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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

away. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 1. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. E. distant. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 1. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. with the hollow side away from you. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Ontario. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. --Contributed by J. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. apart. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. Toronto. as shown in Fig.Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Noble. wide and 2 ft. 2. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. long will make six boomerangs. It is held in this curve until dry. The pieces are then dressed round. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 2 -. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. To throw a boomerang.

long. it is not essential to the support of the walls. minus the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. thick. dry snow will not pack easily. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. forcing it down closely. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. made of 6-in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. but about 12 in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. blocks . The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. A wall. high and 4 or 5 in. 6 in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. however. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. the block will drop out. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. one inside of the circle and the other outside. If the snow is of the right consistency. or rather no bottom at all. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. which makes the building simpler and easier. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. First. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and with a movable bottom. A very light. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it.

1. which is about 1 ft. --Contributed by Geo.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. or an old safe dial will do. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. 2. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The piece of wood. Union. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. long and 1 in. Fig. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. A nail. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. 3 -. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It also keeps them out. Ore. 3. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. There is no outward thrust. C. which can be made of wood. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Goodbrod. is 6 or 8 in. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. D. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. above the ground. Fig. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 2. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. a. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 1. wide.

the box locked . says the Sphinx. New York. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. S. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Merrill. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. --Contributed by R. one pair of special hinges. If ordinary butts are used. as the weight always draws them back to place. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Syracuse. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight.

How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. 1. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Place the piece in a vise. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. on drawing paper. proceed as follows: First. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. If they do not. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. draw one-half of it.and the performer steps out in view. Alberta Norrell. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. about 1-32 of an inch. smooth surface. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. With the metal shears. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. When the sieve is shaken. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown. one for each corner. If the measuring has been done properly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. All . Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. allowing each coat time to dry. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 3. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 2. It remains to bend the flaps. Fig. Ga. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. as shown in Fig. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Augusta. -Contributed by L.

in passing through the lamp. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. A resistance. heats the strip of German-silver wire. 25 gauge German-silver wire. Colo. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. 25 German-silver wire. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. long. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. is fitted tightly in the third hole. and in the positions shown in the sketch. Denver. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. from the back end. if rolled under the shoe sole. of No. used for insulation. --Contributed by R. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The current. The common cork. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A piece of porcelain tube. R. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. which is about 6 in. should be in the line. In boring through rubber corks. in diameter. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. C. about 6 in. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. After this has dried. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Galbreath. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. causing it to expand. B. H. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. When the current is turned off. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation.the edges should be left smooth. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. as shown at AA. If a touch of color is desired. To keep the metal from tarnishing.

between them as shown in Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. with thin strips of wood. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. 1. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. . --Contributed by David Brown. Kansas City. leaving a space of 4 in. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. 3. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. 2. Purchase two long book straps. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip.

one weighing 15 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Pa. 1. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb.An ordinary electric bell. Morse. Two strips of brass. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 2. just the right weight for a woman to use. 1. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig.. and one weighing 25 lb. Doylestown. --Contributed by Katharine D. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. long. Fig. 4. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. --Contributed by James M. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and a pocket battery. having a gong 2-1/2 in. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. When the aeroplane tips. These are shown in Fig. are mounted on the outside of the box. to form a handle. and tack smoothly. as . in diameter. Syracuse. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. C. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Kane. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 36 in. A. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. 1. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 3. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Y. Fig. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The string is then tied.. The folds are made over the string. which is the right weight for family use. N.

clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. and many fancy knick-knacks. machine screws. Floral Park. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. 2. 3/32 or 1/4 in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Y. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 1. in diameter. four washers and four square nuts. bent as shown in Fig. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Frame Made of a Rod . yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Day. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. long. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. such as brackets. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. if once used. 2. AA. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. The saw. --Contributed by Louis J. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. two 1/8 -in. N.

Silver is the most desirable but. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. A. Michigan. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. if copper or brass. Drying will cause this to change to purple. 1 part nitric acid. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. allowing each time to dry. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. though almost any color may be obtained. Detroit. --Contributed by W. be covered the same as the back.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. after breaking up. Of the leathers. the most expensive. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. therefore. of water in which dissolve. 1 part sulphuric acid. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Rub off the highlights. Apply two coats. of water. The buckle is to be purchased. If it colors the metal red. Watch Fob For coloring silver. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. An Austrian Top [12] . The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures.may be made of either brass. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. or silver. File these edges. as well as the depth of etching desired. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. of course. green and browns are the most popular. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. For etching. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. treat it with color. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. copper. use them in place of the outside nuts. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. In the design shown. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Scranton. as well as brass and copper. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. it has the correct strength.

When the shank is covered. 1-1/4 in. A handle. long. long.F. Bore a 3/4-in. is formed on one end. thick. hole. . 5-1/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. hole in this end for the top.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. wide and 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Parts of the Top To spin the top. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Ypsilanti. pass one end through the 1/16-in. in diameter. --Contributed by J. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Michigan. The handle is a piece of pine. Tholl. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 3/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.

Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Alberta Norrell. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Northville. For black leathers. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Mich. --Contributed by Miss L. having no sides. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The baking surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Augusta. Ga. --A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. tarts or similar pastry. A. . Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Houghton.

Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. says Studio Light. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. the same as shown in the illustration. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. then solder cover and socket together. When you desire to work by white light. glass fruit jar. two turns will remove the jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Mo. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Centralia.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.

By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. as shown in the cross-section sketch. so it can be folded up. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. square by 12 in. They are fastened. and not tip over. 4 Braces. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Janesville. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 16 Horizontal bars. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint.for loading and development. square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Wis. . 1-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 4 Vertical pieces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.

after filling the pail with water. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. C. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Cincinnati. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Rosenthal. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. from scrap material. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The whole. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. The front can be covered . New York. Phillipsburg. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. H. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. If the loop is tied at the proper place. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. -Contributed by Charles Stem. O. and a loop made in the end. --Contributed by Dr.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time.

if you try to tone them afterward. If the gate is raised slightly. principally mayonnaise dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Md. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. By using the following method. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. the color will be an undesirable. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. FIG. sickly one. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. and. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Wehr. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. The results will be poor. The . you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. either for contact printing or enlargements. thoroughly fix. you are. by all rules of the game. 1 FIG. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Develop them into strong prints. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Baltimore. In my own practice. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation.

It will bleach slowly and evenly. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. San Francisco.. without previous wetting. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete... 1 and again as in Fig. 2 oz. transfer it to a tray of water... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 5 by 15 in.. wide and 4 in... With a little practice. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.... Gray.. three times.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. A good final washing completes the process...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. in this solution. The blotting paper can . stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... where it will continue to bleach. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes." Cyanide of potassium . The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Iodide of potassium ... 16 oz... 2. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white... in size.. preferably the colored kind..... Water .. 20 gr..... when it starts to bleach. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. L. Place the dry print... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... When the desired reduction has taken place.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.... etc... long to admit the angle support..... Cal... but. to make it 5 by 5 in.. --Contributed by T..

--Contributed by J. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. --Contributed by L. and a length of 5 in. Make a design similar to that shown. 3. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wisconsin. the shaft 1 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Oshkosh. 20 gauge. the head of which is 2 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Corners complete are shown in Fig. wide below the . wide. Monahan. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Canada.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners.J. having a width of 2-1/4 in.

A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. For coloring olive green. as shown in Fig. 2. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. then put on a second coat. Allow this to dry. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. being held perpendicular to the work. Make one-half of the design. freehand. using a small metal saw. but use a swab on a stick. After this has dried. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Apply with a small brush. using carbon paper. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. which gives the outline of the design Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. using turpentine. 1 part sulphuric acid. With the metal shears. Trace the design on the metal. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. After the sawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. Fig. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 part nitric acid. 1 Fig. after folding along the center line. 4. then coloring. 3. . 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. With files. The metal must be held firmly. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in.FIG. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. deep. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Do not put the hands in the solution.

The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Syracuse. --Contributed by H. Conn. Burnett. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. After the stain has dried. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Cal. on a chopping board. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. M. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. it does the work rapidly. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by Katharine D. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. . A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by M. Carl Cramer. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. as shown. New York. attach brass handles. thick. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Richmond. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Morse. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. When this is cold. or for serving an invalid's breakfast.

saucers or pans. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 53 steel pens. A. Atwell. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. 1/4 in. square. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. holes. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. in width at the shank. some pieces of brass. Fig. or tin. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. . two stopcocks with 1/8 in. thick. Jaquythe. brass. as shown at A. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. machine screws. Cal. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. also locate the drill holes. not over 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. L. indicating the depth of the slots. and several 1/8-in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. two enameled. thick and 4 in. about 3/16 in. --Contributed by W. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. WARNECKE Procure some brass.. 4. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. 1. Florida. Richmond. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. H. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Kissimmee. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. --Contributed by Mrs. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. one shaft.

as shown in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. hole in the center. as shown. thick. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 3. a square shaft used. long and 5/16 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. 7.. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 6. with the face of the disk. with 1/8-in. Bend as shown in Fig. 5. about 1/32 in. supply pipe. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. with a 3/8-in. and pins inserted. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. lead should be run into the segments. Fig. If metal dishes. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. wide and bend as shown in Fig. If the shaft is square. These are connected to a 3/8-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. can be procured. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. wide. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. 1. 2. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. into the hole.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. using two nuts on each screw. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 2. Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. machine screws. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. thick. machine screws and nuts. hole is drilled to run off the water. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. each about 1 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. long by 3/4 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. hole. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. brass and bolted to the casing. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 3. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. as in Fig. A 3/4-in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base .

The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. V. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. make these seams come between the two back legs. from the bottom end of the legs. When assembling. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. three of which are in the basket. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The four legs are each 3/4-in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Cooke. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. With a string or tape measure. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. we will call the basket. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Canada. Smith. 8-1/2 in. high and 15 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. square and 30-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. deep and 1-1/4 in. La Salle. Ill. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. deep over all. The lower part. --Contributed by S. Stain the wood before putting in the . or more in diameter. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. screws. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in. Hamilton. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. using four to each leg. to make the bottom. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. long. --Contributed by F. from the top of the box.

Mass. When making the display. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Boston. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. sewing on the back side. wide and four strips 10 in. The side. Sew on to the covered cardboards. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Baltimore. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer.lining.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. wide. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. you can. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Cover them with the cretonne. as shown in the sketch. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Md. -Contributed by Stanley H. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real.2 Fig. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and gather it at that point. Packard. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. 1. 2. If all the parts are well sandpapered. The folded part in the center is pasted together. --also the lower edge when necessary. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.

The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. saving all the solid part. Fig. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. L. When through using the pad. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Y. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Gloversville. and. --Contributed by B. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. with slight modifications. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Cross Timbers. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. 3. N. Orlando Taylor. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Mo. Crockett. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by H.

Bourne. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After stirring. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. S. or if desired. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . are shown in the diagram. --Contributed by Edith E. If a file is used. Lane. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Texas. it should be new and sharp. across the face. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. remove the contents. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lowell. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. El Paso. Mass. Both of these methods are wasteful. After this is done. -Contributed by C. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and scrape out the rough parts.

Greenleaf. As these were single-faced disk records. Oregon. Oak Park. The process works well and needs no watching. Those having houses . As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Ill. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. --Contributed by Marion P. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Ill. F. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Wheeler. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. circled over the funnel and disappeared. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Geo. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The insects came to the light. After several hours' drying. Canton. Iowa. Des Moines.cooking utensil. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Turl. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. He captured several pounds in a few hours.

place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Conn. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and both exactly alike. and the second one for the developing bench. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. plane and pocket knife. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. 6 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Lay the floor next. one on each side of what will be the . Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. the best material to use being matched boards. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. boards are preferable. Only three pieces are required. The single boards can then be fixed. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Worcester. Both sides can be put together in this way. by 2 ft. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. --Contributed by Wm. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Mass. Glenbrook. thick. will do as well. Dobbins. not even with the boards themselves. and as they are simple in design. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Rosenberg. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. material. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. --Contributed by Thomas E. the bottom being 3/8 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way.

. 6 and 9. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 8. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. which is fixed on as shown . 10). and should be zinc lined. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. below which is fixed the sink. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 5. 11. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. wide. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 9 by 11 in. 3 and 4. At the top of the doorway. the closing side as at B. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. etc. 6. and in the middle an opening. 6) and another as F in the same drawing.. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. so that it will fit inside the sink.. Fig. 6. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The roof boards may next be put on. and act as a trap for the light. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. as shown in Figs. and to the outside board of the sides. 2 in section. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. It is shown in detail in Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. by screwing to the floor. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.doorway. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 7. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. is cut. brown wrapping paper. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. hinged to it. In hinging the door. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 9). That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. of the top of the door for the same reason.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. these being shown in Fig. 20.in Fig. 13. as shown in Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. as in Fig. as shown in the sections. and a tank stand on it. and a 3/8-in. screwing them each way into the boards. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. as at I. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. which makes it possible to have white light. 19. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 16. 15. Pennsylvania. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The handle should be at least 12 in. 17. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . are fastened in the corners inside. four coats at first is not too many. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. preferably maple or ash. or the room may be made with a flat roof. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A circular piece about 2 in. Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. but not the red glass and frame. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. though this is hardly advisable. For beating up an egg in a glass. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Erie. Fig. as at M. if desired. 2. 13. 18. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. In use. it is better than anything on the market. 1. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. --Contributed by W. Karl Hilbrich. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. or red light as at K. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. Fig. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. after lining with brown paper. mixing flour and water. 6. 14. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. -Contributed by E. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Schweiger. Ark. which. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. New York. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. as shown in the sketch. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. To operate. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Kansas City. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Mo. long. about 3/8 in. Mitchell. Smith. --Contributed by L. D. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Yonkers.copper should be. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. --Contributed by Wm. for a handle. when put together properly is a puzzle. L. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. G. Eureka Springs.

2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as well as improve its appearance. as is usually the case. holes should be drilled in the bottom. as shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. especially for filling-in purposes. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. After the box is trimmed. 3. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The design shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Having completed the bare box. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. need them.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 3. to make it set level. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. If the sill is inclined. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. . to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. for the moment. Each cork is cut as in Fig. 1. which binds them together. 2. A number of 1/2-in. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The corks in use are shown in Fig.

When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. . to hold the coil on the bottom plate. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. But I have solved the difficulty. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 3. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Each long projection represents a leg. it's easy. 4. etc. 1. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig.. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. being partly eaten into. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 2. cabbages. Traps do no good. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. too dangerous. share the same fate. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. If just the rim is gripped in the vise.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. life in the summer time is a vexation. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. drilled at right angles. can't use poison. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. and observe results. F.

The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. If. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. long. and made up and kept in large bottles. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. cut in 1/2-in. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. by trial. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. About 9-1/2 ft. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. -. . tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. cut some of it off and try again. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. strips. of No. Iowa. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold.

When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. forks. N. Fig 2. . it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Syracuse. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Kane. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Dallas. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Stir and mix thoroughly. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Do not wash them. Texas. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Knives. is a good size--in this compound. Doylestown. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. hot-water pot. it falls to stop G. of oleic acid with 1 gal. as shown in the sketch. In cleaning silver. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. D. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. and a strip. of gasoline. C. coffee pot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Pa. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. 1) removed. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Y. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. --Contributed by James M. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. to cause the door to swing shut. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. but with unsatisfactory results. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes.

To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Sprout. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. but unfixed. La. Harrisburg. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. using the paper dry. Pa. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Ill. which is. New Orleans. Fisher. Waverly. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. . later fixed and washed as usual. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. of course. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. negatives. --Contributed by Theodore L.

the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The harmonograph. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. 1. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. then . The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Fig. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. metal. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. To obviate this difficulty. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.

with a nail set or punch. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. in diameter. Holes up to 3 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Gaffney. as shown in Fig. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A length of 7 ft. is about right for a 10-ft. what is most important. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Chicago. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. exactly one-third. K. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. which can be regulated. one-fifth. R. J. Arizona. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Ingham. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. provides a means of support for the stylus.. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. ceiling. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling.. A small table or platform. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. to prevent any side motion. 1. for instance. makes respectively 3. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A weight. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. is attached as shown at H. in the center of the circle to be cut. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. or the lines will overlap and blur. Punch a hole. The length of the short pendulum H. A pedestal. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. 1.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. A small weight. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. as long as the other. G. Rosemont. etc. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Another weight of about 10 lb. of about 30 or 40 lb. 1-3/4 by 2 in. that is. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. such as a shoe buttoner. one-fourth. --Contributed by James T. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. --Contributed by Wm.

and proceed as before. Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. N. 4. -Contributed by W. 1. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Cruger. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. then 3 as in Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. then put 2 at the top. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. one for the sender and one for the receiver. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The capacity of the vise. Fig. --Contributed by J. distributing them over the whole card. dividing them into quarters. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. of course. 2. Cape May City. The two key cards are made alike. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Chicago. Morey. a correspondent of .J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife.H. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. 5. 6.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 3. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.J.

30 gr. 1/2 oz. 1/4 in. After preparing the base and uprights. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. from the top and bottom. wood-screws. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. To assemble. of the uprights. Ga. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Wind the successive turns of . of ferricyanide of potash. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. of water. respectively.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. says Popular Electricity. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. --Contributed by L. After securing the tint desired. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. sheet of well made asbestos paper. remove the prints. 22 gauge German-silver wire. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. If constructed of the former. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. drill 15 holes. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. of 18-per-cent No. the portion of the base under the coil. Cut through the center. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Augusta. acetic acid and 4 oz. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Alberta Norrell. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. 6 gauge wires shown. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. deep. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. long.

N. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. if one is not a smoker. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Labels of some kind are needed. which. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. rivets. screws. as they are usually thrown away when empty. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. cut and dressed 1/2 in. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. 14 gauge. Ampere. but these are not necessary. --Contributed by Frederick E. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. 16 gauge copper wire. then fasten the upright in place. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. etc. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Y. square.. Small knobs may be added if desired. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.

In soldering galvanized iron. and labeled "Poison. C. zinc. Heat it until hot (not red hot). S. Larson. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The material can be of any wood. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. --C.. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. B. --Contributed by A. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. If the soldering copper is an old one. lead. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. particularly so when the iron has once been used. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. This is considerable annoyance. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. being careful about the heat. a piece of solder. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. of glycerine to 16 oz. and one made of poplar finished black. especially if a large tub is used. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Kenosha. as shown in the sketch. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. .14 oz. tinner's acid. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Richmond. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. E and F. G. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. brass. and rub the point of the copper on it. Jaquythe. California. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. then to the joint to be soldered. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Ark. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. A. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Wis. or has become corroded. The parts are put together with dowel pins. sandpaper or steel wool. Eureka Springs. of water. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. tin. galvanized iron. the pure muriatic acid should be used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Copper. it must be ground or filed to a point. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --Contributed by W. D.

This will leave a clear hole. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Place the band. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Take a 3/4-in. which gives two bound volumes each year. -Contributed by H. brass and silver. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. C. Brass rings can be plated when finished. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. 1. 7/8 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Y. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. in diameter. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The punch A. in diameter. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. B. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. round iron. thick and 1-1/4 in. D. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. 2. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Fig. W. The covers of the magazines are removed. with good results. such as copper. wide.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. The disk will come out pan shaped. Hankin. I bind my magazines at home evenings. nut. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. however. Apart from this. This completes the die. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. and drill out the threads. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Troy. a ring may be made from any metal. N. Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The dimensions shown in Fig.

The sections are then prepared for sewing. Coarse white thread. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. C. and a third piece. as shown in Fig. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. allowing about 2 in. deep. size 16 or larger. Place the cardboard covers on the book. using . is nailed across the top. 1.4. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and then to string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Start with the front of the book. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1/8 in. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. 2. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. and place them against the strings in the frame. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Five cuts. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 2. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. threaded double. through the notch on the left side of the string No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. on all edges except the back. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. then back through the notch on the right side. If started with the January or the July issue. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. of the ends extending on each side. 1. 1 in Fig.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. After drawing the thread tightly. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. . a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 5. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. which is fastened the same as the first. The string No. 1. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. The covering can be of cloth. is used for the sewing material.

on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Cal. and mark around each one. Encanto.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. round iron. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Divine. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Tinplate. College View. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. --Contributed by Clyde E. For the blade an old talking-machine . Nebr. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.

hydraulic pipe. Summitville. B. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. with 10 teeth to the inch. as shown. long. and file in the teeth. -Contributed by Willard J. by 4-1/2 in. fuse hole at D. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. E. and 1/4 in.. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. Hays. with a steel sleeve. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. C. by 1 in. as it is sometimes called. in order to drill the holes in the ends.. Ohio. and a long thread plug. bore. Miss. Make the blade 12 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. On the upper side. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Then on the board put . Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. F. or double extra heavy. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. A. Moorhead. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. thick. at the same end. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and 1/4 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. by means of a U-bolt or large staple.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely.

Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. and some No. H. If you are going to use a current of low tension. high around this apparatus. the jars need not be very large. Boyd. using about 8 in. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. some sheet copper or brass for plates. about 5 ft. as from batteries. Philadelphia. 4 jars. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. of rubber-covered wire. of wire to each coil. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. A lid may be added if desired. --Contributed by Chas. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Connect up as shown. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight.

B and C. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. First sandpaper all the wood. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The connection between point No. The top disk in jar No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 4. 2 and 3. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. wide. long. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 4 in. No. A 3/4-in.. as they are not substantial enough. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. See Fig. two pieces 14 in. In proportioning them the points A. 2 in.. gives full current and full speed. Z. by 1-1/4 in.. 1 on switch. 4) of 3/4-in. 7 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Construct the auto front (Fig. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. on No. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. by 1-1/4 in. and bolt through. The illustration shows how to shape it. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The stock required for them is oak. with the cushion about 15 in. . When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. by 1 in. On the door of the auto front put the . 3 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. C. 3. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. and for the rear runners: A. wide by 3/4 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 2 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the brass trimmings use No. Their size also depends on the voltage. oak boards. C. 16-1/2 in. Use no screws on the running surface. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. is used to reduce friction. To wire the apparatus. 1 and so on for No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. A variation of 1/16 in. 2. For the front runners these measurements are: A. long by 22 in. two pieces 34 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. two for each jar. 1 is connected to point No. then apply a coat of thin enamel. Fig. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard.. 15-1/2 in. as they "snatch" the ice. apart. direct to wire across jars. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Equip block X with screw eyes. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. long. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. long.the way. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. by 5 in. 1. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. An iron washer. and four pieces 14 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 34 in. 2. beginning at the rear. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 27 B. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. wide and 3/4 in. B. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. and plane it on all edges.. sheet brass 1 in. 5 on switch. thick.. 2. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. thick. 2 is lower down than in No. making them clear those in the front runner. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. two pieces 30 in. The current then will flow through the motor. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 11 in. Use no nails. Put arm of switch on point No. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 3 and No. B. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. & S. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. square by 14 ft. by 5 in. are important. by 2 in. however. wide and 2 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars.. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. long. or source of current. 30 in. by 6 in. above the ground.

Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. overshoes. such as used on automobiles. long. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. If desired. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. a brake may be added to the sled. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. fasten a cord through the loop. If the expense is greater than one can afford. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. a number of boys may share in the ownership. brass plated. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. which is somewhat moist.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Fasten a horn. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. may be stowed within. Then get some upholstery buttons. lunch. to improve the appearance. cheap material. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. cutting it out of sheet brass. or with these for $25. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. The best way is to get some strong. If desired. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. by 1/2 in. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 30 in. etc. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. such as burlap. parcels. to the wheel.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. .tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington. Leland. Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 4). mild steel or iron. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. some files. will be over the line FG. a compass. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. CD. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. E. Fig. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. First take the case of a small gearwheel. The straight-edge. though more difficult. which. Draw a circle on paper. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. the same diameter as the wheel. A small clearance space. This guide should have a beveled edge. Fig. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. so that the center of the blade. made from 1/16-in. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The first tooth may now be cut.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. the cut will be central on the line. from F to G. The Model Engineer. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 1. 3. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. with twenty-four teeth. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. when flat against it. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Fig. With no other tools than a hacksaw. sheet metal. FC. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. by drawing diameters. say 1 in. 2. London. thick. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill.

each in the center. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. B. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. ground it with a large piece of zinc. No shock will be perceptible. Focus the camera in the usual manner. . To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. R. 1. hold in one hand. 2. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. B. either the pencils for arc lamps. A bright. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. electric lamp. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 1. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. and the other outlet wire. transmitter. If there is no faucet in the house. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. or several pieces bound tightly together. Make a hole in the other. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. some wire and some carbons. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig.

one at the receiver can hear what is said. One like a loaf of bread. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. But in this experiment. B. and about that size. serves admirably. Several battery cells. or more of the latter has been used.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. as indicated by E E. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Dry batteries are most convenient. Emsworth. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Pa. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. 36 wire around it. Slattery. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. as shown. and will then burn the string C. Ohio. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . --Contributed by Geo. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. of course. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. D D are binding posts for electric wires. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. by 12 in. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. at each end for terminals. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Ashland. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. J. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. A is a wooden block. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Wrenn. Then set the whole core away to dry. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. If desired. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. They have screw ends. and again wind the wire around it. leaving about 10 in. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. For a base use a pine board 10 in. under the gable. by 1 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. are also needed.

How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. From the other set of binding-posts. connecting lamp receptacles. First make a support. while C is open. as shown. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Jr. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. 2. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. The coil will commence to become warm. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. and switch. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. run a No. Connect these three to switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. F. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. At one side secure two receptacles. Ohio. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. These should have hollow ends. The apparatus is now ready for operation. B B. for the .wire. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp.. the terminal of the coil. D. D. 12 or No. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and the lamps. 14 wire. Newark. in series with bindingpost. as shown. and one single post switch. in parallel. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. C. Fig. The oven is now ready to be connected. Turn on switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. 1. Place 16-cp. E. Fig. C.

14 wire. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. drill a hole as shown at H. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. long and make a loop. Mine is wound with two layers of No. a standard ammeter. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Montreal. The box is 5-1/2 in. 3 amperes. where A is the homemade ammeter. long. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. After drilling. Fig. long. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Fig. 2. from the lower end. It is 1 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. is then made and provided with a glass front. until the scale is full. To make one. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. although copper or steel will do. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 5. 5. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Dussault. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. as shown in the cut. Fig. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. D. inside measurements. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. B. deep. a battery. E. wide and 1/8 in. although brass is better. drill in only to the opening already through. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. wide and 1-3/4 in. and D. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. At a point a little above the center. D. to prevent it turning on the axle. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. --Contributed by J. 14. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. etc.or 4-way valve or cock. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. The pointer or hand. This may be made of wood. 1. 1/4 in. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 4 in. is made of iron. Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . A wooden box. C.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. remove the valve. 7. 10 turns to each layer. 6. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 1/2 in. wind with plenty of No. After assembling the core as shown in Fig.E. 4. This is slipped on the pivot. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. drill through the entire case and valve. 4 amperes.. is made of wire. If for 3-way. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. high. 1. but if for a 4way. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 3. The core. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. thick. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. a variable resistance.

B. in thickness . Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. To start the light. as shown. and the other connects with the water rheostat. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. This stopper should be pierced. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. A. high. which is used for reducing the current. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. and the arc light. F. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in diameter. and a metal rod. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. provided with a rubber stopper. By connecting the motor. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. making two holes about 1/4 in.performing electrical experiments. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. D. One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. E. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can.

The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Jones. as shown in B. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. As there shown. Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Turn on the current and press the button. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. as shown in C. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. long. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. If all adjustments are correct. A piece of wood. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A. If the interrupter does not work at first. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Fig. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 2. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 1. 1. where he is placed in an upright open . To insert the lead plate. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. --Contributed by Harold L. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Carthage. 2. Y. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. N. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Having finished the interrupter. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. B. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working.

but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. If it is desired to place the box lower down. All . The skeleton is made of papier maché. and must be thoroughly cleansed. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. high. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. should be miniature electric lamps. especially L. L and M. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. could expect from a skeleton. from which the gong has been removed. with the exception of the glass. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. A.coffin. If everything is not black. A white shroud is thrown over his body.. until it is dark there. by 7 in. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The model. by 7-1/2 in. which can be run by three dry cells. giving a limp. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. as the entire interior. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The lights. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. inside dimensions. loosejointed effect. and wave his arms up and down. should be colored a dull black. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. within the limits of an ordinary room. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. especially the joints and background near A. figures and lights. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. to aid the illusion. is constructed as shown in the drawings. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. light-colored garments. dressed in brilliant. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. the illusion will be spoiled. They need to give a fairly strong light. The glass should be the clearest possible. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll.

If a gradual transformation is desired. Two finishing nails were driven in. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. fat spark. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Fry. placed about a foot apart. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. after which it assumes its normal color. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. square block. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Cal. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. as shown in the sketch. W. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. San Jose.that is necessary is a two-point switch. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. --Contributed by Geo.

and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. by small pieces of wood. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. -Contributed by Dudley H. with two tubes. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The plates are separated 6 in. Cohen. into the receiver G. New York. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. A (see sketch). 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 1. One of these plates is connected to metal top. to make it airtight.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. or a solution of sal soda. the remaining space will be filled with air. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. B and C. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. hydrogen gas is generated. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. In Fig. This is a wide-mouth bottle. F. soldered in the top. If a lighted match . as shown. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water.

P. The distance between the nipple. copper pipe. long. is made by drilling a 1/8in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A piece of 1/8-in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A. which is plugged up at both ends. A. A. says the Model Engineer. long. as is shown in the illustration. by means of the clips. in diameter and 6 in. 2 shows the end view. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. should be only 5/16 of an inch. is then coiled around the brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. C C. If desired. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. London. A nipple. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. B. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. from the bottom. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Fig. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. 36 insulated wire. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. 1-5/16 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. 1. Fig. copper pipe. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . N. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. or by direct contact with another magnet. and the ends of the tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. of No. which forms the vaporizing coil.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A 1/64-in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. 1/2 in. N. in diameter and 1-1/4 in.

lamp cord. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. longer and 1/4 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 1. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. this makes a much nicer book. duck or linen. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Take two strips of stout cloth. smoothly. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. leaving the folded edge uncut. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 2). Fig. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 3. trim both ends and the front edge. about 8 or 10 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. larger all around than the book. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 1/4 in. taking care not to bend the iron. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. fold and cut it 1 in. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. but if the paper knife cannot be used. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Fig. at the front and back for fly leaves. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. cut to the size of the pages. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). boards and all. with a fine saw. Cut four pieces of cardboard.

is fitted in it and soldered. deep. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. This will cause some air to be enclosed. pasting them down (Fig. --Contributed by Joseph N. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. D. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Parker. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. the joint will be gas tight. but its diameter is a little smaller. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is made the same depth as B. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Toronto. and a little can. which will just slip inside the little can. Bedford City. H. Another tank. as shown in the sketch. without a head. is perforated with a number of holes. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. . Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Va. A gas cock. or rather the top now. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Noble. 18 in. 4). C. E. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. in diameter and 30 in. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Another can. --Contributed by James E. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. B. as shown. Ont. A. is soldered onto tank A. of tank A is cut a hole. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. In the bottom. is turned on it. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D.

N. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. are shown in detail at H and J. and the four diagonal struts. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. long. J. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. fastened in the bottom. which may be either spruce. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. basswood or white pine. should be cut a little too long. The bridle knots. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. tacks. If the pushbutton A is closed. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. when finished. H is a square knot. and sewed double to give extra strength. B. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. with an electric-bell magnet. 2. C. should be 3/8 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. D. Fig. The longitudinal corner spines. to prevent splitting. Beverly. E. S. A A. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. D. If the back armature. The diagonal struts. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. by 1/2 in. long. -Contributed by H. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. 1.. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. as shown at C. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. making the width. The small guards. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. The wiring diagram. B. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. should be 1/4 in. Fig. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. square by 42 in. The armature. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and about 26 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. A. shows how the connections are to be made. B. exactly 12 in. Bott. thus adjusting the . which moves to either right or left.

for producing electricity direct from heat. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. --Contributed by A. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the batteries do not run down for a long time. that refuse to slide easily. D. Clay Center. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. shift toward F. thus shortening G and lengthening F. can be made of a wooden . Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Chicago.lengths of F and G. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as shown. however. Harbert. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Closing either key will operate both sounders. to prevent slipping. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Kan. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Stoddard. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. If the kite is used in a light wind. E. and. with gratifying results. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. --Contributed by Edw. and if a strong wind is blowing.

. The wood screw. Fasten a piece of wood. F. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. in position. spark. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. --Contributed by A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. or parallel with the compass needle. A. When the cannon is loaded. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and the current may then be detected by means. A and B. C. 14 or No. 16 single-covered wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. D. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Then. B. E. which conducts the current into the cannon. C. Chicago. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. C. by means of machine screws or. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. with a number of nails. A. E. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. placed on top.frame.

To unlock the door. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. 1. Keil. Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. to receive the screw in the center. with the long arm at L'. In Fig. press the button. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Joseph B. A hole for a 1/2 in. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Fig. A and S. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. when in position at A'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. H. Big Rapids. Mich. in this position the door is locked. To lock the door. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. within the reach of the magnet. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Ohio. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. To reverse. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. 1. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 1. where there is a staple. Marion. Bend the strips BB (Fig. square and 3/8 in. . it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Connect as shown in the illustration. A. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. A and S.the current is shut off. requiring a strong magnet. screw is bored in the block. now at A' and S'. Chicago. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. L. but no weights or strings. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. B.

screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. hole. and may be made at very slight expense. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. long. --Contributed by C. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and if desired the handles may . The standard and base. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. When the holes are finished and your lines set. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. J. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. are enameled a jet black. and C is a dumbbell. if enameled white on the concave side. pipe with 1-2-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. or for microscopic work. about 18 in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. Mass. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. When ready for use. West Somerville. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. gas-pipe. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. put in the handle. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.

1. as shown at A in the sketch. This peculiar property is also found in ice. --Contributed by C. 8 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Fig. 1. Mass. North Easton. Fig. long and 8 in. inside the pail. A. Warren. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. high by 1 ft. across. M. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. across. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .. E. D. B. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood.be covered with leather. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. with a cover. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug.

the point of the blue flame. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 1330°. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 25%. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. 1). should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. Fit all the parts together snugly. 1). 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. and with especial caution the first time. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. as dictated by fancy and expense. pipe. which is the hottest part. and 3/4 in. 2. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. and 3/8 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. 3) with false top and bottom. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Whatever burner is used. the firing should be gradual. let this dry thoroughly. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and your kiln is ready for business. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. as is shown in the sketch.-G. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. strip of sheet iron. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and graphite. hotel china. passing wire nails through and clinching them. long. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and cut it 3-1/2 in. carefully centering it. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. such . It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. thick. but it will burn a great deal of gas. bottom and sides. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Fig. 1390°-1410°. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends.. pack this space-top. cutting the hole a little smaller. If the cover of the pail has no rim. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and varnish. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. The 2 in. wider than the kiln. 60%. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. in diameter. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. if you have the materials. say 1/4 in. layer of the clay mixture. projecting from each end (Fig. about 1 in. When lighted. but will be cheaper in operation.. long over the lid hole as a chimney.. hard porcelain. make two wood ends. of fine wire. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. Line the pail. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. L. After removing all the paper. C. It is placed inside the kiln. E. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. if there is to be any glazing done. 15%. pipe 2-ft. C. 2 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. diameter. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and on it set the paper wrapped core. After finishing the core. sand. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. or make one yourself. thick. Wind about 1/8 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight.mixture of clay. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. to hold the clay mixture. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. W. in diameter. full length of iron core. This done. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Cover with paper and shellac as before. C.

The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. 2. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 8 in. as in Fig. and so on. 2. square them up. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. The funnel. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Then take the black cards. Of course. length of . overlaps and rests on the body. around the coil. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with a plane. C. B. A. . square them up and place in a vise. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. as in Fig. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. C. and divide it into two piles. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Then. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. about 1/16 in. diameter. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Chicago. Take the red cards. 1. --Contributed by J.. procure a new deck. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First.53 in. all cards facing the same way. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. bind tightly with black silk. R. taking care to have the first card red. the next black. and plane off about 1/16 in. 2). How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch herewith. and discharges into the tube. D. T. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. red and black. C. You can display either color called for. Washington. every alternate card being the same color. leaving long terminals.

pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The cement. so that when they are assembled. E. A. To find the fall of snow.J. B. so it is filled up with plaster of paris.. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Long Branch. through the holes already drilled. B. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. It should be placed in an exposed location. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. thus making all the holes coincide. N. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. the first thing to decide on is the size. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. and then the frame is ready to assemble. F. Drill all the horizontal pieces. of the frame. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. A. All the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. as the difficulties increase with the size. about 20 in. Let . stove bolts. Fig. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. E. B. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty.C. The bottom glass should be a good fit. When the glass is put in the frame a space. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. stove bolts. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1 gill of fine white sand. and this is inexpensive to build. The upright pieces. C. to form a dovetail joint as shown. the same ends will come together again. D. 1. angle iron for the frame. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. 1 gill of litharge.

Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. if desired. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. to the door knob. having a swinging connection at C. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. A. a centerpiece (A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. B. and. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Fasten the lever. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Fig. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Aquarium Finished If desired.

to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. another. thus doing away with the spring. Do not fasten these boards now. long. N. White. Y. wide by 1 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. approximately 1 ft. to keep the frame from spreading. wide . hoping it may solve the same question for them. Two short boards 1 in. and Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. for the top. Fig. 2 ft. 1 . but mark their position on the frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. to form the slanting part. PAUL S. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Fig.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. will open the door about 1/2 in. which is 15 in. To make the frame. as at E. 6 in. long. 26 in. AA. 1. C. according to the slant given C. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. soldered to the end of the cylinder. E. Fig. They are shown in Fig. B. Cut two pieces 30 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. F. another. with a water pressure of 70 lb. long. A small piece of spring brass. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. from the outside top of the frame. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. to form the main supports of the frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. and another. 1. I referred this question to my husband. long. 2 is an end view. screwed to the door frame. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. D. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Orton E. Buffalo. 1 is the motor with one side removed.. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 2 at GG. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. most houses are equipped with a washing machine.

which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Fasten them in their proper position. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Tack one side on. Take the side pieces. hole through the exact center of the wheel. pipe. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole to form the bearings. to a full 1/2 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Drill 1/8-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. 24 in. hole through them. 4. that is. 2) and another 1 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and drill a 1/8-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. These are the paddles. thick. from one end by means of a key. by 1-1/2 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Now block the wheel.burlap will do -.along the edges under the zinc to form . after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. after which drill a 5/8 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. 1. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. long to the wheel about 8 in. then drill a 3/16-in. hole through its center. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. and a 1/4 -in. as shown in Fig. (I. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. remove the cardboard. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. holes. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. iron. 2) form a substantial base.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. take down the crosspieces. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. in diameter. hole through their sides centrally. steel shaft 12 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. GG. When it has cooled. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Make this hole conical. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. iron 3 by 4 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Fig. thick (HH. tapering from 3/16 in. and drill a 1-in.

At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. of course. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. says the Photographic Times. and the subject may move. it would be more durable. light and the plate. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills.a water-tight joint. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and leave them for an hour or so. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Focus the camera carefully. If sheet-iron is used. as this makes long exposure necessary. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. It is obvious that. place the outlet over a drain. on the lens. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Correct exposure depends.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. . remove any white curtains there may be. If the bearings are now oiled. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Raise the window shade half way. or what is called a process plate. as shown in the sketch at B. but as it would have cost several times as much. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Darken the rest of the window. and as near to it as possible. start the motor. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Drill a hole through the zinc. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. ice-cream freezer. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Do not stop down the lens. any window will do. The best plate to use is a very slow one. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. but now I put them in the machine. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. sewing machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. drill press. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.

Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. A. C. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. hard rubber. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. B. 2. On completing . or wood. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. the core is drawn down out of sight. by twisting. until the core slowly rises. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. with binding posts as shown. 2. and a base. without detail in the face. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The glass tube may be a test tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or can be taken from an old magnet. and without fog. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. a core. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as a slight current will answer. which is made of iron and cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. full of water. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. a glass tube. or an empty developer tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The current required is very small. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. as shown in Fig. an empty pill bottle may be used. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The core C. With a piece of black paper. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. D.

is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and make a pinhole in the center. is Benham's color top. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. The colors appear different to different people. whale oil. 1 lb. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. finest graphite. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and are changed by reversing the rotation. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. according to his control of the current. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. white lead. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. water and 3 oz. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 pt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and one not easy to explain. This is a mysterious looking instrument.

A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. deuce. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. before cutting. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. As this device is easily upset. In making hydrogen. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. thus partly filling bottles A and C. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. Chicago. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. C. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. fan-like. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack.B. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. In prize games. nearly every time. -Contributed by D. B. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. especially if the deck is a new one. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end.L. when the action ceases. or three spot. A. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel.

S. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 12 in. Make a 10-sided stick. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 2. . 1. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Bently. 4.. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. --Contributed by C. S. Form a cone of heavy paper. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. in length and 3 in. long and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 9 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Detroit. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Huron. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Jr. Fig. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . --Contributed by F. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. as shown in Fig. J. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Fig. 3). W. in diameter. Dak. 10 in. (Fig. long. 2 is also an enlarged sketch.

The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. --Contributed by Reader. allowing 1 in. A second piece of silk thread. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Remove the form. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. about the size of a leadpencil. push back the bolt. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. 6. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Cut out paper sections (Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. on one side and the top. Denver. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. A. E. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. A piece of tin. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. C. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. bend it at right angles throughout its length. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. but bends toward D. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. it is equally easy to block that trick. making it three-ply thick. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. and walk in. long. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . with a pin driven in each end.

4 ft.. --Contributed by J. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. The 2 by 4-in. while the lower switch. W. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Paul. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. West St. is connected each point to a battery. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. put together as shown in the sketch. The upper switch. are 7 ft. R. Two wood-base switches. Jr. as shown. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. will last for several years. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Minn. The feet. are made 2 by 4 in. S. A. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Fremont Hilscher. The reverse switch. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. long. S S. long. By this arrangement one.strip. B. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. or left to right.. S. posts.

If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. either an old sewing-machine wheel. H and K. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. In Fig. thick. 3/8 in. pulley wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and has two wood blocks. The hose E connects to the boiler. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The base is made of wood. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and in Fig. 2. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which is made of tin. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 1. Fig. The steam chest D. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. E. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and a cylindrical . Fig. and the crank bearing C. with two washers. is an old bicycle pump. and valve crank S. which will be described later.every house. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. or anything available. cut in half. FF. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 2 and 3. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. the other parts being used for the bearing B.

The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. or galvanized iron. --Contributed by Geo. of Cuba. Fig. J. at that. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. 1. Fig. Cal. San Jose. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. G.piece of hard wood. This engine was built by W. and saturated with thick oil. Eustice. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. can be an old oil can. and a very amusing trick. Schuh and A. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. as shown in Fig. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. and the desired result is obtained. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Fry. Wis. First. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. using the positive wire as a pen. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. 4. This is wound with soft string. 3. powder can. is cut out of tin. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. . A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. G. The valve crank S. W. to receive the connecting rod H. C. The boiler. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. as it is merely a trick of photography. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process.

the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. C. They may be of any size. The smaller wheel. Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. as shown at AA. 1 will be seen to rotate. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown. Fig. and Fig. Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. to cross in the center. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. diameter. and pass ropes around . B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and place a bell on the four ends. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. When turning. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving.

having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. which accounts for the sound. Mo. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. To make this lensless microscope. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. as shown in the illustration. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. from the transmitter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. long. From a piece of thin . but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. produces a higher magnifying power). A (a short spool. procure a wooden spool. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.M. which allows the use of small sized ropes.G. Louis. such as clothes lines. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. St. but not on all. W. --Contributed by H. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. This in turn will act on the transmitter..

It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. can be made of brass and the armature. is made from an old electric-bell magnet.) But an object 3/4-in. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. which are pieces of hard wood. and look through the hole D. B. the diameter will appear three times as large. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. The spring. by means of brads. if the distance is reduced to one-third. H. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. or 64 times.. . in which hay has been soaking for several days. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. bent as shown.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. E. C. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. the object should be of a transparent nature. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. C. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. B. darting across the field in every direction.. if the distance is reduced to one-half. which costs little or nothing to make. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. otherwise the image will be blurred. 2. The pivot. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. fastened to a wooden base. A. and so on. is fastened at each end by pins. is made of iron. Viewed through this microscope. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. An innocent-looking drop of water. e. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. (The area would appear 64 times as large. held at arm's length. cut out a small disk. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. To use this microscope. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. Fig. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. as in all microscopes of any power. the diameter will appear twice as large. 1. D. and at the center. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. 3. D. place a small object on the transparent disk. The lever. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. i. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.

between the armature and the magnet. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide. Fig. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. long. Each side. E. wood. long by 16 in. long and 14-1/2 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. FF. C. wide. A. can be made panel as shown. connection of D to nail. D. wide and about 20 in. brass: E. The base of the key. C. HH. wood: F. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. brass or iron soldered to nail. D. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. 16 in. K. KEY-A. nail soldered on A. wood: C. F. 2. K. The binding posts. 26 wire: E. similar to the one used in the sounder. brass. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. fastened near the end. AA. Fig. should be about 22 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. and are connected to the contacts. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. DD. The door. A switch. B. The back. . which are made to receive a pivot. soft iron. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. or a single piece. wide. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. B. wide and set in between sides AA. thick. D. 16 in. brass: B. 1.SOUNDER-A. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. coils wound with No. in length and 16 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. Cut the top.

The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 13-1/2 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. In operation. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Garfield. as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.. long. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. material. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. E. 2 and made from 1/4-in. with 3/4-in. Make 12 cleats. Ill. as shown. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. AA. brads.

The cord is also fastened to a lever. --Contributed by John Koehler. A (see sketch). Pushing the wire. --Contributed by R. in order to increase the surface. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A fairly stiff spring. down into the water increases the surface in contact. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. B. When the pipe is used. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. N. E. filled with water. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. and. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. A. through which a piece of wire is passed. J. C. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. pulls down the armature. N. Ridgewood. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Fairport. the magnet. A. Y. and thus decreases the resistance. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. F. Brown. will give a greater speed.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. when used with a motor.

When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. if desired. N. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. B. even those who read this description. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. --Contributed by Perry A. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Of course. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Gachville. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Borden.for the secret contact. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.

Nails for stops are placed at DD. thick and 12-in. The top board is made 28-in. A. Mangold. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Cal. --Contributed by Dr. From a piece of brass a switch. East Orange. wide. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Connect switch to post B. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. --Contributed by H. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Compton. Dobson. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. deep and 3/4 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. records and 5-5/8 in. for 6-in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. H. long and 5 in. 2. records. E. where the other end of wire is fastened. . long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. wide bore holes about 1/4 in..whenever the bell rings. wide. as shown in Fig. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. D. With about 9 ft. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. J. from the bottom. Washington. for 10in. 1. wide. apart. C. Jr. as shown in Fig. wide. N. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. long and full 12-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. C.

When the cord is passed over pulley C. which in operation is bent. 1.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. E. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. to which is fastened a cord. as shown by the dotted lines. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Va. A. B. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. closed. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . as shown in Fig. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.

Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Fig. Now put all these parts together. against which the rubber tubing. In these grooves place wheels. which should be about 1/2 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. holes (HH. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. E. excepting the crank and tubing. in diameter. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Fig. D. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. as shown in the illustration. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. CC. they will let the air through. deep and 1/2 in. 1 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. one in each end. in diameter. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. B. Fig. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. Do not fasten the sides too . so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Figs. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. wide. thick (A. they will bind. through one of these holes. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 3). E. in diameter. wide. Bore two 1/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. is compressed by wheels. apart. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. If the wheels fit too tightly. 4 shows the wheel-holder. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 5) when they are placed. The crankpin should fit tightly. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 3. it too loose. deep. Put the rubber tube. long. Figs.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. thick. Cut two grooves. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1. In the sides (Fig. in diameter. square and 7/8 in.

If the motion of the wheels is regular. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 1. from each end. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. AA. mark for hole and 3 in. 2. from the bottom and 2 in. and 3-1/2 in. a platform should be added. To use the pump. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. costing 10 cents. Then turn the crank from left to right. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. though a small iron wheel is better. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Take the center of the bar. 2. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. because he can . and are 30 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Fig. from that mark the next hole. Fig. mark again. The screen which is shown in Fig. stands 20 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Fig.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. --Contributed by Dan H. tubing. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. and mark for a hole. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from each end. of material. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. 15 in. iron. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The three legs marked BBB. A in Fig. 17-1/2 in. is all the expense necessary. 1. Fig. from each end. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Kan. 1. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. For ease in handling the pump. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. the pump will give a steady stream. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Idana. Two feet of 1/4-in. Hubbard. as shown in Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Cut six pieces. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. beyond each of these two. B. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. In the two cross bars 1 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. AA. long. 1.

at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. some of it should be poured out. --Contributed by H. 2). or small electric motors. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The battery is now ready for use. sulphuric acid. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. When the bichromate has all dissolved. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. 14 copper wire. Philadelphia. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. When through using the battery. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. of the top.see through it: when he enters. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. silvery appearance. The truncated. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. To cause a flow of electricity. however. and the solution (Fig. potassium bichromate. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. shuts him in. 1) must be prepared. If the battery has been used before. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. until it is within 3 in. The mercury will adhere. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. long having two thumb screws. acid 1 part). Place the carbon in the jar. dropping. giving it a bright. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. stirring constantly. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. It is useful for running induction coils. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. add slowly. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. The battery is now complete. of water dissolve 4 oz. 4 oz. Meyer. or. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. C. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. rub the zinc well. but if one casts his own zinc. If the solution touches the zinc. If it is wet. .

RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. however. Madison. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. After putting in the coal. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. with slight changes. the jump-spark coil . one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. e. i. The price of the coil depends upon its size. Wis. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. which opens the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. If.. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.Fig.

. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. diameter. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. W W. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. coil. Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 5. as shown in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. After winding. 6. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. in a partial vacuum. in a straight line from top to bottom. made of No. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. while a 12-in. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. which is made of light copper wire. 7). to suit the distance the message is to be worked. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. W W. the full length of the coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7. as shown in Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. Change the coil described. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. being a 1-in. 6. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This will make an excellent receiver. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. and closer for longer distances. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This coil. Now for the receiving apparatus.described elsewhere in this book.7.

The aerial line. Run a wire from the other binding post. These circles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. being vertical. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. 1). and for best results should extend up 50 ft. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). in the air. after all. A large cone pulley would then be required. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. may be easily made at very little expense. Figs. which will be described later. but simply illustrates the above to show that. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. being at right angles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. 90°. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. only. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. where A is the headstock. and hence the aerial line. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. to the direction of the current. For an illustration. using an electric motor and countershaft. I run my lathe by power. are analogous to the flow of induction. 1 to 4.6 stranded. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 90°. as it matches the color well. B the bed and C the tailstock. . A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. above the ground. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A. The writer does not claim to be the originator. No. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them.

4. 4. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. thick. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. steel tubing about 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. one of which is shown in Fig. just touching the shaft. Heat the babbitt well. 6. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig. 2 and 3. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 6 Headstock Details D. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. After pouring. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. too. The headstock. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on .Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. To make these bearings. Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. deep. and Fig. If the bearing has been properly made. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. A. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. pitch and 1/8 in. and runs in babbitt bearings. 5. The bearing is then ready to be poured. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. tapered wooden pin. and it is well to have the shaft hot. which are let into holes FIG. The bolts B (Fig. B. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. but not hot enough to burn it. on the under side of the bed. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces.

and a 1/2-in. they may be turned up after assembling. A. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Take up about 5 ft. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Ill. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Oak Park. the alarm is easy to fix up. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. so I had to buy one. Newark. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. embedded in the wood.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. If one has a wooden walk. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.J. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. B. FIG. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. N. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. of the walk . To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. This prevents corrosion. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. lock nut.other machines.

Minn. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. before dipping them in the potash solution. add potassium cyanide again. hang the articles on the wires. Jackson. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. water. Then make the solution . of water. 2). silver or other metal. Connect up an electric bell. to roughen the surface slightly. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. (A. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. leaving a clear solution. so that they will not touch. save when a weight is on the trap. and the alarm is complete. to remove all traces of grease. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. S. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Finally. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. To avoid touching it. clean the articles thoroughly. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. --Contributed by R. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Fig. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Minneapolis. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house.

this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. an old electric bell or buzzer. light strokes. nickel and such metals. Screw the two blocks together. a circuit is completed. of clothesline rope and some No. and 4 volts for very small ones. Make a somewhat larger block (E. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. lead. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Repeat six times. which is held by catch B. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. German silver. 1). and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. I. must be about 1 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 1 in. --Model Engineer. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. also. pewter. with the pivot 2 in. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. but opens the door. Having finished washing the precipitate. Fig. saw a piece of wood. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. which . make a key and keyhole. Where Bunsen cells are used. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. copper. use 2 volts for large articles. Fig. If more solution is required. when the point of the key touches the tin. zinc. 3) directly over the hole. and the larger part (F. hole in its center. with water. The wooden catch. 18 wire. a hand scratch brush is good. 3. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. piece of broomstick. A 1/4 in. When all this is set up. Fig. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. 1 not only unlocks. with water. 10 in. Then. If accumulators are used. On brass. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. as shown in Fig. With an electric pressure of 3.up to 2 qt.5 to 4 volts. 1). about 25 ft. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. will serve for the key. long. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. and then treated as copper. from the lower end. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. thick by 3 in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. silver can be plated direct. A (Fig. Before silver plating. as at F. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. square. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. The wooden block C. shaking. B should be of the same wood. 3) strikes the bent wire L. In rigging it to a sliding door. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. of water. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. To provide the keyhole. long. such metals as iron. which is advised. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Take quick. This solution. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Can be made of a 2-in.

where immediately appears a small white china bowl. H. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. enlarged. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. To prepare such a magic cave. the requisites are a large soap box. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. should be cut a hole. 1. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. some black paint. with the lights turned low. Next. Klipstein. 1. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. New Jersey. In front of you. H. Heavy metal objects. or cave. and a slit. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. in his shirt sleeves. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and black art reigns supreme. The magician stands in front of this. East Orange. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. one-third of the length from the remaining end. a few simple tools.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. 0. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Next. floor. He removes the bowl from the black box. One thing changes to another and back again. some black cloth. no painting inside is required. The box must be altered first. 116 Prospect St. heighten the illusion. the box should be painted black both inside and out. such as forks. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. he points with one finger to the box. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and plenty of candles. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. H. Fig. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Fig. which unlocks the door. with a switch as in Fig. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide.. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. and finally lined inside with black cloth. although a little more trouble. The interior must be a dead black. One end is removed. 3. he tosses it into the cave. Receiving the bowl again. to throw the light toward the audience. between the parlor and the room back of it. sides and end. . shows catch B. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. surrounding a perfectly black space. Fig. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. B. the illumination in front must be arranged. cut in one side. --Contributed by E. 2. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. On either side of the box. Objects appear and disappear. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Fig. is the cut through which the rope runs. and hands its contents round to the audience. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. top. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). so much the better. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Thus. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. spoons and jackknives. half way from open end to closed end. 2.

while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. which can be made to dance either by strings. of course. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. in which are oranges and apples. into the eyes of him who looks. The exhibitor should be . and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. of course. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. one on each side of the box. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and pours them from the bag into a dish. which are let down through the slit in the top. Consequently. if. only he. a screen must be used. The illusion. his confederate behind inserts his hand. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. was identical with this. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. you must have an assistant. the room where the cave is should be dark. The audience room should have only low lights. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. is on a table) so much the better. and if portieres are impossible. as presented by Hermann. and several black drop curtains. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black.Finally. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. But illusions suggest themselves.

1. vice versa. held down on it by two terminals. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making contact with them as shown at y. c2. respectively. A represents a pine board 4 in. 1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. and c2 to the zinc.a boy who can talk. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. square. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. held down on disk F by two other terminals. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. making contact with them. or b2. b1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. respectively. d. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Finally. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. their one end just slips under the strips b1. On the disk G are two brass strips. A. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. with three brass strips. e1 and e2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. 2. if you turn handle K to the right. f2. and c4 + electricity. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. Fig. and a common screw. b2. 2). Then. b3. or binding posts. is shown in the diagram. and c1 – electricity. respectively. 2. c4. so arranged that. held down by another disk F (Fig. terminal c3 will show +. by means of two wood screws. b3. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. terminal c3 will show . FIG. at L. About the center piece H moves a disk. b2. by 4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers.. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. as shown in Fig. c3.

and C and C1 are binding posts. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and when on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. from four batteries. B is a onepoint switch. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. -Contributed by A. jump spark coil. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Newark. 5. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Tuttle. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 1. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Joerin.. you have the current of one battery. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. . E. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. when on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Ohio. --Contributed by Eugene F. when A is on No. from five batteries. 3. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 4. from three batteries. Jr.

Thus. as shown in the sketch. mark. Redmond. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Wis. P. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. per second for each second. which may be a button or other small object. of Burlington. B. is the device of H. The device thus arranged. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. rule. New Orleans. When you do not have a graduate at hand. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. A. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. and supporting the small weight. mark. Handy Electric Alarm . traveled by the thread. A. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. per second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. E. A. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. over the bent portion of the rule. so one can see the time. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. and placed on the windowsill of the car. La. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The alarm clock rests on a shelf.

C. Pa. . for a wetting is the inevitable result. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. but may be closed at F any time desired. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. --Contributed by Gordon T. --C. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Instead. B. which illuminates the face of the clock. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. soldered to the alarm winder. Then if a mishap comes. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Lane. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. and with the same result. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. S. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. When the alarm goes off. thus turning on the small incandescent light G.which has a piece of metal. Crafton. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways.

but it is a mistake to try to do this. ornaments of various kinds. which may. binding posts. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. bearings. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . --Contributed by A. models and miniature objects. A. and many other interesting and useful articles. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. 1. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. With the easily made devices about to be described. as shown in Fig. as shown. AA. BE. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. The first thing to make is a molding bench. New York City. and duplicates of all these. when it is being prepared. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. L. engines. small machinery parts. Two cleats. battery zincs. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. cannons. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. C. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Macey. If there is no foundry Fig. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. 1 . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It is possible to make molds without a bench. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. whence it is soon tracked into the house.

The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. The cloth bag. and a sieve. previous to sawing. A wedge-shaped piece. by 6 in. as shown. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and saw it in half longitudinally. 2 . In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. high. is made of wood. If the box is not very strong. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. but this operation will be described more fully later on. DD. CC. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. The flask. by 8 in. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. CC. and the lower pieces. will be required. 2. 1. D. F. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. makes a very good sieve. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. An old teaspoon. try using sand from other sources. Fig. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is about the right mesh. If desired the sieve may be homemade. G. The dowels. A A. is filled with coal dust. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. J. and this. white metal. H. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is shown more clearly in Fig. which should be nailed in. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors." or upper half. 1. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. and the "drag.How to Make a Mold [96] . A slight shake of the bag Fig. as shown. which can be either aluminum. say 12 in. Fig. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.near at hand. the "cope. II . It is made of wood and is in two halves. E." or lower part. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. is nailed to each end of the cope. The rammer. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other.

It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. After ramming. the surface of the sand at . as it is much easier to learn by observation. and by grasping with both hands. and thus judge for himself. as shown at E. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. in order to remove the lumps. or "drag. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. as described.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. where they can watch the molders at work. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. Place another cover board on top. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It is then rammed again as before." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as shown at D. and then more sand is added until Fig. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown at C. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and scatter about 1/16 in. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The sand is then ready for molding. turn the drag other side up. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. In finishing the ramming. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and if water is added. as shown. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. or "cope." in position.

as shown at F. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in diameter. is next cut. deep. as shown at H. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. thus making a dirty casting. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. and then pour. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. Place a brick or other flat. as shown in the sketch. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at H. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. The "sprue. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at J.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. in order to prevent overheating. Fig. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. place the cope back on the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. The pattern is then drawn from the mold." or pouring-hole. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. thus holding the crucible securely. III. as shown at G. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. made out of steel rod. it shows that the sand is too wet. This is done with a spoon. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. . after being poured. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. wide and about 1/4 in. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. After drawing the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. to give the air a chance to escape. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream.

One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. the following device will be found most convenient. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and. may be used in either direction. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. white metal and other scrap available. and the casting is then ready for finishing. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. although somewhat expensive. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. If a good furnace is available. babbitt. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Morton. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. --Contributed by Harold S. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. or from any adjacent pair of cells. In my own case I used four batteries. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Referring to the figure. is very desirable. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. battery zincs. Although the effect in the illustration . 15% lead. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. but any reasonable number may be used. Minneapolis. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. used only for zinc.

B. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. The brass rings also appear distorted. backward. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. 3/4 in. may be made of hardwood. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. 2. Put a sharp needle point. Chicago. B. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. The bearings. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Then walk down among the audience. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. as shown in the illustration. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. If desired. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. A. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Fig. Then replace the table. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. connected by cords to the rudder. shaft made. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. as shown at A. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. To make it take a sheet-iron band. outward. Make one of these pieces for each arm. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. which will be sufficient to hold it. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. By replacing the oars with paddles. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent.

is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. Fig. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. 1. If galvanized iron is used. spoiling its appearance. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. and a weight. 3. 2. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. A block of ice. or the paint will come off. D. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. should be made of wood. E. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. as shown in Fig. W. as shown in Fig. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure.melted babbitt. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. or under pressure. The hubs. 1. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. A. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. Snow. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The covers. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. It may seem strange that ice . If babbitt is used. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. 2 and 3. C. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. when it will again return to its original state. 1. In the same way. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. but when in motion.

in. Crafton. thus giving a high resistance contact. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. it will gradually change from the original shape A. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but by placing it between books. by 1/2 in. square. The rate of flow is often very slow. or supporting it in some similar way. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Lane. as per sketch. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. by 2 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. --Contributed by Gordon T. as shown on page 65. by 5 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . using a closed circuit or gravity battery. P. and assume the shape shown at B. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in.should flow like water. no matter how slow the motion may be. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. whenever there is any connection made at all. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Pressing either push button. which resembles ice in this respect. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. but. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series.. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. B. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 1/4. brass. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Pa. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.

E. In the wiring diagram. D. the battery. as shown. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. vertical lever. wooden supports. and C. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. Ward. horizontal lever. alarm clock. furnace. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. weight. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. I. draft chain. --Contributed by A. The parts are: A. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. B. Indianapolis. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. and five dry batteries. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. G. pulleys. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. K . Pa. C. The success depends upon a slow current. Wilkinsburg. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. The transmitter consists of an induction coil.000 ft. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. J. the induction coil. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. as shown. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. G. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. about the size used for automobiles. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. draft.thumb screws. H. A is the circuit breaker. F. cord. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time.

on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 3. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. as well as the bottom. which will provide a fine place for the plants. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Mich. Kalamazoo. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. where house plants are kept in the home. will fit nicely in them. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. such as used for a storm window. 2 are dressed to the right angle. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. material framed together as shown in Fig.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The frame (Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .

Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. a cork and a needle. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. as indicated by Fig. A certain number of these. --Contributed by Wm. W. 1. which sells for 25 cents. Canada. in any system of lamps.. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Thus. This is more economical than dry cells. since a battery is the most popular source of power. N. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. However. so as to increase the current. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. S. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. after a rest. this must be done with very great caution. multiples of series of three. but maintain the voltage constant. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow.. The 1/2-cp. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and a suitable source of power. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. However. one can regulate the batteries as required. and the instrument will then be complete. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Halifax. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. by connecting them in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. in this connection. as if drawn upon for its total output. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.. Push the needle into the cork. is something that will interest the average American boy. Grant. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. e.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. in diameter. for some time very satisfactorily. can be connected up in series. 1 cp. and will give the . It must be remembered. and cost 27 cents FIG. where they are glad to have them taken away. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. 1 each complete with base. i.

we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. although the first cost is greater. as in Fig. where the water pressure is the greatest. if wound for 6 volts.proper voltage. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Thus. However. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. So. we simply turn on the water. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Thus. In conclusion. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Fig. and running the series in parallel. especially those of low internal resistance. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and diffused light in a room. 3. according to the water pressure obtainable. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. . each. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. double insulated wire wherever needed. making. 18 B & S. If wound for 10 volts. generates the power for the lights. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. lamps. and for Christmas trees. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. by the proper combination of these. which is the same as that of one battery. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. 11 series. and then lead No. 1-cp. to secure light by this method.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Chicago. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. for display of show cases. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. These will give 3 cp. FIG.. or 22 lights. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. lamp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. 2 shows the scheme.

B. CC. --Contributed by F. Ind. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. field of motor. and the sides. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. B. or a tempting bone. Santa Clara. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. BB. AA. as shown in the sketch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. --Contributed by Leonard E. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. or from one pattern. and C. Plymouth. simply change the switch. outside points of switch. thus reversing the machine. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil. Cal. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. bars of pole-changing switch. Emig. To reverse the motor. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. we were not bothered with them. center points of switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. DD. . are cut just alike. brushes of motor. switch. Parker. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. a bait of meat. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A indicates the ground. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. A.

thus locking the door. If it is not. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The experiment works best . as it is the key to the lock. The button can be hidden. W.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. To unlock the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. a piece of string. 903 Vine St. which is in the door. Cal. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Melchior. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. one cell being sufficient. -Contributed by Claude B. and a table or bench. attached to the end of the armature B. Hutchinson. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Minn.. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Fry. or would remain locked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. San Jose. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a hammer. merely push the button E. A. When the circuit is broken a weight.

To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. . Crawford Curry. as shown in Fig. Culebra.Contributed by F. 4). the key turns. 3. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. which pulls the draft open. Madison. Schmidt. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Wis. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. D. forming a loop. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 18 Gorham St. Canada. 1). 3. releasing the weight. Brockville. the current flows with the small arrows. 2. I. Tie the ends of the string together. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table.. Ontario. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. C. --Contributed by Geo. run through a pulley. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. -. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. W. where it will remain suspended as shown. the stick falls away. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Porto Rico. A.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. attached at the other end. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. P. in the ceiling and has a window weight.

J. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. which fasten to the horn. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and then to the receiver. N. square and 1 in. Camden. Connect two wires to the transmitter. or from a bed of flowers. Use a barrel to work on. Jr. 6 in. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and the other to the battery.. and . is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. S. running one direct to the receiver. --Contributed by Wm. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. get two pieces of plate glass.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. or tree. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. including the mouthpiece. Farley. thence to a switch. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. The cut shows the arrangement. R. First. D. thick. and break the corners off to make them round. made with his own hands.

wetting it to the consistency of cream. wide around the convex glass or tool. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. 1. When done the glass should be semitransparent. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. with pitch. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum.. 2. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. using straight strokes 2 in. In a dark room. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Have ready six large dishes. and a large lamp.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and is ready for polishing. wet till soft like paint. Use a binger to spread it on with. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. spaces. Fig. the coarse grinding must be continued. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. of water. so the light . and label. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. in length. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. melt 1 lb. by the side of the lamp. 2. When polishing the speculum. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. or less. Fig. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. while walking around the barrel. twice the focal length away. and the under glass or tool convex. then 8 minutes. Then warm and press again with the speculum. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Fasten.. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. L. set the speculum against the wall. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. then take 2 lb. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. and spread on the glass. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. A. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When dry. with 1/4-in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. unless a longer focal length is wanted. a round 4-in. as in Fig. also rotate the glass. or it will not polish evenly.

that was set aside. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. longer strokes.………………………………. fill the dish with distilled water.. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. cement a strip of board 8 in. Now add enough of the solution A. 4 oz. face down. with distilled water. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Nitric acid . the speculum will show some dark rings. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.. long to the back of the speculum. also how the rays R from a star .. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Then add 1 oz. 4 oz. must be procured. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.……………………………. Fig. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. touched with rouge. Then add solution B... 2. With pitch. When dry.. Silver nitrate ……………………………. then ammonia until bath is clear. Place the speculum. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. the speculum is ready to be silvered.100 gr. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. from the lamp. Place the speculum S. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). The polishing and testing done. When the focus is found. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. or hills. if a hill in the center. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 100 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Fig. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. If not. Fig. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. 25 gr.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.……………. deep. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 39 gr.. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 2. as in K. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 840 gr.

then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. with an outlay of only a few dollars. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The flatter they are the less they will distort. is a satisfactory angle. cover with paper and cloth. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. two glass prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. deg. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. stop down well after focusing. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.. Mellish.John E. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Then I made the one described. . My telescope is 64 in. Place over lens. and proceed as for any picture. telescope can be made at home. Thus an excellent 6-in. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. which proves to be easy of execution. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. using strawboard and black paper. long and cost me just $15. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Make the tube I of sheet iron.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. slightly wider than the lens mount. About 20. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.

the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. instead of the contrary. push the button D. complete the arrangement. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. says the Master Painter. 2. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. as shown in Fig. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. A. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The rays of the clear. or powdered alum. Do not stir it. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. and reflect through the negative. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. To unlock. add the plaster gradually to the water. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Boody. then add a little sulphate of potash. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. -Contributed by A. B. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. 1. D. Fig. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. . but will not preserve its hardening. Ill. The paper is exposed. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. Zimmerman. through the lens of the camera and on the board.

throw . This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 3. 1). as shown in the sketch. 2. as in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Then blow through the spool. so that it can rotate about these points. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. To reverse. also provide them with a handle.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 2. as at A and B.

When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Tex. D. binding posts. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. L. B. Neb. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Thomas. San Marcos. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Push one end of the tire into the hole.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. C C. Tex. -Contributed by Morris L. --Contributed by Geo. carbons. the armature. and E E. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. carbon sockets. and rub dry with linen cloth. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. In the sketch. San Antonio. --Contributed by R. Take out. wash in running water. North Bend. as shown in the sketch. Go McVicker. . Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. rinse in alcohol. A is the electricbell magnet. although this is not necessary. Levy.

a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 36 magnet wire. 16 magnet wire. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. wound evenly about this core. By means of two or more layers of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Bell. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. long or more. 14 or No. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. --Contributed by Joseph B. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Brooklyn. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Divested of nearly all technical phrases.

a box like that shown in Fig. The primary is made of fine annealed No. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. In shaping the condenser. and the results are often unsatisfactory. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. long and 5 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. then the strip of tin-foil. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. about 6 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. long and 2-5/8 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. coil illustrates the general details of the work. making two layers. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. This makes a condenser which may be folded. in diameter. wide. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. at a time. diameter. or 8 in. After the core wires are bundled. in length. 1. as the maker prefers. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 2 yd. with room also for a small condenser. A 7/8-in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 4. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. No. but if it is not convenient to do this work. as shown in Fig. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. the entire core may be purchased readymade. Beginning half an inch from one end. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. one piece of the paper is laid down. which is desirable. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. which is an important factor of the coil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The condenser is next wrapped . Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and finally the fourth strip of paper. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper.

the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. battery . such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. B. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. switch. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. long and 12 in. shows how the connections are made. copper lever with 1-in. I. flange turned on one side. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. which is insulated from the first. and one from battery. and the other sheet. G. lines H. to the door. which allows wiring at the back. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. whole length. long to key. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. wide. spark. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. ready for assembling. one from bell. forms the other pole or terminal. 3. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. E. C. shelf for clock. D. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. F. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. round so that the inside . 4 in. V-shaped copper strip. open switch C. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. The alarm key will turn and drop down. by 12 in. bell. A. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Fig. go. B. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. the letters indicate as follows: A.securely with bands of paper or tape.. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit.) The wiring diagram. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily.

2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. This is for blowing. If desired for use immediately. . induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Short-circuit for three hours. of blue stone. of zinc sulphate. but with the circuit. and the battery is ready for use. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in.. instead of close to it. from the bottom. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Line the furnace. but add 5 or 6 oz.diameter is 7 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. says the Model Engineer. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Use a glass or metal shade. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. and then rivet the seam. do not shortcircuit. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. London. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. That is what they are for. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in.

or think they can do the same let them try it. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. below the bottom of the zinc. long. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. herein I describe a much better trick. This type of battery will give about 0. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. square and about 9 in. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus producing two different vibrations. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. imparting to them a violet tinge. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. oxygen to ozone. as in the other movement. porcelain and paper. At least it is amusing. If too low." which created much merriment. Enlarge the hole slightly. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for some it will turn one way. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. for others the opposite way. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Ohio. Outside of the scientific side involved. To operate the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and then. and therein is the trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. If any or your audience presume to dispute.9 of a volt. 1. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Try it and see. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. but the thing would not move at all.. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. affects . the second finger along the side. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. while for others it will not revolve at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. g. 2.

focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but small flowers. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. To the front board is attached a box. but this is less satisfactory. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. an old tripod screw. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but not essential. earth. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a short-focus lens. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. says the Photographic Times. however. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. a means for holding it vertical. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and one of them is photomicrography. if possible. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. chemicals.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . that also can be obtained from hardware stores. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces.

65 4 lb. 381 24 lb. 7-1/2 in. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 11 ft. in diameter. 7-1/2 in.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. and a line. Madison. If the balloon is 10 ft. AB. 12 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Ft Lifting Power. Mass. which is 15 ft. balloon. 1. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. The following table will give the size. 9 ft. 179 11 lb. CD. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. long and 3 ft. 8 ft. or 31 ft. 697 44 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Fig. 905 57 lb. wide from which to cut a pattern. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 268 17 lb. 7 ft. 5 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. in Cu. Boston. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. while it is not so with the quill. 6 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Cap. or 3 ft. 5 in.--Contributed by George C. 113 7 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. A line.

of beeswax and boil well together. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. on the curved line from B to C. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 70 thread. keeping the marked part on the outside. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The cloth segments are sewed together. and so on. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. of the very best heavy body. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 3. Procure 1 gal.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 2. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The pattern is now cut. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The amounts necessary for a 10- . using a fine needle and No. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Repeat this operation four times. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 4.

When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. 1 lb. until no more dirt is seen. pipe. After washing a part. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. The outlet. this should be repeated frequently. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. with water 2 in. capacity and connect them. leaving the hand quite clean. . Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. A. or a fan. Fill the other barrel. When the clock has dried. to the bag. In the barrel. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. B. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. should not enter into the water over 8 in. of sulphuric acid. A. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. by fixing. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. of iron. but if any grease remains on the hand. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. above the level of the water in barrel A. The 3/4-in. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. ft. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. 5. of water will make 4 cu.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Water 1 oz. if it is good it will dry off.. using a fine brush. Vegetable oils should never be used. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. A. of gas in one hour. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. a clean white rag. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. as shown in Fig. B. C. which may sound rather absurd. or dusting with a dry brush. 150 gr. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. 1 lb. About 15 lb. with 3/4in. of iron borings and 125 lb. it is not fit to use. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. 5 . oil the spindle holes carefully. balloon are 125 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. All FIG. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. B. ]. C.Green Iron ammonium citrate . . with the iron borings.ft. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water.

A cold. Dry the plates in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. or carbon. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. . Print to bronzing under a strong negative. fix in hypo. to avoid blackened skin. 20 to 30 minutes. or battery. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.000 ft. Exposure. and a vigorous negative must be used. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz.Water 1 oz. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Printing is done in the sun. dry atmosphere will give best results. or zinc.. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. . at the time of employment. The miniature 16 cp. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. and keep in the dark until used. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A longer exposure will be necessary. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Port Melbourne. This aerial collector can be made in . Dry in the dark. says the Moving Picture World. of any make. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. The positive pole. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The negative pole. toning first if desired. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.

As the telephone offers a high resistance. This will complete the receiving station. If the wave ceases. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. a positive and a negative. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. and have the other connected with another aerial line.various ways. the resistance is less. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. long. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. both positive and negative. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. forming a cup of the pipe. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. will soon become dry and useless. in diameter. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. 5 in. If the waves strike across the needle. making a ground with one wire. when left exposed to the air. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. The storage cell. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. lay a needle. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. holes . it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. as described below. lead pipe. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and as less current will flow the short way.

except for about 1 in.as possible. an oblong one and a triangular one. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. This box can be square. one to the positive. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Two binding-posts should be attached. of course. by soldering the joint. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. a round one. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. and the other to the negative. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. or tube B. This support or block. When mixing the acid and water. D. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. This. B. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. on each end. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. or tube C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The other plate is connected to the zinc. namely: a square hole. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. says the Pathfinder. does not need to be watertight. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.

One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. as shown in Fig. in place on the wood. This punt. 1.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. and match them together. C. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. as shown in Fig. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. about 20 in. C. as it is not readily overturned. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. and has plenty of good seating capacity. 2. back and under. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Chicago. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. is built 15 ft. thick cut two pieces alike. The third piece of brass. long. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 1. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. wide. were fitted by this one plug. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Ill. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. deep and 4 ft. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 3. . The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. all around the edge. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 2. A and B. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. leaving about 1/16 in. Only galvanized nails should be used.

rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Tacoma. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. A piece of 1/4-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. square (Fig 2). is cut 1 in. Wash.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. gas pipe. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. thick and 3-1/2 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in.

Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Wagner. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. with the exception of insulated wire. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which the writer has made." has no connection with the outside circuit. may be of interest to some of our readers. says the Model Engineer. it had to be borne in mind that. no more current than a 16-cp.--Contributed by Charles H. In designing. and to consume. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. no special materials could be obtained. H. which can be developed in the usual manner. The winding of the armature. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. without auxiliary phase. or "rotor. if possible. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. lamp.

Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and filled with rivets. wrought iron. while the beginnings . as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. as shown in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. about 2-1/2 lb. this little machine is not self-starting. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. no steel being obtainable. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 3." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. or "stator. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. in diameter were drilled in the corners. bolts put in and tightened up. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. were then drilled and 1/4-in. 4. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. thick. They are not particularly accurate as it is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 5. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. being used.the field-magnet. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and all sparking is avoided. Unfortunately. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 2. 1. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. to be filed out after they are placed together. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. C. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. holes. The stator is wound full with No. also varnished before they were put in. Holes 5-32 in. B. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. A. After assembling a second time.

and as each layer of wire was wound. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. J. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. 3-Contributed by C. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. No starting resistance is needed. The rotor is wound with No. The image should . Newark.. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. This type of motor has drawbacks. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. as before stated. having no commutator or brushes. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. One is by contact. it would be very simple to build. if applied immediately. 2. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. film to film. Jr. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and all wound in the same direction. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. a regulating resistance is not needed. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and especially of colored ones. as a means of illustrating songs. 1. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The lantern slide is a glass plate. McKinney. N. as shown in Fig. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and would not easily get out of order. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and the other by reduction in the camera. E. and as the motor runs at constant speed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. In making slides by contact.

a little extra work will be necessary. If the exposure has been correct. over the mat. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush.appear in. Select a room with one window. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. as shown in Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. as shown in Fig. also. if possible. 3. to use a plain fixing bath. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 5. C. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. These can be purchased from any photo material store. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 1. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. D. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and then a plain glass. except that the binding is different. Being unbreakable. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. they are much used by travelers. 4. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Draw lines with a pencil. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. B. 2. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. about a minute. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. A. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Fig. It is best. and the three bound together with passepartout tape.

16 in. as shown at A. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. long. 1. as shown at B. is to be used for the seat.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Fig. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Hastings. in diameter and 20 in. 1. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the ends. A piece of canvas. from the end piece of the chair. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. long. from the center of this dot draw a star. Fig. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. known as rods and cones. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Vt. or other stout cloth. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. wide and 50 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. in diameter and 40 in. These longer pieces can be made square. 2. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Corinth. holes bored in the end pieces. long. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . If the star is in front of the left eye. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded.

Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. O'Gara. J. per square inch. Cal. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in thickness and 10 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Auburn. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as well as to operate other household machines. A disk 1 in. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They will be found to be exactly the same distance.-Contributed by P. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. . A belt. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. 2. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.

in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. then removing the object. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. divided by the number of threads to the inch. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. fairly accurate. screwing it through the nut. The part of a rotation of the bolt. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. to the top of the bench. says the Scientific American. . hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. it serves a very useful purpose. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. leaving it shaped like a bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Put the bolt in the hole. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. thick and 2-1/2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. with as fine a thread as possible. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. or inconvenient to measure. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. square for a support. Bore a 1/4-in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and the construction is complete. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long. A simple. direction. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. wide. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. The wheel should be open . bolt in each hole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. which show up fine at night. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. material 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long is used for the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. beyond the end of the wood. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Place a 3/4-in. Santa Maria. long. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. piece of wood 12 ft. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Oal.

long. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. square and 3 or 4 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The spool . The coil. thick. 1/2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. in diameter. C. of the ends with boards. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. pieces used for the spokes. C. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. from the top end.-Contributed by A.Side and Top View or have spokes. Graham. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. wide and 1/8 in. Tex. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Fort Worth. long. and on its lower end a socket. at the bottom. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. and the lower part 61/2 in. which should be 1/4 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. H and J. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. thick is used for the armature. O. long. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. at the top and 4 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. is soldered. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. to be operated by the magnet coil. B. P. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. made of the same material. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. A. L. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. wide and 1/8 in. thick. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. from the ends. A cross bar. A piece of brass 2 in.

000. The armature. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. C. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. is drilled.000 for irrigation work. then with a firm. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.--A. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.J. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Randolph. and directly centering the holes H and J. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. or a water rheostat heretofore described. A. . Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. long. S. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and in numerous other like instances. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. 2 the hat hanging on it. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. F. that holds the lower carbon. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. for insulating the brass ferrule. Bradlev. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and place it against a door or window casing. Mass. R.is about 2-1/2 in. B. This is a very neat trick if performed right. which may be had by using German silver wire. D and E. by soldering.E. A soft piece of iron. 1. one without either rubber or metal end. At the bottom end of the frame. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. 2. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. S. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. do it without any apparent effort. --Contributed by Arthur D. This tie can be used on grain sacks. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.

4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The vibrator B. in diameter and 1/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. B. for the primary. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig.500 turns of No. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The coil ends are made from cardboard. so the coils of wire will hold them in place.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 1. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The core of the coil. 2. D. is constructed in the usual manner. long. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. for the secondary. S. in diameter. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . mixed with water to form a paste. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. long and 1 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. with a 3/16-in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. and then 1. The switch. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. about 3/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. A. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. from the core and directly opposite. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. C. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. Fig. for adjustment. S. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter and 2 in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. F. is connected to a flash lamp battery. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. about 1 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. in diameter. The vibrator. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. Fig. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 1. About 70 turns of No. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. leaving the projections as shown. thick. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. hole in the center. wide. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. about 1/8 in.

The three screws were then put in the hasp. long and when placed over the board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. brass plate. The tin is 4 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position.Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. . which seemed to be insufficient. 16 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. as shown in the sketch. 1. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and the same distance inside of the new board. 1. 2 to fit the two holes. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. Fig. which is only 3/8-in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The lock. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. board. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. wide. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The hasp. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. between the boards. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. which is cut with two holes. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. it laps down about 8 in. as shown. with which to operate the dial. thick on the inside. and then well clinched. in an ordinary water glass. lighted.

The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . but when the front part is illuminated. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. square and 10-1/2 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When the rear part is illuminated. not shiny. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. If the box is made large enough. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. the glass. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. any article placed therein will be reflected in. and the back left dark. which completely divides the box into two parts. high for use in window displays. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. When making of wood. black color. or in the larger size mentioned. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. one in each division. clear glass as shown. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. square and 8-1/2 in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

and with the proper illumination one is changed. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. above the top of the tank. as it appears. When using as a window display. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. When there is no electric current available. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as shown in the sketch. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. a tank 2 ft.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. wide will be about the right size. . or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. into the other. long and 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. alternately.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

is the green vitriol. long. gauge for depth. high. or ferrous sulphate. 5 ft. hole. 2 ft. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. square. This hole must be continued . The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. however. The pieces can then be taken out. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. radius. with a length of 13 in. Columbus. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. bit. under sides together. square and 40 in. If a planing mill is near. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. long. from the ground. wide. is built on the front. but with a length of 12 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. A small platform. 1 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. as shown. and a door in front. wide. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. lines gauged on each side of each. The 13-in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Three windows are provided. and 6 ft. Shape the under sides first. 6 in. one for each side. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Iron sulphate. and a solution of iron sulphate added. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. O. each. thick and 3 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This precipitate is then washed. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. bore from each end. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. using a 3/4-in. hole bored the full length through the center.

at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout.through the pieces forming the base. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. thick and 3 in. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Electric globes--two. Directions will be found on the filler cans. if shade is purchased. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. When this is dry. If the parts are to be riveted. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. three or four may be attached as shown. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The sketch shows one method of attaching. apply two coats of wax. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. For art-glass the metal panels are . A better way. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. square and drawing a diagonal on each. When the filler has hardened. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. hole in each block. Saw the two blocks apart.

such as copper. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.

should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. one way and 1/2 in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The arms holding the glass. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as shown in the sketch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. as in ordinary devices. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. the other. Figure 1 shows the side. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. and Fig. the object and the background. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. 2 the front view of this stand. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in.

The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. wide and 11 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and swinging freely. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. wide and 6-5/16 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. Put the ring in place on the base. thick 5/8-in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. as shown in the cut. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. long. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. uncork and recork again. in diameter for a base. If the light becomes dim. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. outside diameter. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. as it is very poisonous. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. channel in the circumference of the ring. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. as shown in the sketch. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. An ordinary pocket compass. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. in diameter. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use.

into these cylinders. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. and mirrors.182 .600 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. EE. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. from the second to the third.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.715 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. of the top. CC. The results given should be multiplied by 1.088 . 1 oz.420 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Place on top the so- .289 . in diameter and 8 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. B. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.865 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. above the half can. and north of the Ohio river. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. black oxide of copper. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. are mounted on a base. Corresponding mirrors.500 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.

of pulverized nitrate of potassium. In Fig. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. University Park. of pulverized campor. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . little crystals forming in the liquid. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. which otherwise remains clear. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 31 gr. Colo. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Put the solution in a long. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. slender bottle. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. When renewing. 62 gr. always remove the oil with a siphon. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the wheel will revolve in one direction. says Metal Worker. alcohol. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface.

they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. floating on a solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. This is used in place of the spoon. Attach to the wires. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A paper-fastener box. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Solder in the side of the box .A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. on the under side of the cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and carbon are used. about 1-1/4 in. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. If zinc and copper are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Lloyd Enos. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.

On one side bend the wire around the tube B. A circular piece of cardboard. Take a small piece of soft iron. 1/2. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. to it. The bottom of the box. A. can be made of oak. long. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. F. Wind evenly about 2 oz. hole. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube.in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. one on each side of the board. 14 wire will do. 10 wire about 10 in. of No. glass tubing . Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. D. If the hose is not a tight fit. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. 1. away. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. C. C. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Bore holes for binding-posts. G--No. as shown in Fig.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. The base. B.1-in. The standard. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. D. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Thos. piece of 1/4-in. Rhamstine. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. and then solder on the cover. D. stained and varnished. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. of wire on each end extending from the coil. H. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. C. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. 1-1/4 in. 3 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. thick. is made from a piece of No. Put ends.not shorter than 18 in. long. E. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. wide and 2-1/2 in. Use a board 1/2. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . wide and 6 in.Contributed by J. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. A. and on the other around the glass tube. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. brass tubing. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. B. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. E. . or made with a little black paint.in. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. long that has about 1/4-in. The spring should be about 1 in.

from the right hand. 2. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 3-in. long are used for the legs. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long. 3 in. 5. of mercury will be sufficient. Y.--Contributed by R. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. . in diameter. long. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. N. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. J. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. When the glass becomes soft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Wis. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Milwaukee. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Teasdale. long. about 1 in. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Smith. canvas. About 1-1/2 lb. two pieces 2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. of 8-oz. is drawn nearer to the coil. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. long.of the coil. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. making a support as shown in Fig. four hinges. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. D. of No. E. 1. as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. Cuba. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig.

When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 4. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. thus leaving a. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Break off the piece of glass. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Measure 8 in. 5. Take 1/2 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. leaving 8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Can. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction.. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. long. holding in the left hand. --Contributed by David A. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Toronto. Break this thread off about 1/8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The tube now must be filled completely. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Fig. 2. expelling all the air. 6.. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 3. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of vacuum at the top. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. small aperture in the long tube. Keys. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] .

4 in. material 2 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. as shown in Fig. thick. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Four blocks 1/4 in. 1 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wood screws. but yellow pine is the best. 1. from the end of same. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. FIG.6 -. wide and 5 ft. The large pulley is about 14 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 9 in. 2. 3 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. long.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 3 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. thick. 5. and 1/4 in. 7. as shown in Fig. This forms a slot. long. long. thick. wide and 3 in. in diameter. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft. and the single projection 3/4 in. joint be accurately put together. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick. long. thick. with each projection 3-in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. These are bent and nailed. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. wide and 5 ft. wide and 12 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 1 in. 4. 6. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work.

attach runners and use it on the ice. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by C. above the runner level. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. first removing the crank. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Manhattan. R. . The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Kan. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. by 1-in. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. says Photography. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Water 1 oz.

from an ordinary clamp skate. 1. also. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. This is done with a camel's hair brush. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Treasdale. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. and very much cheaper. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. as shown in Fig. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Wallace C. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 2. 3. . Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Leominster. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Printing is carried rather far. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The print is washed. of water. as shown in Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Newton. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Mass. --Contributed by Edward M. 1 oz.

extending the width of the box. F. high for rabbits. A. square piece. from one end. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. high. and to the bottom. say. about 10 in. 1-1/2 ft. wide and 4 in. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Then. The swing door B. 1. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. --Contributed by H. wide. and bend them as shown in the sketch. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Fig. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 2. as shown in the sketch. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. which represents the back side of the door. and 3 ft. long. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Fig. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. 1 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Church. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. causing the door to swing back and up. hole. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The thread is broken off at the . The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. 1. fasten a 2-in. Place a 10-in. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Take two glass tubes. with about 1/8-in. Va.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Alexandria. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. too.

On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. . in size. long. 3. 1 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 1. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. wide. and exactly 5 by 7 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. but cut it 1/4 in. camera and wish to use some 4. Crilly. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Cut an opening in the other piece. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Fig. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. shorter. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fig. automobiles. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. long. black surfaced if possible. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. -Contributed by William M. Chicago. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. trolley cars. says Camera Craft.proper place to make a small hole. wide. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. say 8 in. plates. shorter at each end. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. in size. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. wide and 5 in. to be used as a driving pulley. B. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Out two rectangular holes. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. This opening. A and B. high and 12 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains.. 2. D. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. being 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. inside of the opening. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 10 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. horses and dogs.by 5-in. Jr. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. and go in the holder in the same way.by 7-in. C. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.

into which the dog is harnessed." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.in. long and 6 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. wide will be required. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The needle will then point north and south. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. A cell of this kind can easily be made. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if it has previously been magnetized. in diameter. making a .

F is a spool. beeswax melted together. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Pack the paste in. Form a 1/2-in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. in which P is the pan. 1 lb. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. plaster of paris. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. of the top. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. with narrow flanges. sal ammoniac. leaving about 1/2-in. Place the pan on the stove. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. when the paraffin is melted. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. pull out the wire as needed. of rosin and 2 oz. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. says Electrician and Mechanic. B is a base of 1 in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 1/4 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. filter. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. File the rods to remove the copper plate.watertight receptacle. fuel and packing purposes. Do not paint any surface. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. fodder. under the spool in the paraffin. zinc oxide. . of water. This makes the wire smooth. for a connection. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. pine. one that will hold about 1 qt. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. 3/4 lb. of the plate at one end. A is a block of l-in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. short time. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. long which are copper plated. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. in diameter and 6 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. only the joints.

Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. as in the other movement. If any of your audience presume to dispute.. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and then. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and therein is the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. g. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. for some it will turn one way. Ohio. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Toledo. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Enlarge the hole slightly. Try it and see. and one friend tells me that they were . and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. by the Hindoos in India. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. let them try it. for others the opposite way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. while for others it will not revolve at all. thus producing two different vibrations." which created much merriment. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and he finally. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. 2. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. or think they can do the same. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. long. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. but the thing would not move at all. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. from vexation. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick.

Speeds between 700 and 1. secondly. 7. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and I think the results may be of interest. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A square stick with notches on edge is best. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 5. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. gave the best results. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. m. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. 4. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. If the pressure was upon an edge. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. the rotation may be obtained. 6. The experiments were as follows: 1. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. by means of a center punch. 3. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. Thus a circular or . and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. rotation was obtained. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward.100 r. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. To operate. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. p. 2. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. no rotation resulted. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path.

Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.D. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. as shown. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward)." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Ph. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. a piece of wire and a candle. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Sloan. G. --Contributed by G. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Lloyd. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. and the height of the fall about 6 in. forming a handle for carrying. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. it will be clockwise. at first. Duluth.. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. is driven violently away. or greasy. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. --Contributed by M. if the pressure is from the left. unwetted by the liquid. the upper portion is. Washington. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. A wire is tied around the can. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Minn. and the resultant "basket splash. . C. D.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle. long. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . hole drilled in the center. in diameter. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. with a 1/16-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. flange and a 1/4-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. as shown. 1. thick and 1 in. about 2-5/8 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown in Fig. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece.

bottom side up. or main part of the frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. and the locomotive is ready for running. lamp in series with the coil. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. holes 1 in. Fuller. of No. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise.50. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. If the ends are to be soldered. This will save buying a track. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. as shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 2. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The motor is now bolted. 5. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. each in its proper place. is made from brass. The current. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. put together complete. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 3. 6. --Contributed by Maurice E. wood. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 2. 1 from 1/4-in. Texas. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles.brass. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. A trolley. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The parts. bent as shown. are shown in Fig. 4. is made from a piece of clock spring. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 3. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. as shown in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. San Antonio. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. wide and 16 in. The first piece. 3/4 in. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. long. These ends are fastened together. with cardboard 3 in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1.

and as this end . trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. the length of a paper clip. and holes drilled in them. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Cincinnati.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. but do not heat the center. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fig 1. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. Fig. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. then continue to tighten much more. O. 1. 2. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. 3. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The quarter will not go all the way down. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs.

tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. In the sketch. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. and adjusted . In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. has finished a cut for a tooth. or should the lathe head be raised. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. or apparent security of the knot.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the trick is to be performed. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the cutter A. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel.

of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Bunker. blotter back. about 1-1/2 in. An ordinary machine will do.to run true. Fold over along these center lines. if four parts are to be alike. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. book mark. Y. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. trace the outline. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. note book. Fig. or one-half of the design. 2. swing lathe. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. tea cosey. coin purse. draw center lines across the required space. (6. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. twisted around itself and soldered. The frame holding the mandrel. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. and a nut pick. holding it in place with the left hand. gentleman's card case or bill book. such as brass or marble.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. at the same time striking light. --Contributed by Howard S. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. (2. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. 1. lady's belt bag. long. Brooklyn. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. tea cosey. above the surface. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Second row: -Two book marks. N. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. watch fob ready for fastenings. (1. dividing it into as many parts as desired. In this manner gears 3 in. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. (5. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Bott. (4. When connecting to batteries. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. if but two parts. lady's card case.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. (3.) Make on paper the design wanted. --Contributed by Samuel C.) Place the paper design on the leather and.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.

a distance of 900 miles. Thrust a pin. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. from Key West. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. D. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Florida.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. If the needle is not horizontal. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. C. and push it through a cork. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The electrodes are made . a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.C. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and bore a hole through the center. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.. B. into which fit a small piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. where it condenses. A. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.

The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. wide and 4 ft long. or flying-machine. Four long beams 3/4 in. free from knots. thick. wide and 4 ft. All wiring is done with No. To make a glide. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. C. both laterally and longitudinally. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 1-1/4 in. long for the body of the operator. take the glider to the top of a hill. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 16 piano wire. 3. lumber cannot be procured. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. thick. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. use 10-ft. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. slacken speed and settle. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. which is tacked to the front edge. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 1. D. by 3/4 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 2. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 2 arm sticks 1 in. wide and 20 ft. If 20-ft. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. Washington. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 2. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. as shown in Fig. 12 uprights 1/2 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. as shown in Fig. 1/2. 1-1/2 in. thick. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. --Contributed by Edwin L. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. square and 8 ft long. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. Powell. thick. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. Connect as shown in the illustration. using a high resistance receiver. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The operator can then land safely and . The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 1. 2 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long. 3/4 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. wide and 3 ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. thick. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam.in. wide and 3 ft. lengths and splice them. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. long. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 1. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. several strips 1/2 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in.

Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience.

Bellingham. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . When heated a little. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. which causes the dip in the line. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. 2. a creature of Greek mythology. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. half man and half horse. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 1. Olson.exercised in making landings. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. M. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur.

pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. making it 2-1/2 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The light from the . Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. outside the box. of small rubber tubing. will complete the material list. about the size of stove pipe wire. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. this will cost about 15 cents. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. long.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. at the other. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. long and about 3/8 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. square. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. about the size of door screen wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. 14 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen.

Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. O. M. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. If done properly the card will flyaway. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Dayton. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in Fig. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 1. Hunting. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. while others will fail time after time. --Photo by M. This is very simple when you know how. 2. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in the sketch. . The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.

Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. When the desired shape has been obtained. hold the lump over the flame. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as described. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. closing both hands quickly. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Cool in water and dry. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. place the other two. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. This game is played by five persons. as shown." or the Chinese students' favorite game. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. then put it on the hatpin head. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. as before. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. passing through neutralizing brushes. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. these sectors. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. distribute electric charges .

by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Fig. 3. material 7 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. to which insulating handles . The plates are trued up. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. turned wood pieces. Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. RR. in diameter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. 2. The two pieces. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. in diameter. are made from solid. in diameter. as shown in Fig. in diameter. wide at one end. C C. and of a uniform thickness. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. after they are mounted. in diameter and 15 in. 1 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. wide. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two solid glass rods. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. long and the shank 4 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. as shown in Fig. and 4 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. and pins inserted and soldered. These pins. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Two pieces of 1-in. The plates. at the other. The drive wheels. free from wrinkles. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. long. 4. the side pieces being 24 in. long. EE. or teeth. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. are made from 7/8-in. 1. from about 1/4-in. The collectors are made. GG. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 3/4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter. 1-1/2 in. D. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods.

The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and the work was done by themselves. Colorado City. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Colo. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. wide and 22 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 12 ft. which are bent as shown. one having a 2-in.are attached. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. in diameter. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Lloyd Enos. long. KK. --Contributed by C. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. D. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .

Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. deep. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. yet such a thing can be done. pens . as at A. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread.is a good one. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. They can be used to keep pins and needles. using a 1-in. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. string together. The key will drop from the string. bit. and bore a hole 1/2 in. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.

using a nail filed to chisel edge. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. and the third one 1/4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 4. flat and round-nosed pliers. slim screw. inside the first on all. above the metal. 3. 7. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. about 3/4-in.. stamp the background promiscuously. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Use . extra metal on each of the four sides. 8. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 6. Draw one-half the design free hand. unless it would be the metal shears. very rapid progress can be made. 2. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. When the stamping is completed. Proceed as follows: 1. or cigar ashes.and pencils. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. etc. then the other side. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in.. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. two spikes. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. they make attractive little pieces to have about. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. inside the second on all. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 9. etc. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Inside this oblong. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. sharp division between background and design. This is to make a clean. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. also trace the decorative design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Having determined the size of the tray. They are easily made. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 23 gauge. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. file. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Raise the ends. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 5.

"8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The eyes. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. and the effect will be most pleasing. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and fourth fingers. 9. 10. 8. third fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. In the first numbering. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. first fingers. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. second fingers. 7. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 6. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

the product of 12 times 12. 2 times 2 equals 4. 600. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and the six lower fingers as six tens. which tens are added. first fingers. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. renumber your fingers. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. or 80. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. 11. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Let us multiply 12 by 12. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. In the second numbering. . there are no fingers above. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. above 15 times 15 it is 200. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. above 20 times 20. viz. which would be 16.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten.. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. as high as you want to go. but being simple it saves time and trouble. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. thumbs. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Put your thumbs together. etc. 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. or numbers above 10. etc. or 60. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Two times one are two. etc. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. or the product of 8 times 9. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. At a glance you see four tens or 40. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or the product of 6 times 6. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 25 times 25. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Still. which would be 70. 400.. if we wish. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44..

For figures ending in 6. the lump sum to add. the value of the upper fingers being 20. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. further. being 80). the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. 8. and. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 75 and 85. Proceed as in the second lumbering. . the value of the upper fingers would be 50. thirties. however. 7. whether the one described in second or third numbering. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. lastly. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. not rotation. and so on. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. about a vertical axis. any two figures between 45 and 55. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 21. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. beginning the thumbs with 16. or what. the revolution seems to reverse. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the value which the upper fingers have. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. etc. It takes place also. The inversion and reversion did not take place. when he removes his spectacles. For example. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before.. thumbs.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. at the will of the observer. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. first finger 17. which is the half-way point between the two fives. And the lump sum to add. Take For example 18 times 18. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. as one might suppose. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 2. 3. in the case of a nearsighted person. forties. first fingers 22. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the inversion takes place against his will. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. twenties. or from above or from below. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. adding 400 instead of 100.

in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. when he knows which direction is right. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The ports were not easy to make. Looking at it in semidarkness. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. A flat slide valve was used. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. sometimes the point towards him. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. the other appearance asserts itself. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. and putting a cork on the point. as .

bottom side up. saw off a section of a broom handle. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. across the head. across and 1/2 in. and make in one end a hollow. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. . deep. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle.. The eccentric is constructed of washers. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Springfield. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Fasten the block solidly. pipe 10 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. inexpensive. Ill. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The steam chest is round. pipe. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. H. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. While this engine does not give much power. -Contributed by W. such as is shown in the illustration. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. If nothing better is at hand. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. about 2 in. Next take a block of wood. as in a vise. apart. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. secure a piece of No.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. in diameter. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Kutscher. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. it is easily built. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.

is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. This process is called annealing. and. C. To produce color effects on copper. Camden. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Hay. as it softens the metal.will cause the metal to break. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. O. S. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Vinegar. the other to the left. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. To overcome this hardness. especially when the object is near to the observer. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. --Contributed by W.

not two mounted side by side. In order to make them appear before the card. as for instance red and green. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. because. But they seem black. orange. So with the stereograph. It is just as though they were not there. and lies to the right on the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. from the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background. it. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. because of the rays coming from them. The red portions of the picture are not seen. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. in the proper choice of colors. diameter. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The further apart the pictures are. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. although they pass through the screen.stereoscope. only the orange rays may pass through. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. disappears fully. however. the one for the left eye being blue. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. that for the right. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. and without any picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. the left eye sees through a blue screen. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. would serve the same purpose. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. . As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. with the stereograph.

Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Cal. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Place a NO. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. long and a hole drilled in each end. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. wireless. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. or the middle of the bottle. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. thick. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. This should only be bored about half way through the block. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. in diameter. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 1/4 in. etc. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. wide and 1 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. A No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. in the shape of a crank. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. San Francisco. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The weight of the air in round .

In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. long. But if a standard barometer is not available. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. and a slow fall. internal diameter and about 34 in. if you choose.6) 1 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. will calibrate itself. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. or a column of mercury (density 13. inside diameter and 2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. square. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The 4 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. but before attempting to put in the mercury.numbers is 15 lb. a glass tube 1/8 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. . have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. are marked off and divided into sixteenths.. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. pine 3 in. a bottle 1 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. wide and 40 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. 34 ft. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. high. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. thick. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. 30 in. wide and 4 in. high. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. the instrument. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. square. the contrary. Before fastening the scale. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. or. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. In general. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. high. long. if accurately constructed.

Mark out seven 1-in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Procure a metal can cover. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 3. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. wide and 10 in. Number the pieces 1. thick. which is slipped quickly over the end. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. the size of the outside of the bottle. 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 5. a cover from a baking powder can will do. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 6 and 7. long. and place them as shown in Fig. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 2. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

long and 2 ft. each 10 ft. 7's place. in diameter. Cape May Point. Move 10-Move No. L. 2's place. Move 4-Jump No. Move 9-Jump No. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 14-Jump No. Move 13-Move No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 12-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. 2's place. Move ll-Jump No. 5. as shown in Fig. 6 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 1. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Make 22 sections.J. 1. using checkers for men. 2.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 2-Jump No. 3 to the center. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 3 into No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 7 over No. Move 6-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 3-Move No. 3. 6 into No. 6 to No. 5's place. 3. 2 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6. N. 5 over No. Move 5-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 7-Jump No. To make such a tent. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7 over No. 5's place. 1 to No. 5 over No. shaped like Fig. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 7. 6 in. 1 into No. Woolson. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2 .-Contributed by W. 2. This can be done on a checker board. l over No. 2 over No. 3 over No.

round galvanized iron. Fig. These are ventilators. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 6-in. 9 by 12 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. about 9 in. diameter. --Contributed by G. Use blocks. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. as in Fig. long. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. made in two sections. will do. fill with canvas edging. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. wide at the bottom. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 2. Have the tent pole 3 in.in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. leaving the rest for an opening. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Punch holes in the brass in . How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide by 12 in. 5) stuck in the ground. 2 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 3 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Emsworth. wide at the bottom. long and 4 in. In raising the tent. Fig. 5. Nail a thin sheet of brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.J. added. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Tress.. to a smooth board of soft wood. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Pa. from the top. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. in diameter. 6. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. After transferring the design to the brass. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. As shown in the sketch. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. high.

bend into shape. apart. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. It will not. around the outside of the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. but before punching the holes. When all the holes are punched. The pattern is traced as before. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. excepting the 1/4-in. When the edges are brought together by bending. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. Corr. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. . cut out the brass on the outside lines.the spaces around the outlined figures. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. Chicago. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Que. --Contributed by Geo. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. pipe. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. partially filled with cream. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. better still. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. pipe is used for the hub. or less. Stevens. E. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. between which is placed the fruit jar. A 6-in. Mayger. If a wheel is selected. A cast-iron ring. allowing 2 ft. G. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. --Contributed by H.however. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn.. These pipes are . Oregon. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. or center on which the frame swings. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Dunham. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Badger. or. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.

as shown in Fig. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. which was placed in an upright position. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. and dropped on the table. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. 1. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and the guide withdrawn. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . while doing this. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. 3. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The performer. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before.

The box can be made of selected oak or . These leaves can be made up in regular book form. --Contributed by H. in a half circle.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Louis. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. 2. -Contributed by C. White. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. D. Colo. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. and second. Mo. St. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Denver. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. in diameter on another piece of tin. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Harkins. it requires no expensive condensing lens. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. F. first. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover.

and 2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide and 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. as shown in Fig. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. high and must . is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. high and 11 in. from each end. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. long. from each end of the outside of the box. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 2. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. This will be 3/4 in. 5-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. fit into the runners. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. but not tight. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. long. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. If a camera lens is used. An open space 4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 1. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. wide. Two or three holes about 1 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. long and should be placed vertically. wide and 6-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. AA.mahogany. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. and. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. focal length. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown.

and extending the whole height of the lantern.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling this February. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Bradley. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. as it requires an airtight case.. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling that knuckle January. provided it is airtight. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. the article may be propped up . Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. 1. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box." etc. Ohio. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. --Contributed by Chas. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. and so on. West Toledo. C. April. June and November. This process is rather a difficult one. then the second knuckle will be March.

one of lead and one of aluminum. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. but waxed. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lid or cover closed. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and the lead 24 sq. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. in. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. N.with small sticks. In both Fig. In each place two electrodes. Y. The top of a table will do. or suspended by a string. 2. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. H. 1. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Crawford. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. . The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. taking care to have all the edges closed. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Schenectady. giving it an occasional stir. Pour in a little turpentine. in. fruit jars are required. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. --Contributed by J. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. 1 and 2. and set aside for half a day. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. running small motors and lighting small lamps.

Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated.. This trick is very simple. he throws the other. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. He. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as well as others. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . O. which you warm with your hands. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Cleveland. After a few seconds' time. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as you have held it all the time. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. you remove the glass. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.

but by being careful at shores. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can.take the handiest one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. near a partition or curtain. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Be sure that this is the right one. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. put it under the glass. if any snags are encountered. in diameter in the center. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Victor. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. .-Contributed by E. Crocker. but in making one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. J. on a table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Pull the ends quickly. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Colo.

and is removed after the ribs are in place. long. long. The keelson. 2 in. 3 and 4. 1 mast. by 12 in. wide and 12 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. and fastened with screws. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 3 in. clear pine. 9 ft. 11 yd. by 16 ft. for the stern piece. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of 1-yd. 1 piece. 1/8 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. screws and cleats. by 16 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for center deck braces. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. as illustrated in the engraving. of rope. from the bow and the large one. for cockpit frame. at the ends. wide and 12 ft. by 15 ft. 4 outwales. long. 2 and braced with an iron band. long. 1 in. 50 ft. thick and 3/4 in. 1 in. and. for the bow. Paint. ducking. wide unbleached muslin.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 2 in. 1 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. wide 12-oz. from each end to 1 in. by 8 in. 3 in. by 2 in.. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. drilled and fastened with screws. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft.. 1. by 10 ft. 8 in. 14 rib bands. of 1-1/2-yd. selected pine. is 14 ft. apart. Fig. 2 gunwales. 7 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. and the other 12 in. wide. 1 piece. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 8 yd. Both ends are mortised. square by 16 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. one 6 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 in. 1/4 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. from the stern.

5. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. thick. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. Figs. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. is cut to fit under the top boards. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 1/4 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. long. Fig. thick and 12 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Before making the deck. Braces. wide. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. They are 1 in. long. length of canvas is cut in the center. 9. Fig. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. in diameter through the block. 6 in. from the bow. 1 in. The trimming is wood. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. wide. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. 6. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 3-1/2 ft. The deck is not so hard to do. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A block of pine. The 11-yd. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. a piece 1/4 in. wood screws. thick. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. screws. also. 4 in. These are put in 6 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. This block. long. long is well soaked in water. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 6 and 7. and fastened to them with bolts. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 1 in. A piece of oak. .Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. apart. A 6-in. wide and 24 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. wide and 3 ft. doubled. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. thick 1-1/2 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The block is fastened to the keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. thick and 1/2 in. wide and 14 in. corner braces. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 7 and 8. gunwales and keelson. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale.

Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. thick by 2 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The house will accommodate 20 families. each 1 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A strip 1 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. . are used for the boom and gaff. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. wide. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The sail is a triangle. 11. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Ill. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. --Contributed by O. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Wilmette. The mast has two side and one front stay. in diameter and 10 ft. 12. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. wide at one end and 12 in. Fig.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. is 6 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. 10 with a movable handle. Tronnes. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. E. apart in the muslin. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. long. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. at the other. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The keel.

1 yd. 1. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. and 3 ft. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. and the other 18 in. long and five 1/2-in. five 1/2-in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide and 30 in. as shown in Fig. Tronnes. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. flat on one side. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Fig. Wilmette. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 5. wide. long. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. E. about 5/16 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang.into two 14-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. thick. wide. 2 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. square. thick. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Ill. 3. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. one 11-1/2 in. 4. --Contributed by O. thick. wide and 2 ft. flat-headed screws. 2-1/2 in. Cut the maple. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2. 2-1/2 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long. flat headed screws.

The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. wide and 5 in. square. 3/8 in. 5 from 1/16-in. St. and make a turn in each end of the wires. E. long. the top and bottom. About 1/2 in. about 3/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Another piece. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. Fig. Glue a three cornered piece. D. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. Figs. is set. Mo. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. wide and 4-1/2 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide and 3 ft. long. but can be governed by circumstances. Louis. wide . pieces 2-5/8 in. as well as the edges around the opening. 1. soaked with water and blown up. and the four outside edges.once. 6-1/2 in. The front. of each end unwound for connections. thick. square. leaving a small opening at one corner. thick and 3 in. --Contributed by W. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. forming an eye for a screw. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. long. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. then centered. wide and 2-1/2 in. C. wide and 6-3/4 in. A. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Make a double stitch all around the edge. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Cut another piece of board. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 2 and 3. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Bliss. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. 1-1/4 in. are rounded. F. 3-1/4 in. After the glue. C. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 3 in. When the glue is set. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. B. The bag is then turned inside out. long. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 6-1/2 in. If carefully and neatly made. thick. this square box is well sandpapered. A.

long. wide and 9 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . Place the tin. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. R. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The end of the polar axis B. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. and fasten in place. Fig. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. G. 4 is not movable. and the farther apart they will be forced. Fig. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A pointer 12 in. 5-1/2 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The resistance is now adjusted to show . from one end. hole is fastened to the pointer.A. 4. long.S. Richmond Hill. I. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle.and 2-5/8 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 4. Austwick Hall. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The base is a board 5 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. from the spindle. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. that has the end turned with a shoulder. in diameter. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. L. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. bored in the back. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. When the current flows through the coil. and as the part Fig. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 5. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. C. The stronger the current. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Chapman. long. so it will just clear the tin. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. the same size as the first. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. showing a greater defection of the pointer. thick. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. These wires should be about 1 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.R. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. W. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Yorkshire. F. board. wide and 2-1/2 in. 1/16 in. Another strip of tin. Like poles repel each other. 1/4 in.

at 9 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. M. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. and vice . all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. thus: 9 hr. A. The following formula will show how this may be found. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. say Venus at the date of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 1881. 30 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.

or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Hall. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Conn. if one of these cannot be had. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. --Contributed by Robert W. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.m. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. owing to the low internal resistance. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.f. New Haven. or. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. .

and heap the glowing coals on top. as shown in the accompanying picture. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wet paper will answer.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. put the fish among the ashes. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. When the follower is screwed down. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. The boring bar. 1. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. cover up with the same. arsenic to every 20 lb. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. inside diameter and about 5 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. fresh grass. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. long. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Then. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. thick. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . leaves or bark. of alum and 4 oz. 1-3/4 in. especially for cooking fish. Fig. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. 3/8 in.

a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. when they were turned in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and threaded on both ends. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe. fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew.

--Contributed by Peter Johnson. wide.valve stems. 5. a jump spark would be much better. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. the float is too high. 2. as the one illustrated herewith. Fig. thick and 3 in. then it should be ground to a fit. Fig. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. A 1-in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. square iron. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 30 in. however. 4. bent in the shape of a U. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The rough frame. was then finished on an emery wheel. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. and which gave such satisfactory results. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. labor and time. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. It . but never one which required so little material. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Clermont. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 3. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Iowa. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. This plate also supports the rocker arms. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. long. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place.

for the "motive power" to grasp. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. strong clear material only should be employed. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. long. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. The seats are regular swing boards. W. square and 2 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. from all over the neighborhood. 3/4 in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. in diameter and 15 in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. This makes an easy adjustment. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. with no trees or buildings in the way. rope is not too heavy. no matter what your age or size may be. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square and 5 ft. 12 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. --Contributed by C. in fact. As there is no bracing. long is the pivot. so it must be strong enough. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. If it is to be used for adults. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. A 3/4 -in. strengthened by a piece 4 in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. long." little and big. and a little junk. hole bored in the post. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Nieman. A malleable iron bolt. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. from the center. completes the merry-go-round. long. in the ground with 8 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. It looks like a toy. The crosspiece is 2 in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. butting against short stakes. extending above. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. being held in position by spikes as shown. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. square. set 3 ft. and. The illustration largely explains itself. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . timber.

or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. A reel is next made. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. long. 1. To wind the string upon the reel. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly.2 emery. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. These ends are placed about 14 in. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 1/4 by 3/32 in. 2. The backbone is flat. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. light and strong. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Both have large reels full of . The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. one for the backbone and one for the bow. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. 4. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. a wreck. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. then it is securely fastened. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Having placed the backbone in position. square. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and 18 in. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and sent to earth.the fingers. away. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. as shown in Fig. if nothing better is at hand. The bow is now bent.

Moody. C. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. the balance.-Contributed by S. or glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. often several hundred yards of it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Newburyport. Brooklyn. First. N. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. --Contributed' by Harry S. The handle end is held down with a staple. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. common packing thread. Y. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft.string. Bunker. If the second kite is close enough. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Mass. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle.

Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. such as mill men use. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. If the table is round. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. cutting the circular piece into quarters. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Corinth. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. lengths (Fig. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Hastings. square (Fig. length of 2-in. --Contributed by Earl R. each the size of half the table top. then draw the string up tight. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. must be attached to a 3-ft. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Vt. then a dust protector. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought.

17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.9-1/4 in. Moisten the . Oakland. from C to D. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. which spoils the leather effect. 6-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. G to H. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Calif. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 2-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Wharton. . and E to G. E.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. hard pencil. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 16-1/4 in. Use a smooth. from E to F. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. trace the design carefully on the leather. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.

get something with which to make a lining. apart. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. To complete the bag. I made this motor . Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and corresponding lines on the other side. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. H-B. is taken off at a time. also lines A-G. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. about 1/8 in. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. G-J. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. wide. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. if not more than 1 in. Now cut narrow thongs. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. place both together and with a leather punch. and E-G. and lace through the holes. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out.

It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. --Contributed by J. Shannon. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 24 gauge magnet wire. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. in length.M. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. each being a half circle. Calif. . which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. of No.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Pasadena. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. B. 2. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. as shown in Fig. 1. 2-1/4 in. 1. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. D. long. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. iron. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.

Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and the gores cut from these. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. pasted in alternately. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . high.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. from the bottom end. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. The gores for a 6-ft. are the best kind to make. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. balloon should be about 8 ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. near the center. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.

Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. coming through the small pipe A. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The steam. --Contributed by R. After washing. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. 1. 4. using about 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The boat soon attains considerable speed. after which the paint will adhere permanently. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 5. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. somewhat larger in size. In starting the balloon on its flight. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Fig. As the boat is driven forward by this force. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. E. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. B. In removing grease from wood. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. so it will hang as shown in Fig. leaving a long wake behind. lap on the edges. If the gores have been put together right. 3. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. saturating it thoroughly. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. leaving the solution on over night. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. in diameter.widest point. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Staunton. A. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. These are to hold the wick ball. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 2. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon.

long and each provided with a handle. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . long.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. as is shown in Fig. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. high and 8 in. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. 1. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. In using either of the two methods described. Second. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. wide by 6 in. apart on these lines. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. There are three ways of doing this: First. Third. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The blocks are about 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. in bowling form.

Albany. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque.Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . --Contributed by John A. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. 2. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. being careful not to dent the metal. Fig. N. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. not pointed down at the road at an angle. thick.

S. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. CC. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. long for the base. Richmond. In Fig. 5 in. 2 the front view. --Contributed by R. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. and Fig. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. 6 in. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Paine. in diameter. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. A. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. and not produce the right sound. which is 4 in. Va. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and. wide and of any desired height. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. with a set screw. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. wide and 8 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. thick. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A circular piece of wood. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Break off the frame.upon any particular object. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 1 Fig. A. through which passes the set screw S. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Corner irons. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. B. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. With this device. are screwed to the circular piece. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. These corner irons are also screwed to. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or .

I made a wheel 26 in.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. as only the can is visible. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. La Salle. in diameter of some 1-in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Kidder. This horn. thus producing sound waves. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. D. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. S. pine boards. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. R. Ill. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. . then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Lake Preston. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. -1. This will make a very compact electric horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

Purdy. square. Kane. If there is a large collection of coins. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . --Contributed by James R. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 1. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. A. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. --Contributed by C. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Ghent. 2. Doylestown. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The frame is made of a heavy card. the same thickness as the coins. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 1. thick and 12 in. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Fig. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. O.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. B. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it.

a hammer or mallet. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. A rivet punch is desirable. border all around. Wis. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Neyer. plus a 3/8-in. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Canada. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. --Contributed by August T. into which to place the screws . Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by R. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Smith. thick. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. It will hold 4 oz. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and then glued together as indicated. A lead pencil. though not absolutely necessary. Noble. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. for after the slides have been shown a few times. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. One Cloud. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. of developer. Milwaukee. Toronto. several large nails.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. The material required is a sheet of No.E. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. cut and grooved. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. --Contributed by J. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in.J. If desired. Cal. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. they become uninteresting. melted and applied with a brush.

apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. screws placed about 1 in. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. and file it to a chisel edge. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Take the nail. like the one shown. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. both outline and decoration. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Remove the screws. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. never upon the metal directly. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. using 1/2-in. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. draw one part.

The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail.wall. for the lower rails. 3/4 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. up from the lower end. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. square and 181/2 in. two lengths. being ball bearing. The pedal. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the top. each 1 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 3. Rivet the band to the holder. l-1/8 in. in the other. 2. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 1. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. square. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 11 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. and two lengths. . The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Provide four lengths for the legs. of 11-in. About 1/2 yd. long. using a 1/2in. long. Do not bend it over or flatten it. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed.

The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. --Contributed by W. New York City. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. --Contributed by John Shahan. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. having quite a length of threads. F. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Ala. Quackenbush. Attalla. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.

. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and two holes in the other. in depth. long. --Contributed by C. making a lap of about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and the other 2-3/4 in. initial. wide and 4-1/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The desired emblem. D. Luther. from one end. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. college or lodge colors. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. wide and 8-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Two pieces of felt. each 1-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. something that is carbonated. long. Mich. the end of the other piece is folded over. from the end. stitched on both edges for appearance. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Ironwood. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. one about 1 in. long. using class.

and the cork will be driven out. as shown at B. A piece of lead. Ind. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. --Contributed by John H. 1. Schatz. Indianapolis. in the cover and the bottom. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. in diameter and 2 in. Punch two holes A.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 1/4 in. Fig. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. from the center and opposite each other. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. which can be procured from a plumber. or more in height. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . if desired by the operator. 2. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or a pasteboard box. about 2 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in.

putting in the design. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. are turned up as in Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. or marble will serve. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The pieces of tin between the holes A. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. metal. 4. 1. as shown in Fig. A piece of thick glass. . Fig. it winds up the rubber band. Columbus.Rolling Can Toy lead. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 5. O. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. 3. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. When the can is rolled away from you. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.

I secured a board 3/4 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. A pencil may be used the first time over. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. wide and 20 in. thicker than the pinion. deep in its face. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. 1 in. mark over the design. face up. from each end. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and. or more thick on each side. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thick. hole through it. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. 3 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. New York City. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. long and bored a 1/2-in. Next place the leather on the glass. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. After this has been done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The edges should be about 1/8 in.

Fasten the end pieces on with screws. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 2 crosspieces. Make the lower frame first. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 top board. much of the hard labor will be saved. New York. Now fit up the two clamps. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 screw block. 2 side rails. 3 by 3 by 6 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. --Contributed by A. 1 piece for clamp. 2. 1 piece for clamp. N. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. and fit it in place for the side vise. Brooklyn. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . pieces for the vise slides. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in.in the board into the bench top. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. in diameter. 3 by 3 by 36. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Fig. 1 back board. Cut the 2-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2 end rails. 1 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 4 guides. thick top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Syracuse. Y. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. lag screws as shown. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Rice. 1 top board. M. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 piece. 2 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown.

1 jack plane or smoother. 24 in.. it can be easily found when wanted. as well as the pattern maker. 1 wood scraper. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 monkey wrench. 1 brace and set of bits.. 1 2-ft. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.screws. 1 countersink. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 marking gauge. 1 claw hammer. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 set gimlets. The amateur workman. The bench is now complete. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 rip saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 pair pliers. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. rule. 1 set chisels. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 3 and 6 in. Only the long run. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 cross cut saw. 1 pocket level.. 1 compass saw. 1 nail set. in diameter. 1 pair dividers. . put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws.

---Contributed by James M. 3. The calf skin. the projecting point A. 2 and 00 sandpaper. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig. try square. 1. Doylestown. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Kane. but will not make . becomes like A. after constant use. 2. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. will be easier to work. Pa. No. Fig.1 6-in. Fig. 1. 1 oilstone.1. will sink into the handle as shown at D.

give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. the same method of treatment is used. -Contributed by Julia A. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. when dry. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. but a V-shaped nut pick. then prepare the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. If calf skin is to be used. New York City. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. First draw the design on paper.as rigid a case as the cow skin. The form can be made of a stick of wood. If cow hide is preferred. cover it completely with water enamel and. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size. lay the design on the face. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. and the length 6-5/8 in. will do just as well. secure a piece of modeling calf. White. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. which steam. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Having prepared the two sides. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. . water or heat will not affect. Turn the leather. After the outlines are traced. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. such as copper or brass.

Jaquythe. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. C. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. and an adjustable friction-held loop. --Contributed by W. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Maine. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. . Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. A. New York City. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. as shown in the sketch. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chester L. Portland. Cal. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.

Roberts. Mass. --Contributed by Wm. Cambridge. an inverted stewpan. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Middletown. Conn. was marked out as shown. . A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. This was very difficult. A thick piece of tin. B. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Wright. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. for instance.

L. so some bones were quickly calcined. Chicago. If the article is highly polished. A beautifully bound book. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. . the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Illinois. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. There was no quicklime to be had. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and quite new. such as chair seats. F. used as part of furniture. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Herbert. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. on a clear piece of glass. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. but not running over. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. well calcined and powdered. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. When dry. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Bone. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. If any traces of the grease are left. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. --Contributed by C. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. of boiling water.. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Ind. The next morning there was no trace of oil. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but only an odor which soon vanished. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. pulverized and applied. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. which has been tried out several times with success. face down. and the grease will disappear. as shown. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Indianapolis.

The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. deep and 5 in. Howe. --Contributed by Geo. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. A. If properly adjusted.. soft steel with the opening 6 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The pieces marked S are single. 2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. set and thumbscrews. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. long. says Scientific American. the pieces .. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. wide and 12 in. Tarrytown. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. New York. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. 6 in. thick.

The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. albums and the like. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The seat is a board. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. A sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. for sending to friends. E. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Their size depends on the plate used. says Camera Craft.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. to the underside of which is a block. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. no doubt. If the letters are all cut the same height.

Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. So arranged. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. after." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. for example.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. The puzzle is to get . photographing them down to the desired size. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. mount them on short pieces of corks. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. So made. using care to get it in the right position. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. In cutting out an 0. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. pasting the prints on some thin card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card.

The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Bayley. long that will just fit are set in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. He smells the bait. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. says the American Thresherman. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. A hole 6 or 7 in.J. squeezes along past the center of the tube. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. snow or anything to hide it.-Contributed by I. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. N. Old-Time Magic . jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. of its top. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. with the longest end outside. so they will lie horizontal. hung on pivots. G. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Cape May Point.

pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Szerlip. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pawtucket. --Contributed by L. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. N. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Idaho. --Contributed by L. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. then expose again. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Brooklyn. Rhode Island. Press the hands together. E. Y. Parker.faced up. Pocatello. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then spread the string. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.

The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. end of the blade. dark red. using a straightedge and a pencil. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The blade should be about 27 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. says the English Mechanic. 1 Fig. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Glue the other side of the blade. The handle is next made. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. whether he requires a single sword only. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper.. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 1. full size. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side.Genuine antique swords and armor. long. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. narrower. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The pieces. near the point end. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. or a complete suit of armor. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. wide and 2 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. thick. or green oil paint. 2 Fig.. 3 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. wipe the blade . then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. in width. 4 on the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. they will look very much like the genuine article. if any. When the whole is quite dry. and if carefully made.

should be about 9 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the other is flat or halfround. in diameter.with light strokes up and down several times. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. thick and 5 in. as it is . the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the other is flat or half-round. in the widest part at the lower end. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. 2. follow the directions as for Fig. shows only two sides. 1. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. about 1-1/2 in. long. 2. 4. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig.. 1. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 3. 1. 1/8 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. square and of any length desired. take two pieces of wood. the illustration. Both edges of the blade are sharp. In the finished piece. 3.. the other two are identical. In making. allowing for a good hold with both hands. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In making this scimitar. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. of course. 1. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The length of the handle. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. This sword is about 68 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. and 3 in. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel.

Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by John Blake. piping and jackets by hard water. N. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. as shown in the sketch. Morse. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. and if so. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. about 3/8 in. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Both can be made easily. Syracuse. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. The thinness of the plank. It is made of a plank. in an attempt to remove it. --Contributed by Katharine D. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. A piece of mild steel.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. and. each about 1 ft. at the lower end. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. however. as there was some at hand. as can the pitch bed or block. 2 in. square. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. long. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Mass. or an insecure fastening. A cold . are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Franklin. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Doctors probed for the button without success. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Y. On each edge of the board. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed.

When this has been done. secure a piece of brass of about No. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. To remedy this.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. To put it in another way. When the desired form has been obtained. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass... 5 lb. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 18 gauge. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. a file to reduce the ends to shape. on the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them . heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. plaster of Paris. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. using a small metal saw. tallow. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. design down. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening.

or 550 ft. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Fill the 3-in. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. using powdered pumice with lye. 2). per second. one 18 in. This in turn divided by 33. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. it may be well to know what horsepower means. lb. 30 ft. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. in diameter (Fig. and still revolve. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Fig.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.smooth. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Before giving the description.000 lb. 1 ft. 3. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. living together in what seems like one receptacle. A. per minute. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in diameter (Fig. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. over the smaller vessel. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 1) and the other 12 in. or fraction of a horsepower. . --Contributed by Harold H. That is lifting 33. but not to stop it. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. and hang a bird swing. space between the vessels with water. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in one second. in one minute or 550 lb. The smaller is placed within the larger. lb. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. make an unusual show window attraction. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel.000 ft. 1 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. to keep it from floating.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. in the center. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Clean the metal thoroughly. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Cutter.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. N. or on a pedestal. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. by L. The effect is surprising. 2 Fig. --Contributed. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . F.3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J. Diameter 12 in. Brooklyn. Somerville. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter Fig.18 in. Campbell. Szerlip. Mass. Y.

23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. after which it is ready for use. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. and then. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. to keep the metal from tarnishing. as a rule. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. which. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Do not be content merely to bend them over.copper of No. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. often render it useless after a few months service. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. keeping the center high. and the clay . The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. In riveting. using any of the common metal polishes. Polish both of these pieces. the same as removing writing from a slate. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. away from the edge. with the pliers. which may be of wood or tin. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and cut out the shape with the shears. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. is. Rivet the cup to the base. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. unsatisfactory. This compound is impervious to water. then by drawing a straightedge over it. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. with other defects. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time.

-Contributed by Thos. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use.can be pressed back and leveled. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. the device will work for an indefinite time. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. as shown in Fig. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. 2. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Scotland. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. in diameter and 5 in. long. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Grand Rapids. Houghton. A. The siphon is made of glass tubes. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. 1. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Dunlop. DeLoof. Mich. Mich. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. 3/4 in. . --Contributed by John T. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. It is made of a glass tube. Shettleston. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Northville. --Contributed by A.

allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. 1. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. put up as ornaments. As the handle is to . Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. stilettos and battle-axes. London. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. in width and 2 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.

The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. In Fig. 8. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 20 spike. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. In Fig. string. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. paint it a dark brown or black. is shown in Fig. 7. 9. one about 1/2 in. small rope and round-headed nails. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. long with a dark handle of wood. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Three large. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. A German poniard is shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Both handle and axe are of steel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The sword shown in Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. In Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. the upper part iron or steel. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. narrower. When dry. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. the same as used on the end of the handle. This sword is about 4 ft. sharp edges on both sides. studded with brass or steel nails. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. glue and put it in place. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. This stiletto has a wood handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. firmly glued on. The lower half of the handle is of wood. very broad. This axe is made similar to the one . 3 is shown a claymore. 6. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 11 were used. wood with a keyhole saw. with both edges sharp. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. in width. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. in length. 4. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. in length. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 5. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top.represent copper. The crossbar and blade are steel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. long. the axe is of steel. The handle is of wood. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. then glued on the blade as shown. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. When the whole is quite dry. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. with wire or string' bound handle. A German stiletto.

Old-Time Magic . When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. high. . 2. --Contributed by E. This will make a very good flexible belt. together as shown in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. so the contents cannot be seen.described in Fig. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. When wrapped all the way around. 10. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. W. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Davis. Chicago. such as braided fishline.

The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Before the performance. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. or using small wedges of wood. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. S. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Bridgeton. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . with the circle centrally located. --Contributed by A. Oakland. apparently. Calif. held in the right hand. As zinc is much lighter than iron. These wires are put in the jar. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. N. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. an acid. about one-third the way down from the top. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 2.J. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. There will be no change in color. in a few seconds' time. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. some of the liquid. filled with water. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Macdonald.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. 1 and put together as in Fig. The dotted lines in Fig. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. causing the flowers to grow. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. four glass tumblers.

A. When many slides are to be masked. Richmond. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. practical and costs nothing. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. 4 for width and No. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. says a correspondent of Photo Era. and kept ready for use at any time. Cal. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 2 for height.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. This outlines the desired opening. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. unless some special device is used. If the size wanted is No. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. and equally worthy of individual treatment. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines.

When etched to the desired depth. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . but they can be easily revived. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. not the water into the acid. and do not inhale the fumes. is about right for the No. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. a little less acid than water. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. paint the design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. may be changed. 16 gauge. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. possibly. too. about half and half. or a pair of old tongs. the paper is folded along the center line. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. which is dangerous. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. With a stick. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. and the extreme length 7 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The decoration. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Secure a sheet of No. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. using the carbon paper. The one shown is merely suggestive. Draw a design. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. or. This done.

as in Fig. Nail a board. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. to the table. When the button S is pressed. about 8 in. Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. C and D. about 3 ft. punch a hole through it and put in under post E.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. with the wires underneath. about 2-1/2 in. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Then get two posts. 4. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. J is another wire attached in the same way. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. attached to a post at each end. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 1. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. it will touch post F. as shown in the illustration. 24 parts water. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 2. 3/8 in. Fig. 5. 2. 0 indicates the batteries. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and about 2-1/2 ft. about 1 in. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Paint the table any color desired. Fig. and bore two holes. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. high. in diameter and 1/4 in. wide and of the same length as the table. the bell will ring. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. 3. . thick. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 2. Cut out a piece of tin. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. It may be either nailed or screwed down. long. A. 5. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. so that when it is pressed down. long and 1 ft. or more wide. Fig. as shown in Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. The connections are simple: I. as at H. wide. through it. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end.

but they are somewhat difficult to make. the wood peg inserted in one of them. such as . the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. This weapon is about 22 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue.Imitation Arms and Armor .. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. long. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A wood peg about 2 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. says the English Mechanic. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. long serves as the dowel. handle and all. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. These rings can be carved out. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. is to appear as steel. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. thick. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. After the glue is dry. 1. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circle is marked out with a compass.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The entire weapon. The imitation articles are made of wood. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.

long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in.ornamental scrolls. leaves. The handle is of wood. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. 8. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as described in Fig. 6. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. studded with large brass or steel nails. If such a tool is not at hand. also. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. flowers. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. long. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 2. All of these axes are about the same length. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The axe is shown in steel. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The spikes are cut out of wood. 3. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. the hammer and spike. as before mentioned. is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The upper half of the handle is steel. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. covered with red velvet. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. 5. as shown. etc. used at the end of the fifteenth century. with a sharp carving tool. Its length is about 3 ft. . The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle is of steel imitation. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

3. the knife resting on its back. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. calls for a home run. then the other plays. 5. 7) calls for one out. 4). . and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. and so on for nine innings.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1. Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 6. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Chicago. a three-base hit. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 2. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board.

The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Campbell. one of them burning . As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. hypo to 1 pt. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. of the rope and holds it. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 3. as shown in Fig. F. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. It may be found that the negative is not colored. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. If it is spotted at all. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 2. Mass. while the committee is tying him up. Old-Time Magic . Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. as shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. with the rope laced in the cloth. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of water for an hour or two. This he does. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 1. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative.-Contributed by J. Somerville.

thus causing it to light. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of turpentine. The magician walks over to the burning candle. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Ky. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. and. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Ky. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the other without a light. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.. of plumbago. with which he is going to light the other candle. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Evans. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. --Contributed by C. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. bolt. etc. B. 4 oz. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Thome. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Drill Gauge screw. shades the light for a few seconds. Lebanon. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. He then walks over to the other candle. invisible to them (the audience). of water and 1 oz. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. 4 oz. thick. 3/4 in. New York City. showing that there is nothing between them. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. --Contributed by L. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. . Brown.brightly. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Louisville. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of sugar. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.Contributed by Andrew G.

--Contributed by C. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. diameter. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . but can be made up into any required voltage in series. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Its current strength is about one volt. thick. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Denniston. To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Do not add water to the acid. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. but is not so good. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. or blotting paper. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. steady current. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. into a tube of several thicknesses. long. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. H. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. 5 in. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. In making up the solution. about 5 in. which will give a strong. Y. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. N. Pulteney. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. for the material.

By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. carrying the hour circle at one end. One hole was bored as well as possible. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. while the other end is attached by two screws. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.station. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. To insure this. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. the other holding them apart. a positive adjustment was provided. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. long with a bearing at each end. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. Finally. After much experimentation with bearings. As to thickness. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. steel. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. one drawing them together. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. steel. steel. The . but somewhat lighter.) may be obtained. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude.

it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Cassiopiae. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. apart. Set the declination circle to its reading. To find a star in the heavens. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. save the one in the pipe. and 15 min. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Each shaft. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Declination is read directly. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. All these adjustments. are tightened. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All set screws. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. excepting those on the declination axis. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The pointer is directed to Alpha. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. 45 min. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. and if it is not again directed to the same point. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. It is. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. The pole is 1 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. need not be changed. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. once carefully made. Point it approximately to the north star. Instead. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph." When this is done.." Only a rough setting is necessary.. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. in each direction from two points 180 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. turn the pointer to the star. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained.

benzole. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Plain City. Ohio. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. 3 or 4 in. taking care not to add too much. is folded several times. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Strosnider. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The dance will begin. of ether. La. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. -Contributed by Ray E. as shown in the sketch. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. is the real cannon ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. which is the one examined. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The ball is found to be the genuine article. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. In reality the first ball. New Orleans. then add 1 2-3 dr. long. add a little more benzole. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. If this will be too transparent. a great effect will be produced. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper.. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. the others .

This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. San Francisco. as shown in the illustration. without taking up any great amount of space. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. etc. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. 1).. Wis. Cal. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by J. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Milwaukee. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. F. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Return the card to the pack. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Mass. Fig. In boxes having a sliding cover.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . small brooches. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. 2. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Somerville. taps. Campbell. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated.

but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Hartford. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. . I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. as shown in the illustration. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Connecticut. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. thus giving ample store room for colors. prints. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This box has done good service. Beller. slides and extra brushes. from the bottom of the box. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in.

O. 2). The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. .A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Darke. FIG. tacking the gauze well at the corners. or placed against a wall. -Contributed by C. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. will answer the purpose. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. West Lynn. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. with well packed horse manure. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. holes in the bottom of one. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. costing 5 cents. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. When the ends are turned under. Fill the upper tub. 1). about threefourths full. Mass.

The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. if this is not available. they should be knocked out. oil or other fluid. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. Chicago. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. M. If plugs are found in any of the holes. when they are raised from the pan. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and each bundle contains . After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. --Contributed by L. Eifel. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If the following directions are carried out. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. cutting the cane between the holes. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured.

In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as it must be removed again. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. 1. then across and down. No plugs . after having been pulled tight. put about 3 or 4 in. held there by inserting another plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. In addition to the cane. a square pointed wedge. and. it should be held by a plug. as shown in Fig.

42° is 4. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. It consists of a flat circular table.15 in. we have 4. W. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. If handled with a little care. called the gnomon. Detroit. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. and for lat. is the base (5 in. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as the height of the line BC for lat.= 4. -Contributed by E. is the horizontal dial. 1. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. using the same holes as for the first layer. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 41°-30'. but the most common. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. R. trim off the surplus rosin. Even with this lubrication. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. From table No. 1. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 4. and for 1° it would be . the next smallest. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Patrick. as it always equals the latitude of the place. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. lat.075 in. Their difference is . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 5 in. No weaving has been done up to this time.075 in. When cool. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.3 in.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 5. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. 1. 3. for 2°. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. or the style. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. as shown in Fig.5 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. as for example. D. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. Michigan. the height of which is taken from table No. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. During the weaving. 41 °-30'. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. After completing the second layer.2+. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. This will make three layers.42 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin.15+. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. in this case) times the . The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. the height of the line BC. There are several different designs of sundials. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The style or gnomon. Fig. 40°. 3. 1 lat.2 in. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. stretch the third one. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. If you have a table of natural functions. All added to the lesser or 40°. it is 4.

66 48° 5.40 1. Its thickness.26 4.66 1.42 45 .50 26° 2.00 40° 4.30 1.82 5.46 .59 2.39 .99 2.94 1.30 2.91 58° 8. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. 2.12 52° 6.16 1.02 1.77 2.44 44° 4. Table NO. .38 .55 46° 5. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.03 3.55 30° 2.33 .19 1. 2 for given latitudes. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. and intersecting the semicircles.10 6.42 .76 1. Chords in inches for a 10 in.49 30 .63 56° 7.97 5 7 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.tangent of the degree of latitude.06 2. with a radius of 5 in. and for this size dial (10 in.89 50° 5.40 34° 3. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.11 3.49 3. and perpendicular to the base or style.28 .37 5.57 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. circle Sundial. For latitudes not given.32 6.87 1.81 4. gives the 6 o'clock points. 1.14 5.20 60° 8. Draw the line AD.85 35 .66 latitude.55 5. if of metal.41 38° 3.87 4.56 . or if of stone. which will represent the base in length and thickness. base. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.37 54° 6.82 3.23 6.85 1. To layout the hour circle. long. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.96 32° 3. according to the size of the dial.18 28° 2. an inch or two.27 2. 2.93 2. Draw two semi-circles.57 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.29 4-30 7-30 3.79 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.83 27° 2.64 4 8 3. Fig.42 1.07 4.82 2.55 4.88 36° 3.16 40 .68 5-30 6-30 5. using the points A and C as centers. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.33 42° 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.93 6.46 3. or more.

it will be faster. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. --Contributed by J. As they are the genuine reproductions.89 3.08 1. after allowing for the declination. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.means that the dial is faster than the sun. and for the difference between standard and local time. and the . each article can be labelled with the name. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .98 4.06 2.77 3. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.12 5.49 5..71 2.21 2.50 55 . which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Iowa. if west. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.46 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. will enable one to set the dial.14 1. adding to each piece interest and value.add those marked + subtract those Marked .63 1. 2 and Dec.93 6. Each weapon is cut from wood.68 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.52 Table No.79 6. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.54 60 . An ordinary compass. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.46 4.57 1.49 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The + means that the clock is faster.19 2.60 4.37 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. E.34 5. Sioux City.10 4. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. June 15. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. London. Sun time to local mean time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 900 Chicago. 3.30 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. 3. 25. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.01 1.72 5.53 1. April 16. Mitchell.87 6. says the English Mechanic. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.82 3.24 5.from Sundial lime.50 . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. then the watch is slower. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Sept.

Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. When putting on the tinfoil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. the length of which is about 5 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. .. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Partisan. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 1. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.

sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. long.. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. about 4 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This weapon is about 6 ft. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. which are a part of the axe. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. used about the seventeenth century. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. press it well into the carved depressions. sharp on the outer edges. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. It is about 6 ft. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. in diameter. is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear is steel. A gisarm or glaive. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The length of this bar is about 5 in. long with a round staff or handle. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 6 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round wooden handle. long. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in.which is square. The extreme length is 9 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. 8. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. 7. . A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. 5. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The edges are sharp.

This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. the cross cords. or in holes punched in a leather strap. are put in place. B. 1. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. In Figs. The twisted cross cords should . Workman. They can be made of various materials. Cut all the cords the same length. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Loudonville. 2 and 3. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. as shown in Fig. H. Substances such as straw. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. apart. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This is important to secure neatness. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 5. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Ohio. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 4. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. are less durable and will quickly show wear. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. the most durable being bamboo.

A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail.be of such material. 3 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. A slit was cut in the bottom. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. bamboo or rolled paper. below the top to within 1/4 in. of the bottom. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. wide. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. in which was placed a piece of glass. New Orleans. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Four V-shaped notches were cut. shaped as shown at C. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New York. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. To remedy this. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. This was turned over the top of the other can. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. as shown at B. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Harrer. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The first design shown is for using bamboo.

plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Ill. Shay. turned over but not fastened. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This plank. --Contributed by W. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Cal. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. N. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Pasadena. do not throw away the gloves. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Newburgh. and two along the side for attaching the staff. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Sanford. is shown in the accompanying sketch. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Y. --Contributed by Chas. the brass is loosened from the block. This should be done gradually. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Schaffner. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Joseph H. about 1/16 in.tape from sticking to the carpet. wide. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. After this is finished. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Maywood. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. H. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch.

K. --E. the pendulum swings . bent as shown. Ill.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. Unlike most clocks. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. in diameter. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. -Contributed by W. Oak Park. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Cal. A. Jaquythe. Marshall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.

away. Two uprights. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. B. A. thick. on the board B. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. bearing on the latter. the center one being 2-3/4 in. wide. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. only have the opposite side up. 5/16 in. Secure a board. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Metzech. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. in diameter. high. high. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. 3/4 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. to the first one with screws or glue. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. wide that is perfectly flat. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. 7-1/2 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. is an electromagnet. by 1-5/16 in. . Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Chicago. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. about 12 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. long and at each side of this. The construction is very simple. such as this one. says the Scientific American. C. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. In using this method.. --Contributed by V. about 6 in. are secured in the base bar. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. 6 in. Now place the board to be joined. high and 1/4 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Fasten another board. bar.

A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. --Contributed by Elmer A. The trigger. 1. plates should be made 8 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. wide and 5 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. or more. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Vanderslice. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Phoenixville. 1. by driving a pin through the wood. 4. wide and 1 in. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. from one end. 2. long. Pa. 3. as shown at A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. . square inside. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. square. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.

Simonis. -Contributed by J. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.A. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Fostoria. if only two bands are put in the . square. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. which allows 1/4 in. by weight. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. one-half the length of the side pieces. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. as shown in the illustration. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 5 parts of black filler. 2 parts of whiting. Ohio.

It must be kept moist and well . The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A double convex lens. Michigan. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. In use. as shown in Fig. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. 1. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. No. wide and about 1 ft. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. place tracing paper on its surface. and the picture can be drawn as described. If a plain glass is used. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. keeps the strong light out when sketching. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. says the English Mechanic. G. In constructing helmets. Grand Rapids. and it may be made as a model or full sized. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. A mirror. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Dartmouth. Shaw. II. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. -Contributed by Abner B. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 8 in. --Contributed by Thos. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. DeLoof. is necessary. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. long. which may be either of ground or plain glass. deep. in the opposite end of the box. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. A piece of metal. Mass. preferably copper. London. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass.lower strings. is set at an angle of 45 deg.

3. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. joined closely together.kneaded. and the deft use of the fingers. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. on which to place the clay. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The clay. brown. This being done. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. After the clay model is finished. All being ready. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and over the crest on top. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 1. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 1. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. take. as shown in Fig. 2. with a keyhole saw. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. Scraps of thin. will be necessary. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and left over night to soak. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. shown in Fig. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. as in bas-relief. or some thin glue. a few clay-modeling tools.

In Fig. with the exception of the vizor. a crest on top. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. In Fig. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. as shown: in the design. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. When the helmet is off the model. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and so on. the skullcap. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. or. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. When perfectly dry. will make it look neat. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 5. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. Indianapolis. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . then another coating of glue. The band is decorated with brass studs. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. the piecing could not be detected. The center of the ear guards are perforated. a few lines running down. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. owing to the clay being oiled. They are all covered with tinfoil.as possible. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. square in shape. one for each side. This contrivance should be made of wood. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The whole helmet. Indiana. should be modeled and made in one piece. Before taking it off the model. which should be no difficult matter. and the ear guards in two pieces. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. When dry. 7. 9.

as shown in Fig. of No. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 4 lb. long. E and F. above the collar. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. If asbestos is used. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 1. the holes leading to the switch. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. long. 3 in. one glass tube. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. two ordinary binding posts. which can be bought from a local druggist. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. or. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4. 22 gauge resistance wire. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. and two large 3in. 1. when they are placed in opposite positions. as it stands a higher temperature. if the measurements are correct. 4. thick. 1. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. Fig. Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. and. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. AA. AA. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. German-silver wire is better. 1. FF. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 4. This will allow the plate. 2. should extend about 1/4 in. 2. with slits cut for the wires. 12 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. are allowed to project about 1 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. Fig. about 80 ft. 1 in. Fig. is then packed down inside the collar. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . each 4-1/2 in. of mineral wool. of the top. If a neat appearance is desired. screws. AA. Fig. as shown in Fig. about 1/4 in. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. one small switch. one oblong piece of wood. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 4. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. until it is within 1 in. Fig. high. Fig. JJ. for connections. the fuse block. 2. to receive screws for holding it to the base. is shown in Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The mineral wool. The plate. This will make an open space between the plates. 4. wide and 15 in. Fig. 1. about 1 lb. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. thick sheet asbestos. 1. also the switch B and the fuse block C. if this cannot be obtained. 4. The reverse side of the base. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. and C. GG. long. of fire clay. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. one fuse block. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. in diameter and 9 in. as shown in Fig.same size. A round collar of galvanized iron. 3. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The two holes.

is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. causing a short circuit.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. When this is done. Next. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. If this is the case. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. This completes the stove. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. KK. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. steam will form when the current is applied. will slip and come in contact with each other. If it is not thoroughly dry. allowing a space between each turn. Fig. H. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. While the clay is damp. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. 2. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Catherines. Jaquythe. 4. when heated. Cal. as the turns of the wires. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. St. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. deep. using care not to get it too wet. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. When the tile is in place. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. It should not be set on end. II. It should not be left heated in this condition. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Cnonyn. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. A. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Cover over about 1 in. Cut a 1/2-in. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Can. when cool. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Fig. Richmond. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. A file can be used to remove any rough places. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. more wire should be added. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. so that the circuit will not become broken. --Contributed by W. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. then. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. it leaves a gate for the metal. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. --Contributed by R. This point marks the proper length to cut it. apart. above the rim. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The clay. and pressed into it. As these connections cannot be soldered.

Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. as shown. is large enough. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. the pie will be damaged." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the frame set near a window. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. --Contributed by Andrew G. says the Photographic Times. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the prints will dry rapidly. Ky. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. constructed of 3/4-in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Louisville. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. square material in any size. Thorne. but 12 by 24 in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time.

The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. in diameter and about 4 in. high. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. An offset is bent in the center. which gives the shaft a half turn. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 1. 3. -Contributed by S. long. as shown. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The connections are made as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. high. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. for the crank. 2. 1. which are fastened to the base. 1/2 in. thick. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. long. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 4 in. each 1/2 in. wide and 7 in. W. The upright B. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. long. Herron. 22 gauge magnet wire. As the shaft revolves.Paper Funnel point. open out. wide. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. wide and 3 in. Le Mars. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. each 1 in. at GG. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 2-1/2 in. The driving arm D. Fig. 1 and 3. 1/2 in. thick and 3 in. The connecting rod E. 14 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The board can be raised to place . causing a break in the current. allowing each end to project for connections. Two supports. Fig. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Iowa. A 1/8-in. 1. 1. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. in diameter. thereby saving time and washing. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. high. Figs. Fig. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. slip on two cardboard washers. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt.

Place the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. making a framework suitable for a roost. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Stecher. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. as shown in the sketch. bottom side up. Dorchester. One or more pots may be used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. on a board. In designing the roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. in height. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. .the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Mass. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. --Contributed by William F. 3 in.

A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. that it is heated. in diameter. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. preferably. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. adopt the method described. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Fig. shelves. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. ordinary glue. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. F. The materials required are rope or. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. etc. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. without any corresponding benefit... it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. odd corners. if it is other than straight lines. will produce the pattern desired. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. paraffin and paint or varnish. The bottom part of the sketch. windows. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. 1. Wind the . using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. as shown in Fig. grills and gratings for doors. F. and give it time to dry. when combined.

Lockport. Harrer. Y. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . -Contributed by Geo. Fig.Fig. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. M. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. 2. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. N. cut and glue them together.

. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. As the .. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which was used in front of a horse's head. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. etc. but no farther. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. 1. will be retained by the cotton. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust.

In Fig. 8. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. which can be made in any size. the same as in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. and will require less clay. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 2. This can be made in one piece. except the thumb and fingers. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This being done. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. the rougher the better. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as shown in the sketch. then another coat of glue. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. but for . A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. with the exception of the thumb shield. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as the surface will hold the clay. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This will make the model light and easy to move around. An arrangement is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. and the clay model oiled. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which is separate. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 4. The armor is now removed from the model. All being ready. This triangularshaped support. but the back is not necessary. 2. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. and therefore it is not described. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet.

N. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A piece of board. --Contributed by Ralph L. running down the plate. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. . If it does not hold a charge. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. 2. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. and the instrument is ready for use. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. the two pieces of foil will draw together. fastened to the rod. are glued to it. each about 1/4 in. 1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. in depth. cut into the shape shown in Fig. long. two in each jaw. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Fasten a polished brass ball to. wide and 1/2 in. Goshen. the foils will not move. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Calif. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. The two pieces of foil. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. 9. Y. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. are better shown in Fig. the top of the rod. Buxton. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. --Contributed by John G. La Rue. will be about right. but 3-1/2 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Redondo Beach.

such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. long. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Texas. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. enameled or otherwise decorated. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. about 15 in. M. Corsicana. as this will cut under the water without splashing. as shown in the illustration. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. At a point 6 in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. is made of a 1/4-in. pine board. silvered. 2-1/2 in. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. hole bored through it. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Bryan. from the smaller end. A. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. When a fish is hooked. as indicated in the . the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.

The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. will do as well as the more expensive woods. or even pine. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. If soft wood. take a piece of thin wood. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Next prepare the metal holder. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Polish the metal. punch the holes. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. thick. 22 is plenty heavy enough. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. When it has dried over night. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Basswood or butternut. using powdered pumice and lye. and trace upon it the design and outline. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. long over all. wide by 6 in. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. then with a nail." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Having completed the drawing.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Any kind of wood will do. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. using a piece of carbon paper. as shown. such as basswood or pine was used. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. A good size is 5 in.

with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Two wire nails. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. 1/2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. of pure olive oil.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. are used for the cores of the magnets. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. is used for the base of this instrument. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. each 1 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. . --Contributed by W. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Cal. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. the whole being finished in linseed oil. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. can be made on the same standards. If carving is contemplated. 2 in. If one has some insight in carving. long. wide and 5 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Richmond. long. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Jaquythe. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. A. thick. It is useful for photographers. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state.

The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. as shown by the dotted lines. London. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. then covered with red. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A piece of tin. A rubber band. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. about No. Lynas. as shown in Fig. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. All of the parts for the armor have been described. H. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. 25 gauge. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. 3. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. except that for the legs. About 1 in. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. in the shape shown in the sketch. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. when the key is pushed down. . at A. --Contributed by W. says the English Mechanic. the paper covering put on. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open. cloth or baize to represent the legs. 1. leaving about 1/4 in. similar to that used in electric bells. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. cut in the shape of the letter T.

hole in the center. In one end of the piece. about 1 in.. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. not too tight. A 1/4-in. can be made in a few minutes' time. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. apart. in the other end. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. apart. flat headed carriage bolt. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. By moving the position of the bolt from. The two pieces are bolted together. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Secure two strips of wood. Cut them to a length or 40 in. holes. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Instead of using brass headed nails. completes the equipment. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. says Camera Craft. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 3 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. make the same series of eight small holes and. drill six 1/4-in. Fig. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. 2. Take the piece shown in Fig. and eight small holes. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 1 and drill a 1/4in. one to another . Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. or ordinary plaster laths will do. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Silver paper will do very well.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. These can be purchased at a stationery store. at each end. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. long. for the sake of lightness. So set up. 1 in.

allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. in Fig. and the one beneath C. A round fob is made in a similar way. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 1. the one marked A. for instance. 2. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. long. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Then draw all four ends up snugly. C over D and B. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. of the ends remain unwoven. In this sketch.of the larger holes in the strip. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. as in portraiture and the like. D over A and C. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. Then take B and lay it over A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. but instead of reversing . leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 4. Start with one end. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. lay Cover B and the one under D. Fig.

It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . A loop. is to be made of leather. is left out at the center before starting on one side. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as B. as at A in Fig. always lap one string. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Monroeville. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by John P. 3. especially if silk strings are used. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as in making the square fob. the design of which is shown herewith. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. 5. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Rupp. Ohio. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. over the one to its right. long. The round fob is shown in Fig.

This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. When the supply of wax is exhausted. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Houghton. filling them with wax. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. such as a nut pick. Any smooth piece of steel. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. beeswax or paraffin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. using the reverse side. it can be easily renewed. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. door facing or door panel. pressing it against the wood. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Mich. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Northville. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. . -Contributed by A. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

Enough plaster should. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. N. place it face down in the dish. Fold together on lines C. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Y. those on matte paper will work best. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. says Photographic Times. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. D. Petersburg. and after wetting. and about 12 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. New York. apart and driven in only part way. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. it is best to leave a plain white margin. thick. Select the print you wish to mount. . The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. --Contributed by O. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Ill. but any kind that will not stick may be used. if blueprints are used. remaining above the surface of the board. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. J. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. long. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. E and F. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. leaving about 1/4 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Thompson. although tin ones can be used with good success. The tacks should be about 1 in. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted.

. without mixing the solutions. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. violets. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. will be rendered perfectly white. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. filling the same about onehalf full. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire. bell flowers. as shown at the left in the sketch. etc. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. One of the . roses.

shading. 1. 2. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The tin horn can be easily made. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The first point should be ground blunt. as shown. turned a little tapering. L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. not too tightly. 3. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. long. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. about 1/8s in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. as shown in the sketch. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. South Dakota. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. thick. is about 2-1/2 in. When soldering these parts together. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Millstown. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Fig. and at the larger end. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The sound box. but which will not wobble loose. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. or delicate tints of the egg.. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. Shabino. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. --Contributed by L. The diaphragm. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. in diameter and 1 in. should be soldered to the box. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A rod that will fit the brass tube. 1-7/8 in. long and made of wood. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. made of heavy tin.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in.

while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Victor. and weighted it with a heavy stone. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.Contributed by E. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Ill. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Gold. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Colo. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. mice in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. E. Jr. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and. put a board on top. Chicago. wondering what it was.

The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Pereira. N. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Y. Ottawa. . with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.

Cal. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. above the end of the dasher. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as shown. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. A. Richmond. as it can be made quickly in any size. and at one end of the stick fasten. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. by means of a flatheaded tack. Put a small nail 2 in. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. through which several holes have been punched. Grand Rapids.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. cut round. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. longer than the length of the can. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. This cart has no axle. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Mich. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. De Loof. --Contributed by Thos. a piece of tin.

wide and 1/8 in. Notches 1/8 in. of course. wide and as long as the box. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. New Orleans. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. --Contributed by James M. 2. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. thick.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1. apart. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 2 in.1. were below the level of the bullseye. board. A wedge-shaped piece of . Pa. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Kane. The baseboard and top are separable. La. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Doylestown. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. wide and 3 ft. long. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. as shown. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1 ft. 1/4 in. deep and 3 in. Fig. I reversed a door gong. 1-1/2 in. 2. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The candles. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide.

wide rubber bands or felt. After completing the handle. to prevent its scratching the desk top. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf.Book Back Holders metal. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. by cutting away the ends. will. Cover the block with rubber. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Worcester. take two pieces of hard wood. the reason being that if both were solid. --Contributed by G. stone or wood. can be picked up without any trouble. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. 3. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Wood. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. This device is very convenient for invalids. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Ia. Mass. When not in use. For the handle. 1. etc. when placed as in Fig. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. as shown in Fig. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. wide into each side of the casing. the blade is put back into the groove .. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. scissors. it can be removed without marring the casing. A. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. West Union. dressing one surface of each piece. After the glue has dried. Needles.

Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. -Contributed by W. Each one is made of a hardwood block. thus carrying the car up the incline. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. A notch is cut in one side. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Ohio. . Malden. --Contributed by H. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. as shown in Fig. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Hutchins. 1 in. 2. square and 4 in. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Erie. Mass. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. as shown in Fig. S. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop.and sharpened to a cutting edge. is shown in the accompanying sketch. If desired. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Pa. long. 1. A. Jacobs. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Cleveland.

N. . and an awl and hammer. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. If one such as is shown is to be used.J. This will insure having all parts alike. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. The letters can be put on afterward. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. a board on which to work it. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. Prepare a design for the front. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.

will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Remove the metal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. behind or through the center of a table leg. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. 1/4 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. So impressive are the results. 3/4 part. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. placed on a table. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. as shown. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. varnish. 1 part. but weird and distant. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The music will not sound natural. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. in the waste metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. only the marginal line is to be pierced. turpentine. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. to right angles. If any polishing is required. mandolin or guitar. 2 parts white vitriol. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin." In all appearance. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. One coat will do. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. if desired. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. . a violin. The stick may be placed by the side of. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. or. says Master Painter. paste the paper design right on the metal. applied by means of a brush. flat brush. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. which is desirable. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick.Fasten the metal to the board. On the back. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing.

Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. says Work. wide. With proper tools this is easy. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. round-head machine screws. are shaped as shown in Fig. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. each 28 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. London. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Two pairs of feet. it might be difficult. long and spread about 8 in. square bar iron. long. each 6 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. without them. long and measuring 26 in. across the top. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. 2. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. .The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. thick by 1/2 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The longest piece. 3. apart. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. and is easy to construct.

Place the corner piece of glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. C. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. better still. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. special flux purchased for this purpose. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The design is formed in the lead. as shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. lead. After the joints are soldered. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. After the glass is cut. in the grooves of the borders. and the base border. D. The glass. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. 4. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. While the piece of lead D. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. on it as shown. 5. Fig. 7. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. B. cut a long piece of lead. is held by the brads. the latter being tapped to . The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. 6. The brads are then removed. A. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. or. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig.

long. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. long. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. bolt. plank about 12 ft. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in.. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. N. Bore a 3/4-in. 8.the base of the clip. A and B. Camden. not less than 4 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. H. one on each side and central with the hole. Dreier. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. wood screws in each washer. square and of the length given in the drawing. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Make three washers 3-in. then flatten its end on the under side. This ring can be made of 1-in. and two wood blocks. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Bore a 5/8-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Two styles of hand holds are shown. then drill a 3/4-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Jr. and round the corners of one end for a ring. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. This . plates. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. J. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. holes through their centers. in diameter and 1/4 in. The center pin is 3/4-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. rocker bolt. rounded at the top as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. thick and drill 3/4-in. Secure a post. long. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. as shown in Fig.

4 in. 4 in. chestnut or ash. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 2 by 4 in. long. 3/4 by 3 in. The four 7-in. 3 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. horse and rings. 4 pieces. 4 filler pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. by 2 ft. by 6-1/2 ft. To substitute small. long. 2-1/2 in. hickory. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 1/2 in. square by 5 ft. long. 1 by 7 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. screws. long. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 9 in. because it will not stand the weather. shanks. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 50 ft. from one edge. 1. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. by 3 ft. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. bolts and rope. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. can make a first class gymnasium. and some one can swing an axe. long and 1 piece. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. 16 screws. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. bit. apart for a distance of 3 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. maple. Draw a line on the four 7-in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. in diameter and 7 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 7 in. If trees are convenient. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 pieces. straight-grained hickory. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1-1/4in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. of 1/4-in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. New Orleans. La. long.will make an excellent cover for a pot.

Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted.. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. at each end. apart. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. boards coincide. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. deep and remove all loose dirt. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.bored. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. each 3 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. 8 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. so the 1/2-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. from the end. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. 2. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Bore a 9/16-in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. apart. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. piece of wood. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft.

not even the tumbler. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. it follows the edge for about 1 in. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. . passing through a screweye at either end. He stretched the thread between two buildings. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. which at once gathered. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. was at its height. it is taken to the edge of the foot. in an endless belt. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. and then passes in a curve across the base. disappearing only to reappear again. about 100 ft.. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. When the interest of the crowd. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. but most deceptive at dusk.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. W. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance." which skimmed along the distant horizon. the effect is very striking. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and materially heightened the illusion. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. just visible against the dark evening sky. and ascends the stem. apart. not much to look at in daytime. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. If the tumbler is rotated. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. And all he used was a black thread. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others.

to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. beginning at a point 9 in. 4 wood screws. long. 8 bolts. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 base pieces. New Orleans. long. long and 1 doz. by 3 ft. long. by 10 ft. from either side of the center. 2 side braces. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 bolts.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 7 ft. 8 in. wide and 1 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 cross braces. large spikes. long. 6 in. La. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. The cork will come out easily. and turned in a spiral D. so the point will be on top. 2 by 3 in. To make the apparatus. 4 knee braces. deep. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. preferably cedar. 4 in. square and 51/2 ft. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. 2 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. square and 6 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. 2 by 4 in. long. 1. Bevel the ends of . long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 4 in. A wire about No. 7 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fig. by 2 ft.

Jaquythe. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Richmond. leaving the strainer always in position. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet.. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. jellies. --Contributed by W. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. ( To be Continued. equipped with a strainer.the knee braces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. If using mill-cut lumber. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. using four of the 7-in bolts. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. but even unpainted they are very durable. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Cal. Two endpieces must be made. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. as shown in the diagram. screws. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. additional long. The wood so treated will last for years. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. leave it undressed. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. . and countersinking the heads. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. A large sized ladle. These will allow the ladle to be turned. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. which face each other. save the bars. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A. etc. except the bars. of 7 ft. After the trenches are dug. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves.

. In order to accomplish this experiment. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. milling machine. partly a barrier for jumps. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. A. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. of sufficient 1ength. or various cutting compounds of oil. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. drill press or planer. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. which seems impossible. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.

long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 1 in. by 3 ft. bolts. apart in a central position on the horse. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. square by 5 ft. bolt. long. by 3 ft. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4 in. but 5 ft. 4-1/2 in. bolts. 2 by 4 in. and free from knots. Hand holds must be provided next. piece of 2 by 4-in. by 3 ft. 4 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. two 1/2-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . square by 5-1/2 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds.. ten 1/2-in. from each end. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. apart. in diameter--the larger the better. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 1 cross brace. in the ground. long. 2 bases. wood yard or from the woods. 2 adjusting pieces. These are well nailed in place. projections and splinters. Procure from a saw mill. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts.. 3 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. 2 by 4 in. bolts. 2 by 4 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. stud cut rounding on one edge. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 7 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long. is a good length. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. These are placed 18 in. To construct. The round part of this log must be planed. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in.

and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. snow. no one is responsible but himself. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Such a hand sled can be made in a . A. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Also. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Cal. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. then bending to the shape desired. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. etc. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Richmond. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Jaquythe. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. it is caused by an overloaded shell.--Contributed by W. it is caused by some obstruction. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. pipe and fittings. such as a dent. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. water.horse top. over and around. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. but nevertheless. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.

thick. when straightened out. in width and 1/32 in. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. is much better than a wood sled. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. when complete. Mass. Toronto. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 1. Paris. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. . Boston. at E and F. 1/4 or 3/16 in. will give the length. These. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by Arthur E. Ontario. which. The end elevation. W. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. then run a string over each part. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Vener. France. --Contributed by James E. Noble. --Contributed by J. Joerin. 2. are all the tools necessary.

After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The method shown in Figs. . Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 4. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. 3.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. AA and BB. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. It is best to use soft water. are nailed. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat.

Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. . 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 1). or various rulings may be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 3. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 8 and 9. 4. 2.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. or unequal widths as in Fig. The materials used are: backbone. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Broad lines can be made. class ice-yacht.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

Both the lower . The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. bent and drilled as shown. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. It can be made longer or shorter. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. about 30 in. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. long. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a tee and a forging. pins to keep them from turning. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.Fig. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. but if it is made much longer. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pipe. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. out from the collar. The headstock is made of two tees. a larger size of pipe should be used.

thick as desired. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and will answer for a great variety of work. 3/4 or 1 in. It is about 1 in. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. UpDeGraff. 2. Laporte. 2. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. --Contributed by M. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Fruitvale.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. as shown in Fig. Cal. Man. Boissevain. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Indiana. a corresponding line made on this. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 2. but also their insulating properties. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. W. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. --Contributed by W. To do this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. or a key can be used as well. --Contributed by W. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. else taper turning will result. as shown in Fig. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. M. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 1. Held. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Musgrove. a straight line should be scratched Fig. .

Ark. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Smith. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Cline. To obviate this. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Ft. J.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. In use. long. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. --Contributed by E. as shown. The handle is of pine about 18 in. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates.

La. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. the drill does not need the tool. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Denver. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. --Contributed by Walter W. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. face off the end of the piece. After being entered. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. White. if this method is followed: First. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This prevents the drill from wobbling. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. on starting the lathe. Colo. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. and when once in true up to its size. centering is just one operation too many. New Orleans. take . Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. which should be backed out of contact.

the cap is placed over the paper tube.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. after being shown empty. shorter t h a n the wand. The glass tube B. and this given to someone to hold. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. says the Sphinx. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. by applying caustic soda or . Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shown at C. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. vanishing wand. unknown to the spectators. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and can be varied to suit the performer. In doing this. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. as shown in D. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a bout 1/2 in. a long piece of glass tubing. The handkerchief rod. After the wand is removed. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. is put into the paper tube A.

across the front and back to strengthen them. 3/16. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1/4 in. 1 End. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. With care and patience. 2 Sides. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. As the cement softens. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets.potash around the edges of the letters. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. long. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. as shown by K. cut to any shape desired. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1. This dimension and those for the frets . and glue it to the neck at F. 1 Bottom. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1 Neck. Cut a piece of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The brace at D is 1 in. can be made by the home mechanic. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue strips of soft wood. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. by 14 by 17 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Glue the neck to the box. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. with the back side rounding. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. thick. square and 1-7/8 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. End. The sides. the finished instrument will have a fine tone.

are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. --Contributed by Chas. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. in diameter. wide and 11-1/2 ft. 3/16 in. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.Pa. -Contributed by J. and beveled . E. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Carbondale. long is used for a keel. O. toward each end. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Frary. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Six holes. A board 1 in. but it is not. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. 1) on which to stretch the paper. H. Stoddard. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Norwalk. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. When it is completed you will have a canoe. or backbone. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. thick and about 1 ft.should be made accurately. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.

13 in. C. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. and so. are next put in. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. b. such as is used for making chairbottoms. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in.) in notches. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 3). will answer nearly as well. by means of a string or wire. 3. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. in such cases. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. 4). and. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Green wood is preferable. C. with long stout screws. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. For the gunwales (a. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. such as hazel or birch. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. the loose strips of ash (b. Fig. 1. b. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. probably. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. or similar material. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. as they are apt to do. a. two strips of wood (b. In drying. These are better. B. Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. apart. buy some split cane or rattan. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 3). The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. procure at a carriage factory. as shown in Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. slender switches of osier willow. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. The ribs. 2). which are easily made of long. 4. thick. as before described. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. b. 3. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fig. when made of green elm.. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and are not fastened. 1 and 2. but before doing this. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. two twigs may be used to make one rib. long. Any tough. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 2. . thick. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. long are required. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3/8 in. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. or other place. Osiers probably make the best ribs. some tight strips of ash. Fig. as shown in Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 2). wide by 26 in. The cross-boards (B.

The paper is then trimmed.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. It should be smooth on the surface. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. If the paper be 1 yd. however. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. and light oars. You may put in . For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. if it has been properly constructed of good material. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. after wetting it. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Being made in long rolls. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. of very strong wrapping-paper. It should be drawn tight along the edges. wide. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. When the paper is dry. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. B. 5). it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Fig. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. preferably iron. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. tacking it to the bottom-board. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. but with less turpentine. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then take some of the split rattan and. and steady in the water. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. If not. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and very tough. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. When thoroughly dry. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. and held in place by means of small clamps.

fore and aft. Fig. to fit it easily. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. and make a movable seat (A. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Fig. 5). Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . 1. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. We procured a box and made a frame. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Drive the lower nail first. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.

Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. being softer where the flame has been applied. A good way to handle this work. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Pa. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Close the other end with the same operation. 5. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the result is. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. 4. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. this makes the tube airtight. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. This is an easy . This way has its drawbacks. and the glass. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat.Fig. Pittsburg. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. 3.

with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. three. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Seventh. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Give the metal a circular motion. with a piece of carbon paper. After the bulb is formed. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . fifth. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fourth. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Sixth. above the work and striking it with the hammer. very rapid progress can be made. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. third. flat and round-nosed pliers. four. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. or six arms. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. extra metal all around. file. above the metal. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. also trace the decorative design. rivet punch. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. thin screw. metal shears. then reverse. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 23 gauge. The candle holders may have two.way to make a thermometer tube. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. second. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Oswald. -Contributed by A. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Small copper rivets are used. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Having pierced the bracket. and holder. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .

Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I steer with the front wheel. using a steel pen. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. when it will be ready for use. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Shiloh. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. N. The gaff. and brace and bit were the tools used. Fifty. if it has not absorbed too much ink. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and in a week . Heat 6-1/2 oz. The boom. smooth it down and then remove as before. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. deep. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Mother let me have a sheet. glycerine 4 parts. alcohol 2 parts. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. all the rest I found. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. is a broomstick. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. A saw. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and other things as they were needed. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. hammer. on a water bath. except they had wheels instead of runners. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and it will be ready for future use. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Twenty cents was all I spent. thus it was utilized. and add the gelatine. and water 24 parts. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. F. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. winding the ends where they came together with wire. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. sugar 1 part. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Soak 1 oz. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. the stick at the bottom of the sail. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. J.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .

A table. Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The board is centered both ways. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 8 in. long. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. 1/2 to 3/4 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. wide and 15 in. wire brads. describe a 9-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. If a small saw is used. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. and the work carefully done. well seasoned pine. but if such a box is not found. 3.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. A and B. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. thick. about 2 ft. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. The slide support. high. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. DD. and. at a point 1 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. and the lens slide. provided the material is of metal. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. or a lens of 12-in. focus enlarging a 3-in. wide. 1. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. slide to about 6 ft. at a distance of 24 ft. above the center. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. as desired. or glue. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and 14 in.. H. This ring is made up from two rings. G. and a projecting lens 2 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. are . E. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A.

-Contributed by G. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Paul.constructed to slip easily on the table. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. light burning oil. Minn. but not long enough. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Small strips of tin. of safe. P. placed on the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. St. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. To reach the water. B. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. A sheet . if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. should the glass happen to upset. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. JJ. the water at once extinguishes the flame. E. and when the right position is found for each. the strips II serving as guides.

by 12 ft. 12 ft. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Schenectady. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. from a tent company. 3 in. Crawford. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 4. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. --Contributed by J. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. I ordered a canvas bag. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. to cover the mattresses. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.H. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Fig. N. Y. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 9 in. 3. 1. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3. 2. Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig..Folding the Paper of paper is first folded.

long. wide. thick. 2. first mark the binding-post A. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. --Contributed by Edward M. so as to form two oblong boxes. Fig. through which the indicator works. V. 1. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. To calibrate the instrument. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Colo. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. to the coil of small wire for volts. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth.each edge. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. Fig. D. as shown in Fig. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 3/4 in. and insert two binding-posts. holes in the edge. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. A Film Washing Trough [331] . to keep it from unwinding. Pa. long and 3/16 in. 2. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 1/2 in. 1/2 in. drill two 3/16 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. White. A rubber band. 2. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Warren. --Contributed by Walter W. 3 to swing freely on the tack. open on the edges. Teasdale. Denver. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fasten the wire with gummed label. insulating them from the case with cardboard. apart. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. in the center coil. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. C. An arc is cut in the paper. Do not use too strong a rubber. Attach a piece of steel rod. 1. for amperes and the other post.

as shown. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Dayton. --Contributed by M. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. O. Wood Burning [331] . M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a 1/4-in. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. with the large hole up. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward.

Whitehouse. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. long. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. If the cork is adjusted properly. wide and 4 in. This will make a very pretty ornament. but not very thick. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Fred W. Ala. If the small bottle used is opaque. thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. 1. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. N. 2. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Place the small bottle in as before. Upper Troy.Y. as shown in the sketch. 3/4 in. Auburn. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. provided the bottle is wide. --Contributed by John Shahan.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers.

long. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. which gave considerable power for its size. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. K. A staple. as shown in Fig. even in a light breeze. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. which was 6 in. 1. were constructed of 1-in. which was nailed to the face plate. The wire L was put . The shaft C. B. thick. 1. pulley F. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Its smaller parts. to the shaft. 1 in. Fig. W. such as blades and pulleys. If a transmitter is used. or ordinary telephone transmitters. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. high without the upper half. which extended to the ground. iron rod. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. pulley. line. thick. in diameter and 1 in. 2 ft. by the method shown in Fig. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Both bearings were made in this manner. Fig. was 1/4in. G. On a 1000-ft. was keyed to shaft C. --Contributed by D. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. wide. Fig. Milter. I. 3. The 21/2-in. 4. thick and 3 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. sugar pine on account of its softness. 2. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Fig.

between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 3 in. long and bend it as shown at A. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. washers were placed under pulley F. long. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The bed plate D. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 1. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The power was put to various uses. To make the key. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. hole for the shaft G was in the center. long and 1/2 in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 1. Fig. was tacked. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. pine 18 by 12 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. cut out another piece of tin (X. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. across the thin edge of a board. in the center of the board P. long and bend it as . Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. apart in the tower. 6. for instance. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. so that the 1/4-in. This board was 12 in. 6. through the latter. top down also. as. Fig. long and 3 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 1) 4 in. 5. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. This fan was made of 1/4-in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. wide and 1 in. with all parts in place. and was cut the shape shown. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 0. in diameter. 25 ft. This completes the receiver or sounder. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. a 1/2-in. strips. hole was bored for it. There a 1/4-in. Fig. To lessen the friction here. If you have no bell. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. long. H. Fig. G. with brass headed furniture tacks. was 2 ft. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The smaller one. 1. The other lid. when the windmill needed oiling. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 2. R. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell.

at the front. When tired of this instrument. Now. although it can be made with but two. after the manner of bicycle wheels. McConnell. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. 1. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. By adjusting the coils. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. leaving the other wire as it is. fitted with paddles as at M. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. as shown at Water. 2. Thus a center drive is made. causing a buzzing sound. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Going back to Fig. like many another device boys make. Before tacking it to the board. and. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle.shown. using cleats to hold the board frame. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The rear barrels are. -Contributed by John R. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. as indicated. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it.

can be built. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which will give any amount of pleasure. or even a little houseboat. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. There is no danger. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. 3. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The speed is slow at first. To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. there will not be much friction. feet on the pedals. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. If the journals thus made are well oiled. 1. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as shown in Fig. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting.

of pleasure for a little work. Fig. If magnifying glass cannot be had. and so creating a false circuit. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 1. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. 1. Shape small blocks of boxwood. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. A. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. C. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Turn a small circle of wood. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 1. 2. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. or it may be put to other uses if desired. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. B. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Place one brass ring in cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. D. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 2.

bell. brass rod. When alarm goes off. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. or 1/4in. brass strip. 4-1/2 in. wire from bell to switch. D. dry batteries. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. To operate this. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. To throw on light throw levers to the left. copper tubing. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. and pulled tight. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. by having the switch on the baseboard. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. I. Brinkerhoff. thick. B. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. bracket. --Contributed by Geo. Chatland. G. after setting alarm. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. 3/8 in. wide and 1/16 in. which stops bell ringing. shelf.. C. Throw lever off from the right to center. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. contact post. J. E. Pa. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. --Contributed by C. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. if too small. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. F. while lying in bed. long. key of alarm clock. Ogden. after two turns have been made on the key. 4 in. H. wire from batteries to switch. Swissvale. near the bed.india rubber tubing. C. Utah. such as is used for cycle valves. The parts indicated are as follows: A. In placing clock on shelf. some glue will secure them. X. set alarm key as shown in diagram. S. T. wire from light to switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . switch. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. long.

as in Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. wide. 2. being careful not to get the sand in it.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Fig. long. Make a shoulder. a bed warmer. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. about 3-1/2 in. 1. as at A. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Fig. in diameter. which can be made of an old can. as . scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. beyond the end of the spindle. for instance. --Contributed by Chas. This is to form the fuse hole. 1. Having finished this. 3. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Lanesboro. letting it extend 3/4 in. Fig. as at B. Make the spindle as in Fig. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 2. S. 4 in. 1/4 in. All that is required is a tin covering. A flannel bag. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. in diameter. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. from one end. Minn. as at A. making it as true and smooth as possible. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. about 6 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. will do the heating. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Chapman. place stick and all in a pail of sand.

long. 5/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. wide and 6 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. but if this wood cannot be procured.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 3/8 in. 1 in. long. Joerin. thick. wide and 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. wide and 3 ft. A piece of oak. 1. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The illustration shows how this is done. spring and arrows. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 6 in. ash. thick. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. good straight-grained pine will do. --Contributed by Arthur E. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. A piece of tin. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. deep. 11/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. or hickory.

which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Such a temporary safe light may be . A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. To throw the arrow. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 3. --Contributed by O. 8. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. from the opposite end. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. thick. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. place the arrow in the groove. as shown in Fig. from the end of the stock. When the trigger is pulled. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Trownes. it lifts the spring up. better still. Fig. 7. The stick for the bow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 4. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. A spring. Wilmette. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. in diameter. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 9. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Fig. 6. which is 1/4 in. Ill. To shoot the crossbow. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. E. wide at each end. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The trigger. 2. The bow is not fastened in the stock. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. having the latter swing quite freely. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. or through the necessity of. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws.

Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Moreover. respectively. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. it is the easiest camp to make. and nail it in position as shown at A. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. The cut should be about 5 ft. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. C. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. This lamp is safe. since the flame of the candle is above A. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. make the frame of the wigwam. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. says Photo Era. making lighting and trimming convenient. Remove one end. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Remove the bottom of the box. from the ground.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. By chopping the trunk almost through. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. apart. and replace as shown at B. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The hinged cover E. is used as a door. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut.

In the early summer. spruce. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. wide. 3 ft. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and split the tops with an ax. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. long and 2 or 3 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. are a convenient size for camp construction. . and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and when the camp is pitched. and cedar. Where bark is used. piled 2 or 3 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. makes a good pair of tongs. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Sheets of bark. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. For a permanent camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A piece of elm or hickory. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. long. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. selecting a site for a camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. long and 1-1/2 in. will dry flat. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. 6 ft. thick. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. wide and 6 ft. Tongs are very useful in camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. a 2-in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. deep and covered with blankets. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split.

hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

B. Doylestown. deep and 4 in. the interior can. Pa. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. A. 1. wide. B. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. changing the water both morning and night. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Kane. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. and provide a cover or door. to another . and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. --Contributed by James M. Fig. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. about 4 in. I drove a small cork.. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube.

The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. a liquid. The current is thus compelled. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 2. for instance. 3. This makes . As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. for instance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. C. to pass through an increasing resistance. E. 4 and 5). such as ether. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. limit. The diagram. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1.glass tube. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. if necessary. 2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Fig. which project inside and outside of the tube. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. until. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. fused into one side. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted.

Alpena. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. making it 1/16 in. on a lathe. Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. or pattern. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. Michigan. in diameter. After the template is marked out. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. Then the field can be finished to these marks. Before removing the field from the lathe. clamp the template. brass or iron. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. or even 1/16 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. thick. larger than the dimensions given. 3-3/8 in. brass. they will make a frame 3/4 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. 3-3/8 in. cannot be used so often. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. bent at right angles as shown. 3. If the thickness is sufficient. therefore. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. 4-1/2 in. hole is . mark off a space. screws. by turning the lathe with the hand. 1. A. The bearing studs are now made. which will make it uniform in size. and for the outside of the frame. When the frame is finished so far. but merely discolored. two holes. tap. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch. assemble and rivet them solidly. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. thicker. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. drill the four rivet holes. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. when several pieces are placed together.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. thick. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. set at 1/8 in. between centers. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. which may be of any thickness so that. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. 2. Fig. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. A 5/8in. After cleaning them with the solution. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. in diameter. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. to allow for finishing. drill for removing the unnecessary metal.

leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. The shaft of the armature. soldered into place. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. When the bearings are located. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. Fig.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. and build up the solder well. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. is turned up from machine steel. 4. solder them to the supports.

The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. After they . by 1-1/2 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. thick. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. thick. and held with a setscrew.. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. hole and tap it for a pin. 6. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. thick. 3. thick are cut like the pattern. 8. to allow for finishing to size. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. brass rod. as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 7. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. thick and 1/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. sheet fiber. 9. 5. as shown in Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Rivet them together. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. and then they are soaked in warm water. When this is accomplished. as shown m Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. washers. When annealed. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. wide. threaded. Armature-Ring Core. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. wide. 3/4 in. 3. 6. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 1-1/8 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. being formed for the ends. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. holes through them for rivets. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. or segments. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. 3/4 in. deep and 7/16 in. inside diameter.

shown at B. The two ends are joined at B. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. and wind on four layers. or side. by bending the end around one of the projections. 8 in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. thick. The winding is started at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. about 100 ft. In starting to wind. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Fig. being required. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. they are glued to the core insulation. When the glue is set. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in.have dried. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. This winding is for a series motor. The field is wound with No. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. the two ends of the wire. until the 12 slots are filled. Run one end of the field wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. After one coil. of No. wide and 1 in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. long. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. yet it shows a series of . is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. which will take 50 ft. of the end to protrude. shown at A. 1. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. 1. All connections should be securely soldered. The source of current is connected to the terminals. of the wire. 5. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. are soldered together. 6 in. sheet fiber. To connect the wires. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Fig.

Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. and one. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. is fastened to the metallic body. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. one from each of the eight contacts. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. which serves as the ground wire. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. still more simply. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . or. A 1/2-in. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires.

The pointer end of the needle is painted black. board. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Without this attachment. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. 45 deg. It should be .The Wind Vane. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. of the dial. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. thus giving 16 different directions. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Covering these is a thin. long. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. circle. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. 6 in.

Cut 3-in. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. and securely nail on the top of the box. and about 6 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. To work these outlines. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. if not too high. high. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. will be sufficient. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. 14 by 18 in. thus making a universal joint. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Fill the box with any handy ballast. will answer the purpose just as well." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. however. long to give the best results. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. though a special knife. is most satisfactory. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady.about 6 ft. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Buffalo. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. called a chip carving knife. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. also a piece of new carpet. according to who is going to use it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. N. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. making it heavy or light. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Blackmer. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. . -Contributed by James L. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. To make it. will be enough for the two sides. Before tacking the fourth side. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. or. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Place the leather on some level. Y. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. --Contributed by Katharine D. of common salt and 10 lb. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. square and tying a piece of . The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Y. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place.will do if a good stout needle is used. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Morse. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. B. rather than the smooth side. temporary lameness. Syracuse. as in cases of a sprained ankle. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. can be thrown away when no longer needed. a needle and some feathers. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. If a fire breaks out. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of water. away from it. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. or a hip that has been wrenched. N. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch.

The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Ashland. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. This not only keeps the rats out.J. --Contributed by J. etc. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The diaphragm C. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. laying poisoned meat and meal. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind.. N. and tacked it to the boards. There is a 1-in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A small wooden or fiber end. long. but not sharp. setting traps. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. wound on the head end. cut to the length of the spool. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Wis. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The end is filed to an edge. and a coil of wire. letting it go at arm's length. B. 1/8 in. F. The body of the receiver. board all around the bottom on the inside. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. wide and 1/16 in. The strings should be about 15 in. Hellwig. and the receiver is ready for use. which is the essential part of the instrument. commonly called tintype tin. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. high. . The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. Albany. is cut on the wood. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. A.string to each corner. N. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The coil is 1 in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. the corners being wired. made up of four layers of No. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. One end is removed entirely. Gordon Dempsey. long. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. Paterson. deep. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Y. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. as shown. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. --Contributed by John A. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. thus helping the rats to enter. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. E. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. G.

This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The vase is to have three supports. gold. A single line will be sufficient. to . care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. a piece of small wire. and bend each strip in shape. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. To clean small articles. wide. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. better still. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Take a piece of string or. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. begin with the smallest scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.

thus raising it. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. wide when stitching up the purse. 4-1/4 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from C to D.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol.which the supports are fastened with rivets. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. About 1 in.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Trace also the line around the purse. 3-1/4 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. 3-1/2 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. from E to F. sharp pencil. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. . and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. using a duller point of the tool. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.. from the lines EF on the piece. as shown in the sketch. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and does not require coloring. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Press or model down the leather all around the design. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.

with pins or small nails. around the wheel. then place the square piece out of which Fig. deep. long. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. 1/2 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. as well as useful. and cut it out as shown in Fig. all the way around. with the open side down. and which will be very interesting. Fit this to the two . with the largest side down. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. It can be made without the use of a lathe. It is neat and efficient. First. 3. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. following the dotted lines. leaving the lug a. b. and cut out a wheel. square. with a compass saw. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. 1 was cut. Make the lug 1/4 in. and tack the other piece slightly. being cast in wooden molds. then nail it. When it is finished. and. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. This also should be slightly beveled. and the projections B. 2. Then nail the wheel down firmly. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Now take another piece of wood. Cut off six pieces 12 in. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and a model for speed and power. the "open" side. by 12 ft. 1. deep.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. thick. cut out one piece as shown in Fig.

bolts. and boring a 3/8-in. deep. 1. in the center of it. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the . square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now put mold No. and clean all the shavings out of it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. After it is finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. 4. and lay it away to dry. hole entirely through at the same place. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and bore six 1/4-in. slightly beveled. hole bored through its center. hole 1/4 in. Take the mold apart.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. then bolt it together.pieces just finished. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. holes through it.

as shown in illustration. This is for a shaft. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Now cut out one of the 12-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and pour babbitt metal into it. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and pouring metal in to fill it up. place it under the drill. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. true it up with a square. wide and 16 in. d. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and bore three 1/4-in. fasten a 3/8-in. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. instead of the right-handed piece.2. only the one is left-handed. and the exhaust hole in projection b. the other right-handed. in diameter must now be obtained.black dots in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.2. holes. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. 5. lay it on a level place. take an ordinary brace. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.1. and lay it away to dry. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and run in babbitt metal again. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. one in the lug. This will cast a paddle-wheel. see that the bolts are all tight. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This is the same as Fig. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. over the defective part. until it is full. Then bolt the castings together. Put this together in mold No. 6. and drill them in the same manner. A piece of mild steel 5 in. put the top of the brace through this hole. This is mold No. 1. screw down. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. b. long. from the one end. one in the projections. Now take mold No. and 3/8-in. Let it stand for half an hour. place the entire machine in a vise. and drill it entirely through. B. Pour metal into mold No. drill in it. Fig. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. long. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Using the Brace . where the casting did not fill out. and two 1/4-in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and connect to the boiler.1. so that it will turn easily. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and the other in the base. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 4. holes at d. After it is fitted in.

and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. At each end of the 6ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Plan of Ice Boat . and with three small screw holes around the edge. and if instructions have been carefully followed. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. long. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. with a boss and a set screw. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and the other 8 ft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. will do good service. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. while it is running at full speed. one 6 ft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. and. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. piece and at right angles to it. Then take a knife or a chisel. turn the wheel to the shape desired.

as the runners were fastened. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. 1. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. 3. should be of hardwood. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. distant. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long. at the butt and 1 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. This fits in the square hole. in diameter. The spar should be 9 ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. at the top. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . 8 a reef point knot. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. projecting as in Fig. Fig. Make your runners as long as possible. in front of the rudder block. so much the better will be your boat. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. in diameter at the base. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. at the end. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. piece and at right angles to it. To the under side of the 8-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. plank. plank nail 8-in. leaving 1 ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Run the seam on a machine. in diameter in the center. in the top before the skate is put on. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Fig. 1. which may come in handy in heavy winds. where they often did considerable damage. long and 2-1/2 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. and about 8 in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. long. bolt the 8-ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. boards to make the platform. The tiller. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in.

Phoenix. and place it behind a stove. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. and the alarm bell will ring. binding-posts fastening the springs S S.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. Adams. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. small piece of wood. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. to block B. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. P. S S. --Contributed by J. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. block of wood nailed to A. Pa. bent into a hook at each end. The . P. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. --Contributed by John D. The arrangement proved quite too effective. allowing the springs to contact at C. B. Its parts are as follows: A. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. wide. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. so that they come in contact at C. Ariz. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Comstock. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. Mechanicsburg. R.

and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. 6 in. The stump makes the best support. 2. Take the glass. The center pole should be 10 ft. in diameter. 1. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. including the . An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. The seat arms may be any length desired. says the American Boy. high. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in