.

When a fish is hooked. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. hole bored through it. --Contributed by Mrs. pine board. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Corsicana. At a point 6 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as indicated in the . A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A. 2-1/2 in. enameled or otherwise decorated.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. The can may be bronzed. Bryan. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. long. silvered. Texas. from the smaller end. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. as shown in the illustration. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. about 15 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. is made of a 1/4-in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. M. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.

as shown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. or even pine. Basswood or butternut. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Next prepare the metal holder. punch the holes. thick. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Having completed the drawing. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Any kind of wood will do. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. such as basswood or pine was used. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. 22 is plenty heavy enough. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. take a piece of thin wood. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above.Match Holder accompanying sketch." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Polish the metal. using a piece of carbon paper. and trace upon it the design and outline. If soft wood. wide by 6 in. using powdered pumice and lye. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. A good size is 5 in. long over all. When it has dried over night. then with a nail. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner.

allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Two wire nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. . hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. If carving is contemplated. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. 1/2 in. each 1 in. 2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. the whole being finished in linseed oil. are used for the cores of the magnets. of pure olive oil. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Cal. long. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. wide and 5 in. long. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. A. can be made on the same standards. Jaquythe. It is useful for photographers. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Instead of the usual two short ropes. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. --Contributed by W. If one has some insight in carving. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Richmond. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. thick. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze.

Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. acts as a spring to keep the key open. H.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. in the shape shown in the sketch. except that for the legs. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. as shown in Fig. the paper covering put on. cloth or baize to represent the legs. at A. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A rubber band. leaving about 1/4 in. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. London. --Contributed by W. about No. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. then covered with red. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 25 gauge. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. cut in the shape of the letter T. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A piece of tin. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Lynas. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. similar to that used in electric bells. About 1 in. when the key is pushed down. 3. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. says the English Mechanic. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. 1. as shown by the dotted lines. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. .

So set up. Fig. hole in the center. one to another . These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. not too tight.. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. completes the equipment. says Camera Craft. at each end. Cut them to a length or 40 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. for the sake of lightness. apart. 1 in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. flat headed carriage bolt. can be made in a few minutes' time. long. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. holes. Silver paper will do very well. In one end of the piece. make the same series of eight small holes and. drill six 1/4-in. in the other end. By moving the position of the bolt from. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. about 1 in. apart. 3 in. A 1/4-in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Instead of using brass headed nails. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Secure two strips of wood. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Take the piece shown in Fig.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and eight small holes. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 2. The two pieces are bolted together.

A round fob is made in a similar way. C over D and B. long. D over A and C. of the ends remain unwoven. 4. but instead of reversing .of the larger holes in the strip. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and lay it over the one to the right. and the one beneath C. Then draw all four ends up snugly. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. then B over C and the end stuck under A. for instance. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 1. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Then take B and lay it over A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Start with one end. as in portraiture and the like. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. In this sketch. A is the first string and B is the second. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. in Fig. 2. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. the one marked A. taking the same start as for the square fob. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in.

then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Rupp. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Ohio. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. especially if silk strings are used. 3. over the one to its right. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . The round fob is shown in Fig. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. is left out at the center before starting on one side. 1-1/2 in. Monroeville. as B. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. long. --Contributed by John P. 5. the design of which is shown herewith. A loop. as in making the square fob. always lap one string.

To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. door facing or door panel. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Mich. such as a nut pick. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. . but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. it can be easily renewed. When the supply of wax is exhausted. pressing it against the wood. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. filling them with wax. Northville. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. using the reverse side. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Any smooth piece of steel. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. beeswax or paraffin. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Houghton. -Contributed by A. A. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit.

but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. leaving about 1/4 in. Thompson. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Select the print you wish to mount. although tin ones can be used with good success. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. but any kind that will not stick may be used. if blueprints are used. E and F. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Petersburg. place it face down in the dish. The tacks should be about 1 in. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Enough plaster should. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. D. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. New York. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. N. thick. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. apart and driven in only part way. Fold together on lines C. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. long. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. --Contributed by O. and after wetting. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. says Photographic Times. it is best to leave a plain white margin. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. . and about 12 in. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. J. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Ill. remaining above the surface of the board. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Y. those on matte paper will work best. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it.

will be rendered perfectly white. One of the . Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. roses. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch.. violets. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Lower into the test tube a wire. filling the same about onehalf full. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. without mixing the solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown at the left in the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle.

The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. should be soldered to the box.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . thick. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. or delicate tints of the egg. shading. long and made of wood. about 1/8s in. long. L. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. as shown in the sketch. The diaphragm. South Dakota. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. 1-7/8 in. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. 1. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 3. is about 2-1/2 in. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The first point should be ground blunt.. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. but which will not wobble loose. Millstown. Fig. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. When soldering these parts together. as shown. Shabino. The sound box. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. made of heavy tin. turned a little tapering. --Contributed by L. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The tin horn can be easily made. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 2. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. not too tightly. and at the larger end. in diameter and 1 in.

says the Iowa Homestead. E. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and weighted it with a heavy stone. wondering what it was. Chicago. put a board on top. Jr. Ill. Gold. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.Contributed by E. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. mice in the bottom.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. Colo.

--Contributed by Lyndwode. Can. . -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. N. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Buffalo. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Pereira. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Y. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.

above the end of the dasher. Mich. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. --Contributed by W. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cal. longer than the length of the can. and at one end of the stick fasten. as shown. A. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Richmond. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. a piece of tin.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. De Loof. --Contributed by Thos. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Jaquythe. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. by means of a flatheaded tack. Put a small nail 2 in. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Grand Rapids. cut round. through which several holes have been punched. This cart has no axle.

A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. 1. screwed it on the inside of a store box. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Doylestown. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. La.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. deep and 3 in. wide and 1/8 in. New Orleans. Fig. 2. Notches 1/8 in. wide and as long as the box. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 1/4 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. I reversed a door gong. of course. Pa. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. wide. 2 in. thick. wide and 3 ft. The candles. 1 ft. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. apart. A wedge-shaped piece of . long. --Contributed by James M. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2.1. as shown. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. board. were below the level of the bullseye. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Kane. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The baseboard and top are separable. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches.

. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.Book Back Holders metal. stone or wood. etc. When not in use. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Needles. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. wide into each side of the casing. when placed as in Fig. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. will. take two pieces of hard wood. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. as shown in Fig. After the glue has dried. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. 1. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. After completing the handle. dressing one surface of each piece. the shelf could not be put on the window. the reason being that if both were solid. West Union. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. wide rubber bands or felt. Worcester. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. can be picked up without any trouble. it can be removed without marring the casing. Mass. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. by cutting away the ends. This device is very convenient for invalids. Cover the block with rubber. --Contributed by G. Wood. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Ia. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. the blade is put back into the groove . For the handle. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. scissors. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. 3. A. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.

1. Cleveland. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Pa. 1 in. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. A. Erie. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. A notch is cut in one side. -Contributed by W. long. Ohio. 2. Each one is made of a hardwood block. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. If desired. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Mass. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hutchins. Malden. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.and sharpened to a cutting edge. thus carrying the car up the incline. square and 4 in. . as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Jacobs. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maud McKee. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. --Contributed by H. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. S.

and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. and an awl and hammer. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. . Prepare a design for the front. If one such as is shown is to be used. This will insure having all parts alike.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. will be needed. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.. a board on which to work it. N.J. Cape May Point. The letters can be put on afterward. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. One sheet of metal.

paste the paper design right on the metal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 1/4 part. flat brush. 3/4 part. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. One coat will do. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. placed on a table. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. which is desirable. but weird and distant. or. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. turpentine. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. varnish. mandolin or guitar. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. says Master Painter. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced.Fasten the metal to the board. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The stick may be placed by the side of. On the back. behind or through the center of a table leg. as shown. a violin. 1 part. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand." In all appearance. The music will not sound natural. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. . 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. in the waste metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. to right angles. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. 2 parts white vitriol. if desired. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. Remove the metal. So impressive are the results. If any polishing is required. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. applied by means of a brush. that can be worked in your own parlor.

long and spread about 8 in. apart. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. each 28 in. . wide. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The longest piece. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. round-head machine screws. 3. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and is easy to construct. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. long and measuring 26 in. With proper tools this is easy.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. are shaped as shown in Fig. square bar iron. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. each 6 in. London. without them. says Work. Two pairs of feet. across the top. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. it might be difficult. 2. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. thick by 1/2 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in.

special flux purchased for this purpose. While the piece of lead D. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. 5. and the base border. on it as shown. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. C. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. using rosin as a flux.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. the latter being tapped to . The glass. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The brads are then removed. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. B. A. 6. Fig. better still. or. D. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Place the corner piece of glass. After the joints are soldered. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. cut a long piece of lead. The design is formed in the lead. is held by the brads. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. 5. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. 4. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. After the glass is cut. 7. lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in.

Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Make three washers 3-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. as shown in Fig. H. and round the corners of one end for a ring. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. holes through their centers. rocker bolt. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. square and of the length given in the drawing. Fasten the plates to the block B. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. bolt. 8. plank about 12 ft. Dreier. long. rounded at the top as shown. then drill a 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Bore a 5/8-in. bolt. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. J. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Bore a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. not less than 4 in. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. A and B. in diameter and about 9 in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Camden. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Secure a post. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. long. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. N. The center pin is 3/4-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. wood screws in each washer. This . Two styles of hand holds are shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. one on each side and central with the hole. plates.the base of the clip.. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Jr. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. and two wood blocks.

50 ft. bolts and rope. maple. long and 1 piece. long. square by 9-1/2 ft. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. horse and rings. 4 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. La. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 3 in. because it will not stand the weather. and some one can swing an axe. 1/2 in. 4 pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 4 filler pieces. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. screws. long. 3/4 by 3 in. long. 16 screws. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 1 by 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. bit. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. New Orleans. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 7 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. Draw a line on the four 7-in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The four 7-in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. by 2 ft. straight-grained hickory. 1-1/4in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. by 6-1/2 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. in diameter and 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. If trees are convenient. 4 pieces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. of 1/4-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 1. can make a first class gymnasium. hickory. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. from one edge. shanks. by 3 ft. 9 in. chestnut or ash. 4 in. To substitute small. square by 5 ft.

bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Bore a 9/16-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. apart. piece of wood. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.bored.. each 3 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. so the 1/2-in. apart. 2. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. boards coincide. deep and remove all loose dirt. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. at each end. 8 in. from the end. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post..

He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and then passes in a curve across the base. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. about 100 ft." which skimmed along the distant horizon. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. passing through a screweye at either end. but most deceptive at dusk. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. If the tumbler is rotated. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. And all he used was a black thread. not even the tumbler. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and materially heightened the illusion. When the interest of the crowd. and ascends the stem. the effect is very striking.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which at once gathered. apart. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference.. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. in an endless belt. not much to look at in daytime. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. disappearing only to reappear again. it is taken to the edge of the foot. just visible against the dark evening sky. He stretched the thread between two buildings. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. . it follows the edge for about 1 in. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. W. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. was at its height.

2 by 4 in. from either side of the center. La. 8 in. 2 side braces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. 4 in. wide and 1 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. Bevel the ends of . square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 8 in. 8 bolts. beginning at a point 9 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 8 in. 4 wood screws. by 2 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. long. To make the apparatus. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 7 in. 6 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. The cork will come out easily. and turned in a spiral D. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. by 7 ft. long. by 3 ft. long and 1 doz. so the point will be on top. large spikes. 2 base pieces. 1. long. preferably cedar. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Chisel out two notches 4 in. by 10 ft. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. New Orleans. long. A wire about No. 2 by 3 in. 4 knee braces. 4 bolts. 2 cross braces. 2 by 4 in. deep. square and 51/2 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. Fig.

It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.the knee braces. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. which face each other. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. ( To be Continued. using four of the 7-in bolts. equipped with a strainer. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. leave it undressed. save the bars. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Jaquythe. A large sized ladle. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. A. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. These will allow the ladle to be turned. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. leaving the strainer always in position. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Richmond. of 7 ft. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. --Contributed by W. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. but even unpainted they are very durable. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. so the bolts in both will not meet. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Cal. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands.. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. jellies. etc. screws. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. . while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. If using mill-cut lumber. additional long. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. as shown in the diagram. and countersinking the heads. except the bars. The wood so treated will last for years. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Two endpieces must be made. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. After the trenches are dug.

Oil. partly a barrier for jumps. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. which seems impossible. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. . A. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. of sufficient 1ength. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. milling machine. In order to accomplish this experiment. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. drill press or planer. thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it is necessary to place a stick. or various cutting compounds of oil.

The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. bolts. Procure from a saw mill. from each end. To construct. but 5 ft. by 3 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. These are placed 18 in. bolts. stud cut rounding on one edge. The round part of this log must be planed. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 4 in. square by 5 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. ten 1/2-in. 4-1/2 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. and free from knots. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. in the ground. wood yard or from the woods. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 bases. two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. long. 2 adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. long. 1 in.. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. Hand holds must be provided next. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 3 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. in diameter--the larger the better. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 knee braces. 1 cross brace. is a good length. projections and splinters. 7 in.. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. bolt. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. These are well nailed in place. long. by 3 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. apart. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. bolts. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. square by 5-1/2 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long.

horse top. A. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. pipe and fittings. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Also. then bending to the shape desired. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. water. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.--Contributed by W. Jaquythe. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Cal. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. etc. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. such as a dent. over and around. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. but nevertheless. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. snow. it is caused by some obstruction. Richmond. no one is responsible but himself. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.

Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. at E and F. Boston. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. 1. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when straightened out. then run a string over each part. 1/4 or 3/16 in. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by Arthur E. Paris. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. France. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. W. are all the tools necessary. Toronto. These. 2. --Contributed by James E. is much better than a wood sled. in width and 1/32 in. Mass. . will give the length. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Ontario. Noble. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. The end elevation. thick. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Vener. which. Joerin. when complete.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. AA and BB. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. .Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The method shown in Figs. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 3. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 4. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. and the latter will take on a bright luster. nor that which is partly oxidized. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. It is best to use soft water. are nailed.

Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. or various rulings may be made. or unequal widths as in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 8 and 9. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Percy Ashley in Rudder. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. . The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. 4. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The materials used are: backbone. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 3. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Broad lines can be made. 1). the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. class ice-yacht. 2.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The headstock is made of two tees. long. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. pins to keep them from turning. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. 1. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. pipe. out from the collar. bent and drilled as shown. 1-Details of Lathe sort. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work.Fig. Both the lower . It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a larger size of pipe should be used. about 30 in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. It can be made longer or shorter. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. a tee and a forging. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. but if it is made much longer. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point.

1. Laporte. thick as desired. To do this. and will answer for a great variety of work. Indiana. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Musgrove. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 2. else taper turning will result. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Man. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by M. --Contributed by W. . but also their insulating properties. --Contributed by W. a corresponding line made on this. W. or a key can be used as well. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3/4 or 1 in. as shown in Fig. UpDeGraff. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. M. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. Held. 2. 2. Boissevain. Cal. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Fruitvale. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors.

Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. J. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ft. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and the two loops are made of heavy wire. To obviate this. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Cline. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. In use. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. --Contributed by E. long. as shown. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Smith. Ark.

Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. centering is just one operation too many. if this method is followed: First. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. take . Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Colo. New Orleans. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. After being entered. Denver. This prevents the drill from wobbling. La. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. on starting the lathe. the drill does not need the tool. which should be backed out of contact.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. face off the end of the piece. and when once in true up to its size. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. White.

so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. after being shown empty. The glass tube B. shown at C. a bout 1/2 in. and this given to someone to hold. all the better. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The handkerchief rod. After the wand is removed. vanishing wand. shorter t h a n the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. unknown to the spectators. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. It can be used in a great number of tricks. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and can be varied to suit the performer. In doing this. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. by applying caustic soda or . If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a long piece of glass tubing. as shown in D. is put into the paper tube A. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand.

A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1. with the back side rounding. preferably hard maple. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets.potash around the edges of the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. With care and patience. Glue the neck to the box. Cut a piece of hard wood. 3/16. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The sides. 2 Sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 Bottom. End. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1/4 in. 1 End. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. can be made by the home mechanic. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. As the cement softens. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. long. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1 Neck. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. cut to any shape desired. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. and glue it to the neck at F. square and 1-7/8 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. across the front and back to strengthen them. by 14 by 17 in. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. thick. Glue strips of soft wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. as shown by K. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage.

Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Stoddard. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Six holes.Pa. but it is not.should be made accurately. 3/16 in. E. or backbone. A board 1 in. Frary. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. wide and 11-1/2 ft. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 1) on which to stretch the paper. in diameter. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. thick and about 1 ft. -Contributed by J. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Norwalk. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Carbondale. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. --Contributed by Chas. O. toward each end. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. long is used for a keel. H. and beveled . The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.

as before described. 3. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 13 in. 3. which are easily made of long. 3).) in notches. Shape these as shown by A. b. in thickness and should be cut. a. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 2). C. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or other place. with long stout screws. apart. B. in such cases. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. procure at a carriage factory. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. Fig. Fig. probably. thick. 1. some tight strips of ash. as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 4). as they are apt to do. 2. wide by 26 in. 2). by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. two twigs may be used to make one rib. slender switches of osier willow. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 1 and 2. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Any tough. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. will answer nearly as well. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. The ribs. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. b. Fig. thick. 3). b. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Green wood is preferable. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. but before doing this. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. when made of green elm. 3/8 in.. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. or similar material. such as is used for making chairbottoms. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 4. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. For the gunwales (a. In drying. the loose strips of ash (b. long are required. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. C. and are not fastened. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. These are better. and notched at the end to receive them (B. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. The cross-boards (B. such as hazel or birch. but twigs of some other trees. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. as shown in Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. are next put in. and so. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. buy some split cane or rattan. long. Fig. two strips of wood (b. Fig. by means of a string or wire. and. .

Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. if it has been properly constructed of good material. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. of very strong wrapping-paper. Fig. however. and light oars. but with less turpentine. If the paper be 1 yd. If not. B. wide. apply a second coat of the same varnish. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. When the paper is dry. but neither stiff nor very thick. When thoroughly dry. after wetting it. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. The paper is then trimmed. and held in place by means of small clamps. 5). This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. preferably iron. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. tacking it to the bottom-board. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. and steady in the water. It should be drawn tight along the edges.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. You may put in . and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. It should be smooth on the surface. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Being made in long rolls. and very tough. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper.

fore and aft. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Drive the lower nail first. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and if driven as shown in the cut.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. and make a movable seat (A. 2.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 5. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. to fit it easily. 1 and the end in . Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 5). 1. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.

Pittsburg. Pa. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. being softer where the flame has been applied. Close the other end with the same operation. 3.Fig. this makes the tube airtight. and the result is. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. A good way to handle this work. This is an easy . 5. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 4. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. This way has its drawbacks. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the glass. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig.

After the bulb is formed. or six arms. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. 23 gauge. file. very rapid progress can be made.way to make a thermometer tube. flat and round-nosed pliers. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Give the metal a circular motion. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. fifth. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. rivet punch. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Seventh. metal shears. also trace the decorative design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. -Contributed by A. Sixth. then reverse. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. second. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. three. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the metal. thin screw. Oswald. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. fourth. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The candle holders may have two. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. third. extra metal all around. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. four. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. with a piece of carbon paper. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Metal polish of any kind will do. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. and holder. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. N. The gaff. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and brace and bit were the tools used. thus it was utilized. of glycerine to about 200 deg. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. all the rest I found. F. Heat 6-1/2 oz. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and water 24 parts. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and in a week . Mother let me have a sheet. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Soak 1 oz. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. winding the ends where they came together with wire. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and it will be ready for future use. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Twenty cents was all I spent. Shiloh. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. alcohol 2 parts. J. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. except they had wheels instead of runners. smooth it down and then remove as before. Fifty. hammer. A saw. is a broomstick. on a water bath. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and add the gelatine. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. deep. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. they were like an ice boat with a sail. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. the stick at the bottom of the sail. The boom. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. when it will be ready for use.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. using a steel pen. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. I steer with the front wheel. and other things as they were needed. glycerine 4 parts. sugar 1 part.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

The board is centered both ways. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 8 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. E. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. and the lens slide. A table. and the work carefully done. describe a 9-in. H. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. about 2 ft. long. DD. at a distance of 24 ft. as desired. at a point 1 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. focus enlarging a 3-in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. provided the material is of metal. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. wide.. slide to about 6 ft. 1/2 to 3/4 in. but if such a box is not found. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. or a lens of 12-in. high.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. G. This ring is made up from two rings. thick. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. wire brads. 1. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. If a small saw is used. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and. Fig. wide and 15 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. A and B. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. 3. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. and 14 in. The slide support. well seasoned pine. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. are . or glue. above the center.

Small strips of tin. To reach the water. Paul. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. light burning oil. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Minn. of safe. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. but not long enough. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. P. The arrangement is quite safe as. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr.-Contributed by G. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. E. and when the right position is found for each. placed on the water. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. should the glass happen to upset. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. A sheet . JJ. B. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts.constructed to slip easily on the table. St. the strips II serving as guides. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick.

As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. N. 9 in. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. 3. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . by 12 ft. 3 in.. Crawford. Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. --Contributed by J. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 2. Schenectady. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. then the corners on one end are doubled over. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.H. Fig. from a tent company. 12 ft. to cover the mattresses. 4. 3. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Y. form a piece of wire in the same shape. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. If one of these clips is not at hand. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig.

Attach a piece of steel rod. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 1/2 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. White. 1/2 in. through which the indicator works. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Warren. To calibrate the instrument. drill two 3/16 in. C. and insert two binding-posts. 1. Fig.each edge. 3 to swing freely on the tack. thick. long and 3/16 in. in the center coil. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. 1. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 3/4 in. Teasdale. for amperes and the other post. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. insulating them from the case with cardboard. open on the edges. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. wide. --Contributed by Walter W. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. holes in the edge. long. An arc is cut in the paper. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. D. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. first mark the binding-post A. to keep it from unwinding. 2. Do not use too strong a rubber. Denver. V. Colo. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fig. 3/4 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. 2. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. apart. --Contributed by Edward M. A rubber band. as shown in Fig. Pa.

Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Hunting. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. with the large hole up. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Dayton. M. Place this can on one end of the trough. Cut a 1/4-in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. as shown. Wood Burning [331] . --Contributed by M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather.

then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. 3/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . --Contributed by Fred W. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by John Shahan. N. but not very thick. If the cork is adjusted properly. Ala. Whitehouse. 2. long. Auburn. Upper Troy. wide and 4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Place the small bottle in as before. as shown in the sketch. 1.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. This will make a very pretty ornament. provided the bottle is wide. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle.Y. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.

G. Fig. Fig. --Contributed by D. Fig. 2. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. sugar pine on account of its softness. as shown in Fig. such as blades and pulleys. thick. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 3. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. I. to the shaft. was 1/4in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. long. wide. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. A staple. 2 ft. was keyed to shaft C. Both bearings were made in this manner. Fig. B. 1 in. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. Its smaller parts. were constructed of 1-in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. which was 6 in. On a 1000-ft. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 4. which gave considerable power for its size.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Milter. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. If a transmitter is used. iron rod. by the method shown in Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. The 21/2-in. 1. 1. thick. even in a light breeze. The wire L was put . and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. 1. thick and 3 in. pulley F. 1. The shaft C. Fig. which extended to the ground. or ordinary telephone transmitters. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. K. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. line. pulley. W. in diameter and 1 in. high without the upper half.

The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. with brass headed furniture tacks. hole for the shaft G was in the center. in the center of the board P. long and bend it as . with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Fig. If you have no bell. cut out another piece of tin (X. top down also. The bed plate D. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. across the thin edge of a board. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. through the latter. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. a 1/2-in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. R. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. wide and 1 in. 1. 6. G. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. as. The power was put to various uses. 0. 1. Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. To lessen the friction here. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. was 2 ft. This board was 12 in. Fig. in diameter. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. so that the 1/4-in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. long and 1/2 in. 1. apart in the tower. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. strips. 2. providing one has a few old materials on hand. was tacked. for instance. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. 3 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. long and bend it as shown at A. long and 3 in. 1) 4 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. hole was bored for it. Fig. The other lid. with all parts in place. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. pine 18 by 12 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. 25 ft. 6. 5. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The smaller one. There a 1/4-in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. when the windmill needed oiling. washers were placed under pulley F. long. and was cut the shape shown. H. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. This fan was made of 1/4-in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. This completes the receiver or sounder. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. To make the key.

The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. fitted with paddles as at M. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Now. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The rear barrels are. leaving the other wire as it is. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Thus a center drive is made. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Going back to Fig. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1. at the front. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Before tacking it to the board. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. 2. using cleats to hold the board frame. When tired of this instrument. causing a buzzing sound. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. as shown at Water.shown. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. McConnell. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. like many another device boys make. as indicated. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. and. although it can be made with but two. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. -Contributed by John R. By adjusting the coils. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.

as shown in Fig. feet on the pedals. The speed is slow at first. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. or even a little houseboat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. copper piping and brass tubing for base. there will not be much friction. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. 3. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. 1. There is no danger. To propel it. can be built. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . seat yourself on the bicycle seat. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which will give any amount of pleasure. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety.

If it is desired to make the light very complete. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. D. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Shape small blocks of boxwood. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 1. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 2. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 1. Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. or it may be put to other uses if desired. B. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. A. 2. 1. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Turn a small circle of wood. C. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. and so creating a false circuit. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig.

electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. wire from bell to switch. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. C. key of alarm clock. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Utah. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. after setting alarm. some glue will secure them. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Swissvale. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. --Contributed by Geo. brass strip. brass rod. dry batteries. B. and pulled tight. while lying in bed. H. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. after two turns have been made on the key. S. wide and 1/16 in. bracket. Pa. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. shelf. 4 in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. such as is used for cycle valves. or 1/4in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. In placing clock on shelf. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal.. Ogden. switch. wire from batteries to switch. I. long. Brinkerhoff. T. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. D. 4-1/2 in. J. contact post. wire from light to switch. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing.india rubber tubing. When alarm goes off. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. To operate this. G. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Throw lever off from the right to center. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. bell. 3/8 in. long. C. --Contributed by C. X. E. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . which stops bell ringing. Chatland. if too small. near the bed. F. by having the switch on the baseboard. thick. copper tubing. 5-1/4 by 10 in.

and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. will do the heating. as in Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. A flannel bag. 1. Fig. as . as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. letting it extend 3/4 in. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 4 in. a bed warmer. as at A. for instance. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Minn. beyond the end of the spindle. being careful not to get the sand in it. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. wide. Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Lanesboro. about 6 in. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 2. as at B. in diameter. Pull out the nail and stick. Fig. gives the heater a more finished appearance. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. which can be made of an old can.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. --Contributed by Chas. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Having finished this. All that is required is a tin covering. Make a shoulder. 3. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. from one end. as at A. in diameter. making it as true and smooth as possible. about 3-1/2 in. 1/4 in. 2. long. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 1. S. Chapman. This is to form the fuse hole. place stick and all in a pail of sand.

long. 1 in. deep. --Contributed by Arthur E. thick. The illustration shows how this is done. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. this is to keep the edges from splitting. ash. will be sufficient to make the trigger. A piece of oak. Joerin. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. spring and arrows. but if this wood cannot be procured. good straight-grained pine will do. 6 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. long. A piece of tin. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and 3/8 in. 1. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. wide and 3 ft. thick. 3/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and a trifle over 3 ft. long. The material must be 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. or hickory. wide and 6 ft. 11/2 in. 5/8 in.

8. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Fig. 9. Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. --Contributed by O. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Fig. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. from the opposite end. place the arrow in the groove. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 4. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. better still. and one for the trigger 12 in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. as shown in Fig. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 6. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. in diameter. wide at each end. thick. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The stick for the bow. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The bow is not fastened in the stock. 7.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. E. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. it lifts the spring up. 2. having the latter swing quite freely. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Wilmette. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. A spring. To shoot the crossbow. Such a temporary safe light may be . 3. To throw the arrow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. which is 1/4 in. When the trigger is pulled. The trigger. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Trownes. or through the necessity of. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Ill. from the end of the stock. as shown in Fig.

C. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . The cut should be about 5 ft. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. respectively. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. By chopping the trunk almost through. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. making lighting and trimming convenient. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The hinged cover E. is used as a door. or only as a camp on a short excursion. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. from the ground. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Moreover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Remove one end. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and replace as shown at B. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. it is the easiest camp to make. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. says Photo Era. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. This lamp is safe. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. make the frame of the wigwam. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. since the flame of the candle is above A. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. apart. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and nail it in position as shown at A. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Remove the bottom of the box.

useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. deep and covered with blankets. piled 2 or 3 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and cedar. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. wide. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and when the camp is pitched. Sheets of bark. long and 2 or 3 ft. In the early summer. and split the tops with an ax. Where bark is used. makes a good pair of tongs. long and 1-1/2 in. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Tongs are very useful in camp. wide and 6 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. For a permanent camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. spruce. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. . a 2-in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. 3 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. will dry flat. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. long. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. 6 ft. thick. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. are a convenient size for camp construction. make the best kind of a camp bed. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. selecting a site for a camp. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. hinges.

The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Kane. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. to another . B. 1. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. changing the water both morning and night. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. B. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. wide. and provide a cover or door. I drove a small cork.. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. deep and 4 in. Doylestown. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. A. Fig. the interior can. about 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Pa.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. --Contributed by James M.

Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.glass tube. The current is thus compelled. 4 and 5). limit. 3. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The diagram. such as ether. until. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. C. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. This makes . This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. a liquid. for instance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. if necessary. Fig. which project inside and outside of the tube. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. E. for instance. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. fused into one side. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 2. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them.

they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which will make it uniform in size. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Before removing the field from the lathe. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. to allow for finishing. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. larger than the dimensions given. brass or iron. bent at right angles as shown. clamp the template. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Fig. by turning the lathe with the hand. is composed of wrought sheet iron. in diameter. 1. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. A. therefore.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. thicker. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Alpena. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. which may be of any thickness so that. or even 1/16 in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. 3. or pattern. when several pieces are placed together. Fig. they will make a frame 3/4 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. If the thickness is sufficient. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. drill the four rivet holes. set at 1/8 in. 3-3/8 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. cannot be used so often. but merely discolored. thick. and for the outside of the frame. in diameter. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. two holes. 2. 3-3/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. A 5/8in. mark off a space. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. When the frame is finished so far. After cleaning them with the solution. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. assemble and rivet them solidly. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. on a lathe. 4-1/2 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. brass. tap. After the template is marked out. between centers. hole is . Then the field can be finished to these marks. thick. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. Michigan. The bearing studs are now made. These holes are for the bearing studs. screws. as shown in the left-hand sketch. making it 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame.

or otherwise finished. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and build up the solder well.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. solder them to the supports. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. When the bearings are located. brass rod is inserted. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The shaft of the armature. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. soldered into place. is turned up from machine steel. 4.

6. wide. When this is accomplished. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and held with a setscrew. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 3/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. by 1-1/2 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. as shown in Fig. 8. 5. 1/8 in. or segments. 6. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Procure 12 strips of mica. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. brass rod. Armature-Ring Core. Make the core 3/4 in. 7. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. washers. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. as shown in Fig. deep and 7/16 in. being formed for the ends. The pins are made of brass. Rivet them together. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 3. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. wide. thick. inside diameter. and then they are soaked in warm water. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. as shown in Fig. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. thick and 1/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. When annealed. 1-1/8 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. holes through them for rivets. thick are cut like the pattern. as shown m Fig. 3. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. After the pieces are cut out. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. sheet fiber. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. hole and tap it for a pin. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 9. After they . solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. thick. threaded. thick. 3/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end.

being required. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. 6 in. they are glued to the core insulation. After one coil. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. thick. sheet fiber. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The winding is started at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. of No. The field is wound with No. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. the two ends of the wire. Run one end of the field wire. wide and 1 in. Fig. or side. 5. shown at A. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. This winding is for a series motor. To connect the wires. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. until the 12 slots are filled. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 1. about 100 ft. which will take 50 ft. and wind on four layers. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. yet it shows a series of . All connections should be securely soldered. 1. are soldered together. after the motor is on the stand. by bending the end around one of the projections. of the wire. The two ends are joined at B. In starting to wind.have dried. 8 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. sheet fiber. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. long. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. of the end to protrude. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. When the glue is set. shown at B. Fig. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers.

If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. is fastened to the metallic body. or. Nine wires run from the timer. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. and one. which serves as the ground wire. A 1/2-in. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. one from each of the eight contacts. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . still more simply. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.

This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Without this attachment. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Covering these is a thin. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. 6 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. board. circle. 45 deg. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. thus giving 16 different directions. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. It should be . one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. of the dial.The Wind Vane. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.

making it heavy or light. will answer the purpose just as well. however. according to who is going to use it. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish.about 6 ft. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. thus making a universal joint. also a piece of new carpet. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. . Fill the box with any handy ballast. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Place the leather on some level. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Before tacking the fourth side. Cut 3-in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Y. long to give the best results. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Buffalo. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. high. N. will be enough for the two sides. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. will be sufficient. To work these outlines. or. called a chip carving knife. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. To make it. and securely nail on the top of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. -Contributed by James L. Blackmer. though a special knife. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. if not too high. is most satisfactory. 14 by 18 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. and about 6 in.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. temporary lameness. of common salt and 10 lb. as in cases of a sprained ankle. away from it. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. If a fire breaks out. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. can be thrown away when no longer needed. N. rather than the smooth side. Y. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. a needle and some feathers. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Morse. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Syracuse. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. and tie them together securely at the bottom. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. or a hip that has been wrenched. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. B. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. and fasten the feathers inside of it.will do if a good stout needle is used. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. square and tying a piece of . Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. of water.

is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.. --Contributed by John A. One end is removed entirely. The coil is 1 in. etc. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. long. high. Paterson. The strings should be about 15 in. A. board all around the bottom on the inside. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. E.string to each corner. G. B. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. as shown. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. long.J. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Ashland. The end is filed to an edge. and tacked it to the boards. There is a 1-in. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The diaphragm C. deep. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. setting traps. and the receiver is ready for use. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. commonly called tintype tin. N. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. thus helping the rats to enter. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. Y. wide and 1/16 in. cut to the length of the spool. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. This not only keeps the rats out. F. Hellwig. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The body of the receiver. --Contributed by J. letting it go at arm's length. Albany. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. laying poisoned meat and meal. N. wound on the head end. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Gordon Dempsey. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. made up of four layers of No. is cut on the wood. Wis. 1/8 in. but not sharp. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. which is the essential part of the instrument. the corners being wired. . and a coil of wire. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. A small wooden or fiber end.

How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. begin with the smallest scrolls. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. and bend each strip in shape. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a piece of string or. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. wide. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. a piece of small wire. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. To clean small articles. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. gold. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. to . A single line will be sufficient. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. better still. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true.

making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. wide when stitching up the purse. through which to slip the fly AGH. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from C to D. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 3-1/2 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. using a duller point of the tool. 4-1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from the lines EF on the piece. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. thus raising it.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.. Fold the leather on the line EF. and does not require coloring. . Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 6-3/8 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. sharp pencil. from E to F. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. 3-1/4 in. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. After taking off the pattern.. About 1 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Work down the outside line of the design. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. as shown in the sketch. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Trace also the line around the purse.

with a compass saw. and cut it out as shown in Fig. It can be made without the use of a lathe. the "open" side. with the largest side down. and a model for speed and power. thick. 1/2 in. following the dotted lines. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Make the lug 1/4 in. with pins or small nails. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. as shown in Fig. Then nail the wheel down firmly. 3. long. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. square. deep. b. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with the open side down. and the projections B. and tack the other piece slightly. Now take another piece of wood. by 12 ft. and which will be very interesting. Fit this to the two . First. then nail it. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 1 was cut. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. This also should be slightly beveled. as well as useful.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 2. being cast in wooden molds. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. all the way around. When it is finished. and cut out a wheel. 1. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. then place the square piece out of which Fig. and. deep. It is neat and efficient. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. around the wheel. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. leaving the lug a.

as shown by the black dots in Fig. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. hole 1/4 in. bolts. Take the mold apart. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. as shown by the . in the center of it. holes through it. hole entirely through at the same place. square pieces of wood. and clean all the shavings out of it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. 1. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole bored through its center. and lay it away to dry. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and boring a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. deep. Now put mold No. then bolt it together. and bore six 1/4-in. After it is finished.

If there should happen to be any holes or spots. holes at d. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. 5. d. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Put this together in mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. A piece of mild steel 5 in. one in the lug. and drill it entirely through. and pour babbitt metal into it. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 4. 1. and the other in the base. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and drill them in the same manner. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b. the other right-handed. from the one end. over the defective part. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. After it is fitted in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. holes.black dots in Fig. in diameter must now be obtained. as shown in illustration. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. true it up with a square. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. fasten a 3/8-in. until it is full. where the casting did not fill out. and two 1/4-in. Using the Brace .-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. only the one is left-handed. and pouring metal in to fill it up. see that the bolts are all tight. and lay it away to dry. 6. so that it will turn easily. one in the projections. drill in it. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and run in babbitt metal again. and 3/8-in.1. Then bolt the castings together. This is for a shaft. lay it on a level place. Commencing 1-1/2 in. put the top of the brace through this hole. Pour metal into mold No. Let it stand for half an hour. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. instead of the right-handed piece. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.1. b. long. screw down. and bore three 1/4-in. take an ordinary brace. This is the same as Fig. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. wide and 16 in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel.2.2. B. 6. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. place it under the drill. Fig. and connect to the boiler. Now take mold No. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. long. This is mold No.

Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. At each end of the 6ft. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. one 6 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. turn the wheel to the shape desired. with a boss and a set screw. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. will do good service. and. and the other 8 ft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. while it is running at full speed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Then take a knife or a chisel. Plan of Ice Boat . long. piece and at right angles to it.

Make your runners as long as possible. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. at the butt and 1 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. projecting as in Fig. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 3. long. at the end. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank nail 8-in. 1. The spar should be 9 ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 8 a reef point knot. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. at the top. Fig. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. 1. in front of the rudder block. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. This fits in the sq