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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Fig. 1. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. To throw a boomerang. It is held in this curve until dry. distant. as shown in Fig. until it is bound as shown in Fig. away. 2 -. --Contributed by J. wide and 2 ft. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 1. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. E. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. long will make six boomerangs. with the hollow side away from you. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Noble. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Toronto. 2. Ontario. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.Fig. apart. The pieces are then dressed round. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. grasp it and hold the same as a club. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft.

and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. or rather no bottom at all.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. First. blocks . and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and it may be necessary to use a little water. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. thick. high and 4 or 5 in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. forcing it down closely. made of 6-in. If the snow is of the right consistency. minus the top. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. A very light. 6 in. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. long. and with a movable bottom. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. which makes the building simpler and easier. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. A wall. dry snow will not pack easily. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. the block will drop out. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. but about 12 in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. however.

It also keeps them out. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. above the ground. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. A nail. long and 1 in. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. D. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 3.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. C. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 2.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Fig. is 6 or 8 in. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. There is no outward thrust. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. 1. Goodbrod. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. a. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. wide. or an old safe dial will do. which can be made of wood. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 3 -. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. which is about 1 ft. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Union. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. and the young architect can imitate them. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. --Contributed by Geo. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 2. Ore. The piece of wood. 1. Fig.

The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook.When taking hot dishes from the stove. the box locked . Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Merrill. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York. says the Sphinx. S. one pair of special hinges. --Contributed by R. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. If ordinary butts are used. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Syracuse. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. as the weight always draws them back to place.

draw one-half of it. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. on drawing paper. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. as shown. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. allowing each coat time to dry. To make a design similar to the one shown. about 1-32 of an inch. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Ga. Place the piece in a vise. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 2.and the performer steps out in view. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. All . it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. When the sieve is shaken. It remains to bend the flaps. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. as shown in Fig. With the metal shears. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. If they do not. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. smooth surface. proceed as follows: First. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Fig. 1. one for each corner. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. Alberta Norrell. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. -Contributed by L. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Augusta. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 3. If the measuring has been done properly.

Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. is fitted tightly in the third hole. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. In boring through rubber corks. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and in the positions shown in the sketch. long. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. of No. To keep the metal from tarnishing. heats the strip of German-silver wire. B. A piece of porcelain tube. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. which is about 6 in. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. 25 German-silver wire. The current. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. about 6 in. --Contributed by R. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. in diameter. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. H. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The common cork. if rolled under the shoe sole. should be in the line. C.the edges should be left smooth. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. used for insulation. causing it to expand. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Denver. from the back end. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. A resistance. Colo. When the current is turned off. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. Galbreath. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. After this has dried. R. as shown at AA. in passing through the lamp. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. If a touch of color is desired.

with thin strips of wood. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 2. between them as shown in Fig. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely.bottom ring. leaving a space of 4 in. 1. --Contributed by David Brown. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Mo. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Fig. 3. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. . The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Kansas City. Purchase two long book straps.

The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. and one weighing 25 lb. Doylestown. Kane. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. long. C. N. Fig. Pa. Morse. 36 in. These are shown in Fig. 4. Syracuse. 1. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The string is then tied. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. just the right weight for a woman to use. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 3. and a pocket battery. Fig. 1. one weighing 15 lb. Y. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. When the aeroplane tips. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. --Contributed by James M. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The folds are made over the string. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. and tack smoothly. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. as .An ordinary electric bell. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. 1. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. in diameter. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. which is the right weight for family use. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. are mounted on the outside of the box. A. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced.. --Contributed by Katharine D. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Two strips of brass.. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. to form a handle. 2.

if once used. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. bent as shown in Fig. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. long. N. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Floral Park. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Day. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Y. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. in diameter. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 2. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. two 1/8 -in. Frame Made of a Rod . which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. such as brackets. 1. four washers and four square nuts. --Contributed by Louis J. and many fancy knick-knacks. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 2. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. AA. The saw.

Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Michigan. as well as the depth of etching desired. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. the most expensive. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. copper. using a swab and an old stiff brush. 1 part nitric acid.may be made of either brass. If it colors the metal red. green and browns are the most popular. Detroit. allowing each time to dry. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Rub off the highlights. use them in place of the outside nuts. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. File these edges. Watch Fob For coloring silver. if copper or brass. Drying will cause this to change to purple. A. Apply two coats. though almost any color may be obtained. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Of the leathers. In the design shown. --Contributed by W. be covered the same as the back. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. after breaking up. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. or silver. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. treat it with color. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. For etching. as well as brass and copper. of water. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. 1 part sulphuric acid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. of course. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. of water in which dissolve. An Austrian Top [12] . The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Scranton. Silver is the most desirable but. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. it has the correct strength. The buckle is to be purchased. therefore..

A 1/16-in. wide and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. in diameter. Tholl. A handle. 5-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Michigan. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. allowing only 1-1/4 in. thick. Parts of the Top To spin the top.F. Ypsilanti. set the top in the 3/4 -in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. starting at the bottom and winding upward. is formed on one end. . Bore a 3/4-in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 3/4 in. long. hole in this end for the top. pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. The handle is a piece of pine.

Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Northville. Houghton. Augusta. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. tarts or similar pastry. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The baking surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. having no sides. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. --A. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Mich. Ga. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. . --Contributed by Miss L.

A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . then solder cover and socket together. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Centralia. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the same as shown in the illustration. When you desire to work by white light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. glass fruit jar. two turns will remove the jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Stringing Wires [13] A.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. says Studio Light. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Mo. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.

The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.for loading and development. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. . and not tip over. 4 Vertical pieces. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. as shown in the cross-section sketch. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. so it can be folded up. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Janesville. Wis. 1-1/4 in. square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. square by 12 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Braces. They are fastened. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in.

The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The whole. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. C. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. After rounding the ends of the studs. The front can be covered . The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. -Contributed by Charles Stem. from scrap material. New York. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Rosenthal. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. after filling the pail with water. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. O. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. --Contributed by Dr. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. H. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Cincinnati. Phillipsburg. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and a loop made in the end.

The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Md. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. the color will be an undesirable. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. principally mayonnaise dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. by all rules of the game. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The results will be poor. --Contributed by Gilbert A. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. FIG. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. you are. Baltimore. sickly one. If the gate is raised slightly. 1 FIG.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. In my own practice. Develop them into strong prints. By using the following method. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Wehr. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The . it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. and. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. either for contact printing or enlargements. if you try to tone them afterward.

to make it 5 by 5 in.... A good final washing completes the process....... The blotting paper can ... --Contributed by T..... in size. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. in this solution... With a little practice. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. Gray. preferably the colored kind.. transfer it to a tray of water...... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. When the desired reduction has taken place.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. 2 oz. Place the dry print. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... Iodide of potassium .. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. etc. but. without previous wetting. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses....... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. L.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away." Cyanide of potassium . The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table....... when it starts to bleach. where it will continue to bleach. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.... 20 gr.. wide and 4 in. San Francisco.. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 1 and again as in Fig... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. long to admit the angle support... Water ... Cal... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. three times. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. 16 oz.. 5 by 15 in.. 2.

--Contributed by L. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. --Contributed by J. Oshkosh. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide below the . Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Make a design similar to that shown. 3. Canada. 20 gauge. Wisconsin.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide. the head of which is 2 in.J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. and a length of 5 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. the shaft 1 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Monahan.

FIG. then trace the other half in the usual way. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. using a small metal saw. but use a swab on a stick. as shown in Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Make one-half of the design. Apply with a small brush. . 1 part nitric acid. 2. 1 part sulphuric acid. using carbon paper. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The metal must be held firmly. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 1 Fig. deep. Do not put the hands in the solution. freehand. With the metal shears. With files. Allow this to dry. For coloring olive green. 3. Trace the design on the metal. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Fig. 1. being held perpendicular to the work. After the sawing. after folding along the center line. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. using turpentine. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 4. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then coloring. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. then put on a second coat. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. After this has dried.

The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Conn. Syracuse. as shown. Ii is an ordinary staple. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Burnett. thick. then stain it a mahogany color. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. --Contributed by Katharine D. Cal. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. East Hartford. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Carl Cramer. . The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by M. it does the work rapidly. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Morse. Richmond. M. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. New York. attach brass handles. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by H. on a chopping board. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. After the stain has dried. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. When this is cold. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.

Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. 1. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. L. Jaquythe. 53 steel pens.. not over 1/4 in. brass. as shown at A. . square. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. A. as shown in Fig. thick. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Florida. saucers or pans. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. about 3/16 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Atwell. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. two enameled. thick and 4 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. and several 1/8-in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. indicating the depth of the slots. also locate the drill holes. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. or tin. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Kissimmee. --Contributed by Mrs. in width at the shank. H. Richmond. holes. one shaft. Cal. machine screws. some pieces of brass. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. 4. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 1/4 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Fig. --Contributed by W. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in.

2. hole in the center. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. with the face of the disk. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. each about 1 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 3. lead should be run into the segments. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. machine screws. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. 5. Bend as shown in Fig. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. If the shaft is square. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. as shown. and pins inserted. can be procured. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. brass and bolted to the casing. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Fig. with 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. If metal dishes. into the hole. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 3. and the ends filed round for the bearings. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 1. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. hole. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 6. about 1/32 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. hole is drilled to run off the water. 7. 2.. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. thick. with a 3/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. long by 3/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . There should be a space of 1/16 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. supply pipe. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. as in Fig. wide. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. machine screws and nuts. thick. a square shaft used. The shaft hole may also be filed square. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. wide and bend as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. using two nuts on each screw. long and 5/16 in. A 3/4-in.

The lower part. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. deep over all. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. using four to each leg. The four legs are each 3/4-in. --Contributed by F. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Cooke. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Canada. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Smith. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. we will call the basket. Be sure to have the cover. Hamilton. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Ill. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. to make the bottom. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. When assembling. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. three of which are in the basket. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. square and 30-1/2 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. high and 15 in. V. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. long. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. deep and 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by S. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. or more in diameter. from the top of the box. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. make these seams come between the two back legs. screws. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Stain the wood before putting in the . arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. La Salle. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. With a string or tape measure. from the bottom end of the legs. 8-1/2 in.

If all the parts are well sandpapered. Boston.lining.2 Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. wide and four strips 10 in. -Contributed by Stanley H. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Md. Baltimore. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . wide. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. you can. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Cover them with the cretonne. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. --also the lower edge when necessary. 1. When making the display. 2. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. and gather it at that point. The side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. sewing on the back side. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Packard. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.

Fig. Y.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. 3. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. N. and. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Mo. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Cross Timbers. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. It is not difficult to . Gloversville. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. When through using the pad. It is cleanly. L. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by B. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. saving all the solid part. Crockett. Orlando Taylor.

S. --Contributed by Edith E. After stirring. -Contributed by C. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. remove the contents. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Both of these methods are wasteful. and scrape out the rough parts. Texas. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. After this is done. it should be new and sharp. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. are shown in the diagram. Bourne. El Paso. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Lane. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. or if desired. If a file is used. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mass. Lowell. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. across the face.

If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. F. Ill.cooking utensil. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Oregon. The process works well and needs no watching. --Contributed by Geo. Wheeler. Those having houses . Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. As these were single-faced disk records. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. He captured several pounds in a few hours. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Marion P. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Oak Park. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Greenleaf. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The insects came to the light. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Des Moines. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Turl. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. A Postcard Rack [25]. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Ill. Iowa. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. The illustration shows a rack for postcards.

but for cheapness 3/4 in. thick. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. and as they are simple in design. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The single boards can then be fixed. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. --Contributed by Wm. the bottom being 3/8 in. one on each side of what will be the . not even with the boards themselves. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Rosenberg. Glenbrook. boards are preferable. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. plane and pocket knife. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. will do as well. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. 6 in. and the second one for the developing bench. Both sides can be put together in this way. the best material to use being matched boards. --Contributed by Thomas E.. Mass. and both exactly alike. Worcester. Lay the floor next. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Conn. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Only three pieces are required.. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. material. Dobbins. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in.

The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 6. so that it will fit inside the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. below which is fixed the sink. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. by screwing to the floor. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. of the top of the door for the same reason. 2 in section. Fig.doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 6. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 9). 6 and 9. and in the middle an opening. In hinging the door.. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 8. The roof boards may next be put on. 10). which is fixed on as shown . brown wrapping paper. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. 9 by 11 in. is cut. At the top of the doorway. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. nailing them to each other at the ridge. wide. etc. and should be zinc lined. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. so that the water will drain off into the sink. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 11. hinged to it. The developing bench is 18 in. 3 and 4. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. 7. as shown in Figs. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and act as a trap for the light.. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. the closing side as at B. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 5. It is shown in detail in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Pennsylvania. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. as shown in the sections. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 2. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. In use. as at M. after lining with brown paper. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. A circular piece about 2 in. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 17. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 16. 13. if desired. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. or red light as at K. Erie. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. these being shown in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 13. Karl Hilbrich. 16. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. screwing them each way into the boards. 6. 14. 20. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Fig. and a tank stand on it. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. are fastened in the corners inside. For beating up an egg in a glass. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. which makes it possible to have white light.in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. it is better than anything on the market. as in Fig. and a 3/8-in. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 19. The house will be much strengthened if strips. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. preferably maple or ash. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. mixing flour and water. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The handle should be at least 12 in. Fig. but not the red glass and frame. 18. 15. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as at I. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. --Contributed by W. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 1. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. though this is hardly advisable. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside.

Kansas City. Schweiger. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Yonkers. Ark. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. D. New York. L. long. for a handle. Mitchell. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Smith. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. about 3/8 in. Eureka Springs. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. To operate. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. which. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. --Contributed by Wm. as shown in the sketch. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. G. when put together properly is a puzzle. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Mo.copper should be. --Contributed by L. -Contributed by E. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility.

1. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to make it set level. Each cork is cut as in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The design shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. the box will require a greater height in front. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. After the box is trimmed. as shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. holes should be drilled in the bottom. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. which binds them together. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. especially for filling-in purposes. 3. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3. as well as improve its appearance. as shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. for the moment. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as is usually the case. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 2. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. need them. .

Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Each long projection represents a leg. drilled at right angles. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. life in the summer time is a vexation. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 1. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. cabbages. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. . as shown in Fig. F. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. But I have solved the difficulty. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. etc. Traps do no good. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. too dangerous. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin.. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 2. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. and observe results. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 3. share the same fate. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. being partly eaten into. 4. it's easy. can't use poison.

Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. the coil does not heat sufficiently. -. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. and made up and kept in large bottles.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. by trial. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. About 9-1/2 ft. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. . Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. long. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. cut in 1/2-in. Iowa. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. cut some of it off and try again. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. If. strips. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The solution can be used over and over again. of No.

and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Fig 2. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Syracuse. Morse. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. 1) removed. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. hot-water pot. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. and a strip. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. --Contributed by James M. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Y. Texas. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. D. . Stir and mix thoroughly. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. C. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Kane. --Contributed by Katharine D. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. forks. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Knives. is a good size--in this compound. coffee pot. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. it falls to stop G. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. to cause the door to swing shut. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. In cleaning silver. Pa. as shown in the sketch. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. but with unsatisfactory results. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of oleic acid with 1 gal.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Dallas. of gasoline. Doylestown. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Do not wash them. N.

Pa. . Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. later fixed and washed as usual. Fisher. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . which is. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. but unfixed. --Contributed by Oliver S. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. La. Waverly. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. using the paper dry. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Theodore L. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. negatives. Sprout.

Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The harmonograph. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. To obviate this difficulty. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. metal. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. 1. then . The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Fig.

Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. exactly one-third. as shown in the lower part of Fig. for instance. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. in diameter. is attached as shown at H. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. A small weight. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. J. which can be regulated. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. A weight. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. 1. one-fifth.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . and unless the shorter pendulum is. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Gaffney. 1-3/4 by 2 in. as shown in Fig. such as a shoe buttoner. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Rosemont. G. in the center of the circle to be cut. what is most important. one-fourth. A length of 7 ft. as long as the other. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. that is. R. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. makes respectively 3. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. ceiling. A pedestal. to prevent any side motion. The length of the short pendulum H. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Chicago. --Contributed by Wm. Another weight of about 10 lb. 1.. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Punch a hole. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work.. A small table or platform. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. or the lines will overlap and blur. is about right for a 10-ft. provides a means of support for the stylus. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Arizona. etc. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. of about 30 or 40 lb. K. Holes up to 3 in.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Ingham. --Contributed by James T. with a nail set or punch.

These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.J. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 4. distributing them over the whole card. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. then 3 as in Fig. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 3. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. a correspondent of . dividing them into quarters. -Contributed by W. Cruger. Fig. The capacity of the vise. 1. and 4 as in Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Cape May City. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. then put 2 at the top. 2. The two key cards are made alike. one for the sender and one for the receiver. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. and proceed as before. N. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Morey. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.H. --Contributed by J. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints.J. Fig. Chicago. 5. of course. 6.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.

drill 15 holes. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. 1/2 oz. acetic acid and 4 oz. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 1/4 in. of water. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Wind the successive turns of . The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. After securing the tint desired. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. After preparing the base and uprights. says Popular Electricity. wood-screws. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Augusta. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Alberta Norrell. 22 gauge German-silver wire. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. If constructed of the former. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. sheet of well made asbestos paper. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 30 gr. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. deep.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. To assemble. of the uprights. long. remove the prints. Ga. from the top and bottom. citrate of iron and ammonia. the portion of the base under the coil. respectively. --Contributed by L. of ferricyanide of potash. Cut through the center. 6 gauge wires shown. of 18-per-cent No. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.

white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Labels of some kind are needed. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. etc. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. screws. The case may be made of 1/2-in. --Contributed by Frederick E. 16 gauge copper wire. cut and dressed 1/2 in. then fasten the upright in place. Ward. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. if one is not a smoker. Small knobs may be added if desired. Ampere. rivets. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. N. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. but these are not necessary. which. Y. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. square. 14 gauge.. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. as they are usually thrown away when empty. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label.

and rub the point of the copper on it. the pure muriatic acid should be used. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. tinner's acid. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Ark. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. S. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. especially if a large tub is used. E and F. In soldering galvanized iron.. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Richmond. A. lead. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. zinc. B. or has become corroded. and one made of poplar finished black. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. C. tin. of glycerine to 16 oz. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. The material can be of any wood. of water. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Eureka Springs. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Jaquythe. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Kenosha. D. and labeled "Poison. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub.14 oz. particularly so when the iron has once been used. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. as shown in the sketch. Larson. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. brass. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. ." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. California. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. it must be ground or filed to a point. G. This is considerable annoyance. galvanized iron. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Wis. --C. --Contributed by A. sandpaper or steel wool. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Copper. being careful about the heat. then to the joint to be soldered. a piece of solder. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. If the soldering copper is an old one. --Contributed by W.

and drill out the threads. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. however. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . which gives two bound volumes each year. C. Six issues make a well proportioned book. a ring may be made from any metal. brass and silver. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Place the band. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. This completes the die. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. B. The dimensions shown in Fig. The disk will come out pan shaped. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Hankin. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. W. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter. thick and 1-1/4 in. 2. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. nut. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Take a 3/4-in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. -Contributed by H. with good results. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The punch A. round iron. 7/8 in. such as copper. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Troy. N. Fig. This will leave a clear hole. Y. Fig. Apart from this. D. The covers of the magazines are removed. wide. 1. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water.

is nailed across the top. and then to string No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. using . Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. deep. and place them against the strings in the frame. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The sections are then prepared for sewing. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Start with the front of the book. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. 1. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. which is fastened the same as the first. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Place the cardboard covers on the book. as shown in Fig. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. After drawing the thread tightly. 2. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. . Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. threaded double. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Five cuts. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. allowing about 2 in. If started with the January or the July issue. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. and a third piece. 1 in Fig. is used for the sewing material. C. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. 1. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 5. size 16 or larger. of the ends extending on each side. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 2. the thread being carried across from each tie from No.4. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. on all edges except the back. 1. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 1/8 in. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Coarse white thread.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. then back through the notch on the right side. The string No. The covering can be of cloth. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge.

The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. and. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Tinplate. round iron. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. College View. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. and mark around each one. Nebr. For the blade an old talking-machine . bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Encanto. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. --Contributed by Clyde E.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. at opposite sides to each other. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Divine. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. on which to hook the blade. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cal.

Hays.. as it is sometimes called. long. by 1 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and file in the teeth. with a steel sleeve. Moorhead. thick. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. B. as shown. or double extra heavy. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. and 1/4 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. by 4-1/2 in. E.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. A. thick. with 10 teeth to the inch. at the same end. hydraulic pipe. bore. and 1/4 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Ohio. C. -Contributed by Willard J. Then on the board put . Miss. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Summitville. fuse hole at D. Make the blade 12 in. F. and a long thread plug. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. On the upper side. and another piece (B) 6 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe.

and some No. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. H. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. 4 jars. using about 8 in. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. high around this apparatus. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Connect up as shown. the jars need not be very large. A lid may be added if desired. about 5 ft. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. of rubber-covered wire. Philadelphia. Boyd. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. of wire to each coil. some sheet copper or brass for plates. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.

. by 2 in. B and C. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. long. Their size also depends on the voltage. above the ground. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. two for each jar. is used to reduce friction. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Fig. square by 14 ft. The stock required for them is oak. 1 on switch. long by 22 in. A variation of 1/16 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 11 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 2. 30 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. long. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The top disk in jar No. oak boards. by 6 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 34 in. as they are not substantial enough.. gives full current and full speed. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. To wire the apparatus. 4 in. beginning at the rear. 7 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. wide and 2 in. 2 in. The connection between point No. Construct the auto front (Fig.the way. steel rod makes a good steering rod. two pieces 14 in. 1.. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Z. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 3 and No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. making them clear those in the front runner. two pieces 30 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp... For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 2 is lower down than in No. are important. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. by 2 in. B. long. however. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. . direct to wire across jars. 3 in. thick. or source of current. At the front 24 or 26 in. by 5 in. The current then will flow through the motor. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. B. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The sled completed should be 15 ft. as they "snatch" the ice. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. thick. by 1 in. Use no screws on the running surface. two pieces 34 in. 15-1/2 in. 3. with the cushion about 15 in. 5 on switch. 27 B. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. by 1-1/4 in. 4) of 3/4-in. Put arm of switch on point No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 16-1/2 in. wide. long. and four pieces 14 in. See Fig. wide and 3/4 in. No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. then apply a coat of thin enamel. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. and bolt through. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. sheet brass 1 in. and plane it on all edges. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and so on for No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. For the brass trimmings use No. Use no nails. wide by 3/4 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. on No. apart. 1 is connected to point No. C. An iron washer. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. On the door of the auto front put the . by 1-1/4 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. A 3/4-in. 2 and 3. & S. by 5 in. 2. and for the rear runners: A. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble.. 4. 2.. C. The illustration shows how to shape it. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. First sandpaper all the wood.

overshoes. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. a brake may be added to the sled.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. which is somewhat moist. brass plated. by 1/2 in. etc. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. may be stowed within. to improve the appearance. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. a number of boys may share in the ownership. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Fasten a horn. cutting it out of sheet brass. such as used on automobiles. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. The best way is to get some strong. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. by 30 in. or with these for $25. Then get some upholstery buttons. parcels. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. such as burlap. If desired. long. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. fasten a cord through the loop. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. cheap material. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. lunch. If the expense is greater than one can afford. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . to the wheel.

. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. Leland. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington.tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H.

First take the case of a small gearwheel. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . CD. so that the center of the blade. This guide should have a beveled edge. Fig. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. will be over the line FG. Fig. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. a compass. say 1 in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. by drawing diameters. Fig. FC. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. with twenty-four teeth. made from 1/16-in. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. from F to G. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. 4). The straight-edge. 2. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. outside diameter and 1/16 in. when flat against it. the cut will be central on the line. some files. mild steel or iron. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. E. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. The Model Engineer. sheet metal. though more difficult. Draw a circle on paper. The first tooth may now be cut. A small clearance space.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. 1. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. the same diameter as the wheel. thick. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. London. which. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 3. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. With no other tools than a hacksaw. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. 1. A bright.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. and the other outlet wire. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. ground it with a large piece of zinc. some wire and some carbons. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. B. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. No shock will be perceptible. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. R. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. 2. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. transmitter. hold in one hand. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. B. Then take one outlet wire. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. If there is no faucet in the house. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. electric lamp. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. each in the center. .

taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. as shown. Wrenn. at each end for terminals. Pa. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Emsworth. are also needed. or more of the latter has been used. For a base use a pine board 10 in. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. 36 wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry. J. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. and will then burn the string C. as indicated by E E. D D are binding posts for electric wires. by 12 in. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. A is a wooden block. under the gable. Ashland. and about that size. serves admirably. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. --Contributed by Geo. of course. B. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Dry batteries are most convenient. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. They have screw ends. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Slattery. Ohio. leaving about 10 in. and again wind the wire around it. One like a loaf of bread. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. by 1 in. If desired. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. But in this experiment. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Several battery cells. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse .A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D.

14 wire. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. D. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. B B. 2. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. C. as shown. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. From the other set of binding-posts. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect these three to switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Place 16-cp. for the . the terminal of the coil. and one single post switch. The oven is now ready to be connected. as shown. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 1. and switch. in parallel. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and the lamps. D. in series with bindingpost. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Newark. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. E. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 12 or No. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Fig. C.. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. run a No. Fig. Turn on switch. Jr. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. while C is open. These should have hollow ends. Ohio. First make a support. At one side secure two receptacles. connecting lamp receptacles. B B. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. F.wire.

although copper or steel will do. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 2. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. The core. This may be made of wood. A wooden box. Make the wire 4-1/2 in.. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. but if for a 4way. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. Fig. 4 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. a battery. drill through the entire case and valve. C. 5. Fig. 6. long. 10 turns to each layer. Montreal. 1. from the lower end. etc. 36 magnet wire instead of No. wind with plenty of No. Dussault. long and make a loop. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. The pointer or hand. 14 wire. wide and 1-3/4 in. a variable resistance. It is 1 in. inside measurements. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. to prevent it turning on the axle. 7. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 1. If for 3-way. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 1/2 in. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 4. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. deep. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. long. until the scale is full. E. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. as shown in the cut. Mine is wound with two layers of No. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. This is slipped on the pivot. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. where A is the homemade ammeter. After drilling. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. The box is 5-1/2 in. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. remove the valve.or 4-way valve or cock. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. is made of wire. Fig. is made of iron. --Contributed by J. drill a hole as shown at H.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 14. and D. 1/4 in.E. To make one. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. thick. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 4 amperes. D. 3. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. high. 5. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. is then made and provided with a glass front. a standard ammeter. drill in only to the opening already through. At a point a little above the center. D. Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 3 amperes. although brass is better.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. B.

One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. which is used for reducing the current. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. in thickness . then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. To start the light. F. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. making two holes about 1/4 in. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. By connecting the motor. E. This stopper should be pierced.performing electrical experiments. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. and a metal rod. and the arc light. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the other connects with the water rheostat. A. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. as shown. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in diameter. provided with a rubber stopper. D. high.

--Contributed by Harold L. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. Having finished the interrupter. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. B. where he is placed in an upright open . should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 1. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Turn on the current and press the button. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. If all adjustments are correct. A. A piece of wood. 2. N. as shown in C. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. long. 2. Y. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. If the interrupter does not work at first. 1. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. as shown in B. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Jones. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Fig. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Carthage. Fig. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. As there shown. To insert the lead plate. Fig.

A. and must be thoroughly cleansed. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. L and M. is constructed as shown in the drawings. especially L. with the exception of the glass. All . When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. to aid the illusion. by 7-1/2 in. figures and lights. could expect from a skeleton. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. which can be run by three dry cells. The model. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The glass should be the clearest possible. If it is desired to place the box lower down. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and can be bought at Japanese stores. should be miniature electric lamps. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. from which the gong has been removed. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. They need to give a fairly strong light. dressed in brilliant. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. giving a limp. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. within the limits of an ordinary room.. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. as the entire interior. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. by 7 in. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. and wave his arms up and down. especially the joints and background near A. loosejointed effect. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. until it is dark there. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. If everything is not black. inside dimensions. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. should be colored a dull black.coffin. Its edges should nowhere be visible. high. The lights. the illusion will be spoiled. light-colored garments. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine.

one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. as shown in the sketch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. after which it assumes its normal color. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Two finishing nails were driven in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. If a gradual transformation is desired. placed about a foot apart. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. W. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. --Contributed by Geo. square block. San Jose. fat spark. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Cal. Fry. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs.

The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. In Fig. If a lighted match . B and C. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. hydrogen gas is generated. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. -Contributed by Dudley H. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. as shown. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. A (see sketch). or a solution of sal soda. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. One of these plates is connected to metal top. This is a wide-mouth bottle. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. into the receiver G. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. Cohen. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. with two tubes. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. soldered in the top. F. New York. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. the remaining space will be filled with air.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. The plates are separated 6 in. 1. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. to make it airtight.

is made by drilling a 1/8in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A. long. 1-5/16 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. as is shown in the illustration. 1/2 in. copper pipe. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. says the Model Engineer. copper pipe. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. or by direct contact with another magnet. A nipple.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. A. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. If desired. Fig. from the bottom. C C. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A. A 1/64-in. and the ends of the tube. B. by means of the clips. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. 2 shows the end view. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. in diameter and 6 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. London. A. should be only 5/16 of an inch. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. Fig. N. of No. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. 1. long. N. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. then a suitable burner is necessary. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . P. which forms the vaporizing coil. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. which is plugged up at both ends. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The distance between the nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar.

should be cut to the diameter of the can. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. at the front and back for fly leaves. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. taking care not to bend the iron. Fig. Fig. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. fold and cut it 1 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. longer and 1/4 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. cut to the size of the pages. leaving the folded edge uncut. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. A disk of thin sheet-iron. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Cut four pieces of cardboard. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. with a fine saw.lamp cord. Turn the book over and paste the other side. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. but if the paper knife cannot be used. about 8 or 10 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. larger all around than the book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Take two strips of stout cloth. 1/4 in. 2). trim both ends and the front edge. smoothly. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. boards and all. duck or linen. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). this makes a much nicer book. 3. 1.

A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is soldered onto tank A. A. which will just slip inside the little can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown. the joint will be gas tight. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. is fitted in it and soldered. E. Bedford City. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. B. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. H. 4). is perforated with a number of holes. deep. Noble. 18 in. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. A gas cock. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. as shown in the sketch. without a head. or rather the top now. in diameter and 30 in. Another tank. Toronto. Ont. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. pasting them down (Fig. This will cause some air to be enclosed. D. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. C. but its diameter is a little smaller. Va. Parker. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Another can. In the bottom. . is made the same depth as B. --Contributed by James E. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. --Contributed by Joseph N. and a little can. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. of tank A is cut a hole. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back.

If the pushbutton A is closed. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. 1. fastened in the bottom.. If the back armature. D. -Contributed by H. as shown at C. S. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. should be 3/8 in. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. and about 26 in. 2. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. D. The diagonal struts. Fig. The small guards. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Beverly. The armature. A. A A. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. C. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. long. should be cut a little too long. N. when finished. J. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. H is a square knot. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. to prevent splitting. B. square by 42 in. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. The longitudinal corner spines.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The wiring diagram. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. making the width. tacks. long. which may be either spruce. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. with an electric-bell magnet. and sewed double to give extra strength. by 1/2 in. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. which moves to either right or left. should be 1/4 in. E. are shown in detail at H and J. thus adjusting the . Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. shows how the connections are to be made. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. exactly 12 in. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Fig. The bridle knots. basswood or white pine. Bott. and the four diagonal struts. B. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying.

--Contributed by A. Clay Center. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. D. as shown. and if a strong wind is blowing. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. that refuse to slide easily. --Contributed by Edw. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Kan. the batteries do not run down for a long time. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Chicago. and. however. can be made of a wooden . If the kite is used in a light wind. to prevent slipping. with gratifying results. A bowline knot should be tied at J. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters.lengths of F and G. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. shift toward F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. thus shortening G and lengthening F. for producing electricity direct from heat. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Stoddard. E. Harbert.

when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. with a number of nails. and the current may then be detected by means. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Then. 14 or No. When the cannon is loaded. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. F. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. by means of machine screws or. A and B. A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . --Contributed by A. A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. to the cannon. Chicago. The wood screw. C. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. B. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. in position.. with a pocket compass. E. 16 single-covered wire.frame. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. E. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. placed on top. which conducts the current into the cannon. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Fasten a piece of wood. C. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. D. and also holds the pieces of wood. A. C.

To lock the door. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. within the reach of the magnet. when in position at A'. A and S. --Contributed by Henry Peck. 1. 1. To reverse. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Ohio. but no weights or strings. B. Connect as shown in the illustration. A. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. in this position the door is locked. Big Rapids. To unlock the door. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. to receive the screw in the center. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. A and S. requiring a strong magnet. now at A' and S'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. L. with the long arm at L'. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. where there is a staple. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Marion. press the button. H. Mich. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Fig. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. 1. Bend the strips BB (Fig. In Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. .the current is shut off. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Chicago. --Contributed by Joseph B. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. square and 3/8 in. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. A hole for a 1/2 in. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. screw is bored in the block. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Keil.

and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Mass. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. pipe with 1-2-in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. about 18 in. are enameled a jet black. When ready for use. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. put in the handle. and may be made at very slight expense. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. hole. Thread the other end of the pipe. The standard and base. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. if enameled white on the concave side.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and C is a dumbbell. J. When the holes are finished and your lines set. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. West Somerville. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if desired the handles may . a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. --Contributed by C. Rand. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. long. gas-pipe. or for microscopic work. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.

be covered with leather. across. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. high by 1 ft. M. This peculiar property is also found in ice. across. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. E. Any old pail which is thick enough will do.. inside the pail. long and 8 in. Warren. D. with a cover. 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. A. Mass. --Contributed by C. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. Fig. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . 1. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. as shown at A in the sketch. Fig. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. B.

and 3/4 in.. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. After removing all the paper. cutting the hole a little smaller. and with especial caution the first time. E. Whatever burner is used. Wind about 1/8 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. passing wire nails through and clinching them. hotel china. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. and your kiln is ready for business. 1330°. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends.-G. pipe. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. projecting from each end (Fig. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. strip of sheet iron. thick. long. It is placed inside the kiln. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 2. say 1/4 in. bottom and sides. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Fig. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. let this dry thoroughly. as is shown in the sketch. 2 in. if there is to be any glazing done. layer of the clay mixture. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 1). wider than the kiln. about 1 in. L. carefully centering it. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. pipe 2-ft. Line the pail. C. full length of iron core. W. which is the hottest part. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. the firing should be gradual. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. If the cover of the pail has no rim. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. make two wood ends. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. sand. C. 1).. 25%.. 15%. as dictated by fancy and expense. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. C. After finishing the core. pack this space-top. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and graphite. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. 60%. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 1390°-1410°. thick. if you have the materials. to hold the clay mixture. This done.mixture of clay. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. and on it set the paper wrapped core. but will be cheaper in operation. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. such . long over the lid hole as a chimney. in diameter. of fine wire. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and varnish. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. When lighted. and cut it 3-1/2 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. The 2 in. 3) with false top and bottom. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. hard porcelain. in diameter. but it will burn a great deal of gas. the point of the blue flame. diameter. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and 3/8 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. Fit all the parts together snugly. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. or make one yourself.

D. B. C. 8 in. the next black. diameter. all cards facing the same way. as in Fig. as in Fig. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Take the red cards. You can display either color called for. and plane off about 1/16 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Then. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. square them up. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Washington. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. length of . 1. The funnel.. taking care to have the first card red. red and black. 2. about 1/16 in. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. square them up and place in a vise. and divide it into two piles. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. R.53 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. procure a new deck. as shown in the sketch herewith. around the coil. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. leaving long terminals. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. every alternate card being the same color. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Chicago. A. overlaps and rests on the body. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. T. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Then take the black cards. and discharges into the tube. 2). C. 2. . How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. C. --Contributed by J. and so on. with a plane.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. bind tightly with black silk. Of course. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich.

If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. A. To find the fall of snow. Let . the same ends will come together again. B. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Long Branch. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. so that when they are assembled. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. angle iron for the frame. stove bolts. to form a dovetail joint as shown. B. thus making all the holes coincide. When the glass is put in the frame a space. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one.. E. 1 gill of fine white sand. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. as the difficulties increase with the size. and this is inexpensive to build. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. The cement. B. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. about 20 in. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. It should be placed in an exposed location. A. D. 1. the first thing to decide on is the size. F. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. The bottom glass should be a good fit. of the frame. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. so it is filled up with plaster of paris.C. N. C. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. and then the frame is ready to assemble.J. All the horizontal pieces. 1 gill of litharge. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. through the holes already drilled. stove bolts. The upright pieces. E. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Fig.

D.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. if desired. to the door knob. Fig. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. having a swinging connection at C. A. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Fasten the lever. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a centerpiece (A. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Aquarium Finished If desired. B.

Y. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. F. long.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. showing the paddle-wheel in position. E. 6 in. 26 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 1. and Fig. Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. PAUL S. wide . One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. long. long. Cut two pieces 30 in. according to the slant given C. White. will open the door about 1/2 in. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. N. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. D. to form the slanting part. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. but mark their position on the frame. thus doing away with the spring. several lengths of scantling 3 in. To make the frame. another. screwed to the door frame. which is 15 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. another. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. approximately 1 ft. as at E. Fig. C. 1 . to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. AA. A small piece of spring brass. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. I referred this question to my husband. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. wide by 1 in. and another. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. to keep the frame from spreading. B. Buffalo. for the top. Do not fasten these boards now. 2 is an end view. to form the main supports of the frame. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Cut two of them 4 ft. 2 at GG. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. long. soldered to the end of the cylinder. They are shown in Fig.. from the outside top of the frame. 1. 2 ft. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley.

galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Take the side pieces.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in.burlap will do -. When it has cooled. These are the paddles. Fasten them in their proper position. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Tack one side on. hole to form the bearings. and drill a 1-in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. after which drill a 5/8 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Make this hole conical. thick. steel shaft 12 in. holes. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. from one end by means of a key. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 2) form a substantial base. Fig. remove the cardboard. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. GG. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. and drill a 1/8-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. in diameter. hole through them. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. 2) and another 1 in. (I. Now block the wheel. that is. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. 1. tapering from 3/16 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . 24 in. and a 1/4 -in. iron. take down the crosspieces. then drill a 3/16-in. Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. thick (HH. with the wheel and shaft in place. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through their sides centrally. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. to a full 1/2 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. hole through its center. long to the wheel about 8 in. by 1-1/2 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. 4. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). long and filling it with babbitt metal. pipe. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. Drill 1/8-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. 2) with a 5/8-in.

start the motor. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. If sheet-iron is used. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. The best plate to use is a very slow one. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. on the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. light and the plate. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Darken the rest of the window. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. but as it would have cost several times as much. Correct exposure depends. Do not stop down the lens. Drill a hole through the zinc. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. If the bearings are now oiled. drill press. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Focus the camera carefully. shutting out all light from above and the sides. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. ice-cream freezer. it would be more durable. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. as shown in the sketch at B. of course. as this makes long exposure necessary. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. or what is called a process plate. sewing machine. but now I put them in the machine. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and leave them for an hour or so. Raise the window shade half way. . the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and as near to it as possible. It is obvious that. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. place the outlet over a drain. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.a water-tight joint. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. any window will do. says the Photographic Times. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. and the subject may move. remove any white curtains there may be. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine.

which is made of iron and cork. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. B.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. with binding posts as shown. as shown in Fig. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. or can be taken from an old magnet. and a base. a core. C. D. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. 2. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. the core is drawn down out of sight. an empty pill bottle may be used. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. and without fog. The core C. The glass tube may be a test tube. by twisting. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. hard rubber. without detail in the face. as a slight current will answer. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. On completing . or wood. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. until the core slowly rises. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The current required is very small. 2. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. With a piece of black paper. a glass tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. full of water. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. A. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or an empty developer tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No.

1 pt. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. white lead. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and one not easy to explain. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. is Benham's color top. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . according to his control of the current. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. and are changed by reversing the rotation. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and make a pinhole in the center. finest graphite. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. whale oil. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. 1 lb. water and 3 oz.Interior View the circuit the core will descend.

When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A. especially if the deck is a new one. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. fan-like. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. C. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. deuce. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. As this device is easily upset. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. In making hydrogen. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. Chicago. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig.L. when the action ceases. B. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. thus partly filling bottles A and C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. -Contributed by D. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. before cutting. nearly every time. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. In prize games. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done.B. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. or three spot. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.

12 in. J. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. S. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Jr.. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. long and 3 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. in diameter. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 3). 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 1. 2. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. long. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Detail of Phonograph Horn . S. Form a cone of heavy paper. --Contributed by C. 10 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Make a 10-sided stick. Bently. (Fig. Huron. --Contributed by F. that will fit loosely in the tube A.. in length and 3 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Fig. 4. as shown in Fig. W. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detroit. 9 in. Dak. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Fig. .

An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. C.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. and walk in. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. with a pin driven in each end. A. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. but bends toward D. E. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. on one side and the top. Fortunately. allowing 1 in. Cut out paper sections (Fig. push back the bolt. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. --Contributed by Reader. 6. it is equally easy to block that trick. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. bend it at right angles throughout its length. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Denver. Remove the form. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. about the size of a leadpencil. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. will cause an increased movement of C. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fig. A second piece of silk thread. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. long. making it three-ply thick. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. A piece of tin.

are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Paul. The reverse switch. B.. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . are made 2 by 4 in. The upper switch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. long. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. S S. put together as shown in the sketch. and rest on a brick placed under each end.. or left to right. R. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. B. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Minn. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. 4 ft. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. is connected each point to a battery. A.strip. will last for several years. By this arrangement one. Jr. Two wood-base switches. The feet. S. W. S. Fremont Hilscher. long. posts. as shown. West St. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. --Contributed by J. while the lower switch. are 7 ft. The 2 by 4-in.

If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and valve crank S. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. Fig. and in Fig. and has two wood blocks. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 1. or anything available. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The valve motion is shown in Figs. FF. is an old bicycle pump. The steam chest D. E. The base is made of wood. pulley wheel. with two washers. In Fig. cut in half. and a cylindrical . The piston is made of a stove bolt. 2 and 3. and the crank bearing C. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. 2. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Fig. which is made of tin. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 3/8 in. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. the other parts being used for the bearing B. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. H and K. The hose E connects to the boiler. which will be described later. thick. either an old sewing-machine wheel. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire.every house. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B.

at that.piece of hard wood. C. Fry. . as shown in Fig. 4. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. --Contributed by Geo. of Cuba. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and a very amusing trick. This is wound with soft string. Fig. The boiler. The valve crank S. G. Cal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. or galvanized iron. Eustice. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. J. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. can be an old oil can. to receive the connecting rod H. Fig. Schuh and A. and saturated with thick oil. First. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. is cut out of tin. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. W. as it is merely a trick of photography. G. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. San Jose. Wis. using the positive wire as a pen. 3. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. This engine was built by W. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. 1. and the desired result is obtained. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. powder can. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly.

and place a bell on the four ends. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. When turning. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. B. as shown. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. diameter.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. as shown at AA. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Cut half circles out of each stave. Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. B. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. to cross in the center. 1 will be seen to rotate. They may be of any size. C. Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and pass ropes around . Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The smaller wheel.

from the transmitter. Mo. St. produces a higher magnifying power). A (a short spool. Louis. From a piece of thin . having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. To make this lensless microscope. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. but not on all. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. which accounts for the sound. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. as shown in the illustration. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. W.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.. This in turn will act on the transmitter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. long. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.G.M. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. --Contributed by H. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. procure a wooden spool. such as clothes lines.

The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and look through the hole D.. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. E. is fastened at each end by pins. D. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and at the center. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. place a small object on the transparent disk. bent as shown. fastened to a wooden base. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. darting across the field in every direction. A. D. the diameter will appear twice as large. The pivot..) But an object 3/4-in. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. is made of iron. C. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. 1. otherwise the image will be blurred. 2. B. To use this microscope. e. i. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. the object should be of a transparent nature. An innocent-looking drop of water. which are pieces of hard wood. B. or 64 times. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. Viewed through this microscope. Fig. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. the diameter will appear three times as large. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. C. by means of brads. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. can be made of brass and the armature. 3. if the distance is reduced to one-half. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. H. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. The lever. The spring. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. held at arm's length. (The area would appear 64 times as large. in which hay has been soaking for several days. as in all microscopes of any power. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and so on. which costs little or nothing to make. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. . cut out a small disk.

2. connection of D to nail. The door. KEY-A. wide. Fig. and are connected to the contacts. A switch. C. long by 16 in. in length and 16 in. can be made panel as shown. The binding posts. thick. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 1. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. The base of the key. wide. K. which are made to receive a pivot. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wood. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. 26 wire: E. long and 14-1/2 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. Cut the top. AA. brass: B. wide.SOUNDER-A. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. D. C. wood: F. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. should be about 22 in. FF. D. E. wide and about 20 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. brass: E. brass. long. soft iron. Each side. binding posts: H spring The stop. B. B. . The back. K. nail soldered on A. similar to the one used in the sounder. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. or a single piece. fastened near the end. wide and set in between sides AA. F. D. between the armature and the magnet. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 16 in. wide. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. Fig. HH. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. A. coils wound with No. DD. brass or iron soldered to nail. wood: C.

Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. long. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Make 12 cleats. AA. 13-1/2 in. cut in them. In operation. as shown. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. as shown in the sketch. Garfield. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. E. Ill. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. material. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. When the electrical waves strike the needle. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. with 3/4-in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch.. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . brads.

An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. --Contributed by John Koehler. and. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. The cord is also fastened to a lever. the magnet. E. N. Fairport. When the pipe is used. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. --Contributed by R. J. A. F. Pushing the wire. when used with a motor. and thus decreases the resistance. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. down into the water increases the surface in contact. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. will give a greater speed. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. Y. B. Ridgewood. filled with water. Brown. N. C. through which a piece of wire is passed. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. A (see sketch). a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. in order to increase the surface. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. A fairly stiff spring. pulls down the armature. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor.

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Of course. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. N. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. --Contributed by Perry A. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. even those who read this description. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. B. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Gachville. if desired.for the secret contact. Borden. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch.

Two drawers are fitted in this space. long and 5 in. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. With about 9 ft. for 6-in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Dobson. C. records and 5-5/8 in. . long and full 12-in. J. Jr. E. in a semicircle 2 in. Cal. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. records. C. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. as shown in Fig. The three shelves are cut 25-in. --Contributed by Dr. 2. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. deep and 3/4 in. The top board is made 28-in.whenever the bell rings. Nails for stops are placed at DD. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. from the bottom. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in.. --Contributed by H. where the other end of wire is fastened. wide. Connect switch to post B. A. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. 1. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. for 10in. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. From a piece of brass a switch. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Washington. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. apart. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Mangold. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. as shown in Fig. and on both sides of the middle shelf. D. H. N. Compton. wide. thick and 12-in. East Orange.

as shown by the dotted lines. A. Va. closed. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Roanoke.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . which in operation is bent. When the cord is passed over pulley C. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. to which is fastened a cord. 1. E. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown in Fig. B.

leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Figs. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. square and 7/8 in. excepting the crank and tubing. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. deep. in diameter.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. Fig. Now put all these parts together. through one of these holes. 5) when they are placed. thick (A. they will bind. 1 in. CC. they will let the air through. Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. thick. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. long. against which the rubber tubing. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. The crankpin should fit tightly. in diameter. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 1 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. holes (HH. is compressed by wheels. These wheels should be 3/4 in. B. which should be about 1/2 in. it too loose. Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. wide. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Figs. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Do not fasten the sides too . In the sides (Fig. Put the rubber tube. E. Bore two 1/4 in. 3. in diameter. Notice the break (S) in the track. wide. E. D. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. In these grooves place wheels. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Cut two grooves. 1. 3). 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. apart. If the wheels fit too tightly. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. one in each end. in diameter. deep and 1/2 in. as shown in the illustration.

long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Fig. The animal does not fear to enter the box. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. from each end. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 2. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. A in Fig. Idana. tubing. beyond each of these two. 1. --Contributed by Dan H. The screen which is shown in Fig. iron. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from that mark the next hole. Kan. To use the pump. and mark for a hole. from each end. Two feet of 1/4-in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. 1. AA. Hubbard. though a small iron wheel is better. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. mark for hole and 3 in. Fig. because he can . and are 30 in. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 15 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. a platform should be added. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. of material. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. 1. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. the pump will give a steady stream. 2. B. stands 20 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. For ease in handling the pump. and 3-1/2 in. is all the expense necessary.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Take the center of the bar. The three legs marked BBB. AA. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. mark again. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. from the bottom and 2 in. 17-1/2 in. long. Fig. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Cut six pieces. costing 10 cents. from each end. In the two cross bars 1 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back.

Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. and the solution (Fig. When through using the battery. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. To cause a flow of electricity. acid 1 part). 1) must be prepared. --Contributed by H. silvery appearance. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. The truncated. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Philadelphia. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. and touches the bait the lid is released and. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. or small electric motors. dropping. add slowly. however. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. potassium bichromate. When the bichromate has all dissolved. 4 oz. The battery is now complete.see through it: when he enters. long having two thumb screws. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. or. there is too much liquid in the jar. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Meyer. shuts him in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. until it is within 3 in. C. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. If the solution touches the zinc. 14 copper wire. stirring constantly. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. sulphuric acid. 2). and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. but if one casts his own zinc. The mercury will adhere. It is useful for running induction coils. of the top. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. giving it a bright. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. If it is wet. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. of water dissolve 4 oz. rub the zinc well. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The battery is now ready for use. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If the battery has been used before. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Place the carbon in the jar. some of it should be poured out. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. .

however. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. the jump-spark coil . Wis. i. which opens the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.Fig. If. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. while the coal door is being opened. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Madison. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. the battery circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. After putting in the coal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use..1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. with slight changes. The price of the coil depends upon its size. e.

14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. which is made of light copper wire. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. and closer for longer distances. . coil. 6. 5. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. This will make an excellent receiver. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 6. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. W W. 7. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7). and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. apart. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used.7.described elsewhere in this book. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. while a 12-in. Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. This coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. diameter. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. the full length of the coil. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. being a 1-in. Change the coil described. as shown in Fig. After winding. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. made of No. in a straight line from top to bottom. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 7. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. in a partial vacuum. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. W W. as shown in Fig.

are analogous to the flow of induction. . to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. above the ground. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. at any point to any metal which is grounded. after all. in the air. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. A large cone pulley would then be required. being at right angles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. Figs. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. using an electric motor and countershaft. and hence the aerial line. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. being vertical. only. to the direction of the current. For an illustration. but it could be run by foot power if desired. which will be described later. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. as it matches the color well. No. B the bed and C the tailstock. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. Run a wire from the other binding post. 1). A. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The writer does not claim to be the originator.6 stranded. These circles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. I run my lathe by power. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 90°. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water.The aerial line. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. where A is the headstock. 90°. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. may be easily made at very little expense. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 1 to 4.

Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The bolts B (Fig. thick. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. pitch and 1/8 in. tapered wooden pin. 5. but not hot enough to burn it. just touching the shaft. 2 and 3. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 4. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. After pouring. which are let into holes FIG. 6 Headstock Details D. If the bearing has been properly made. too. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The bearing is then ready to be poured. A. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. To make these bearings. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. on the under side of the bed. and Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. 5. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. and runs in babbitt bearings. Heat the babbitt well. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 6. 4. B. Fig. The headstock. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. deep.

If not perfectly true.J. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. The tail stock (Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. embedded in the wood. Oak Park. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. lock nut. B. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. so I had to buy one. the alarm is easy to fix up. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Newark. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. If one has a wooden walk. FIG. they may be turned up after assembling. N. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Ill. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. This prevents corrosion. and a 1/2-in. A. of the walk . To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical.other machines. Take up about 5 ft.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.

For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. add potassium cyanide again. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Fig. so that they will not touch. Do not touch the work with the hands again. To avoid touching it. 2). as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. to roughen the surface slightly. S. --Contributed by R. Then make the solution . Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Minneapolis. to remove all traces of grease.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. save when a weight is on the trap. hang the articles on the wires. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. and the alarm is complete. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Jackson. silver or other metal. before dipping them in the potash solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. leaving a clear solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Connect up an electric bell. (A. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. water. of water. Minn. clean the articles thoroughly. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Finally.

and 4 volts for very small ones. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and the larger part (F. A 1/4 in. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Take quick. 3) strikes the bent wire L. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. B should be of the same wood. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. of clothesline rope and some No. as at F. as shown in Fig. 1. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. --Model Engineer. pewter. Having finished washing the precipitate. saw a piece of wood. A (Fig. which is advised. 1). 10 in. silver can be plated direct. On brass. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. when the point of the key touches the tin. nickel and such metals. with the pivot 2 in. if one does not possess a buffing machine. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. 18 wire. with water. thick by 3 in. Before silver plating. which . square. Make a somewhat larger block (E. This solution. I. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. shaking. piece of broomstick. Screw the two blocks together. If accumulators are used. The wooden block C.up to 2 qt. Repeat six times. copper. Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. but opens the door. hole in its center. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. such metals as iron. long. of water. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. use 2 volts for large articles. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. make a key and keyhole. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. an old electric bell or buzzer. lead. 1 in. 3) directly over the hole.5 to 4 volts. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Then. zinc. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. To provide the keyhole. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. The wooden catch. and then treated as copper. about 25 ft. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. from the lower end. Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Can be made of a 2-in. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. With an electric pressure of 3. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. will serve for the key. light strokes. a circuit is completed. Fig. Fig. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. When all this is set up. long. with water. 1). also. 3. 1 not only unlocks. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. a hand scratch brush is good. which is held by catch B. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. If more solution is required. must be about 1 in. German silver.

1. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The magician stands in front of this. B. New Jersey. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Heavy metal objects. One thing changes to another and back again. and hands its contents round to the audience. East Orange. 2. a few simple tools. Fig. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). On either side of the box. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. or cave. Objects appear and disappear. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. heighten the illusion. so much the better. In front of you. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. one-third of the length from the remaining end. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. sides and end. cut in one side. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Fig. in his shirt sleeves. to throw the light toward the audience. 0. he tosses it into the cave. floor. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. the requisites are a large soap box. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. half way from open end to closed end. One end is removed. with the lights turned low. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. Thus. spoons and jackknives. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm.. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. H. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. which unlocks the door. He removes the bowl from the black box. The interior must be a dead black. is the cut through which the rope runs. between the parlor and the room back of it. such as forks. Next. H. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Receiving the bowl again. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. he points with one finger to the box. although a little more trouble. 2. --Contributed by E. Fig. Klipstein. the box should be painted black both inside and out. no painting inside is required. 116 Prospect St. Next. and plenty of candles. 1. top. 3. with a switch as in Fig. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. enlarged. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. To prepare such a magic cave. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. some black cloth. Fig. should be cut a hole. shows catch B. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and a slit. . H. surrounding a perfectly black space. The box must be altered first. some black paint. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and black art reigns supreme. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. the illumination in front must be arranged.

of course. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and pours them from the bag into a dish. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and several black drop curtains. his confederate behind inserts his hand. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which are let down through the slit in the top. The audience room should have only low lights. is on a table) so much the better. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. if. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. was identical with this. which can be made to dance either by strings. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. of course. a screen must be used. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Consequently. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The illusion.Finally. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The exhibitor should be . one on each side of the box. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. only he. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. you must have an assistant. the room where the cave is should be dark. But illusions suggest themselves. had a big stage. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. into the eyes of him who looks. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and if portieres are impossible. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. as presented by Hermann. in which are oranges and apples.

if you turn handle K to the right.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Then. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c1. square. and a common screw. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right.. b2. A. and c1 – electricity. Fig. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . b1. by means of two wood screws. and c4 + electricity. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c2. and c2 to the zinc. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch.a boy who can talk. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. is shown in the diagram. 2. About the center piece H moves a disk. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. as shown in Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. held down on it by two terminals. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. vice versa. FIG.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. respectively. at L. by 4 in. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. held down by another disk F (Fig. respectively. 2). A represents a pine board 4 in. 1. d. Finally. with three brass strips. so arranged that. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. On the disk G are two brass strips. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 1. or b2. c4. terminal c3 will show . e1 and e2. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c3. making contact with them. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). respectively. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. or binding posts. making contact with them as shown at y. terminal c3 will show +. b2. f2. 2. b3. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b3.

5. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. from four batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).. when on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Ohio. from five batteries. . thus making the message audible in the receiver. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. E. you have the current of one battery. Newark. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. from three batteries. B is a onepoint switch. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and C and C1 are binding posts. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when A is on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. and when on No. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 3. Joerin. 1. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. When switch B is closed and A is on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 4. jump spark coil. Jr. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Tuttle. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. -Contributed by A.

Thus. New Orleans. A. and placed on the windowsill of the car. per second for each second. of Burlington. Handy Electric Alarm . An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. over the bent portion of the rule. mark. P. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Redmond. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. La. When you do not have a graduate at hand. rule.. is the device of H. mark. and supporting the small weight.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. as shown in the sketch. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. B. The device thus arranged. so one can see the time. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. which may be a button or other small object. A. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A. E. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. per second. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Wis. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. traveled by the thread.

When the alarm goes off. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. . Lane. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. --Contributed by Gordon T. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. thus turning on the small incandescent light G.which has a piece of metal. and with the same result. C. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Instead. Then if a mishap comes. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. --C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. but may be closed at F any time desired. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. which illuminates the face of the clock. soldered to the alarm winder. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Pa. wrapping the wire around the can several times. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. S. B. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. for a wetting is the inevitable result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Crafton.

L. small machinery parts. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. models and miniature objects. 1. Two cleats. as shown in Fig. whence it is soon tracked into the house. 1 . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. The first thing to make is a molding bench. ornaments of various kinds. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. If there is no foundry Fig.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. battery zincs. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and many other interesting and useful articles. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. A. --Contributed by A. AA. when it is being prepared.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. New York City. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. With the easily made devices about to be described. bearings. engines. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. as shown. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. and duplicates of all these. cannons. C. which may. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. but it is a mistake to try to do this. BE. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Macey. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. binding posts.

" or upper half. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A wedge-shaped piece. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. The flask.near at hand. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. CC. If desired the sieve may be homemade. II . Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose.How to Make a Mold [96] . The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. a little larger than the outside of the flask. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. The dowels. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. try using sand from other sources. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. say 12 in. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. G. D. It is made of wood and is in two halves. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. 2. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. F. The cloth bag. If the box is not very strong. and the lower pieces." or lower part. as shown. high. white metal. makes a very good sieve. and the "drag. Fig. will be required.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. 2 . and saw it in half longitudinally. DD. which should be nailed in. A slight shake of the bag Fig. is filled with coal dust. which can be made of a knitted stocking. by 8 in. J. An old teaspoon. 1. E. as shown. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and a sieve. but this operation will be described more fully later on. is nailed to each end of the cope. CC. by 6 in. previous to sawing. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. H. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A A. 1. the "cope. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and this. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which can be either aluminum. is made of wood. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. is shown more clearly in Fig. The rammer. Fig. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. is about the right mesh.

and then more sand is added until Fig. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. or "drag. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. and by grasping with both hands. and thus judge for himself. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. as it is much easier to learn by observation. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. the surface of the sand at . as shown. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as described. After ramming. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. where they can watch the molders at work." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. or "cope. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured." in position. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as shown at E. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at C. and scatter about 1/16 in. in order to remove the lumps. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and if water is added. It is then rammed again as before. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. In finishing the ramming. as shown at D. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. Place another cover board on top. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. The sand is then ready for molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. turn the drag other side up. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry.

as shown in the sketch. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. to give the air a chance to escape. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. in diameter.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. after being poured. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. This is done with a spoon. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. made out of steel rod. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. it shows that the sand is too wet. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. as shown at H. thus holding the crucible securely. is next cut. as shown at H. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. wide and about 1/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown at F. . The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. After drawing the pattern. as shown at J. III. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. deep. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Place a brick or other flat. Fig. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. 4 -Pouring the Metal If." or pouring-hole. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. thus making a dirty casting. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. The "sprue. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. and then pour. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at G. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. the next operation is that of melting and pouring.

A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. babbitt. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. and. the following device will be found most convenient. --Contributed by Harold S. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. white metal and other scrap available. battery zincs. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. although somewhat expensive. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. but any reasonable number may be used. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Although the effect in the illustration . In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. If a good furnace is available. 15% lead. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. or from any adjacent pair of cells. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. may be used in either direction. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. In my own case I used four batteries. Morton. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Referring to the figure. used only for zinc. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Minneapolis. and the casting is then ready for finishing.

Then walk down among the audience. --Contributed by Draughtsman. outward. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. 2. as shown at A. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Fig. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Put a sharp needle point. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. may be made of hardwood. which will be sufficient to hold it. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. By replacing the oars with paddles. B. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. shaft made. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. as shown in the illustration. Chicago. A. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Make one of these pieces for each arm. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. connected by cords to the rudder. The brass rings also appear distorted. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. backward. The bearings. says a correspondent of the Sphinx.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. If desired. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. To make it take a sheet-iron band. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. 3/4 in. Then replace the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required.

1. and a weight. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 3. should be made of wood. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The hubs. The covers. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 2 and 3. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 2. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. A block of ice. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°.melted babbitt. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. or the paint will come off. If galvanized iron is used. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 1. C. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. It may seem strange that ice . such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Fig. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. A. but when in motion. W. If babbitt is used. spoiling its appearance. E. being simply finely divided ice. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. D. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. when it will again return to its original state. In the same way. or under pressure. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. Snow. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig.

This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. square. Crafton. but. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. by 1/4. brass. Pressing either push button. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. as shown on page 65. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in.should flow like water. The rate of flow is often very slow. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . P. by 5 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. it will gradually change from the original shape A. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. --Contributed by Gordon T. which resembles ice in this respect. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. no matter how slow the motion may be. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. whenever there is any connection made at all. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Pa. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. B. by 1/2 in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in.. in. or supporting it in some similar way. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. and assume the shape shown at B. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Lane. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but by placing it between books. as per sketch. by 2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. sometimes only one or two feet a day. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. thus giving a high resistance contact.

the induction coil. The parts are: A.000 ft. I. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. as shown. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. pulleys. The success depends upon a slow current. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer.thumb screws. the battery. draft. as shown. horizontal lever. J. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. F. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Ward. --Contributed by A. G. about the size used for automobiles. B. draft chain. Indianapolis. Wilkinsburg. D. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. furnace. H. weight. C. B. vertical lever. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. A is the circuit breaker. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. cord. G. and five dry batteries. Pa. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. In the wiring diagram. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. K . a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. wooden supports. and C. E. alarm clock.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. which will provide a fine place for the plants. will fit nicely in them. material framed together as shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2 are dressed to the right angle. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. 3. Mich. The frame (Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Artistic Window Boxes The top. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. as well as the bottom. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. Kalamazoo. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. such as used for a storm window.

N. i. which sells for 25 cents. can be connected up in series. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. 1 cp. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. as indicated by Fig. by connecting them in series. so as to increase the current. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. e.. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Canada. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. This is more economical than dry cells. S. and a suitable source of power.. is something that will interest the average American boy. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. Grant. W. and the instrument will then be complete. in diameter. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. However. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. The 1/2-cp. where they are glad to have them taken away. 1. A certain number of these. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. one can regulate the batteries as required. --Contributed by Wm. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. but maintain the voltage constant.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. a cork and a needle. Push the needle into the cork. However. after a rest. It must be remembered. this must be done with very great caution. Halifax. Thus. in any system of lamps. multiples of series of three. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary.. in this connection. 1 each complete with base. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. and will give the . for some time very satisfactorily. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. as if drawn upon for its total output. and cost 27 cents FIG.

while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. 3. 11 series. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. generates the power for the lights. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. In conclusion. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. double insulated wire wherever needed. which is the same as that of one battery. 2 shows the scheme. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. where the water pressure is the greatest. Chicago. If wound for 10 volts. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. Fig. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 1-cp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance.. lamp. lamps. and running the series in parallel. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. . but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. especially those of low internal resistance. 18 B & S. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Thus. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. by the proper combination of these. FIG. if wound for 6 volts. as in Fig. or 22 lights. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and for Christmas trees. each. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. according to the water pressure obtainable. Thus. and then lead No. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt.proper voltage. we simply turn on the water. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. These will give 3 cp. lamps. for display of show cases. to secure light by this method. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. making. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. So. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. However. although the first cost is greater. and diffused light in a room. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage.

simply change the switch. CC. --Contributed by F. as shown in the sketch. Santa Clara. or from one pattern. B. . B. DD. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Emig. switch. Plymouth. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. A. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Cal.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. AA. field of motor. and C. we were not bothered with them. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. and the sides. or a tempting bone. To reverse the motor. outside points of switch. Parker. bars of pole-changing switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. --Contributed by Leonard E. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. a bait of meat. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. are cut just alike. thus reversing the machine. BB. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. A indicates the ground. the letters indicate as follows: FF. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. After I connected up my induction coil. brushes of motor. center points of switch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood.

A.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. thus locking the door. The experiment works best . An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. San Jose. Hutchinson. Minn. as it is the key to the lock. Melchior. one cell being sufficient. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock.. To unlock the door. 903 Vine St. and a table or bench. merely push the button E. which is in the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Cal. a piece of string. Fry. -Contributed by Claude B. The button can be hidden. attached to the end of the armature B. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. W. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. If it is not. a hammer. or would remain locked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. When the circuit is broken a weight.

18 Gorham St. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. as shown in Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. attached at the other end. D. where it will remain suspended as shown. Madison. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Canada. Porto Rico. 4). W. the stick falls away. Ontario.Contributed by F. 2. P. --Contributed by Geo. releasing the weight. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. When the alarm rings in the early morning. -. C. A. run through a pulley. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Schmidt. Crawford Curry. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. . the key turns. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 3. Culebra. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. the current flows with the small arrows. Tie the ends of the string together. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. I. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Wis.. which pulls the draft open. 3. forming a loop. Brockville. 1).

J. --Contributed by Wm. get two pieces of plate glass. R. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and break the corners off to make them round. Jr. Use a barrel to work on. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone.. S. thick. Camden. which fasten to the horn. and . running one direct to the receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and then to the receiver. First.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. including the mouthpiece. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. or from a bed of flowers. The cut shows the arrangement. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. and the other to the battery. made with his own hands. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Farley. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. D. or tree. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. 6 in. N. Connect two wires to the transmitter. square and 1 in. J. thence to a switch.

A.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. and label. twice the focal length away. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. with pitch. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. also rotate the glass. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Fasten. Use a binger to spread it on with. 2. Fig. Fig. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. set the speculum against the wall. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. or it will not polish evenly. spaces. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. while walking around the barrel. unless a longer focal length is wanted. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. by the side of the lamp. Then warm and press again with the speculum. then 8 minutes. When polishing the speculum. melt 1 lb. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. in length. When done the glass should be semitransparent. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. with 1/4-in. a round 4-in. of water. or less. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. In a dark room. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. 2. wet till soft like paint. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. wetting it to the consistency of cream.. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. and a large lamp. as in Fig. L. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Have ready six large dishes. and the under glass or tool convex. wide around the convex glass or tool. so the light . and is ready for polishing. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. using straight strokes 2 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. 1. then take 2 lb. the coarse grinding must be continued. When dry. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. and spread on the glass.

The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. With pitch.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. 840 gr.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. touched with rouge. with distilled water. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 2. When the focus is found. Fig. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. fill the dish with distilled water. Now add enough of the solution A. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. then ammonia until bath is clear. 2. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. as in K. Solution D: Sugar loaf . 4 oz.. When dry. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. from the lamp.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. or hills. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Place the speculum. 100 gr. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.100 gr. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 4 oz. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.……………. long to the back of the speculum. Then add 1 oz. Fig. also how the rays R from a star .. Then add solution B. face down. if a hill in the center. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 25 gr. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. The polishing and testing done.. cement a strip of board 8 in. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Nitric acid . must be procured.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Place the speculum S. longer strokes.……………………………. and pour the rest into the empty dish.………………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. If not.. Silver nitrate ……………………………. deep. that was set aside. the speculum will show some dark rings.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Fig. 39 gr.. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.

Then I made the one described. Thus an excellent 6-in. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. is a satisfactory angle. stop down well after focusing. cover with paper and cloth. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Mellish. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. slightly wider than the lens mount. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. two glass prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Place over lens.John E. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. which proves to be easy of execution. using strawboard and black paper. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. and proceed as for any picture.. . long and cost me just $15. About 20. telescope can be made at home. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Make the tube I of sheet iron. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. deg. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. My telescope is 64 in. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The flatter they are the less they will distort.

developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. complete the arrangement. add the plaster gradually to the water. says the Master Painter. The rays of the clear. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. D. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. through the lens of the camera and on the board. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Do not stir it. as shown in Fig. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. unobstructed light strike the mirror. instead of the contrary. To unlock. 2. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. B. A. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The paper is exposed. Fig. but will not preserve its hardening. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. 1. or powdered alum. then add a little sulphate of potash. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. . Boody. -Contributed by A. push the button D. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Zimmerman. Ill. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. and reflect through the negative. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.

but will remain suspended without any visible support. as shown in the sketch. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Then blow through the spool. Fasten on the switch lever. Fig. as at A and B. also provide them with a handle.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. so that it can rotate about these points. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. throw . 3. 2. use a string. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 1). as in Fig. To reverse. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.

binding posts. Levy. and E E. rinse in alcohol. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbon sockets. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. --Contributed by Geo. carbons. Neb. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Go McVicker. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. C C. Tex. Take out. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. In the sketch. A is the electricbell magnet. although this is not necessary. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. North Bend. B. the armature. -Contributed by Morris L. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Thomas.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. D. L. --Contributed by R. and rub dry with linen cloth. . as shown in the sketch. wash in running water. Tex. San Marcos. San Antonio.

today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Brooklyn. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. 36 magnet wire. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 14 or No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. long or more. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Bell. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. wound evenly about this core. 16 magnet wire. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. By means of two or more layers of No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch.

hole is bored in the center of one end. which is desirable. in diameter. coil illustrates the general details of the work. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. at a time. Beginning half an inch from one end. When cut and laid in one continuous length. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 4. In shaping the condenser. and the results are often unsatisfactory. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. one piece of the paper is laid down. long and 5 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. 2 yd. about 6 in. diameter. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. wide. 1. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. The following method of completing a 1-in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. the entire core may be purchased readymade. in length. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. A 7/8-in. or 8 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. a box like that shown in Fig. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as the maker prefers. No. with room also for a small condenser. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. After the core wires are bundled. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. making two layers. then the strip of tin-foil. but if it is not convenient to do this work. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. which is an important factor of the coil. The condenser is next wrapped . so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. long and 2-5/8 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. as shown in Fig.which would be better to buy ready-made.

ready for assembling. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. battery . Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. and the other sheet. I. bell. round so that the inside . and one from battery. one from bell. which is insulated from the first. forms the other pole or terminal. lines H.) The wiring diagram. C. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. copper lever with 1-in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. A. 3. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. the letters indicate as follows: A. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. wide. whole length. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. long to key. G. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. to the door. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. switch. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. B.securely with bands of paper or tape. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. shows how the connections are made. open switch C. flange turned on one side. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. F. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. 4 in. E. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. D. B. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. go. shelf for clock. by 12 in. which allows wiring at the back. V-shaped copper strip. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. spark. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. The alarm key will turn and drop down. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.. Fig. long and 12 in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact.

The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. do not shortcircuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. London. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Short-circuit for three hours. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. and then rivet the seam. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. 2 in.diameter is 7 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. but with the circuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Line the furnace. That is what they are for. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. of zinc sulphate. says the Model Engineer. This is for blowing.. and the battery is ready for use. of blue stone. . If desired for use immediately. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. instead of close to it. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. from the bottom. Use a glass or metal shade.

affects . Very few can make it turn both ways at will. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. 2. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. thus producing two different vibrations. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. the second finger along the side. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. imparting to them a violet tinge. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. but the thing would not move at all. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. or think they can do the same let them try it. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. If too low. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass.. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. while for others it will not revolve at all. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Outside of the scientific side involved. square and about 9 in. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Try it and see.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. At least it is amusing. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.9 of a volt. and then. herein I describe a much better trick. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. porcelain and paper. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. below the bottom of the zinc. If any or your audience presume to dispute. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. oxygen to ozone. Ohio. as in the other movement. To operate the trick. and therein is the trick. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. grip the stick firmly in one hand. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. long. Enlarge the hole slightly. for others the opposite way." which created much merriment. for some it will turn one way. This type of battery will give about 0. 1. g.

If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and one of them is photomicrography. but this is less satisfactory. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. if possible. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. an old tripod screw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. earth. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. insects. a means for holding it vertical. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. says the Photographic Times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . however. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. but small flowers. chemicals. and. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. but not essential. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a short-focus lens. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. To the front board is attached a box.

then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. while it is not so with the quill. 8 ft. 65 4 lb. Madison. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. The following table will give the size. 7 ft. 113 7 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 381 24 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 5 ft. A line.--Contributed by George C. which is 15 ft. 5 in. If the balloon is 10 ft. Fig. Mass. 268 17 lb. 179 11 lb. 697 44 lb. Boston. long and 3 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 7-1/2 in. 6 ft. 9 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. in diameter. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. or 3 ft. 905 57 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. wide from which to cut a pattern. Divide one-quarter of the circle . in Cu. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 11 ft. AB. 12 ft. CD. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. and a line. or 31 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. balloon. 7-1/2 in. 1. Cap. 10 ft 523 33 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Get a piece of paper 15 ft.

The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. of beeswax and boil well together. The pattern is now cut. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 3. 4. cutting all four quarters at the same time. keeping the marked part on the outside. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. of the very best heavy body. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The cloth segments are sewed together. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Repeat this operation four times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. and so on. 2. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 70 thread. on the curved line from B to C. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Procure 1 gal. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. using a fine needle and No. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts.

Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. ft. Water 1 oz. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. All FIG. C. B. ]. of iron.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of gas in one hour. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. In the barrel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. The outlet. or dusting with a dry brush. which may sound rather absurd. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. if it is good it will dry off. of water will make 4 cu. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. . B. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. with water 2 in. A. When the clock has dried. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. with 3/4in. by fixing. with the iron borings. 1 lb. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. as shown in Fig. . in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. pipe. to the bag. C. capacity and connect them. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. 150 gr. of sulphuric acid. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. a clean white rag. The benzine should be clean and free from oil.. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. oil the spindle holes carefully. but if any grease remains on the hand. it is not fit to use. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Vegetable oils should never be used.ft. About 15 lb. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. until no more dirt is seen. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. 5. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. A. balloon are 125 lb. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. Fill the other barrel. or a fan. leaving the hand quite clean.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 5 . The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. B. The 3/4-in. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. should not enter into the water over 8 in. of iron borings and 125 lb. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. above the level of the water in barrel A. 1 lb. After washing a part. using a fine brush. this should be repeated frequently. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb.

and a vigorous negative must be used. A longer exposure will be necessary.000 ft. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. says the Moving Picture World. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. 20 to 30 minutes. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or zinc. . at the time of employment. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Exposure. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. A cold. fix in hypo. The positive pole. Dry in the dark. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. The miniature 16 cp.Water 1 oz. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Port Melbourne.. to avoid blackened skin. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. This aerial collector can be made in . Bathe the plates 5 minutes. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. dry atmosphere will give best results. . Print to bronzing under a strong negative. toning first if desired. Printing is done in the sun. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Dry the plates in the dark. or battery. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. and keep in the dark until used. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. or carbon. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. of any make. The negative pole.

and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. and have the other connected with another aerial line. long. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. 5 in. the resistance is less. If the waves strike across the needle. lead pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. as described below. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. a positive and a negative. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. As the telephone offers a high resistance. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. both positive and negative. when left exposed to the air. will soon become dry and useless. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. making a ground with one wire. in diameter. The storage cell. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. lay a needle. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. This will complete the receiving station. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. If the wave ceases. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. forming a cup of the pipe. holes .various ways. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and as less current will flow the short way. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in.

Two binding-posts should be attached. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. D. This support or block. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. an oblong one and a triangular one. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. does not need to be watertight. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax.as possible. namely: a square hole. says the Pathfinder. This box can be square. by soldering the joint. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. on each end. This. B. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. of course. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and the other to the negative. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. When mixing the acid and water. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. one to the positive. a round one. or tube B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. except for about 1 in. or tube C. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe.

How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Only galvanized nails should be used. about 20 in. as shown in Fig. . One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. leaving about 1/16 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. and match them together. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 3. long. deep and 4 ft. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 2. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 1. The third piece of brass. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Ill. C. as it is not readily overturned. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. back and under. thick cut two pieces alike. 1. were fitted by this one plug. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. in place on the wood. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. wide. 2. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. This punt. Chicago. C. as shown in Fig. all around the edge. A and B. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. is built 15 ft.

Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. thick and 3-1/2 in. square (Fig 2). with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. A piece of 1/4-in. Wash. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Tacoma. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. is cut 1 in.

H. which the writer has made. In designing. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.--Contributed by Charles H. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. says the Model Engineer. no more current than a 16-cp. no special materials could be obtained. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. may be of interest to some of our readers. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. or "rotor. lamp. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens." has no connection with the outside circuit. Wagner. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. with the exception of insulated wire. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The winding of the armature. and to consume. if possible. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor.

and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. C. 3. while the beginnings . about 2-1/2 lb. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. no steel being obtainable. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 2. as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The stator is wound full with No. A. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. to be filed out after they are placed together. thick. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. They are not particularly accurate as it is. were then drilled and 1/4-in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. or "stator. Unfortunately. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and all sparking is avoided. 4. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe.the field-magnet. Holes 5-32 in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 5. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. After assembling a second time. and filled with rivets. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. bolts put in and tightened up. this little machine is not self-starting. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. holes. being used. 1. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. wrought iron. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. B. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. as shown in Fig. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. also varnished before they were put in.

Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. it would be very simple to build. 1. film to film. having no commutator or brushes. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and would not easily get out of order. if applied immediately. In making slides by contact. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Newark. a regulating resistance is not needed. If too late for alcohol to be of use. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The image should . and as the motor runs at constant speed.. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. McKinney. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. and especially of colored ones. J. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. N. as before stated. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and all wound in the same direction. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. 3-Contributed by C. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and as each layer of wire was wound. Jr. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. as shown in Fig. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. One is by contact. No starting resistance is needed. as a means of illustrating songs. and the other by reduction in the camera. E. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 2. The lantern slide is a glass plate. The rotor is wound with No.

1. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. about a minute. as shown in Fig. 2. If the exposure has been correct. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Draw lines with a pencil. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. a little extra work will be necessary. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. It is best. Being unbreakable. 5. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. they are much used by travelers. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Select a room with one window. C. Fig. if possible. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 4. and then a plain glass. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 3. as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. B. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. This will enable you to focus to the proper size.appear in. also. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. A. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. D. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. the formulas being found in each package of plates. over the mat. except that the binding is different. to use a plain fixing bath. These can be purchased from any photo material store. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide.

Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Vt. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. from the center of this dot draw a star. Hastings. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. These longer pieces can be made square. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Corinth. 1. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Fig. known as rods and cones. from the end piece of the chair. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. as shown at A. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. long. 16 in. as shown in Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. is to be used for the seat. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. 2. from the ends. long. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. 1. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. If the star is in front of the left eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. A piece of canvas. in diameter and 40 in. wide and 50 in. holes bored in the end pieces. as shown at B. in diameter and 20 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. or other stout cloth.

It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A belt. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. in thickness and 10 in. J. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. . as well as to operate other household machines. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. per square inch. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. 2. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Auburn. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. as shown in Fig. O'Gara. Cal. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A disk 1 in. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block.-Contributed by P. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. 1. made from an ordinary sash cord. as shown in Fig.

that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. direction.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. or inconvenient to measure. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. then removing the object. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. A simple. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. 3/4 in. and the construction is complete. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. it serves a very useful purpose. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Put the bolt in the hole. screwing it through the nut. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Bore a 1/4-in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. says the Scientific American. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. fairly accurate. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. . long. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. square for a support. Cut out a piece from the block combination. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. thick and 2-1/2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. will be the thickness of the object. wide. to the top of the bench. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. leaving it shaped like a bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Place a 3/4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Oal. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long is used for the center pole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. material 12 ft. which show up fine at night. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. The wheel should be open . Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Bore a 3/4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. beyond the end of the wood. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. bolt in each hole. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. long. piece of wood 12 ft. Santa Maria.

Fort Worth. thick. at the bottom.-Contributed by A. in diameter. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. square and 3 or 4 in. pieces used for the spokes. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The coil. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. L. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. long. C. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. 1/2 in. at the top and 4 in. from the ends. thick is used for the armature. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. made of the same material. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. P. A. long. B. which should be 1/4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The boards may be nailed or bolted. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The spool . Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. wide and 1/8 in. of the ends with boards. and on its lower end a socket. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings.Side and Top View or have spokes. and the lower part 61/2 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Graham. O. from the top end. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. H and J. thick. A cross bar. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. wide and 1/8 in. long. is soldered. C. A piece of brass 2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. Tex. long.

Randolph. This is a very neat trick if performed right. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. long.J. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. 2. --Contributed by Arthur D. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. is drilled. and place it against a door or window casing. A soft piece of iron. 2 the hat hanging on it. and directly centering the holes H and J. This tie can be used on grain sacks. F. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. by soldering. 1. When you slide the pencil along the casing.000 for irrigation work. which may be had by using German silver wire. B. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. D and E. one without either rubber or metal end. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. and in numerous other like instances. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. At the bottom end of the frame. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. The armature. R.000.--A. S. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. that holds the lower carbon. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. C. Mass. A. Bradlev. do it without any apparent effort. or a water rheostat heretofore described. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. for insulating the brass ferrule. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. . which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.E. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.is about 2-1/2 in. S. then with a firm.

1. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. thick. with a 3/16-in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. in diameter. for adjustment. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The vibrator. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. Fig. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. is constructed in the usual manner. for the primary. may be made from a 3/8-in. from the core and directly opposite. About 70 turns of No. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. about 3/16 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. F.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. in diameter and 1/16 in. long. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The vibrator B. 1. D. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. and then 1. wide. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight.500 turns of No. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. mixed with water to form a paste. A. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. Experiment with Heat [134] . B. The switch. long and 1 in. 2. in diameter and 2 in. The core of the coil. hole in the center. S. about 1/8 in. Fig. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter. for the secondary. leaving the projections as shown. The coil ends are made from cardboard. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. C. about 1 in. S. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig.

1. was to be secured by only three brass screws. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. long and when placed over the board. The three screws were then put in the hasp. thick on the inside. in an ordinary water glass. which is only 3/8-in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. wide. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. as shown. brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. lighted. between the boards. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The hasp. 1. as shown in the sketch. The lock. which is cut with two holes. board. and the same distance inside of the new board. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which seemed to be insufficient. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The tin is 4 in. 16 in. and then well clinched. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. Fig. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. with which to operate the dial.Place a small piece of paper. The knob on the dial extends out too far. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. 2 to fit the two holes. . it laps down about 8 in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in.

By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. the glass. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. which completely divides the box into two parts. and the back left dark. square and 10-1/2 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. When the rear part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. black color. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but when the front part is illuminated. square and 8-1/2 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. one in each division. not shiny. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. If the box is made large enough. When making of wood. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. or in the larger size mentioned. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. high for use in window displays. clear glass as shown. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

as shown at A in the sketch.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. a tank 2 ft. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. When there is no electric current available. into the other. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. wide will be about the right size. as shown in the sketch. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. above the top of the tank. and with the proper illumination one is changed. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.. as it appears. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. When using as a window display. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. long and 1 ft. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. alternately. . Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. lines gauged on each side of each. The 13-in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. however. Columbus. as shown. If a planing mill is near. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. long. This precipitate is then washed. Iron sulphate. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. is built on the front. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. with a length of 13 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. long. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. 6 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. wide. one for each side. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. bore from each end. square. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. high. two pieces 1-1/8 in. is the green vitriol. and 6 ft. 2 ft. Shape the under sides first. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. square and 40 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. or ferrous sulphate. bit. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. gauge for depth. 1 in. Three windows are provided. radius. wide. but with a length of 12 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and a solution of iron sulphate added. hole. hole bored the full length through the center. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. from the ground. and a door in front. O. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. using a 3/4-in. A small platform. thick and 3 in. under sides together. 5 ft. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. each. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The pieces can then be taken out. This hole must be continued .

Directions will be found on the filler cans. thick and 3 in. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. For art-glass the metal panels are . sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in.through the pieces forming the base. When the filler has hardened." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Saw the two blocks apart. hole in each block. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Electric globes--two. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. apply two coats of wax. If the parts are to be riveted. A better way. three or four may be attached as shown. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. square and drawing a diagonal on each. When this is dry. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. if shade is purchased.

as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE . such as copper.Construction of Shade .

2 the front view of this stand. as in ordinary devices. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. the object and the background. as shown in the sketch. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. and Fig. Figure 1 shows the side. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The arms holding the glass. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. one way and 1/2 in. the other.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table.

Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Put the ring in place on the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. and an inside diameter of 9 in. An ordinary pocket compass. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thus forming a 1/4-in. about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. outside diameter. channel in the circumference of the ring. thick 5/8-in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and swinging freely. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. uncork and recork again. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. as shown in the cut. pointing north and south. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. in diameter for a base. wide and 11 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. in diameter. as it is very poisonous. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. as shown in the sketch. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . If the light becomes dim. long. Before mounting the ring on the base. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle.

into these cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.715 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. B.289 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.182 .600 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. AA. EE. Place on top the so- . from the second to the third.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river. of the top. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.500 .420 . and mirrors. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Corresponding mirrors. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. are mounted on a base. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.865 1. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. in diameter and 8 in. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. 1 oz.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.088 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. above the half can. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. black oxide of copper. CC.

then they will not rust fast. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. of pulverized campor. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . It makes no difference which way the wind blows. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 31 gr. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. the wheel will revolve in one direction. little crystals forming in the liquid. 62 gr. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. slender bottle. alcohol. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. In Fig. says Metal Worker. Colo. which otherwise remains clear. University Park. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. When renewing. Put the solution in a long. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock.

The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. This is used in place of the spoon. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Solder in the side of the box . The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and copper are used. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If zinc and carbon are used. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. --Contributed by C. will allow the magnet to point north and south. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Lloyd Enos. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. floating on a solution. about 1-1/4 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. A paper-fastener box. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. on the under side of the cork. Attach to the wires. If two of them are floating on the same solution.

The spring should be about 1 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Bore holes for binding-posts. D.in. The standard. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. . square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . C. Put ends. wide and 6 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. The base. 1-1/4 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. A circular piece of cardboard. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. or made with a little black paint. Wind evenly about 2 oz.in.Contributed by J. and on the other around the glass tube. can be made of oak. B. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. B. D. wide and 2-1/2 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 14 wire will do. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. long that has about 1/4-in. Thos. brass tubing. D. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. H. long. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. A. 3 in. is made from a piece of No. long. C. thick.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. A. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. hole. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. piece of 1/4-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. one on each side of the board.1-in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Rhamstine. to it. F. 1/2. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. glass tubing . C. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. E. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. away. 1. of No. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.not shorter than 18 in. G--No. 10 wire about 10 in. stained and varnished. and then solder on the cover. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. The bottom of the box. as shown in Fig. of wire on each end extending from the coil. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Use a board 1/2. E. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.

The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Smith. two pieces 2 ft. long. J. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. of mercury will be sufficient. 2. from the right hand. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. of No. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. as shown in Fig. long are used for the legs. making a support as shown in Fig. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The iron plunger. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. Teasdale. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 5. 3-in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Milwaukee. About 1-1/2 lb. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. E. 3 in. four hinges. of 8-oz. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. D. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. N. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. When the glass becomes soft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. canvas. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. about 1 in. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Y.of the coil. Wis. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. 3. long. long. in diameter. is drawn nearer to the coil. Cuba. 1. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. . Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end.

This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Break this thread off about 1/8 in.. 4. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube.. 5. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Measure 8 in. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. long. Fig. Toronto. Keys. The tube now must be filled completely. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Take 1/2 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 6. --Contributed by David A. Can. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. expelling all the air. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Break off the piece of glass. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . small aperture in the long tube. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of vacuum at the top. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. This tube as described will be 8 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. thus leaving a. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. leaving 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. 3. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 2. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly.

Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Fig. 6. The large pulley is about 14 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. as shown in Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 1 in. 3 in. 7. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long. wide and 5 ft. 5. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 3. 4 in. thick. long. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. material 2 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 3 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. and 1/4 in. long. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 4. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. cut in the shape shown in Fig. FIG. A crosspiece 3/4-in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . wide and 3 in. joint be accurately put together. long. thick. and the single projection 3/4 in.6 -. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 1 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 9 in. thick. thick. wide and 12 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. wide and 5 ft. from the end of same. 1. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. wide and 5 ft. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. in diameter. 2. Four blocks 1/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as in Fig. wood screws. These are bent and nailed. as shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. thick. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. but yellow pine is the best. with each projection 3-in. This forms a slot.

Welsh. Kan. first removing the crank. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by C. . Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. says Photography. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Manhattan. Water 1 oz.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. R. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. above the runner level. by 1-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in.

1. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. --Contributed by Wallace C. 2. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Leominster. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. . The print is washed. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Newton. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 1 oz. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. of water. as shown in Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. Printing is carried rather far. --Contributed by Edward M. also. and very much cheaper. Mass. 3. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. as shown in Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Treasdale. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished.

Va. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Alexandria. Take two glass tubes.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and 3 ft. --Contributed by H. and to the bottom. long. Church. causing the door to swing back and up. 2. fasten a 2-in. which represents the back side of the door. high for rabbits. F. and bend them as shown in the sketch. about 10 in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. with about 1/8-in. wide. The swing door B. as shown in the sketch. Place a 10-in. Then. square piece. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1. Fig. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. hole. from one end. 1. The thread is broken off at the . too. extending the width of the box. say. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. wide and 4 in. 1 ft. Fig. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. A. 1-1/2 ft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. high.

Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Out two rectangular holes. to be used as a driving pulley. A and B. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. automobiles. being 1/8 in. and go in the holder in the same way. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. horses and dogs. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Jr. wide. 1. C. but cut it 1/4 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. high and 12 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. wide. 10 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Paste a piece of strong black paper. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. long. 2. Take two pieces of pasteboard. wide and 5 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. in size. trolley cars. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. says Camera Craft. Cut an opening in the other piece. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. This opening.by 5-in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. shorter. camera and wish to use some 4. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Chicago. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Fig. black surfaced if possible. plates. . D. from the edge on each side of these openings. inside of the opening.. -Contributed by William M. Crilly. 3.by 7-in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. in size. long. say 8 in. 1 in. shorter at each end. B.proper place to make a small hole. Fig. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. one in each end and exactly opposite each other.

How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. if it has previously been magnetized. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. The needle will then point north and south. in diameter. making a . Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. long and 6 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made.in. wide will be required. into which the dog is harnessed. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.

and a notch between the base and the pan.watertight receptacle. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. one that will hold about 1 qt. . with narrow flanges. 1 lb. fuel and packing purposes. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Do not paint any surface. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. fodder. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. of water. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. A is a block of l-in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. pine. sal ammoniac. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. in diameter and 6 in.in. pull out the wire as needed. plaster of paris. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. of the plate at one end. Place the pan on the stove. 3/4 lb. F is a spool. filter. B is a base of 1 in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Pack the paste in. of rosin and 2 oz. 1/4 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. zinc oxide. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. beeswax melted together. This makes the wire smooth. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. for a connection. under the spool in the paraffin. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. File the rods to remove the copper plate. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. long which are copper plated. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. only the joints. short time. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. of the top. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. says Electrician and Mechanic. in which P is the pan. leaving about 1/2-in. Form a 1/2-in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. when the paraffin is melted. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only.

square and about 9 in. Enlarge the hole slightly. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and one friend tells me that they were . Make a hole through the center of this one arm. as in the other movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Try it and see. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and he finally. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. thus producing two different vibrations. from vexation. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and therein is the trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. by the Hindoos in India. 2. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. long. for some it will turn one way." which created much merriment. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Ohio. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. let them try it. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. or think they can do the same. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified.. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and then. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. for others the opposite way. g. Toledo. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. but the thing would not move at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.

When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. 2. To operate. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. the rotation may be obtained. 3. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. and. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and I think the results may be of interest. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The experiments were as follows: 1. If the pressure was upon an edge.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. 4. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand.100 r. m. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. p. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. no rotation resulted. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. 5. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. secondly. Thus a circular or . that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. Speeds between 700 and 1. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. rotation was obtained. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. gave the best results. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. by means of a center punch. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 6. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 7. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained.

Minn. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. --Contributed by G. at first. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. and the resultant "basket splash. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A wire is tied around the can. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).. forming a handle for carrying. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can.D. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Ph. the upper portion is. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. D. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. if the pressure is from the left. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. unwetted by the liquid. it will be clockwise.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. or greasy. . a piece of wire and a candle. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Duluth. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Washington. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. so far as can be seen from the photographs. --Contributed by M. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. as shown. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. C. G. is driven violently away. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Sloan..

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

1. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle. as shown in Fig. thick and 1 in. in diameter. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. as shown. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. long. about 2-5/8 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. hole drilled in the center. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe.

each in its proper place. --Contributed by Maurice E. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. with cardboard 3 in. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Texas. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 1 from 1/4-in. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. wood. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. are shown in Fig. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig.brass. Fig. bottom side up. 2. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The current. of No. is made from a piece of clock spring. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Fuller. If the ends are to be soldered. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. put together complete. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 3/4 in. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 2. This will save buying a track. 3. A trolley.50. holes 1 in. as shown in Fig. lamp in series with the coil. 3. wide and 16 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. long. The first piece. Fig. 6. and the locomotive is ready for running. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 4. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 5. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. These ends are fastened together. The motor is now bolted. or main part of the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. as shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The parts. San Antonio. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. is made from brass. bent as shown.

Fig 1. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. the length of a paper clip. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Cincinnati. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. 2.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and as this end . If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 1. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. 3. then continue to tighten much more. and holes drilled in them. Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. O. but do not heat the center. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. The quarter will not go all the way down. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in Fig. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. When cold treat the other end in the same way. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.

has finished a cut for a tooth. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. When the trick is to be performed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. When the cutter A. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. 2 and 1 respectively. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. In the sketch. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. or apparent security of the knot. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. A pair of centers are fitted. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. and adjusted .belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed.

--Contributed by Samuel C. tea cosey.) Make on paper the design wanted. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. note book. When connecting to batteries. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .to run true. trace the outline. tea cosey. such as brass or marble. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. coin purse. about 1-1/2 in. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. 1. if four parts are to be alike. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. lady's belt bag. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). at the same time striking light. watch fob ready for fastenings. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Bunker. holding it in place with the left hand. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (6. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Place the paper design on the leather and. book mark.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Y. Bott. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. The frame holding the mandrel. 2. In this manner gears 3 in. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. twisted around itself and soldered. N. long. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. lady's card case. if but two parts. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Fold over along these center lines. --Contributed by Howard S.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. above the surface. blotter back. and a nut pick. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Brooklyn. (1. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. draw center lines across the required space. Fig. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (4. Second row: -Two book marks. swing lathe. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (5. or one-half of the design. An ordinary machine will do. (3. gentleman's card case or bill book. (2.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle.

where it condenses. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and bore a hole through the center. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. If the needle is not horizontal. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The electrodes are made . a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.C. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and push it through a cork. from Key West. Thrust a pin. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. into which fit a small piece of tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Florida. B. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. a distance of 900 miles. C. D. A.

--Contributed by Edwin L. lumber cannot be procured. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 1. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. slacken speed and settle. wide and 3 ft. several strips 1/2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. take the glider to the top of a hill. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. Powell. as shown in Fig. The operator can then land safely and . and also to keep it steady in its flight. long. 3. 2 arm sticks 1 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam.in. Washington. wide and 20 ft. Four long beams 3/4 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. thick. free from knots. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 12 uprights 1/2 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. as shown in Fig. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft. 1-1/4 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. long. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. long. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. All wiring is done with No. 2. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 4 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 2. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 1. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 3 ft. To make a glide. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. apart and extend 1 ft. wide and 4 ft long. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 1-1/2 in. 16 piano wire. long for the body of the operator. thick. thick. long. 2 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. If 20-ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. lengths and splice them. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. or flying-machine. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. thick. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. C. thick. by 3/4 in. which is tacked to the front edge. square and 8 ft long. 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. use 10-ft. both laterally and longitudinally. 1. 1/2. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. Connect as shown in the illustration. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. D.

Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind. Of course.

The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. as shown in Fig. M. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. which causes the dip in the line. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.exercised in making landings. 2. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. half man and half horse. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 1. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Olson. When heated a little. Bellingham. a creature of Greek mythology. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. --Contributed by L. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player.

in diameter.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. a piece of brass or steel wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. making it 2-1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. will complete the material list. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. at the other. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. long. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. outside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. square. 14 in. of small rubber tubing. about the size of stove pipe wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. about the size of door screen wire. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The light from the . Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. long and about 3/8 in.

1. . After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. This is very simple when you know how. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. Dayton. --Photo by M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. while others will fail time after time. as shown in the sketch. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Hunting.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. 2. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.

one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. then put it on the hatpin head. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as before.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. closing both hands quickly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. This game is played by five persons. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. place the other two. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. as shown. hold the lump over the flame. Cool in water and dry. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick." or the Chinese students' favorite game. as described. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. When the desired shape has been obtained. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. If a certain color is to be more prominent.

Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. or more in width. these sectors. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. distribute electric charges . How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

the side pieces being 24 in. from about 1/4-in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Fig. The plates. long. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. wide at one end. 3. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. after they are mounted. 1-1/2 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The two pieces. material 7 in. EE. in diameter. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The drive wheels. wide. are made from solid. at the other. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The collectors are made. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are made from 7/8-in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 4. D. 2. in diameter. 1. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. turned wood pieces. 3/4 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The plates are trued up. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. in diameter. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. GG. in diameter. These pins. and of a uniform thickness. 3.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Two solid glass rods. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long. in diameter and 15 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. long and the standards 3 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and the outer end 11/2 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. long and the shank 4 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. Two pieces of 1-in. 1 in. Fig. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. to which insulating handles . Two plates are necessary to make this machine. C C. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. free from wrinkles. in diameter. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. RR. or teeth. and 4 in. as shown in Fig. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter.

Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. one having a 2-in. in diameter. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. wide and 22 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.are attached. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Lloyd Enos. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. ball and the other one 3/4 in. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. long. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. 12 ft. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Colo. KK. and the work was done by themselves. which are bent as shown. --Contributed by C. Colorado City. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft.. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods.

Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft.is a good one. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. using a 1-in. and bore a hole 1/2 in. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. string together. bit. The key will drop from the string. yet such a thing can be done. pens . Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. as at A. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. deep.

extra metal on each of the four sides. file. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 5. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. stamp the background promiscuously. or cigar ashes. about 3/4-in. flat and round-nosed pliers. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. 2. inside the second on all. 6. Use . Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. unless it would be the metal shears. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 3. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. etc. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. very rapid progress can be made. They are easily made. 7. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 8. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Inside this oblong. then the other side. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Raise the ends. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Having determined the size of the tray. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Draw one-half the design free hand. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. etc. 9. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.. also trace the decorative design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. When the stamping is completed. sharp division between background and design.and pencils. 23 gauge. The second oblong was 3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. slim screw. two spikes. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. and the third one 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. inside the first on all. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Proceed as follows: 1. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. above the metal. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin.. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 4. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. This is to make a clean.

put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 6. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. first fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 9. In the first numbering. 7. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 8. and fourth fingers. 10. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. second fingers. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. and the effect will be most pleasing. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The eyes. third fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off.

Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. thumbs. etc. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. 25 times 25. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. In the second numbering. or the product of 8 times 9. Let us multiply 12 by 12.. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. etc. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 2 times 2 equals 4. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which would be 16. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. above 15 times 15 it is 200. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 400. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. or numbers above 10. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. viz. or the product of 6 times 6. 12. first fingers. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. the product of 12 times 12. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. above 20 times 20. 600. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. below the thumbs are four units on each hand.. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. or 80. renumber your fingers. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. At a glance you see four tens or 40. . and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which tens are added. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. 11.. Two times one are two. there are no fingers above. which would be 70. if we wish. etc. or 60. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. as high as you want to go. Still. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Put your thumbs together.

etc. further. and so on. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. thumbs. forties. . Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution.. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 7. whether the one described in second or third numbering. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the lump sum to add. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. or what. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. For example. first fingers 22. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. thirties. Take For example 18 times 18. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 8. the value which the upper fingers have. It takes place also. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. about a vertical axis. and. And the lump sum to add. or from above or from below. however. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the inversion takes place against his will. For figures ending in 6. beginning the thumbs with 16. 3. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. as one might suppose. adding 400 instead of 100. 75 and 85. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. at the will of the observer. twenties. Proceed as in the second lumbering. 21. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. first finger 17. 2. the revolution seems to reverse. being 80). lastly.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. not rotation. in the case of a nearsighted person. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. when he removes his spectacles. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering.

Looking at it in semidarkness. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. as . The ports were not easy to make. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. tee. sometimes the point towards him. A flat slide valve was used. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. when he knows which direction is right.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and putting a cork on the point. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. the other appearance asserts itself.

21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Kutscher. deep. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Ill. across the head. saw off a section of a broom handle. The tools are simple and can be made easily. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. While this engine does not give much power.. H. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. apart. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Fasten the block solidly. . and make in one end a hollow. about 2 in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. bottom side up. Next take a block of wood. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. -Contributed by W. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. it is easily built. The steam chest is round.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. in diameter. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The eccentric is constructed of washers. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Springfield. inexpensive. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. If nothing better is at hand. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. such as is shown in the illustration. secure a piece of No. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. pipe 10 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. if continued too long without proper treatment. pipe. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. across and 1/2 in. as in a vise. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in.

The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To overcome this hardness. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Vinegar. as it softens the metal. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. This process is called annealing. the other to the left. C. --Contributed by W. To produce color effects on copper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Hay. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. and. S. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. especially when the object is near to the observer. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Camden. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. O.will cause the metal to break.

In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. because. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. however. only the orange rays may pass through. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. not two mounted side by side. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. diameter. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. as for instance red and green. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The red portions of the picture are not seen. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and without any picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The further apart the pictures are. It is just as though they were not there. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. although they pass through the screen. orange. in the proper choice of colors. they must be a very trifle apart. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. that for the right. But they seem black. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. disappears fully. the further from the card will the composite image appear. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. because of the rays coming from them. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. would serve the same purpose. the left eye sees through a blue screen. from the stereograph. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. with the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. . it. and lies to the right on the picture. So with the stereograph.stereoscope. In order to make them appear before the card. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. the one for the left eye being blue. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment.

The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. thick. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. etc. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. wireless. San Francisco. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. wide and 1 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The weight of the air in round . Two types of make-and-break connection are used. in the shape of a crank. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. or the middle of the bottle. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A No. 1/4 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. long and a hole drilled in each end. Place a NO. in diameter. Cal. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.

of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. pine 3 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. long.6) 1 in. or. thick. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. inside diameter and 2 in. 30 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. wide and 40 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. wide and 4 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The 4 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. internal diameter and about 34 in. long. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. 34 ft. high. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are.. long. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. but before attempting to put in the mercury. . Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. the instrument. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Before fastening the scale. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.numbers is 15 lb. the contrary. if accurately constructed. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. high. and a slow fall. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. square. Only redistilled mercury should be used. if you choose. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. or a column of mercury (density 13. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. will calibrate itself. a glass tube 1/8 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. a bottle 1 in. square. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. In general. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling.

2. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 1. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. thick. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 3.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 6 and 7. 5. Number the pieces 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. Mark out seven 1-in. long. a cover from a baking powder can will do. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. wide and 10 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. and place them as shown in Fig. Procure a metal can cover. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and .

Move 10-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. long and 2 ft. 2's place. 6. L. 5 over No. 6. 6 in.-Contributed by W. Move 14-Jump No. 3 over No. Make 22 sections. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. shaped like Fig. 6 to No. Move 3-Move No. 1. 2's place. Move ll-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. as shown in Fig. 6 over No. 2 . 1. Move 5-Jump No. 2. 5's place. 1 into No. 3. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No. l over No. Move 13-Move No. 7's place. 5's place. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year.J. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 5. Woolson. 7. 1 to No. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 6-Move No. N. which is the very best material for the purpose. in diameter. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. To make such a tent. 2 over No. 3 to the center.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 2-Jump No. Move 4-Jump No. Cape May Point. 6 into No. each 10 ft. 3 into No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 7 over No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 12-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. using checkers for men. 3. 5 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 3. 2. 7 over No. Move 9-Jump No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

These are ventilators. 9 by 12 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. diameter.. long and 4 in. made in two sections. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. about 9 in. in diameter. Have the tent pole 3 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. After transferring the design to the brass. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Fig. 3 in.in. wide at the bottom. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. fill with canvas edging. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 2 in. will do. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Tress. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. 5) stuck in the ground. leaving the rest for an opening. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. --Contributed by G. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 2. Emsworth. wide at the bottom. 6.J. Fig. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. to a smooth board of soft wood. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Punch holes in the brass in . Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. as in Fig. from the top. long. wide by 12 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 6-in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Use blocks. In raising the tent. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. added. Nail a thin sheet of brass. 5. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Pa. round galvanized iron. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. As shown in the sketch. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. high. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.

I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. but before punching the holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. It will not. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand.the spaces around the outlined figures. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When all the holes are punched. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. . Corr. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. apart. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. When the edges are brought together by bending. Chicago. cut out the brass on the outside lines. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in.

the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Que. A 6-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. or less. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. These pipes are .however. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. Dunham. --Contributed by H. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Oregon. pipe is used for the hub. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Mayger. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. G. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. If a wheel is selected. Badger. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. or center on which the frame swings. Stevens. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. partially filled with cream. or. better still. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. allowing 2 ft. A cast-iron ring. pipe. --Contributed by Geo. E.. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Sometimes the cream will accumulate.

and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Four braces made from 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe clamps. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe.

The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. and the guide withdrawn. which was placed in an upright position. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. while doing this. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and dropped on the table. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. 3. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The performer. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. 1.

D. --Contributed by H. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. in a half circle. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. and second. St. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Mo. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Harkins. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. The box can be made of selected oak or . Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Denver. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. first. Louis. F. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. in diameter on another piece of tin. Colo. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. it requires no expensive condensing lens. 1. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. -Contributed by C. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera.

mahogany. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. from each end. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. high and must . 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. as shown in Fig. from each end of the outside of the box. wide by 5 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The door covering this hole in the back. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. AA. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long and should be placed vertically. represented by the dotted line in Fig. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. wide and 6-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. fit into the runners. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. high and 11 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 2. 1. focal length. and 2 in. wide and 5 in. 3-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. and. An open space 4 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. wide. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. long. If a camera lens is used. 5-1/2 in. but not tight.

West Toledo. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. June and November. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. 1. Ohio. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. C. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. as it requires an airtight case. calling that knuckle January. and so on. then the second knuckle will be March. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight.. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. and extending the whole height of the lantern." etc. April. This process is rather a difficult one. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. calling this February. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. --Contributed by Chas. Bradley.

The top of a table will do. in. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 1. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. giving it an occasional stir. the lid or cover closed. one of lead and one of aluminum. 2. fruit jars are required. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1 and 2. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. or suspended by a string. N. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. . and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. In both Fig. In each place two electrodes. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market.with small sticks. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Schenectady. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. in. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. but waxed. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Pour in a little turpentine. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. and the lead 24 sq. H. taking care to have all the edges closed. Y. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. --Contributed by J. and set aside for half a day. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. running small motors and lighting small lamps. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Crawford. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes.

Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. You have an understanding with some one in the company. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. This trick is very simple. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. as well as others. O. he throws the other. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. After a few seconds' time.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. you remove the glass. Cleveland. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. which you warm with your hands. He. as you have held it all the time. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts.

but in making one. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. put it under the glass. on a table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. near a partition or curtain.-Contributed by E. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. . Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Colo. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. J. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.take the handiest one. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but by being careful at shores. if any snags are encountered. in diameter in the center. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Crocker. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Be sure that this is the right one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Pull the ends quickly. Victor.

for center deck braces. 1/4 in. of 1-1/2-yd. 8 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 3 and 4. 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. clear pine.. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. wide unbleached muslin. Both ends are mortised. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. wide 12-oz. for the bow. 3 in. by 16 ft. is 14 ft. thick and 3/4 in. 4 outwales. 1/8 in. for the stern piece. by 12 in. from each end to 1 in. from the bow and the large one. 11 yd. and. long. Fig. square by 16 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 in. 1 mast. 1 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. 2 in. screws and cleats. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 8 in. 50 ft. of rope. drilled and fastened with screws. 2 gunwales. for cockpit frame. by 10 ft..Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 1 piece. The keelson. the smaller is placed 3 ft. one 6 in. ducking. 14 rib bands. 3 in. wide and 12 ft. by 2 in. wide. selected pine. at the ends. of 1-yd. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 piece. Paint. from the stern. and the other 12 in. 8 yd. 2 and braced with an iron band. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 16 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. by 2 in. 1. long. and fastened with screws. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . long. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide and 12 ft. by 15 ft. 9 ft. apart. 7 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. long.

This block. long. 3-1/2 ft. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Braces. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. thick and 1/2 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 7 and 8. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. also. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. a piece 1/4 in. doubled. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. wide and 14 in. thick. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 1/4 in. A piece of oak. wide and 3 ft. 1 in. 5. wide. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. A 6-in. 6 and 7. long is well soaked in water. apart. Figs. is a cube having sides 6 in. from the bow. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. . The block is fastened to the keelson. The 11-yd. thick 1-1/2 in. Fig. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. They are 1 in. The trimming is wood. thick and 12 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 9. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 6. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. long. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 4 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. gunwales and keelson. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. is cut to fit under the top boards. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 1 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Before making the deck. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The deck is not so hard to do. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. corner braces. A block of pine. wide and 24 in. 6 in. wood screws. Fig. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. screws. thick. A seam should be made along the center piece. These are put in 6 in. long. in diameter through the block. and fastened to them with bolts. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson.

Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. 11. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Wilmette. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. each 1 in. The sail is a triangle. Tronnes. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. at the other. is 6 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Fig. 12. Ill. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The keel. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. A strip 1 in. --Contributed by O. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. E. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. wide at one end and 12 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. long. 10 with a movable handle. in diameter and 10 ft. apart in the muslin. wide. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The house will accommodate 20 families. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. . are used for the boom and gaff. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. thick by 2 in.

wide. one 11-1/2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Wilmette. square. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. wide and 30 in. 2 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. long. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. long. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Cut the maple. thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 1 yd. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. flat headed screws. Bevel both sides of the pieces. flat on one side. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. long and five 1/2-in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. with the ends and the other side rounding. 1. 3. and 3 ft. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. E. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. and the other 18 in. thick. Fig. wide and 2 ft. Tronnes. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. five 1/2-in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. wide. about 5/16 in. 2. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 2-1/2 in. flat-headed screws. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. as shown in Fig.into two 14-in. Take this and fold it over . 4. --Contributed by O. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. thick. 2-1/2 in. Ill. 5.

leaving a small opening at one corner. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. the top and bottom. 3-1/4 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. square. The front. Make a double stitch all around the edge. A. wide and 4-1/2 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. thick. Cut another piece of board. long. 3 in. is set. of each end unwound for connections. wide . E. --Contributed by W. and make a turn in each end of the wires. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 3 ft. Figs. thick. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. Glue a three cornered piece. but can be governed by circumstances. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. then centered. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 5 in. 6-1/2 in. The bag is then turned inside out. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. soaked with water and blown up. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. C. 1-1/4 in. are rounded. this square box is well sandpapered. F. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. If carefully and neatly made. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 2 and 3. wide and 6-1/2 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Mo. pieces 2-5/8 in. long. Wind three layers of about No. Another piece. wide and 2-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Louis. wide and 2-3/4 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. When the glue is set. St. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. and the four outside edges. D. About 1/2 in. as well as the edges around the opening. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. square. and take care that the pieces are all square. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. wide and 6-3/4 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. After the glue.once. B. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 1. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Bliss. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. about 3/8 in. forming an eye for a screw. the mechanical parts can be put together. Fig. 5 from 1/16-in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. C. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. 3/8 in. A. long. long. long.

5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. When the current flows through the coil. I. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. G. that has the end turned with a shoulder. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Yorkshire. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Fig. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. from one end. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and fasten in place. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. bored in the back. The base is a board 5 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. hole is fastened to the pointer. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. 1/16 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. board. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Another strip of tin. C. R. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Austwick Hall. The stronger the current. so it will just clear the tin. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. thick. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. and the farther apart they will be forced.and 2-5/8 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle.R.S. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. A pointer 12 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. long. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The end of the polar axis B. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. wide and 9 in. Richmond Hill. W. the same size as the first. from the spindle. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. and as the part Fig. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Chapman. 4. Place the tin. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. L. 5-1/2 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. in diameter. long. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. 4. F. These wires should be about 1 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The resistance is now adjusted to show . --Contributed by George Heimroth. 1/4 in. 5. Like poles repel each other.A. 4 is not movable. Fig.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 30 min. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. The following formula will show how this may be found. and vice . thus: 9 hr. 10 min. 1881. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. say Venus at the date of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. at 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. A. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 10 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. M. shows mean siderial. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.

The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. if one of these cannot be had. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. or. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.f. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. .The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Conn. owing to the low internal resistance. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. New Haven. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. --Contributed by Robert W. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Hall. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.m.

Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. of alum and 4 oz. 1. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. fresh grass. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Fig. especially for cooking fish. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. arsenic to every 20 lb. put the fish among the ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Wet paper will answer. long. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . leaves or bark. inside diameter and about 5 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. and heap the glowing coals on top. as shown in the accompanying picture.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 1-3/4 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. When the follower is screwed down. 3/8 in. cover up with the same. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The boring bar. Then. thick.

about 1/2 in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. fastened with a pin. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. when they were turned in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. and threaded on both ends. thick. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder.

The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then it should be ground to a fit. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 30 in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Fig. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. as the one illustrated herewith. 2. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. labor and time. bent in the shape of a U. thick and 3 in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. 5. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. and which gave such satisfactory results. Iowa. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. was then finished on an emery wheel. long. wide. It . and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. square iron. however. A 1-in. If the valve keeps dripping. The rough frame. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Clermont. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. a jump spark would be much better. but never one which required so little material. 3. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 4. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. the float is too high.valve stems. This plate also supports the rocker arms. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off.

so that there will be plenty of "wobble. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. square. with no trees or buildings in the way. 3/4 in. set 3 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The crosspiece is 2 in. being held in position by spikes as shown. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. It looks like a toy. in fact. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. square and 5 ft. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. This makes an easy adjustment. and." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. 12 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. strengthened by a piece 4 in. from the center. A 3/4 -in. square and 2 ft. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. long. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. butting against short stakes. The illustration largely explains itself. strong clear material only should be employed. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . The seats are regular swing boards. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. in diameter and 15 in. hole bored in the post. and a little junk. so it must be strong enough. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day." little and big. long is the pivot. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. long. from all over the neighborhood. W. for the "motive power" to grasp. extending above. A malleable iron bolt. timber.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. in the ground with 8 ft. rope is not too heavy. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. As there is no bracing. no matter what your age or size may be. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. completes the merry-go-round. Use a heavy washer at the head. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. If it is to be used for adults. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. --Contributed by C. long. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Nieman.

and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Both have large reels full of . The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.2 emery. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. light and strong. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The bow is now bent. A reel is next made. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. if nothing better is at hand. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. These ends are placed about 14 in. away. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 2. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string.the fingers. and 18 in. square. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. 1. The backbone is flat. a wreck. one for the backbone and one for the bow. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. as shown in Fig. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Having placed the backbone in position. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. long. then it is securely fastened. To wind the string upon the reel. and sent to earth. 1/4 by 3/32 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 4. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.

Newburyport.-Contributed by S. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The handle end is held down with a staple. Mass. or glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. First. the balance. --Contributed' by Harry S. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. N. Y. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. C. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. common packing thread. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Bunker. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Brooklyn. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. often several hundred yards of it. Moody.

such as mill men use. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Corinth. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. --Contributed by Earl R. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. square (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. then draw the string up tight. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle .Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Hastings. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. each the size of half the table top. lengths (Fig. Vt. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. If the table is round. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. then a dust protector. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. must be attached to a 3-ft. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. make the pad as shown in the illustration.

and E to G. 2-1/4 in. Oakland. G to H. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. from C to D. from E to F. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. 16-1/4 in. hard pencil. 6-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. which spoils the leather effect.. . Wharton. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.-Contributed by H. 17-1/2 in. E. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Use a smooth. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Calif. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Moisten the . The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace this or some other appropriate design on it..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. trace the design carefully on the leather. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.

A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. H-B. and E-G. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. also lines A-G. I made this motor . if not more than 1 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. is taken off at a time. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. To complete the bag. and lace through the holes. about 1/8 in. apart. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Trace the openings for the handles. with the rounded sides of the tools. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. place both together and with a leather punch. Cut it the same size as the bag. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. get something with which to make a lining. wide. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. G-J. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory.

both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 2.M. 1. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. 1. Pasadena. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 2-1/4 in. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. --Contributed by J. B. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Calif. iron. in length. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. . The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. long.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Shannon. each being a half circle. of No. as shown in Fig. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. 24 gauge magnet wire. D. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B.

This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. pasted in alternately. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. near the center. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. are the best kind to make.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. from the bottom end. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . high. 1. and the gores cut from these. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. balloon should be about 8 ft.

A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. After washing. A. Staunton. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 5. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. coming through the small pipe A. E. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The steam. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. 4. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. In removing grease from wood. as shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. in diameter. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. after which the paint will adhere permanently. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. 1. leaving a long wake behind. saturating it thoroughly. using about 1/2-in. In starting the balloon on its flight. A Game Played on the Ice [216] .widest point. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 2. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 3. If the gores have been put together right. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. These are to hold the wick ball. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. B. As the boat is driven forward by this force. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. --Contributed by R. Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. somewhat larger in size. as shown in Fig. The boat soon attains considerable speed. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. lap on the edges.

1. long. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. long and each provided with a handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. high and 8 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. if you have several copies of the photograph. apart on these lines. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. Third. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. as is shown in Fig. Second. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. In using either of the two methods described. The blocks are about 6 in. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. wide by 6 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. in bowling form.

stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. N. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Albany. Y. 2. --Contributed by John A. thick. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured.Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. being careful not to dent the metal. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.

S. 1 Fig. long for the base. These corner irons are also screwed to. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 5 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. and. Paine. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. CC. 2 the front view. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. With this device. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. --Contributed by R. in diameter. and not produce the right sound. A. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Break off the frame. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 6 in. through which passes the set screw S. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. B. which is 4 in. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. with a set screw. are screwed to the circular piece.upon any particular object. In Fig. Va. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A. Richmond. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. wide and 8 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Corner irons. A circular piece of wood. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. wide and of any desired height. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. thick. and Fig.

Kidder. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. it can be mounted on the inside of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. D. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. in diameter of some 1-in. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. This will make a very compact electric horn. This horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. S. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. . Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. thus producing sound waves. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. La Salle. I made a wheel 26 in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Lake Preston. R. pine boards. as only the can is visible. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Ill. -1. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started.

Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. A. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. B. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The frame is made of a heavy card. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. the same thickness as the coins. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. --Contributed by C. Purdy. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Doylestown. If there is a large collection of coins. Kane. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. Ghent. 1. 2. O. thick and 12 in. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Fig. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . --Contributed by James R. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. square. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset.

and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. plus a 3/8-in.J. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. --Contributed by J. Neyer. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Toronto. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. If desired. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. melted and applied with a brush. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Smith. One Cloud. into which to place the screws . a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. thick. --Contributed by August T. Wis. though not absolutely necessary. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. border all around. Cal. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. A rivet punch is desirable. cut and grooved. A lead pencil.E. Milwaukee. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Noble. It will hold 4 oz. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Canada. The material required is a sheet of No. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. of developer. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. several large nails. for after the slides have been shown a few times. a hammer or mallet. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. --Contributed by R. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. they become uninteresting. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. and then glued together as indicated. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that.

To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Fasten the metal to the board firmly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. like the one shown. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. never upon the metal directly. Take the nail. There are several ways of working up the design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Remove the screws. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. using 1/2-in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. screws placed about 1 in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. draw one part. and file it to a chisel edge. both outline and decoration. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal.

hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. 3. of 11-in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. as shown in Fig. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. for the lower rails. 3/4 in. 1. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. being ball bearing. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Provide four lengths for the legs. The pedal. and two lengths. l-1/8 in. long. About 1/2 yd. 2. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in.wall. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. two lengths. square and 181/2 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. each 1 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. in the other. long. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. long. . is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square and 11 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Rivet the band to the holder. for the top. up from the lower end. using a 1/2in.

The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Attalla. having quite a length of threads. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Ala. Quackenbush. --Contributed by W. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. New York City. F.

something that is carbonated. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . wide and 8-1/4 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. making a lap of about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and two holes in the other. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Ironwood. Mich. and 3/8 in. long. long. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. from one end. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. D. --Contributed by C. wide and 4-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Luther. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. from the end. The desired emblem. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.. Purchase a 1/2-in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. initial. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. using class. college or lodge colors. Two pieces of felt. in depth. one about 1 in.

Punch two holes A. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. which can be procured from a plumber. or a pasteboard box. This method allows a wide range of designs. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. --Contributed by John H. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 2. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. or more in height. 1. as shown at B. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . as shown in the sketch. from the center and opposite each other. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. and the cork will be driven out. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Fig. about 2 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. if desired by the operator. Schatz. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. A piece of lead. Indianapolis. in diameter and 2 in. 1/4 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. in the cover and the bottom. Ind.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle.

thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. . 1. When the can is rolled away from you. metal. 3. allowing the two ends to be free. 5. putting in the design. O. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. as shown in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. are turned up as in Fig. Columbus. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. on both top and bottom. it winds up the rubber band. or marble will serve.Rolling Can Toy lead. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. A piece of thick glass. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 4. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand.

Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. deep in its face. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. I secured a board 3/4 in. Next place the leather on the glass. from each end.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. A pencil may be used the first time over. hole through it. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The edges should be about 1/8 in. wide and 20 in. After this has been done. 3 in. 1 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. or more thick on each side. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. face up. New York City. and. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. thick. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. long and bored a 1/2-in. mark over the design. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . thicker than the pinion.

This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. thick top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Rice. 1 piece. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. pieces for the vise slides. 1. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Y. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 3 by 3 by 36. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fig. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Brooklyn. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 screw block. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Now fit up the two clamps. 2. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. in diameter. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker.in the board into the bench top. 1 piece for clamp. 1 back board. M. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Syracuse. 1 top board. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 2 end rails. 4 guides. 1 top board. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Cut the 2-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. lag screws as shown. --Contributed by A. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 side rails. N. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. New York. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 crosspieces. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Make the lower frame first. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in.

it can be easily found when wanted. 1 monkey wrench. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 brace and set of bits. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. 1 pair dividers. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair pliers. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. in diameter. 1 wood scraper. 1 marking gauge. 1 rip saw. 3 and 6 in. 1 compass saw. 24 in. 1 set chisels. 24 in.. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. as well as the pattern maker..screws. Only the long run. 1 nail set. 1 set gimlets. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The amateur workman. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 bench plane or jointer. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 cross cut saw. The bench is now complete. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 claw hammer. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 2-ft. 1 countersink. . 1 pocket level. 2 screwdrivers. rule.

the projecting point A. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. will be easier to work. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Pa.1 6-in. Fig. after constant use. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. The calf skin. try square. 1 oilstone. Fig. Doylestown. but will not make . becomes like A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 3. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. 1. being softer.1. 1. Kane. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. No. 2. 2 and 00 sandpaper.

The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Having prepared the two sides. Turn the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. which steam. -Contributed by Julia A. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. First draw the design on paper. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. will do just as well. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Two pieces will be required of this size. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. water or heat will not affect. such as copper or brass. lay the design on the face. when dry. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. and the length 6-5/8 in. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. . they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. If cow hide is preferred. cover it completely with water enamel and. then prepare the leather. After the outlines are traced. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. White.as rigid a case as the cow skin. If calf skin is to be used. the same method of treatment is used. New York City. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. This will make a perfectly impervious covering.

Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. as shown in the sketch. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cal. Cobb. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Herrman. .Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. New York City. Portland. Maine. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. --Contributed by Chas. A. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by W. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Jaquythe. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by Chester L. Richmond. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. C. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel.

for instance.. A thick piece of tin. B. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. was marked out as shown. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. This was very difficult. --Contributed by Wm. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Mass. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. . --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Wright. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Cambridge. Conn. an inverted stewpan. Middletown. Roberts. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time.

then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. When dry. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. face down. Herbert. apply powdered calcined magnesia. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Chicago. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. which has been tried out several times with success. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. pulverized and applied. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Bone. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. If any traces of the grease are left. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. as shown. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. --Contributed by C. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Illinois. had oil from a lamp spilled over it.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but not running over. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. and quite new. on a clear piece of glass.. but only an odor which soon vanished. used as part of furniture. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. A beautifully bound book. so some bones were quickly calcined. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. well calcined and powdered. F. and the grease will disappear. . of boiling water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. L. If the article is highly polished. There was no quicklime to be had. Ind. Indianapolis. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. such as chair seats. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz.

soft steel with the opening 6 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. thick. The pieces marked S are single. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo.. wide and 12 in. set and thumbscrews. A. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. says Scientific American. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. If properly adjusted. 2 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 6 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.. Tarrytown. Howe. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. the pieces . deep and 5 in. long. New York.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. A sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Their size depends on the plate used. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. albums and the like. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The seat is a board. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. they will look remarkably uniform. If the letters are all cut the same height. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. to the underside of which is a block. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. E. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. no doubt. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife.

to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. mount them on short pieces of corks. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. So arranged. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. In cutting out an 0. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. pasting the prints on some thin card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. photographing them down to the desired size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. after. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. The puzzle is to get . and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. for example. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. So made. using care to get it in the right position.

Cape May Point. with the longest end outside. He smells the bait. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. of its top. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. Old-Time Magic . squeezes along past the center of the tube. says the American Thresherman. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. N. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. snow or anything to hide it. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. G. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. hung on pivots.J. A hole 6 or 7 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.-Contributed by I. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. so they will lie horizontal. long that will just fit are set in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Bayley.

or rub the hands a little before doing so. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Parker. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Pawtucket. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Idaho. Press the hands together. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. E. then expose again. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Rhode Island. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Brooklyn.faced up. then spread the string. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. N. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. --Contributed by L. Pocatello. Y.

narrower. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. in width. When the whole is quite dry. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 1 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. if any. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. and if carefully made. 1. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 4 on the blade. dark red. end of the blade. full size. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Glue the other side of the blade. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. long. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. or green oil paint. When the glue is thoroughly dry. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. thick. wide and 2 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The handle is next made. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. in building up his work from the illustrations. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. wipe the blade . trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The blade should be about 27 in. 2 Fig.. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 3 Fig. using a straightedge and a pencil.. they will look very much like the genuine article. or a complete suit of armor. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The pieces.Genuine antique swords and armor. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. says the English Mechanic. whether he requires a single sword only. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. near the point end. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.

A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. allowing for a good hold with both hands. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The length of the handle. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1. in diameter. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. the length of the blade 28 in. 2. and 3 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. in the widest part at the lower end. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or half-round. This sword is about 68 in. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 2. 1. as it is . The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the illustration. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. of course. about 1-1/2 in. 1. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. should be about 9 in. 3. thick and 5 in. take two pieces of wood. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. long. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the other two are identical. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. shows only two sides.. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. In making this scimitar. In the finished piece. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. In making. the other is flat or halfround. square and of any length desired. 1/8 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle.with light strokes up and down several times. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood.. Both edges of the blade are sharp. 4. follow the directions as for Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord.

long. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Syracuse. and if so. as can the pitch bed or block. --Contributed by John Blake. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. The thinness of the plank. each about 1 ft. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. in an attempt to remove it. at the lower end. 2 in. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. as there was some at hand. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Mass. Doctors probed for the button without success. however. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. and. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. piping and jackets by hard water. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Morse. On each edge of the board. A cold . It is made of a plank. Franklin. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Both can be made easily. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Y. about 3/8 in.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. or an insecure fastening. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. A piece of mild steel. as shown in the sketch. square.

To put it in another way. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 18 gauge. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 5 lb. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.. When this has been done. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. using a small metal saw. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Trim up the edges and file them . Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. plaster of Paris. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. To remedy this.. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. design down. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. tallow. When the desired form has been obtained. secure a piece of brass of about No. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. on the pitch.

Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. to keep it from floating. 1 ft. or 550 ft. Before giving the description. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Cutter. 3. 30 ft. make an unusual show window attraction. using powdered pumice with lye. The smaller is placed within the larger. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in one second.000 ft. A. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. lb. and still revolve. That is lifting 33. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Clean the metal thoroughly.smooth. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. and hang a bird swing. in diameter (Fig. but not to stop it. in diameter (Fig. . This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Fill the 3-in. over the smaller vessel. lb. one 18 in.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in one minute or 550 lb. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. --Contributed by Harold H. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.000 lb. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. living together in what seems like one receptacle. or fraction of a horsepower. This in turn divided by 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. in the center. 1 ft. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. per minute. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. 1) and the other 12 in. 2). per second. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Fig. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. space between the vessels with water. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.

Y. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Szerlip. F.18 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. by L. Brooklyn.3 Fig. Campbell.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. N. The effect is surprising. --Contributed by J. or on a pedestal. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter 12 in. --Contributed. Mass. Diameter Fig. Somerville. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.

keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. is. and cut out the shape with the shears. and the clay . A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Polish both of these pieces. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. using any of the common metal polishes. Do not be content merely to bend them over. with other defects. which. the same as removing writing from a slate. unsatisfactory. with the pliers. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. which may be of wood or tin. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. and then. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Rivet the cup to the base. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. away from the edge.copper of No. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing. This compound is impervious to water. often render it useless after a few months service. as a rule. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. In riveting. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in.

in diameter and 5 in. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 2. Dunlop. Mich. Northville. Houghton. Shettleston. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. --Contributed by A. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. 3/4 in. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. . A. long. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below.can be pressed back and leveled. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. --Contributed by John T. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Thos. 1. the device will work for an indefinite time. Mich. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. DeLoof. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Grand Rapids. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. It is made of a glass tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Scotland.

thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. 1. This sword is 4 ft. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. long. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.FIG. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. stilettos and battle-axes. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.1 FIG. London. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. in width and 2 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

long with a dark handle of wood. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 4. Three large. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The handle is of wood. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 20 spike. Both handle and axe are of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. In Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 11 were used. the upper part iron or steel. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Cut two strips of tinfoil. 6. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. When dry. firmly glued on. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. very broad. This axe is made similar to the one . finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. the same as used on the end of the handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. In Fig. long. The ball is made as described in Fig. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. paint it a dark brown or black. A German stiletto.represent copper. 3 is shown a claymore. The sword shown in Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. with both edges sharp. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. 5. in width. 7. When the whole is quite dry. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. In Fig. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. wood with a keyhole saw. is shown in Fig. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. This weapon is also about 1 ft. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. one about 1/2 in. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. in length. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The lower half of the handle is of wood. small rope and round-headed nails. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. glue and put it in place. in length. sharp edges on both sides. 8. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. with both edges of the blade sharp. narrower. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 9. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. then glued on the blade as shown. This sword is about 4 ft. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. string. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. studded with brass or steel nails. This stiletto has a wood handle. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade.

Old-Time Magic . so the contents cannot be seen. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. will pull where other belts slip. W. . When wrapped all the way around. such as braided fishline. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. This will make a very good flexible belt.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 2. Chicago. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. together as shown in Fig. --Contributed by E. 10. high.described in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.

Macdonald.J. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . N. four glass tumblers. an acid. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. --Contributed by A. some of the liquid. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. There will be no change in color. in a few seconds' time. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Oakland. Bridgeton. with the circle centrally located. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Before the performance. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. about one-third the way down from the top. causing the flowers to grow. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. held in the right hand. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. 1 and put together as in Fig. S. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. These wires are put in the jar. or using small wedges of wood. apparently. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Calif. filled with water. 2. The dotted lines in Fig. To make the flowers grow in an instant.

When many slides are to be masked. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Jaquythe. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which are numbered for convenience in working. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Richmond. practical and costs nothing. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. not only because of the fact just mentioned. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. and kept ready for use at any time. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. A. and equally worthy of individual treatment. If the size wanted is No. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. 2 for height. Cal. unless some special device is used. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. 4 for width and No. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. This outlines the desired opening. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. --Contributed by W. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly.

and the extreme length 7 in. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. and do not inhale the fumes. paint the design. The decoration. or a pair of old tongs. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. When etched to the desired depth. The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. may be changed. or. With a stick. This done. a little less acid than water. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. which is dangerous. too. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. 16 gauge. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Secure a sheet of No. using the carbon paper. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. about half and half. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. not the water into the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Draw a design. possibly. but they can be easily revived. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. is about right for the No. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. the paper is folded along the center line.

about 3 ft. Fig. 5. wide and of the same length as the table. 1. attached to a post at each end. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. and about 2-1/2 ft. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long. with the wires underneath. 3/8 in. about 8 in. so that when it is pressed down. 24 parts water. 0 indicates the batteries. The connections are simple: I. C and D. wide. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 3. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. A. it will touch post F. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 2. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. through it. as shown in the illustration. 2. as at H. as in Fig. Fig. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. in diameter and 1/4 in. . Nail a board. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. When the button S is pressed. about 2-1/2 in. 4. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. or more wide. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. to the table. Cut out a piece of tin. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. high. repeat as many times as is necessary. as shown in Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Fig. Fig. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 2. about 1 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Then get two posts. and bore two holes. the bell will ring. 5. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. long and 1 ft. thick.

An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. but they are somewhat difficult to make. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The circle is marked out with a compass. is to appear as steel. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 2. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. handle and all. This weapon is about 22 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. thick. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.. After the glue is dry. long serves as the dowel. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. long. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A wood peg about 2 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The entire weapon. These rings can be carved out. such as . says the English Mechanic. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The imitation articles are made of wood.Imitation Arms and Armor . 1. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.

used at the end of the fifteenth century. The handle is of steel imitation. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. also. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. The upper half of the handle is steel. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. All of these axes are about the same length. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. as shown. as described in Fig. 6. The spikes are cut out of wood. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Its length is about 3 ft. the hammer and spike. 5. . flowers. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 2. or the amateur cannot use it well. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The lower half of the handle is wood. with a sharp carving tool. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. This weapon is about 22 in. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. leaves. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The axe is shown in steel. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. 3. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. covered with red velvet. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. etc. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. 8. as before mentioned. studded with large brass or steel nails. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. If such a tool is not at hand.ornamental scrolls. long. is shown in Fig. The entire handle should be made of one piece. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth.

a three-base hit. as shown in Fig. as in Fig. calls for a home run. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 6. Fig. . The knife falling on its side (Fig. the knife resting on its back. 3. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 4). 1. and so on for nine innings. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. then the other plays. Chicago. 5. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 2. 7) calls for one out.

When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. hypo to 1 pt. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Mass. as shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Campbell. If it is spotted at all. 1. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. of water for an hour or two. Old-Time Magic . The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 3.-Contributed by J. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. F. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Somerville. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. This he does. as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. with the rope laced in the cloth. one of them burning . Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 2. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. of the rope and holds it.

in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. thus causing it to light. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. thick. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Drill Gauge screw. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.brightly. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of turpentine. 4 oz. Ky. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. showing that there is nothing between them. Louisville. --Contributed by C. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. and. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. the other without a light. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.. of sugar. etc. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. shades the light for a few seconds. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. bolt. of plumbago. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. 3/4 in. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Lebanon. Brown. He then walks over to the other candle. of water and 1 oz. invisible to them (the audience). Evans. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Thome. --Contributed by L. with which he is going to light the other candle. New York City. Ky.Contributed by Andrew G. . 4 oz. B. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood.

This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Do not add water to the acid. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. steady current. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. N. In making up the solution. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Denniston. long. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. diameter. --Contributed by C. 5 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Pulteney. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. but is not so good. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. into a tube of several thicknesses. for the material. To make the porous cell. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. about 5 in. thick. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. H. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. which will give a strong. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. or blotting paper. Y. Its current strength is about one volt.

The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. while the other end is attached by two screws. steel. long with a bearing at each end. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. As to thickness. To insure this. steel. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. but somewhat lighter. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Finally. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. One hole was bored as well as possible. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. one drawing them together. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts.station. the other holding them apart.) may be obtained. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. a positive adjustment was provided. steel. carrying the hour circle at one end. The . One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. After much experimentation with bearings. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in.

Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. is provided with this adjustment." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Instead. in each direction from two points 180 deg. and 15 min. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. save the one in the pipe. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. once carefully made. need not be changed. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. apart. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. excepting those on the declination axis. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Set the declination circle to its reading. All set screws. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye." When this is done. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. subtract 24. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. turn the pointer to the star. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. To find a star in the heavens. and if it is not again directed to the same point. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. If the result is more than 24 hours. It is. All these adjustments." Only a rough setting is necessary. Declination is read directly. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. To locate a known star on the map. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Cassiopiae. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. are tightened. Point it approximately to the north star. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The pole is 1 deg. 45 min.. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Each shaft. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground .

Strosnider. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. taking care not to add too much.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of ether.. a great effect will be produced. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. which is the one examined. long. benzole. cannon balls. is folded several times. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. add a little more benzole. If this will be too transparent. The dance will begin. the others . as shown in the sketch. is the real cannon ball. Ohio. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. In reality the first ball. 3 or 4 in. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The ball is found to be the genuine article. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. -Contributed by Ray E. La. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. then add 1 2-3 dr. Plain City. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.

without taking up any great amount of space. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by J. In boxes having a sliding cover. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Wis.. etc. Cal. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. taps. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. San Francisco. Milwaukee. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Return the card to the pack. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. F. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. small brooches. Somerville. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. as shown in the illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. 1). How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . 2. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Campbell. Mass.

Connecticut. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. prints. from the bottom of the box. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Hartford. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. as shown in the illustration. . round pieces 2-1/4 in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. thus giving ample store room for colors. Beller.

-Contributed by C. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. West Lynn. When the ends are turned under. with well packed horse manure. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. FIG. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. about threefourths full.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. holes in the bottom of one. Darke. . it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. will answer the purpose. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. or placed against a wall. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. 1). costing 5 cents. 2). This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Mass. Fill the upper tub. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. O. tacking the gauze well at the corners. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.

with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. Eifel. oil or other fluid. cutting the cane between the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. Chicago. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. --Contributed by L. when they are raised from the pan. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. and each bundle contains . The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. if this is not available. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. they should be knocked out. If the following directions are carried out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane.

as shown in Fig. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. In addition to the cane. and. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. a square pointed wedge. after having been pulled tight. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. it should be held by a plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. 1. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. put about 3 or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. No plugs . as it must be removed again. then across and down.

One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. 41°-30'. and for 1° it would be . The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. 3. called the gnomon. 5. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. as the height of the line BC for lat.075 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.075 in. as for example. Michigan. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used.3 in.42 in. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. All added to the lesser or 40°. Fig. From table No. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. This will make three layers. the height of the line BC. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 41 °-30'. Patrick. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. --Contributed by M. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1. 1 lat. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. the height of which is taken from table No. but the most common. 4.2 in. for 2°. in this case) times the . During the weaving. The style or gnomon. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. the next smallest. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Even with this lubrication.5 in. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. using the same holes as for the first layer. There are several different designs of sundials. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 40°. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal.2+. 1. -Contributed by E. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. D. or the style. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 1. 42° is 4. If handled with a little care. it is 4. When cool. W.15+. R. as shown in Fig. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. and the one we shall describe in this article. After completing the second layer.15 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.= 4. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . No weaving has been done up to this time. It consists of a flat circular table. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 5 in. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. trim off the surplus rosin. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. If you have a table of natural functions. Fig. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. and for lat. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. is the horizontal dial. 3. Their difference is . stretch the third one. we have 4. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Detroit. is the base (5 in. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. lat. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. as shown in Fig.

42 1.77 2.26 4.40 34° 3.32 6.76 1.66 latitude. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.00 40° 4.83 27° 2. .41 38° 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.99 2.30 2.46 .57 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.19 1.64 4 8 3.46 3.93 2. Draw the line AD. and intersecting the semicircles.57 3. which will represent the base in length and thickness. 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. with a radius of 5 in.39 .66 1.38 .94 1.16 1.03 3. base. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 4.29 4-30 7-30 3. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. long. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.55 30° 2. or more.28 .82 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.33 42° 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.89 50° 5.56 .20 60° 8. Fig.42 .37 5.66 48° 5.12 52° 6.91 58° 8. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.30 1.16 40 . Its thickness.44 44° 4. circle Sundial. and perpendicular to the base or style.18 28° 2.55 5.82 3.97 5 7 4.49 30 . The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.40 1.85 1. To layout the hour circle.87 1. 2. 2 for given latitudes.27 2.14 5. Draw two semi-circles.63 56° 7.42 45 . Chords in inches for a 10 in.23 6. or if of stone.33 .82 5.81 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.55 46° 5.11 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .10 6. gives the 6 o'clock points.96 32° 3. 2. Table NO.49 3.85 35 . and for this size dial (10 in.02 1. using the points A and C as centers.06 2.59 2. if of metal.79 4.93 6. an inch or two.07 4. For latitudes not given. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. according to the size of the dial.50 26° 2.37 54° 6.87 4.68 5-30 6-30 5.88 36° 3.

30 2. 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.12 5. then the watch is slower. As they are the genuine reproductions. London.24 5. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 3. if west.49 3.06 2. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.add those marked + subtract those Marked . it will be faster. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Iowa. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.98 4.53 1.01 1.50 . An ordinary compass. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.72 5.49 5. Sun time to local mean time.50 55 .19 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.52 Table No.46 4.79 6. adding to each piece interest and value. each article can be labelled with the name. Each weapon is cut from wood. April 16. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .87 6.. This correction can be added to the values in table No. and for the difference between standard and local time. June 15. E. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.82 3. says the English Mechanic. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 900 Chicago.10 4.54 60 . The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Sept.68 3.34 5. The + means that the clock is faster.63 1. --Contributed by J. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.60 4. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.71 2. 25. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Mitchell.means that the dial is faster than the sun.from Sundial lime. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 2 and Dec. after allowing for the declination. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. will enable one to set the dial.08 1.14 1.89 3. Sioux City.21 2. and the .93 6.57 1.37 2.46 5.77 3.

The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. When putting on the tinfoil.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. 3. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. the length of which is about 5 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 1. Partisan. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.. .

The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. 8. 7. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. It is about 6 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. used about the seventeenth century. 5. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. long. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This weapon is about 6 ft. sharp on the outer edges. press it well into the carved depressions. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft.. is shown in Fig. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. long with a round wooden handle. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. 6 ft. in diameter. long with a round staff or handle. about 4 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The spear is steel. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. A gisarm or glaive. The edges are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. long. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. the holes being about 1/4 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. which are a part of the axe. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. . with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The extreme length is 9 ft.which is square. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails.

1. 4. Substances such as straw. Ohio. as shown in Fig. Workman. 2 and 3. or in holes punched in a leather strap. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. the cross cords. are put in place. This is important to secure neatness. used for spacing and binding the whole together. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. They can be made of various materials. are less durable and will quickly show wear.-Contributed by R. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. In Figs. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The twisted cross cords should . The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 5. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Loudonville. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Cut all the cords the same length. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. H. B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. apart. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.

Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. below the top to within 1/4 in. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. La. wide. 3 in. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. of the bottom. M. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. A slit was cut in the bottom. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. in which was placed a piece of glass. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. New York. as shown at B. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. To remedy this. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Harrer. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. -Contributed by Geo. New Orleans. bamboo or rolled paper. This was turned over the top of the other can.be of such material. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. shaped as shown at C. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Lockport.

sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. This plank. giving the appearance of hammered brass. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. turned over but not fastened. do not throw away the gloves. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. H. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end.tape from sticking to the carpet. Pasadena. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Schaffner. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by Chas. After this is finished. Maywood. Newburgh. --Contributed by Joseph H. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. It would be well to polish the brass at first. wide. N. Cal. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . --Contributed by W. Sanford. the brass is loosened from the block. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. This should be done gradually. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Shay. about 1/16 in. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Y. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Ill. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch.

Richmond. K. Marshall. A. -Contributed by W. Cal.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Jaquythe. --E. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Ill. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park. Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in.

. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. In using this method. Two uprights. Secure a board. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. to the first one with screws or glue. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. C. thick. and the other two 2-5/8 in. only have the opposite side up. 3/4 in. Metzech. such as this one. long and at each side of this. wide that is perfectly flat. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. 7-1/2 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high. wide. are secured in the base bar. in diameter. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. is an electromagnet. . which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. bar. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. high. A. Fasten another board. B. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. away. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. high and 1/4 in. 6 in. Chicago. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. says the Scientific American. 5/16 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. by 1-5/16 in. Now place the board to be joined. The construction is very simple. bearing on the latter. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. about 12 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. about 6 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. on the board B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. --Contributed by V.

1. Fig. 1. square. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. long. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Fig. plates should be made 8 in. square inside. wide and 1 in. The trigger. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 3. wide and 5 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 4. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Phoenixville. as shown at A. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 2. or more. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Pa. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. from one end. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Vanderslice. .

are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. 2 parts of whiting. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Simonis. as shown in the illustration.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Ohio. one-half the length of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. square. -Contributed by J. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.A. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Fostoria. which allows 1/4 in. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. by weight. 5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the .

In use. II. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A mirror. London. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Shaw. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. and the picture can be drawn as described. --Contributed by Thos. Dartmouth. place tracing paper on its surface. It must be kept moist and well . Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. wide and about 1 ft.lower strings. -Contributed by Abner B. says the English Mechanic. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. long. A piece of metal. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. 8 in. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. G. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Mass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. keeps the strong light out when sketching. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. 1. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Grand Rapids. DeLoof. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is necessary. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. No. as shown in Fig. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. and it may be made as a model or full sized. preferably copper. in the opposite end of the box. Michigan. which may be either of ground or plain glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. In constructing helmets. deep. If a plain glass is used. A double convex lens.

is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. joined closely together. and continue until the clay is completely covered. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and over the crest on top. on which to place the clay. the clay model oiled. Scraps of thin.kneaded. take. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The clay. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. as in bas-relief. a few clay-modeling tools. 2. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and left over night to soak. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. All being ready. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. After the clay model is finished. brown. with a keyhole saw. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. will be necessary. 3. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 1. This being done. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 1. or some thin glue. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. as shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and the deft use of the fingers.

The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. Before taking it off the model. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. 9. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. a crest on top. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 5. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. When dry. will make it look neat. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. and the ear guards in two pieces. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. as seen in the other part of the sketch. which should be no difficult matter. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. square in shape. as shown: in the design. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. When the helmet is off the model. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. then another coating of glue. --Contributed by Paul Keller. When perfectly dry. In Fig. the piecing could not be detected. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. with the exception of the vizor. the skullcap. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . They are all covered with tinfoil. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. Indianapolis. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails.as possible. This contrivance should be made of wood. In Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and so on. a few lines running down. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. should be modeled and made in one piece. The center of the ear guards are perforated. 7. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The whole helmet. one for each side. The band is decorated with brass studs. or. 1. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. Indiana.

and two large 3in. GG. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 1. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 1. should extend about 1/4 in. 1 in. AA.same size. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 4 lb. with slits cut for the wires. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 1. high. as shown in Fig. Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. when they are placed in opposite positions. long. 12 in. about 80 ft. above the collar. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 2. one oblong piece of wood. 1. each 4-1/2 in. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. If asbestos is used. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. German-silver wire is better. Fig. wide and 15 in. one fuse block. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. about 1/4 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The mineral wool. 2. long. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. screws. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 4. 1. Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. are allowed to project about 1 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. is shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. This will allow the plate. is then packed down inside the collar. for connections. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. two ordinary binding posts. 2. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The two holes. AA. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 3 in. if the measurements are correct. of fire clay. until it is within 1 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 3. the holes leading to the switch. which can be bought from a local druggist. The holes B and C are about 3 in. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. JJ. and C. E and F. AA. 4. one small switch. FF. long. Fig. 4. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. If a neat appearance is desired. of the top. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. A round collar of galvanized iron. of No. in diameter and 9 in. 4. of mineral wool. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. 4. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. The plate. the fuse block. if this cannot be obtained. about 1 lb. also the switch B and the fuse block C. or. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. thick. and. The reverse side of the base. one glass tube. Fig. 1. Fig. 4.

one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Cover over about 1 in. If this is the case. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. St. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. more wire should be added.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Jaquythe. While the clay is damp. allowing a space between each turn. when cool. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. when heated. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Cut a 1/2-in. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. II. The clay. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. 4. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. H. This completes the stove. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. Cal. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. 2. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. A. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. it leaves a gate for the metal. will slip and come in contact with each other. Can. If it is not thoroughly dry. as the turns of the wires. It should not be set on end. deep. causing a short circuit. This point marks the proper length to cut it. apart. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Richmond. When this is done. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. --Contributed by R. and pressed into it. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. then. As these connections cannot be soldered. KK. Cnonyn. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. --Contributed by W. Fig. Catherines. It should not be left heated in this condition. so that the circuit will not become broken. Next. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A file can be used to remove any rough places. When the tile is in place. Fig. above the rim. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in.

the pie will be damaged. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. constructed of 3/4-in. is large enough." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the frame set near a window. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. as shown. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. and the prints will dry rapidly. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Then clip a little off the . The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. says the Photographic Times. Ky. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Louisville. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Thorne. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. --Contributed by Andrew G. square material in any size. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. but 12 by 24 in. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time.

thick and 3 in. causing a break in the current. 2-1/2 in. each 1 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. in diameter. 1. Fig. W. An offset is bent in the center. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. A 1/8-in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1 and 3. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Fig. 1/2 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The board can be raised to place . long. which are fastened to the base. high. as shown. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. slip on two cardboard washers. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. wide and 7 in. in diameter and about 4 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. thick. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 3. thereby saving time and washing. 1/2 in. Herron. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. for the crank. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. long. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. long. Figs. The upright B. wide and 3 in. at GG. 4 in. Iowa. thick and 3 in. allowing each end to project for connections. The connections are made as shown in Fig. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 14 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running.Paper Funnel point. 22 gauge magnet wire. Le Mars. Fig. 1. As the shaft revolves. The connecting rod E. The driving arm D. 1. long. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. high. which gives the shaft a half turn. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. -Contributed by S. 1. each 1/2 in. 2. open out. high. wide. Two supports.

or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. making a framework suitable for a roost. 3 in. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. One or more pots may be used. on a board. in height. In designing the roost. . The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Place the pot. Mass. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. bottom side up. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Stecher. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Dorchester. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. as shown in the sketch. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. --Contributed by William F.

then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. as shown in Fig.. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. ordinary glue.. shelves. odd corners. Wind the . F. that it is heated. 1. in diameter. etc. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. will produce the pattern desired. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. grills and gratings for doors. windows. preferably. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. 1. paraffin and paint or varnish. The materials required are rope or. The bottom part of the sketch. Fig. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. F. without any corresponding benefit. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. and give it time to dry.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. if it is other than straight lines. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. adopt the method described. when combined.

A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. N. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Y. 2. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. six designs are shown. Harrer. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. M. -Contributed by Geo.Fig.

will be retained by the cotton. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. says the English Mechanic. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. 1.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. and the sides do not cover the jaws. but no farther. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc. which was used in front of a horse's head. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. This piece of horse armor. London. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made... The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust. when it will be observed that any organic matter. As the .

Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and will require less clay. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. the same as in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. In Fig. but for . Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 4. which can be made in any size. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as shown in the sketch. This will make the model light and easy to move around. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. but the back is not necessary. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. which is separate. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. and the clay model oiled. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. This being done. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. as the surface will hold the clay. except the thumb and fingers. the rougher the better. then another coat of glue. This can be made in one piece. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. with the exception of the thumb shield. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 2. The armor is now removed from the model. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. and therefore it is not described. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 2. All being ready. 8. This triangularshaped support. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

Y. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. 9. running down the plate. 2. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. but 3-1/2 in. Goshen. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. long. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be about right. Redondo Beach.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. the foils will not move. When locating the place for the screw eyes. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. N. in depth. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. The two pieces of foil. fastened to the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. each about 1/4 in. the top of the rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Buxton. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. and the instrument is ready for use. --Contributed by Ralph L. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two in each jaw. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. La Rue. are better shown in Fig. A piece of board. --Contributed by John G. 1/2 in. Calif. . If it does not hold a charge. wide and 1/2 in. the two pieces of foil will draw together. are glued to it. The vise consists of three pieces of wood.

The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Corsicana. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as this will cut under the water without splashing. as shown in the illustration. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. 2-1/2 in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. enameled or otherwise decorated. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. A. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. silvered. Bryan.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. When a fish is hooked. long. --Contributed by Mrs. pine board. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. is made of a 1/4-in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. At a point 6 in. hole bored through it. from the smaller end. about 15 in. M. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. as indicated in the . Texas. The can may be bronzed. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.

it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. such as basswood or pine was used. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. A good size is 5 in. wide by 6 in. Any kind of wood will do. then with a nail. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. long over all. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. When it has dried over night. using powdered pumice and lye. Next prepare the metal holder. If soft wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. punch the holes. 22 is plenty heavy enough. or even pine. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Polish the metal. will do as well as the more expensive woods. 3/8 or 1/4 in. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Basswood or butternut. using a piece of carbon paper. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Having completed the drawing. take a piece of thin wood. as shown. thick. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. and trace upon it the design and outline. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red.

At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. each 1 in. long. Two wire nails. 1/2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. . Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. If carving is contemplated. Richmond. If one has some insight in carving. the whole being finished in linseed oil.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. It is useful for photographers. is used for the base of this instrument. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. A. --Contributed by W. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. 2 in. Cal. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Instead of the usual two short ropes. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. of pure olive oil. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. can be made on the same standards. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. are used for the cores of the magnets. thick. long. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. wide and 5 in. Jaquythe. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue.

The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 3. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. then covered with red. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. A rubber band. cut in the shape of the letter T. leaving about 1/4 in. at A. in the shape shown in the sketch. About 1 in. 25 gauge. London. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. 1. when the key is pushed down. the paper covering put on. H. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. cloth or baize to represent the legs. except that for the legs. says the English Mechanic. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A piece of tin. about No. Lynas. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. similar to that used in electric bells. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. as shown by the dotted lines. . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. as shown in Fig. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. --Contributed by W.

apart. completes the equipment. The two pieces are bolted together. can be made in a few minutes' time. So set up. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. hole in the center. and eight small holes. Secure two strips of wood. flat headed carriage bolt. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A 1/4-in. for the sake of lightness. These can be purchased at a stationery store. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. or ordinary plaster laths will do. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 3 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Cut them to a length or 40 in. make the same series of eight small holes and.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. says Camera Craft. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. apart. 1 and drill a 1/4in. in the other end. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. one to another . Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. drill six 1/4-in. holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. long. In one end of the piece. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. not too tight. 2. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Take the piece shown in Fig. about 1 in. Silver paper will do very well. at each end.. Fig. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 1 in.

makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. D over A and C. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. and the one beneath C. of the ends remain unwoven. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. long. lay Cover B and the one under D. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. In this sketch. 4. Then draw all four ends up snugly. for instance. the one marked A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. as shown in Fig. but instead of reversing . leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. taking the same start as for the square fob. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. C over D and B. Then take B and lay it over A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. doubled and run through the web of A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. Start with one end.of the larger holes in the strip. as in portraiture and the like. Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 1. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.

long.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. The round fob is shown in Fig. 5. A loop. as B. 3. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. is left out at the center before starting on one side. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. especially if silk strings are used. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. --Contributed by John P. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Rupp. over the one to its right. the design of which is shown herewith. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Ohio. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . always lap one string. Other designs can be made in the same manner. as in making the square fob. 1-1/2 in. is to be made of leather. Monroeville. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as at A in Fig. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob.

The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Northville.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. door facing or door panel. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. . A. Mich. filling them with wax. beeswax or paraffin. such as a nut pick. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Houghton. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. pressing it against the wood. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Any smooth piece of steel. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. using the reverse side. it can be easily renewed. -Contributed by A. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion.

press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Ill. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold together on lines C.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. E and F. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. those on matte paper will work best. New York. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. D. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. thick. leaving about 1/4 in. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. . Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. long. remaining above the surface of the board. Thompson. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. although tin ones can be used with good success. if blueprints are used. J. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and after wetting. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Petersburg. place it face down in the dish. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. apart and driven in only part way. Enough plaster should. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. The tacks should be about 1 in. Select the print you wish to mount. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. N. and about 12 in. --Contributed by O. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. says Photographic Times.

Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. as shown at the left in the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. One of the . violets. roses. etc. as shown in the right of the sketch. without mixing the solutions. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Lower into the test tube a wire. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. filling the same about onehalf full. will be rendered perfectly white. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. bell flowers. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

A rod that will fit the brass tube. should be soldered to the box. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The first point should be ground blunt. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. --Contributed by L. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. L. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The tin horn can be easily made. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. 2. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. long. 1-7/8 in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The diaphragm. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. about 1/8s in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. as shown in the sketch. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. made of heavy tin. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. South Dakota. When soldering these parts together. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Shabino.. 3. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and at the larger end. Millstown. as shown. or delicate tints of the egg. turned a little tapering. not too tightly. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. Fig.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. is about 2-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 1. long and made of wood. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. shading. to keep the core from coming off in turning. but which will not wobble loose. in diameter and 1 in. thick. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The sound box.

put a board on top.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. Gold. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. mice in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. wondering what it was. and. Chicago. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Jr. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Ill. E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Victor.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end.

There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Buffalo. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Can. Pereira. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. N. Y. .

Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. and at one end of the stick fasten. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cal. longer than the length of the can. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Richmond. De Loof. cut round. a piece of tin. through which several holes have been punched. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Thos. as shown. by means of a flatheaded tack. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. This cart has no axle. Grand Rapids. Mich. Put a small nail 2 in. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. --Contributed by W. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. above the end of the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. as it can be made quickly in any size. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . A. Jaquythe.

1-1/2 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. New Orleans. I reversed a door gong. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 1. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. board. as shown. Notches 1/8 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. La. 2. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Kane. of course. wide and 1/8 in. 2. Pa. Fig. deep and 3 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Doylestown. The baseboard and top are separable.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The candles.1. wide. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 2 in. 1 ft. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 3 ft. wide and as long as the box. apart. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. long. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 2. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. thick. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1/4 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . were below the level of the bullseye. --Contributed by James M. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The wires are set in the 1/8-in.

it can be removed without marring the casing. After completing the handle. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. stone or wood. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. After the glue has dried. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Needles. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. 1. will. as shown in Fig. dressing one surface of each piece. etc. This device is very convenient for invalids. Worcester. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. the shelf could not be put on the window. take two pieces of hard wood. to prevent its scratching the desk top. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Ia. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. A. 3. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. wide rubber bands or felt. wide into each side of the casing. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants.Book Back Holders metal. Mass. the blade is put back into the groove . For the handle. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. When not in use. can be picked up without any trouble. when placed as in Fig. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. --Contributed by G. scissors. by cutting away the ends. Cover the block with rubber. West Union. the reason being that if both were solid. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Wood. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.

. Erie. If desired. A notch is cut in one side. square and 4 in. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. is shown in the accompanying sketch. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. 1 in. 2. Jacobs. Cleveland. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. thus carrying the car up the incline. Malden. S. A. -Contributed by W. Hutchins. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1. Pa. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Ohio. Mass. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. as shown in Fig. Each one is made of a hardwood block. long. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.and sharpened to a cutting edge.

Prepare a design for the front. N. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. If one such as is shown is to be used. This will insure having all parts alike. The letters can be put on afterward. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. . will be needed. One sheet of metal. a board on which to work it. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.J. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. and an awl and hammer.. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Cape May Point.

paste the paper design right on the metal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. says Master Painter. The stick may be placed by the side of. if desired. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. which is desirable. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. mandolin or guitar. that can be worked in your own parlor. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. So impressive are the results. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. varnish. to right angles. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. One coat will do. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. only the marginal line is to be pierced. applied by means of a brush. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. flat brush. in the waste metal. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. If any polishing is required. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. behind or through the center of a table leg. 3/4 part. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. placed on a table.Fasten the metal to the board. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 1 part. but weird and distant. The music will not sound natural. or. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. as shown. Remove the metal. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. On the back. . The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 2 parts white vitriol. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. it may be effected by an application of potash lye." In all appearance. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. a violin. turpentine. 1/4 part.

1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long. wide. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. it might be difficult. . as would be the case with ordinary calipers. each 28 in. Two pairs of feet. and is easy to construct. 3. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The longest piece. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. square bar iron. is bent square so as to form two uprights. each 6 in. long and measuring 26 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. without them. 2. London. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. With proper tools this is easy. says Work. are shaped as shown in Fig. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. apart. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. round-head machine screws. long and spread about 8 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. across the top. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in.

Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. cut a long piece of lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. better still. lead. using rosin as a flux. The brads are then removed. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. Fig. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. as shown in Fig. is held by the brads. Place the corner piece of glass. 6. the latter being tapped to . the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. 5. 5. 7. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. and the base border. After the glass is cut. The design is formed in the lead. Fig. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. D. B. The glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. in the grooves of the borders. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. 4. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. C. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. on it as shown. or. After the joints are soldered. A. special flux purchased for this purpose.

the base of the clip. as shown in Fig. wood screws in each washer. Fasten the plates to the block B.. rounded at the top as shown. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Jr. and two wood blocks. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. Dreier. plates. long. holes through their centers. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. one on each side and central with the hole. not less than 4 in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. long. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then drill a 3/4-in. A and B. Bore a 3/4-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. Make three washers 3-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. The center pin is 3/4-in. in diameter and about 9 in. Secure a post. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Bore a 5/8-in. 8. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. then flatten its end on the under side. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. N. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Camden. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. plank about 12 ft. square and of the length given in the drawing. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. H. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. J. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. bolt. rocker bolt. This . Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in.

Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long. 4 filler pieces. in diameter and 7 in. chestnut or ash. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. by 6-1/2 ft. 4 pieces. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 1 by 7 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. screws. 16 screws. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 1. 2 by 4 in. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. of 1/4-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1/2 in. If trees are convenient. straight-grained hickory. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. long. 50 ft. from one edge. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 pieces. by 3 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. bolts and rope. by 2 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 2-1/2 in. The four 7-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. horse and rings. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 4 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . hickory. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 9 in. bit. maple. To substitute small. 1-1/4in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Draw a line on the four 7-in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long and 1 piece. long. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. and some one can swing an axe. La. because it will not stand the weather. New Orleans. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. shanks.will make an excellent cover for a pot. square by 5 ft. 3 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood.

each 3 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each.bored. apart. from the end. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. 2. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. at each end. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. piece of wood. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. 8 in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. apart. boards coincide. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. so the 1/2-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft.. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. deep and remove all loose dirt. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.

in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. in an endless belt. passing through a screweye at either end. When the interest of the crowd. He stretched the thread between two buildings. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. not even the tumbler. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. but most deceptive at dusk. and materially heightened the illusion. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. about 100 ft. and ascends the stem. disappearing only to reappear again. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. the effect is very striking. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. W. apart. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. was at its height. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. If the tumbler is rotated. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided." which skimmed along the distant horizon.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. And all he used was a black thread. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. not much to look at in daytime. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and then passes in a curve across the base. .. it follows the edge for about 1 in. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which at once gathered. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. just visible against the dark evening sky.

7 in. long. long. Bevel the ends of . 8 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 4 in. square and 6 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. large spikes. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. long and 1 doz. 6 in. 2 by 4 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. New Orleans. The cork will come out easily. 2 cross braces. 2 base pieces. long. 2 by 4 in. To make the apparatus. square and 51/2 ft. so the point will be on top. Fig. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. long. 2 side braces. from either side of the center. 2 by 3 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. and turned in a spiral D. La. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. wide and 1 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 in. by 3 ft. by 10 ft. deep. 4 in. preferably cedar. by 7 ft. 8 bolts. 4 knee braces. 4 bolts. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. beginning at a point 9 in. 8 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 1. long. 4 wood screws. A wire about No.

so the bolts in both will not meet. leaving the strainer always in position.the knee braces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A. After the trenches are dug. except the bars. Jaquythe. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. using four of the 7-in bolts. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. which face each other. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. save the bars. A large sized ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. jellies. Cal. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Two endpieces must be made. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. leave it undressed. . --Contributed by W. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Richmond. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. as shown in the diagram. If using mill-cut lumber. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The wood so treated will last for years. etc.. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. but even unpainted they are very durable. equipped with a strainer. screws. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. of 7 ft. These will allow the ladle to be turned. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. additional long. and countersinking the heads. ( To be Continued.

If a little turpentine is added to the oil. A. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a barrier for jumps.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. milling machine. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. which seems impossible. Oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. thus holding the pail as shown. drill press or planer. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. In order to accomplish this experiment. it is necessary to place a stick. . is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. of sufficient 1ength.

1 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. The round part of this log must be planed. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. by 3 ft. by 3 ft.. is a good length. wood yard or from the woods. Hand holds must be provided next. by 3 ft. ten 1/2-in. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. two 1/2-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. To construct. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. bolt. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. 4-1/2 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. apart in a central position on the horse. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. square by 5-1/2 ft. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 4 knee braces. 2 by 4 in. These are placed 18 in. Procure from a saw mill. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. bolts. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 7 in. and free from knots. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. piece of 2 by 4-in. in diameter--the larger the better. 2 bases. projections and splinters. 4 in. 2 adjusting pieces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. apart. long. 4 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. square by 5 ft. long. 1 cross brace.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. but 5 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . These are well nailed in place. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 4 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 3 in. 2 by 4 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. from each end. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. in the ground.. bolts. long.

Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.horse top. etc. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Jaquythe. Also. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Such a hand sled can be made in a . over and around. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Richmond. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. such as a dent. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Cal. water. it is caused by some obstruction. snow. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but nevertheless. then bending to the shape desired. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. A. no one is responsible but himself. pipe and fittings. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle.--Contributed by W.

--Contributed by James E. . The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Paris. Vener. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by J. France. will give the length. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. thick. 1. Boston. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Noble. in width and 1/32 in. Toronto. when complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. The end elevation. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Joerin. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. then run a string over each part. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Ontario. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. These. at E and F. are all the tools necessary. is much better than a wood sled. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. which. when straightened out. W. 2.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Mass.

nor that which is partly oxidized. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 4. AA and BB. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The method shown in Figs. It is best to use soft water. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. and the latter will take on a bright luster. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. are nailed. . Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks.

2. 2. as shown in Fig. class ice-yacht. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 1). Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Broad lines can be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 4. 3. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The materials used are: backbone. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. . Percy Ashley in Rudder. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. or various rulings may be made. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 8 and 9.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

a tee and a forging. out from the collar. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. 1. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. pipe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The point should extend about 11/2 in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. a larger size of pipe should be used. It can be made longer or shorter. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. bent and drilled as shown. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A good and substantial homemade lathe. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The headstock is made of two tees. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. but if it is made much longer. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.Fig. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. about 30 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired.

Musgrove. or a key can be used as well. else taper turning will result. a corresponding line made on this. thick as desired. Cal. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. . and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Man. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. UpDeGraff. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Fruitvale. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. a straight line should be scratched Fig. as shown in Fig. W. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. Laporte. Boissevain. To do this. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 3/4 or 1 in. Held.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. but also their insulating properties. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. 1. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. It is about 1 in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Indiana. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. M.

If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] .Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Ft. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Cline. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. --Contributed by E. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. J. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Ark. To obviate this. as shown. long. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.

Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. take . Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Walter W. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Denver. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. and when once in true up to its size. if this method is followed: First.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. La. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. centering is just one operation too many. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. New Orleans. on starting the lathe. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Colo. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. the drill does not need the tool. After being entered. White. face off the end of the piece. which should be backed out of contact. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece.

a long piece of glass tubing. a bout 1/2 in. after being shown empty. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. unknown to the spectators. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. by applying caustic soda or . and can be varied to suit the performer. The handkerchief rod. all the better. says the Sphinx. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. is put into the paper tube A. The glass tube B. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and this given to someone to hold. vanishing wand. In doing this.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shorter t h a n the wand. as shown in D. shown at C. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. After the wand is removed.

Cut a piece of hard wood. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The sides. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Glue strips of soft wood. and glue it to the neck at F. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. preferably hard maple. thick. and if care is taken in selecting the material. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. As the cement softens. cut to any shape desired. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. With care and patience. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 Bottom. as shown by K. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1/4 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. End. The brace at D is 1 in. by 14 by 17 in. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 Neck. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. with the back side rounding. long. 2 Sides. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. giving it an old-fashioned appearance.potash around the edges of the letters. can be made by the home mechanic. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 End. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Glue the neck to the box. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. square and 1-7/8 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 3/16. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage.

Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Frary. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. thick and about 1 ft. O. but it is not. or backbone. Carbondale. --Contributed by Chas. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 3/16 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. A board 1 in.Pa. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Stoddard. 1) on which to stretch the paper. When it is completed you will have a canoe. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. E. and beveled .should be made accurately. toward each end. Norwalk. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. in diameter. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. -Contributed by J. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. long is used for a keel. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. H. Six holes. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. wide and 11-1/2 ft. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.

2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. long. B. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. . wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. b. will answer nearly as well. These are better. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs. long are required. apart. Shape these as shown by A. 1 and 2. Fig. as shown in Fig. but twigs of some other trees. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. probably. 3. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. two twigs may be used to make one rib. For the gunwales (a. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. a. 2. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl.. Fig. as before described. 3. slender switches of osier willow. For the ribs near the middle of the boat.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. two strips of wood (b. b.) in notches. 2). thick. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and. in such cases. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. The cross-boards (B. 4. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. such as is used for making chairbottoms. in thickness and should be cut. 1. as shown in Fig. 3/8 in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 3). Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. thick. are next put in. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 2). Fig. Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. and so. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. as they are apt to do. but before doing this. by means of a string or wire. when made of green elm. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. or other place. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. Fig. In drying. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Green wood is preferable. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. C. Any tough. wide by 26 in. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. buy some split cane or rattan. C. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 13 in. 4). b. which are easily made of long. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. procure at a carriage factory. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 3). or similar material. The ribs. such as hazel or birch. with long stout screws. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. the loose strips of ash (b. and are not fastened. some tight strips of ash.

and as soon as that has soaked in. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. if it has been properly constructed of good material. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. however. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. If the paper be 1 yd. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. of very strong wrapping-paper. wide. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. 5). it can be obtained in almost any length desired. and very tough. Then take some of the split rattan and. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. but with less turpentine. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. If not. The paper is then trimmed. Fig. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. When thoroughly dry. It should be smooth on the surface. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and light oars. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. When the paper is dry. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and steady in the water. tacking it to the bottom-board. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. You may put in . Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. after wetting it. B. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. preferably iron. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and held in place by means of small clamps. but neither stiff nor very thick. Being made in long rolls. apply a second coat of the same varnish.

Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 1. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. and if driven as shown in the cut. to fit it easily. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and make a movable seat (A. 1 and the end in . Drive the lower nail first. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 2. 5. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. We procured a box and made a frame. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 5). fore and aft.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.

The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. 4. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 5.Fig. Pa. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pittsburg. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A good way to handle this work. and the glass. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the result is. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. 3. this makes the tube airtight. Close the other end with the same operation. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. This way has its drawbacks. This is an easy . will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick.

with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. above the metal. Seventh.way to make a thermometer tube. second. thin screw. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. 23 gauge. -Contributed by A. with a piece of carbon paper. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. rivet punch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The candle holders may have two. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Sixth. also trace the decorative design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. three. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. fourth. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. four. extra metal all around. After the bulb is formed. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. file. Give the metal a circular motion. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . fifth. very rapid progress can be made. flat and round-nosed pliers. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. or six arms. then reverse. metal shears. Oswald. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. third.

Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. A saw. hammer. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. except they had wheels instead of runners. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Mother let me have a sheet. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. of glycerine to about 200 deg. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. The gaff. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. I steer with the front wheel. on a water bath. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. and other things as they were needed. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. sugar 1 part. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and add the gelatine. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Fifty. Heat 6-1/2 oz. the stick at the bottom of the sail. glycerine 4 parts. Twenty cents was all I spent. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. using a steel pen. and brace and bit were the tools used. all the rest I found. thus it was utilized. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. N. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and water 24 parts. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and it will be ready for future use. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and in a week . smooth it down and then remove as before. is a broomstick. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. alcohol 2 parts. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. F. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Shiloh. The boom. when it will be ready for use. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. winding the ends where they came together with wire. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. J. Soak 1 oz. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. deep.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

thick. E. 8 in.. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. slide to about 6 ft. or glue. DD. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. well seasoned pine. above the center. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. A table. H. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. wide and 15 in. and the lens slide. are . focus enlarging a 3-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 3. wide. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. This ring is made up from two rings. 1/2 to 3/4 in. at a point 1 in. but if such a box is not found. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. at a distance of 24 ft. and a projecting lens 2 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. describe a 9-in. as desired. A and B. wire brads. provided the material is of metal. The slide support. Fig. and. G. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and 14 in. about 2 ft.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. If a small saw is used. long. The board is centered both ways. high. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. and the work carefully done. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 1. or a lens of 12-in.

B. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Small strips of tin.constructed to slip easily on the table.-Contributed by G. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. light burning oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. P. placed on the water. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. To reach the water. E. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. St. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The arrangement is quite safe as. the strips II serving as guides. of safe. should the glass happen to upset. but not long enough. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A sheet . and when the right position is found for each. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Paul. Minn.

H. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Schenectady. 3. 3. by 12 ft. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 2. Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Crawford. 4. 9 in. form a piece of wire in the same shape.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. to cover the mattresses.. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. --Contributed by J. Y. 3 in. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. N. If one of these clips is not at hand. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. from a tent company. 12 ft.

C. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Colo. holes in the edge. to keep it from unwinding. 3/4 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. An arc is cut in the paper. White. Pa. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. open on the edges.each edge. Fig. through which the indicator works. 2. 3 to swing freely on the tack. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 3/4 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. long and 3/16 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. A Film Washing Trough [331] . insulating them from the case with cardboard. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Do not use too strong a rubber. drill two 3/16 in. for amperes and the other post. Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 1/2 in. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Teasdale. 2. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1/2 in. long. Denver. Attach a piece of steel rod. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. A rubber band. as shown in Fig. Warren. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 1. Fasten the wire with gummed label. to the coil of small wire for volts. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. D. 1. 2. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. in the center coil. thick. first mark the binding-post A. and insert two binding-posts. V. --Contributed by Edward M. To calibrate the instrument. wide. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. apart. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case.

large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. with the large hole up. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. M. O.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Hunting. Wood Burning [331] . as shown. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. --Contributed by M. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Dayton. Cut a 1/4-in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film.

mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. then into this bottle place.

Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. 1. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. but not very thick. Upper Troy.Y. wide and 4 in. Whitehouse. If the cork is adjusted properly. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Place the small bottle in as before. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. N. Auburn. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . --Contributed by Fred W. If the small bottle used is opaque. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This will make a very pretty ornament. thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. provided the bottle is wide. --Contributed by John Shahan. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Ala. 2. long.

1. The shaft C. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 2. I. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. which gave considerable power for its size. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1 in. thick. pulley. B. even in a light breeze. W. were constructed of 1-in. Fig. On a 1000-ft. was 1/4in. which extended to the ground. sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. A staple. pulley F. 1. as shown in Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. to the shaft. iron rod. long. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. high without the upper half. The wire L was put . 2 ft. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 4. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. wide.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. which was 6 in. The 21/2-in. --Contributed by D. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Its smaller parts. by the method shown in Fig. 1. was keyed to shaft C. 3. If a transmitter is used. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Fig. Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. such as blades and pulleys. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. thick. thick and 3 in. in diameter and 1 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Milter. G. line. which was nailed to the face plate. K.

long and 1/2 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. long.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. square to the board P at the top of the tower. washers were placed under pulley F. The power was put to various uses. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. If you have no bell. To lessen the friction here. 3 in. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. hole for the shaft G was in the center. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. H. was tacked. wide and 1 in. long. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. To make the key. so that the 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. R. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 6. Fig. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. This completes the receiver or sounder. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Fig. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Fig. The other lid. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Fig. in the center of the board P. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 2. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 5. hole was bored for it. cut out another piece of tin (X. 25 ft. long and 3 in. long and bend it as . The smaller one. The bed plate D. 1. Fig. There a 1/4-in. 1. for instance. as. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. was 2 ft. through the latter. a 1/2-in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. 1) 4 in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. pine 18 by 12 in. in diameter. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. strips. top down also. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. G. and was cut the shape shown. 0. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Two washers were placed on shaft C. apart in the tower. 1. 1. across the thin edge of a board. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. This board was 12 in. with all parts in place. when the windmill needed oiling. providing one has a few old materials on hand. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft.

How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. By adjusting the coils. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. although it can be made with but two. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough.shown. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. -Contributed by John R. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . 2. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Now. like many another device boys make. after the manner of bicycle wheels. When tired of this instrument. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Thus a center drive is made. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. as indicated. 1. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. causing a buzzing sound. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. and. at the front. Going back to Fig. Before tacking it to the board. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. fitted with paddles as at M. as shown at Water. McConnell. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. using cleats to hold the board frame. The rear barrels are. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft.

The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. 3. or even a little houseboat. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. There is no danger. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which will give any amount of pleasure. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. If the journals thus made are well oiled. feet on the pedals. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. 1. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. as shown in Fig.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. To propel it. can be built. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. there will not be much friction. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The speed is slow at first.

Shape small blocks of boxwood. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. If it is desired to make the light very complete. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Then melt out the rosin or lead. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. 1. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. or it may be put to other uses if desired. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig.of pleasure for a little work. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. then the glass disc and then the other ring. A. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. D. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 2. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Place one brass ring in cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. B. C. and so creating a false circuit. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. 2. Fig. 2.

some glue will secure them. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. G. shelf. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 4-1/2 in. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. F. after two turns have been made on the key. brass rod. D. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. such as is used for cycle valves. To operate this. J. while lying in bed. bracket. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . and pulled tight. long. Throw lever off from the right to center. contact post. C. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. switch. or 1/4in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. dry batteries. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. In placing clock on shelf. 4 in. B. long. C. T. if too small. wide and 1/16 in. H. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. --Contributed by C. by having the switch on the baseboard. wire from light to switch. Swissvale. copper tubing. I. Chatland. brass strip. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Utah. 5-1/4 by 10 in.india rubber tubing. --Contributed by Geo. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. after setting alarm. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock.. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. key of alarm clock. S. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. Brinkerhoff. 3/8 in. Pa. wire from bell to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Ogden. wire from batteries to switch. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To get the cylinder into its carriage. near the bed. X. which stops bell ringing. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. thick. When alarm goes off. The parts indicated are as follows: A. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . bell. E.

as in Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. 1/4 in. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 3. in diameter. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as at A. for instance. 2. wide. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Having finished this. as at B. making it as true and smooth as possible. Pull out the nail and stick. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as at A. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as . in diameter. Fig. --Contributed by Chas. 4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Minn. 2. Fig. about 6 in. 1. Make the spindle as in Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Lanesboro. a bed warmer. Chapman. 1. Make a shoulder. which can be made of an old can. This is to form the fuse hole. A flannel bag. gives the heater a more finished appearance. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. letting it extend 3/4 in. from one end. being careful not to get the sand in it. about 3-1/2 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. will do the heating. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. long. S. place stick and all in a pail of sand.

long. The illustration shows how this is done. 1 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The material must be 1-1/2 in. Joerin. 5/8 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. spring and arrows. 1. long. long. 6 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 6 ft. --Contributed by Arthur E. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 11/2 in. A piece of tin. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. good straight-grained pine will do. 3/8 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. this is to keep the edges from splitting. thick. but if this wood cannot be procured. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. A piece of oak. thick. or hickory. ash. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling .well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 3 ft. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. deep.

A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The stick for the bow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The trigger. as shown in Fig. Fig. 6. or through the necessity of. as shown in Fig. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. E. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. it lifts the spring up. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Trownes. To throw the arrow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. 7. Such a temporary safe light may be . long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 4. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 3. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 9. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 8. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fig. from the end of the stock. A spring. When the trigger is pulled. Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 2. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. thick. better still. wide at each end. and one for the trigger 12 in. Wilmette. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The bow is not fastened in the stock. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. which is 1/4 in. having the latter swing quite freely. in diameter. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. place the arrow in the groove. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. from the opposite end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Ill. To shoot the crossbow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in.

made from an empty cigar box in a short time. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. apart. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Moreover. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and replace as shown at B. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. make the frame of the wigwam. The hinged cover E. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. since the flame of the candle is above A. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. respectively. The cut should be about 5 ft. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. C. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. is used as a door. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. making lighting and trimming convenient. By chopping the trunk almost through. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. from the ground. and nail it in position as shown at A. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. it is the easiest camp to make. This lamp is safe. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. says Photo Era. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Remove the bottom of the box. Remove one end.

Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. wide and 6 ft. long and 2 or 3 ft. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. 3 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. For a permanent camp. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. long and 1-1/2 in. selecting a site for a camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. In the early summer. makes a good pair of tongs. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and split the tops with an ax. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and cedar. A piece of elm or hickory. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. spruce. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. piled 2 or 3 ft. long.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. 6 ft. Sheets of bark. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Where bark is used. deep and covered with blankets. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. a 2-in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. nails are necessary to hold it in place. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and when the camp is pitched. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. thick. make the best kind of a camp bed. wide. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. . A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Tongs are very useful in camp. will dry flat. are a convenient size for camp construction. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.

. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

A. deep and 4 in. --Contributed by James M. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. the interior can. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and provide a cover or door. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Fig. Kane. B.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. B. wide. Doylestown. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. to another . At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.. Pa. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. 1. I drove a small cork. about 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.

and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 3. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered.glass tube. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. limit. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 2. This makes . The current is thus compelled. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The diagram. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. a liquid. such as ether. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. C. if necessary. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. E. Fig. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 4 and 5). fused into one side. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. which project inside and outside of the tube. until. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.

to allow for finishing. which may be of any thickness so that. larger than the dimensions given. as shown in the left-hand sketch. or pattern. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. drill the four rivet holes. After the template is marked out. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. brass. by turning the lathe with the hand. in diameter. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. in diameter. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 4-1/2 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. when several pieces are placed together. therefore. as shown in Fig. set at 1/8 in. between centers. thicker. After cleaning them with the solution. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. hole is . and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Michigan. Then the field can be finished to these marks. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. two holes. drill for removing the unnecessary metal.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. thick. If the thickness is sufficient. 3-3/8 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. When the frame is finished so far. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. brass or iron. bent at right angles as shown. 2. These holes are for the bearing studs. making it 1/16 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Alpena. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. A 5/8in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Fig. screws. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 3-3/8 in. Before removing the field from the lathe. thick. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. assemble and rivet them solidly. 1. cannot be used so often. mark off a space. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. The bearing studs are now made. A. Fig. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. but merely discolored. and for the outside of the frame. or even 1/16 in. on a lathe. tap. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. 3. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. which will make it uniform in size. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. clamp the template. they will make a frame 3/4 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool.

These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. and build up the solder well. The shaft of the armature. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. or otherwise finished. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. When the bearings are located. soldered into place. file them out to make the proper adjustment. brass rod is inserted. is turned up from machine steel. solder them to the supports. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.

The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. When this is accomplished. hole and tap it for a pin. 1-1/8 in. deep and 7/16 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. or segments. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. as shown in Fig. thick. After they . The pins are made of brass. After the pieces are cut out. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 3/4 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The sides are also faced off and finished. Make the core 3/4 in.. to allow for finishing to size. being formed for the ends. 3/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 5. washers. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 7. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. inside diameter. 8. Rivet them together. 3.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Procure 12 strips of mica. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. When annealed. 9. and then they are soaked in warm water. and held with a setscrew. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 3. thick. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. thick and 1/4 in. threaded. holes through them for rivets. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. as shown in Fig. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. as shown m Fig. 6. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Armature-Ring Core. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 1/8 in. thick are cut like the pattern. thick. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. wide. by 1-1/2 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. wide. sheet fiber. 6. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. brass rod. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. then drill a 1/8-in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place.

have dried. and bring the end of the wire out at B. long. which will take 50 ft. of the wire. To connect the wires. are soldered together. All connections should be securely soldered. the two ends of the wire. yet it shows a series of . 1. This winding is for a series motor. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. until the 12 slots are filled. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. shown at B. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. thick. shown at A. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 8 in. about 100 ft. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. When the glue is set. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. being required. 5. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 6 in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Fig. The winding is started at A. Fig. wide and 1 in. they are glued to the core insulation. or side. and wind on four layers. 1. of No. sheet fiber. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The two ends are joined at B. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Run one end of the field wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. sheet fiber. after the motor is on the stand. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. by bending the end around one of the projections. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. After one coil. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. of the end to protrude. In starting to wind. The field is wound with No.

The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Nine wires run from the timer. and one. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. which serves as the ground wire. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. is fastened to the metallic body. A 1/2-in. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. or. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. still more simply. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. one from each of the eight contacts. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. board. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. circle. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Covering these is a thin. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. 6 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. long.The Wind Vane. It should be . the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. thus giving 16 different directions. of the dial. 45 deg. Without this attachment. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.

though a special knife. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. will be sufficient. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Buffalo. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. called a chip carving knife. according to who is going to use it. -Contributed by James L. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Before tacking the fourth side. . N. thus making a universal joint. Fill the box with any handy ballast. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Y. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Cut 3-in. will be enough for the two sides. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. To work these outlines. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. long to give the best results. however. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. also a piece of new carpet. is most satisfactory. Place the leather on some level.about 6 ft. or. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. if not too high. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. high. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. will answer the purpose just as well. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. To make it. 14 by 18 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. making it heavy or light. and about 6 in. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Blackmer. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased.

An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required.

When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Morse. or a hip that has been wrenched. Y. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers.will do if a good stout needle is used. B. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. temporary lameness. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. --Contributed by Katharine D. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of water. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Syracuse. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. N. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. If a fire breaks out. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. rather than the smooth side. square and tying a piece of . and fasten the feathers inside of it. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. of common salt and 10 lb. away from it. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. a needle and some feathers.

J. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. wound on the head end. Hellwig. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The diaphragm C. . cut to the length of the spool. Y. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. N. F. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. high. but not sharp. N. board all around the bottom on the inside. Albany. Gordon Dempsey. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. and tacked it to the boards. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. E. A. setting traps. --Contributed by J. which is the essential part of the instrument. laying poisoned meat and meal. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in.. long. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. This not only keeps the rats out. deep. Wis. made up of four layers of No. G. B. There is a 1-in. letting it go at arm's length. and a coil of wire. The body of the receiver. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. is cut on the wood. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Paterson. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. wide and 1/16 in. The strings should be about 15 in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. A small wooden or fiber end. etc. --Contributed by John A. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Ashland. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The coil is 1 in. as shown. long. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.string to each corner. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. 1/8 in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. and the receiver is ready for use. One end is removed entirely. commonly called tintype tin. the corners being wired. The end is filed to an edge. thus helping the rats to enter. but prevents the chickens from digging holes.

bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. better still.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. wide. and bend each strip in shape. begin with the smallest scrolls. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. A single line will be sufficient. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The vase is to have three supports. to . a piece of small wire. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Take a piece of string or. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. gold. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. To clean small articles. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.

About 1 in. as shown in the sketch. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from C to D. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. using a duller point of the tool. thus raising it. from the lines EF on the piece. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. wide when stitching up the purse. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Fold the leather on the line EF. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. . 4-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. Trace also the line around the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse... Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from E to F.which the supports are fastened with rivets. and does not require coloring. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. through which to slip the fly AGH. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Work down the outside line of the design. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 6-3/8 in. sharp pencil. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 3-1/4 in. After taking off the pattern. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.

and the projections B. by 12 ft. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. being cast in wooden molds. b. 2. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with pins or small nails. 1 was cut. then place the square piece out of which Fig. long. thick. square. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. deep. all the way around. 3. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. leaving the lug a. First. then nail it. as well as useful. following the dotted lines. It is neat and efficient. 1. with the open side down. deep. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. with the largest side down. When it is finished. It can be made without the use of a lathe. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Make the lug 1/4 in. and a model for speed and power. Now take another piece of wood. with a compass saw. as shown in Fig. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. around the wheel. and cut out a wheel. and which will be very interesting. and. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and tack the other piece slightly. Then nail the wheel down firmly. This also should be slightly beveled. and cut it out as shown in Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Fit this to the two . 1/2 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. the "open" side.

bolts.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Now put mold No. in the center of it. slightly beveled. and bore six 1/4-in. 4. then bolt it together. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. holes through it. Now take another of the 12-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. square pieces of wood. and boring a 3/8-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. as shown by the . hole bored through its center. hole entirely through at the same place. After it is finished. Take the mold apart. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and lay it away to dry. hole 1/4 in. deep. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.pieces just finished. 1.

Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and the other in the base. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Now take mold No. where the casting did not fill out. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. wide and 16 in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. until it is full. from the one end. A piece of mild steel 5 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6.1. true it up with a square. Then bolt the castings together. and connect to the boiler. long. Put this together in mold No. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Now cut out one of the 12-in. fasten a 3/8-in. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. put the top of the brace through this hole. lay it on a level place. the other right-handed. one in the projections. and pour babbitt metal into it. This is mold No. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. place it under the drill. over the defective part. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Let it stand for half an hour.black dots in Fig. one in the lug. 4. drill in it. instead of the right-handed piece. as shown in illustration.2. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. so that it will turn easily. in diameter must now be obtained. place the entire machine in a vise. 1. After it is fitted in. 6. only the one is left-handed. long. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and lay it away to dry. 5. and drill them in the same manner. and drill it entirely through. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and pouring metal in to fill it up. holes. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. This is for a shaft. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. take an ordinary brace. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and 3/8-in. Using the Brace .2. Pour metal into mold No. B. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. screw down. b. and run in babbitt metal again.1. This is the same as Fig. and two 1/4-in. and bore three 1/4-in. d. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. holes at d. see that the bolts are all tight. Fig.

Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. one 6 ft. long.. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. piece and at right angles to it. will do good service. Then take a knife or a chisel. with a boss and a set screw. At each end of the 6ft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and the other 8 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. while it is running at full speed. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Plan of Ice Boat . Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.

in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Fig. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. 1. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter. at the top. as the runners were fastened. in diameter in the center. To the under side of the 8-ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. long. boards to make the platform. in front of the rudder block. 3. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. plank nail 8-in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. This fits in the square hole. distant. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. and about 8 in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. so much the better will be your boat. at the end. The spar should be 9 ft. projecting as in Fig. The tiller. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. at the butt and 1 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. plank. tapering to 1-1/2 in. This apparatus was pl