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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

2 -. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. It is held in this curve until dry. Noble. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. away. To throw a boomerang. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. E. 2. 2.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. wide and 2 ft. long will make six boomerangs. Toronto. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . A piece of plank 12 in. apart.Fig. 1. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. grasp it and hold the same as a club. distant. as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. with the hollow side away from you. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Fig. --Contributed by J. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Ontario. as shown in Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1.

dry snow will not pack easily. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. thick. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. blocks . A wall. A very light. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. forcing it down closely. First. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and it may be necessary to use a little water. high and 4 or 5 in. however. 6 in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. one inside of the circle and the other outside. but about 12 in. the block will drop out. which makes the building simpler and easier. long. made of 6-in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. If the snow is of the right consistency. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. or rather no bottom at all. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and with a movable bottom. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. minus the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work.

2. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. which is about 1 ft. 1. Goodbrod. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. long and 1 in. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. which can be made of wood. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. --Contributed by Geo. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. D. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Union. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. or an old safe dial will do. 1. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. wide. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 2. Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. C. There is no outward thrust. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. above the ground. Ore. It also keeps them out. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 3. is 6 or 8 in. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 3 -. The piece of wood. a.

one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. S.When taking hot dishes from the stove. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. --Contributed by R. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. one pair of special hinges. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Merrill. New York. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. If ordinary butts are used. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Syracuse. the box locked . he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. as the weight always draws them back to place. says the Sphinx. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling.

then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. one for each corner. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. -Contributed by L. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. as shown. Ga. about 1-32 of an inch. With the metal shears. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Fig. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. When the sieve is shaken. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. If they do not. 1. Alberta Norrell. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. If the measuring has been done properly. proceed as follows: First. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. All . When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. smooth surface. 2. on drawing paper. It remains to bend the flaps.and the performer steps out in view. To make a design similar to the one shown. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. draw one-half of it. as shown in Fig. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. allowing each coat time to dry. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Augusta. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 3. Place the piece in a vise. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle.

is fitted tightly in the third hole. about 6 in. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. 25 German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. in diameter. Galbreath. as shown at AA. Colo. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. 25 gauge German-silver wire. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. In boring through rubber corks. B. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. in passing through the lamp. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Denver. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. from the back end. which is about 6 in. of No. A resistance. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. H. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The current. R. long. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. should be in the line. --Contributed by R. When the current is turned off. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. A piece of porcelain tube. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. After this has dried. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. To keep the metal from tarnishing. If a touch of color is desired. and in the positions shown in the sketch. C. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. used for insulation. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The common cork. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. causing it to expand. if rolled under the shoe sole.the edges should be left smooth. heats the strip of German-silver wire. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc.

bottom ring. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. with thin strips of wood. Fig. Kansas City. as shown in Fig. between them as shown in Fig. 3. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 1. 2. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Mo. Purchase two long book straps. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. . Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. leaving a space of 4 in.

The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Pa.. These are shown in Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. --Contributed by Katharine D. When the aeroplane tips. just the right weight for a woman to use. 4. Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. which is the right weight for family use. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Y. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Morse. and one weighing 25 lb.. Fig. --Contributed by James M. in diameter. 3. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. A. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Kane. 1. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. N. and tack smoothly. as . The string is then tied. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Syracuse. are mounted on the outside of the box. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag.An ordinary electric bell. Fig. C. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. long. 1. to form a handle. 2. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and a pocket battery. The folds are made over the string. one weighing 15 lb. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Two strips of brass. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 36 in. Doylestown.

bookracks and shelves can be made with one. --Contributed by Louis J. long.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. four washers and four square nuts. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Day. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Frame Made of a Rod . such as brackets. AA. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bent as shown in Fig. Floral Park. Y. 1. and many fancy knick-knacks. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 2. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. The saw. if once used. two 1/8 -in. N. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. in diameter.

Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Michigan. Rub off the highlights. therefore.may be made of either brass. Apply two coats. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. A. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. If it colors the metal red. allowing each time to dry. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. using a swab and an old stiff brush. as well as brass and copper. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. 1 part sulphuric acid. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. 1 part nitric acid. Of the leathers. File these edges. of water in which dissolve. or silver. the most expensive. Silver is the most desirable but. be covered the same as the back. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. of course. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. --Contributed by W. Scranton. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Watch Fob For coloring silver. green and browns are the most popular. though almost any color may be obtained. as well as the depth of etching desired. use them in place of the outside nuts. The buckle is to be purchased. after breaking up. of water. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. if copper or brass. For etching. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. In the design shown. Detroit. it has the correct strength. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. An Austrian Top [12] . The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. copper. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. treat it with color.. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades.

A 1/16-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. . When the shank is covered. Parts of the Top To spin the top. starting at the bottom and winding upward. The handle is a piece of pine. is formed on one end. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Tholl. allowing only 1-1/4 in. thick. wide and 3/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole. Michigan. hole in this end for the top. pass one end through the 1/16-in.F. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. --Contributed by J. Ypsilanti. A handle. 3/4 in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. long. 5-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. in diameter. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. 1-1/4 in.

to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Alberta Norrell. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Augusta. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. A. Ga. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. For black leathers. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Northville. --A. having no sides. --Contributed by Miss L. tarts or similar pastry. The baking surface. Houghton.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Mich.

The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Mo. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. two turns will remove the jar. When you desire to work by white light. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. glass fruit jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Centralia. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. the eyes forming bearings for the wire.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. then solder cover and socket together. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the same as shown in the illustration. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe.

Wis. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.for loading and development. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 1-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. square by 12 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 16 Horizontal bars. They are fastened. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 4 Vertical pieces. square by 62 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Braces. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. and not tip over. . and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Janesville. so it can be folded up.

the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Rosenthal. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Phillipsburg. after filling the pail with water. --Contributed by Dr. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. H. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. After rounding the ends of the studs. from scrap material. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. If the loop is tied at the proper place. O. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Cincinnati. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The whole. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. New York. and a loop made in the end. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The front can be covered . C. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water.

sickly one. by all rules of the game. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Baltimore. principally mayonnaise dressing. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. if you try to tone them afterward. Wehr. Md. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The . either for contact printing or enlargements. the mouth of which rests against a. Develop them into strong prints. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. By using the following method. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. and. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. thoroughly fix. you are. the color will be an undesirable. FIG. 1 FIG. The results will be poor. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. If the gate is raised slightly. In my own practice. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more.

.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... in this solution...." Cyanide of potassium .. 16 oz.. L....... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. 20 gr.... San Francisco. long to admit the angle support.. 1 and again as in Fig.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Gray. A good final washing completes the process. to make it 5 by 5 in... Iodide of potassium ... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper...... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. in size.. 2 oz. when it starts to bleach.. wide and 4 in... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax..... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. With a little practice.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. When the desired reduction has taken place..... preferably the colored kind. 2. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.... where it will continue to bleach. without previous wetting. Water . but.. Place the dry print. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... The blotting paper can . three times.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... 5 by 15 in.. transfer it to a tray of water.. --Contributed by T. etc. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. Cal. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished..

How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Make a design similar to that shown. Wisconsin. 3. having a width of 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by L.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Canada. Corners complete are shown in Fig. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide. --Contributed by J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands.J. the shaft 1 in. Oshkosh. the head of which is 2 in. Monahan. and a length of 5 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide below the . 20 gauge. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.

Pierce a hole with a small drill. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. With files. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 4. Make one-half of the design. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. using turpentine. The metal must be held firmly. after folding along the center line. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. being held perpendicular to the work. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron.FIG. but use a swab on a stick. 2. 1 part nitric acid. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. After this has dried. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. freehand. With the metal shears. Apply with a small brush. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 1. using carbon paper. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Allow this to dry. 1 Fig. then put on a second coat. 3. After the sawing. Fig. then trace the other half in the usual way. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Trace the design on the metal. using a small metal saw. then coloring. For coloring olive green. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. . large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. 1 part sulphuric acid. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. deep. as shown in Fig.

The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. as shown. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. on a chopping board. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Morse. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by H. Conn. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. then stain it a mahogany color. New York. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. --Contributed by M. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. . which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. After the stain has dried. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. When this is cold. Carl Cramer. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Ii is an ordinary staple. Cal. attach brass handles. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Burnett. Richmond. M. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. East Hartford. it does the work rapidly. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. thick. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood.

Cal. thick. Fig. --Contributed by Mrs. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. two enameled. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. thick and 4 in.. Jaquythe. 4. or tin.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. square. machine screws. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. holes. indicating the depth of the slots. H. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. about 3/16 in. saucers or pans. Kissimmee. not over 1/4 in. in width at the shank. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. --Contributed by W. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. as shown at A. Atwell. brass. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. A. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Richmond. one shaft. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. some pieces of brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. . 1. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. and several 1/8-in. also locate the drill holes. L. 53 steel pens. Florida.

The bearings are made of 1/4-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. with the face of the disk. Bend as shown in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 5. each about 1 in. 3. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. and pins inserted. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. as shown. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. A 3/4-in. Fig. about 1/32 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. If the shaft is square. long and 5/16 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 6. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. brass and bolted to the casing. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. machine screws. lead should be run into the segments. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. If metal dishes. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. thick. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Fig.. into the hole. in diameter and 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. machine screws and nuts.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. wide. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 2. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. using two nuts on each screw. long by 3/4 in. 3. Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. supply pipe. 1. with a 3/8-in. thick. with 1/8-in. hole. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. hole in the center. There should be a space of 1/16 in. can be procured. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 7. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. a square shaft used. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered.

Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. V. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. When assembling. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Be sure to have the cover. square and 30-1/2 in. or more in diameter. Fasten with 3/4-in. three of which are in the basket. Hamilton. to make the bottom. Smith. Stain the wood before putting in the . find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Ill. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. long. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by F. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. 8-1/2 in. Cooke. Now you will have the box in two pieces. high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. La Salle. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Canada. With a string or tape measure. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. from the top of the box. The four legs are each 3/4-in. we will call the basket. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. deep and 1-1/4 in. The lower part. from the bottom end of the legs. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. screws. deep over all. --Contributed by S. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents.

a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. When making the display. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. --also the lower edge when necessary. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Cover them with the cretonne. wide. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Packard. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. -Contributed by Stanley H. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Boston. Mass. sewing on the back side. Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. you can. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape .lining. wide and four strips 10 in.2 Fig. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. 1. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. and gather it at that point. 2. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Baltimore. The folded part in the center is pasted together. If all the parts are well sandpapered. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. The side. as shown in the sketch. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Md.

When through using the pad. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. It is not difficult to . The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. saving all the solid part. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Y. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Mo. Crockett. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. --Contributed by H. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. with slight modifications. L. --Contributed by B. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Cross Timbers. Gloversville. It is cleanly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. N. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. and. Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. 3. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Fig.

take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. El Paso. Lowell. Mass. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Bourne. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. or if desired. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Both of these methods are wasteful. across the face. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. and scrape out the rough parts. After stirring. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. it should be new and sharp. remove the contents. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Texas. --Contributed by Edith E. are shown in the diagram. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. S.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. -Contributed by C. If a file is used. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After this is done. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Lane. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the .

As these were single-faced disk records. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The insects came to the light. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel.cooking utensil. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. F. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Canton. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Oak Park. Wheeler. A Postcard Rack [25]. The process works well and needs no watching. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. --Contributed by Loren Ward. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Iowa. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Those having houses . and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Greenleaf. Ill. Ill. After several hours' drying. Oregon. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Des Moines. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Geo. circled over the funnel and disappeared. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl.

it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. The single boards can then be fixed. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. material. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Worcester. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Glenbrook. will do as well. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. 6 in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Thomas E. and the second one for the developing bench. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. by 2 ft. Rosenberg. the bottom being 3/8 in.. and as they are simple in design. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Conn. Mass. and both exactly alike. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Dobbins. one on each side of what will be the . Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. thick. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.. Lay the floor next. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. --Contributed by Wm. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. the best material to use being matched boards. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Only three pieces are required. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. boards are preferable. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. not even with the boards themselves. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. plane and pocket knife. Both sides can be put together in this way.

doorway. of the top of the door for the same reason. The developing bench is 18 in. 6. 9). all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 8.. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so that it will fit inside the sink. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 2 in section. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. which is fixed on as shown . fix a narrow piece between the side boards. The roof boards may next be put on. brown wrapping paper. is cut. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and should be zinc lined. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. by screwing to the floor. 9 by 11 in. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged.. It is shown in detail in Fig. In hinging the door. and to the outside board of the sides. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6 and 9. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 6. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. and act as a trap for the light. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. the closing side as at B. 3 and 4. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 5. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. etc.. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. below which is fixed the sink. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. At the top of the doorway. hinged to it. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. wide. 10). nailing them to each other at the ridge. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. Fig. 11. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and in the middle an opening. as shown in Figs. 7.

Details of the Dark Rook .

after lining with brown paper. 2. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. In use. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. Pennsylvania.in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 16. Fig. as at I. screwing them each way into the boards. as at M. 19. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 14. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. though this is hardly advisable. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The handle should be at least 12 in. as shown in Fig. if desired. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. four coats at first is not too many. Karl Hilbrich. Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. 17. 6. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 20. 16. these being shown in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. or the room may be made with a flat roof. For beating up an egg in a glass. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. 13. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as shown in the sections. hole bored in the center for a handle. as in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. but not the red glass and frame. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The house will be much strengthened if strips. are fastened in the corners inside. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. or red light as at K. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. --Contributed by W. Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 1. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 15. it is better than anything on the market. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. Erie. preferably maple or ash. and a 3/8-in. 13. Fig. 18. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. mixing flour and water.

Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Smith. --Contributed by L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Ark. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Mitchell. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. L. --Contributed by Wm. as shown in the sketch. which. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces.copper should be. about 3/8 in. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Kansas City. Schweiger. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . when put together properly is a puzzle. G. -Contributed by E. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. D. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. long. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Yonkers. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. New York. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Eureka Springs. To operate. for a handle.

as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. A number of 1/2-in. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. for the moment. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as is usually the case. to make it set level. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. need them. Having completed the bare box. as shown in Fig. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. After the box is trimmed. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as well as improve its appearance. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. which binds them together. holes should be drilled in the bottom. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 3. the rustic work should be varnished. especially for filling-in purposes. 1. 2. The design shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. If the sill is inclined. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. . why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. the box will require a greater height in front. The corks in use are shown in Fig. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. as shown in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker.

4. and observe results. cabbages. 3. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. can't use poison. share the same fate. But I have solved the difficulty.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Traps do no good. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 2. life in the summer time is a vexation. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. . Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. being partly eaten into. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. F. it's easy. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. drilled at right angles. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Each long projection represents a leg. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. as shown in Fig. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 1. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. etc. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. too dangerous. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron.

Iowa. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. cut some of it off and try again. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The solution can be used over and over again. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. by trial. and made up and kept in large bottles. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. the coil does not heat sufficiently. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. If. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. . Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. About 9-1/2 ft. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. strips. -. cut in 1/2-in. of No. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. long.

A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. . When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. as shown in the sketch. to cause the door to swing shut. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. 1) removed. D. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Pa. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by Katharine D. Texas. and a strip. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Stir and mix thoroughly. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Syracuse. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Kane. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Morse. is a good size--in this compound. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. hot-water pot. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. In cleaning silver. it falls to stop G. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Doylestown. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Dallas. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. of whiting and 1/2 oz. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Do not wash them. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. N. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Fig 2. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of gasoline. Knives. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. forks. C. Y. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. --Contributed by James M. coffee pot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat.

negatives. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. . They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Sprout. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. of course. Waverly. Ill. New Orleans. --Contributed by Oliver S. later fixed and washed as usual. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Pa. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. using the paper dry. Harrisburg. which is. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Fisher. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . La. but unfixed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Theodore L.

Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. 1. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. metal. The harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. then . The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. a harmonograph is a good prescription. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. To obviate this difficulty. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing.

The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. A small weight. one-fourth. which can be regulated. --Contributed by James T. Punch a hole. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is about right for a 10-ft. ceiling. --Contributed by Wm. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Arizona. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. A weight. exactly one-third. to prevent any side motion. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.. that is. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. R. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. 1. such as a shoe buttoner. Chicago. of about 30 or 40 lb. as shown in Fig. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. J. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A pedestal. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. or the lines will overlap and blur. The length of the short pendulum H. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . 1. Ingham. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. as long as the other. and unless the shorter pendulum is. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Another weight of about 10 lb.. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. K. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Gaffney. 1-3/4 by 2 in. in the center of the circle to be cut. provides a means of support for the stylus. etc. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. what is most important. for instance. with a nail set or punch. A small table or platform. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. A length of 7 ft. as shown in the lower part of Fig.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. one-fifth. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. in diameter. Rosemont. G. is attached as shown at H. makes respectively 3. Holes up to 3 in.

and 4 as in Fig. Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 6. 3. Fig. then put 2 at the top. distributing them over the whole card. Cape May City. N. Cruger. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and proceed as before. Morey. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The capacity of the vise. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 5. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.J. 1. -Contributed by W.J.H. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. dividing them into quarters. 4. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. a correspondent of . of course. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The two key cards are made alike. then 3 as in Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. --Contributed by J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 2. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Chicago.

The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Alberta Norrell. citrate of iron and ammonia. deep. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. from the top and bottom. 1/4 in. If constructed of the former. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. acetic acid and 4 oz. After preparing the base and uprights. wood-screws. long. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Wind the successive turns of . sheet of well made asbestos paper. of 18-per-cent No. 6 gauge wires shown. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. the portion of the base under the coil. says Popular Electricity. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Asbestos board is to be preferred. remove the prints. respectively. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. To assemble. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Cut through the center. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 1/2 oz. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. drill 15 holes. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Augusta. --Contributed by L. of ferricyanide of potash. of the uprights. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. After securing the tint desired. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. of water. 30 gr. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Ga.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 22 gauge German-silver wire. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board.

Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . 14 gauge.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ampere. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. square. but these are not necessary. screws. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. then fasten the upright in place. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. --Contributed by Frederick E. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Ward. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. as they are usually thrown away when empty. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. rivets. if one is not a smoker. etc. which. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. N. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. cut and dressed 1/2 in. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Y. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. 16 gauge copper wire.. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Small knobs may be added if desired.

If the soldering copper is an old one. Kenosha." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. and rub the point of the copper on it.14 oz. --Contributed by A. --Contributed by W. brass. lead. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.. C. and one made of poplar finished black. tin. --C. Larson. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Wis. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Ark. of glycerine to 16 oz. . particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. it must be ground or filed to a point. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. G. of water. Richmond. Jaquythe. A. E and F. or has become corroded. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. a piece of solder. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. then to the joint to be soldered. zinc. tinner's acid. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. D. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. sandpaper or steel wool. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. This is considerable annoyance. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. B. S. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. being careful about the heat. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. In soldering galvanized iron. galvanized iron. The material can be of any wood. California. especially if a large tub is used. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Eureka Springs. Copper. and labeled "Poison. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. as shown in the sketch. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again.

by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. C. W. however. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Hankin. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . B. -Contributed by H. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The dimensions shown in Fig. thick and 1-1/4 in. wide. The punch A. a ring may be made from any metal. is made of a piece of 5/8 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Troy. 7/8 in. N. which gives two bound volumes each year. Apart from this. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The disk will come out pan shaped. nut. This completes the die. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. D. in diameter. and drill out the threads. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Fig. Fig. The covers of the magazines are removed. brass and silver. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. such as copper. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter. Brass rings can be plated when finished. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. with good results. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 1. Place the band. round iron. This will leave a clear hole. 2. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Y. Take a 3/4-in.

The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. After drawing the thread tightly. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. using . Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. size 16 or larger. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. 1/8 in. through the notch on the left side of the string No. allowing about 2 in. 5. deep. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. is used for the sewing material. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Start with the front of the book. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. then back through the notch on the right side. 1. If started with the January or the July issue. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 2. threaded double. 2. The string No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. . as shown in Fig. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 1 in Fig. C. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. and a third piece. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. of the ends extending on each side. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Five cuts. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. The covering can be of cloth. is nailed across the top. which is fastened the same as the first. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The sections are then prepared for sewing. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1. and then to string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface.4. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. on all edges except the back. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Coarse white thread. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 1.

Tinplate. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. College View. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. on which to hook the blade. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Encanto. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. --Contributed by Clyde E. and mark around each one. For the blade an old talking-machine . How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Divine. round iron. at opposite sides to each other. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. and. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Nebr.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Cal.

How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. with a steel sleeve. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Make the blade 12 in. and a long thread plug. as shown. or double extra heavy. A. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and file in the teeth. B. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe.. with 10 teeth to the inch. thick. and another piece (B) 6 in. and 1/4 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. as it is sometimes called. fuse hole at D. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. C. Miss. -Contributed by Willard J. thick. bore.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. On the upper side. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Summitville. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. F. by 4-1/2 in. long. in order to drill the holes in the ends.. at the same end. and 1/4 in. E. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Ohio. Moorhead. Then on the board put . by 1 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. hydraulic pipe. Hays. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. by means of a U-bolt or large staple.

Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. the jars need not be very large. high around this apparatus.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. some sheet copper or brass for plates. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. as from batteries. H. about 5 ft. Connect up as shown. A lid may be added if desired. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Philadelphia. of wire to each coil. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. --Contributed by Chas. of rubber-covered wire. 4 jars. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. using about 8 in. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. If you are going to use a current of low tension. and some No. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Boyd. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of .

gives full current and full speed. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. by 1-1/4 in. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 3 in. 4 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. two pieces 14 in. long. Use no screws on the running surface. making them clear those in the front runner. by 1 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. by 6 in. by 1-1/4 in. 5 on switch. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. are important. Use no nails. Put arm of switch on point No. as they are not substantial enough. 2. apart. and bolt through. B and C. Their size also depends on the voltage. Construct the auto front (Fig. 15-1/2 in. beginning at the rear. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. The stock required for them is oak. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. above the ground. A 3/4-in. 3. wide. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood.. 4. C. and four pieces 14 in. To wire the apparatus. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through.. B. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. long. and plane it on all edges. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. On the door of the auto front put the . direct to wire across jars. 16-1/2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 2 in. B. The sled completed should be 15 ft. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. by 5 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. with the cushion about 15 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution.. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. oak boards. and for the rear runners: A. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 2 and 3. 1 and so on for No. on No. See Fig. The connection between point No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. thick. The illustration shows how to shape it. Z. No. 4) of 3/4-in.. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. steel rod makes a good steering rod. First sandpaper all the wood. two pieces 30 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. C. long by 22 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. however. two for each jar. by 5 in. The current then will flow through the motor. by 2 in. long. wide and 2 in. An iron washer. wide by 3/4 in. Fig. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. long. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 30 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. & S. 3 and No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. or source of current. The top disk in jar No. 34 in.. 2. sheet brass 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. two pieces 34 in. 7 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. 2 is lower down than in No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. is used to reduce friction. square by 14 ft. by 2 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. as they "snatch" the ice. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 1.. 1 on switch. 1 is connected to point No. . 27 B. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard.the way. A variation of 1/16 in.. For the brass trimmings use No. wide and 3/4 in. thick. 11 in. 2.

a brake may be added to the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. If desired. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. cutting it out of sheet brass. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. lunch. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. such as used on automobiles. such as burlap. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. by 1/2 in. overshoes. If desired. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . may be stowed within. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. long. to improve the appearance. The best way is to get some strong. to the wheel.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. which is somewhat moist. etc. brass plated. cheap material. Then get some upholstery buttons. or with these for $25. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. by 30 in. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. parcels. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Fasten a horn.

Ill.tree and bring. . Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

1. thick. 3. 4). and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Fig. 2. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. London. With no other tools than a hacksaw. made from 1/16-in. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. a compass. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. when flat against it. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Fig. FC. CD. E. The first tooth may now be cut. A small clearance space. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. mild steel or iron. by drawing diameters. with twenty-four teeth. though more difficult. will be over the line FG. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. from F to G. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Draw a circle on paper. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. This guide should have a beveled edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. which. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. sheet metal. the cut will be central on the line. so that the center of the blade. the same diameter as the wheel. say 1 in. The Model Engineer. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. some files. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. The straight-edge. outside diameter and 1/16 in.

2. . transmitter. hold in one hand. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. R.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. electric lamp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. and the other outlet wire. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. If there is no faucet in the house. Make a hole in the other. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. B. some wire and some carbons. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 1. B. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. A bright. Then take one outlet wire. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. ground it with a large piece of zinc. either the pencils for arc lamps. No shock will be perceptible. each in the center. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. or several pieces bound tightly together. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 1. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A.

a transmitter which induces no current is used. B. leaving about 10 in. and about that size. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. But in this experiment. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Slattery. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. and again wind the wire around it. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. one at the receiver can hear what is said. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Then set the whole core away to dry. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. under the gable. as indicated by E E. by 12 in. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Ashland. at each end for terminals. Wrenn. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. One like a loaf of bread. They have screw ends. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Emsworth. J. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. or more of the latter has been used. serves admirably. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and will then burn the string C. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Ohio. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. are also needed. 36 wire around it. Dry batteries are most convenient. Several battery cells. of course. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. by 1 in. Pa. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. If desired. D D are binding posts for electric wires. --Contributed by Geo. For a base use a pine board 10 in. A is a wooden block. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. as shown.

soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. D. From the other set of binding-posts. Newark. the terminal of the coil. Fig. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC.wire. F. Place 16-cp. At one side secure two receptacles. in parallel. Ohio. connecting lamp receptacles. The oven is now ready to be connected. 1. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. These should have hollow ends. 12 or No. Jr. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and one single post switch. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. as shown. run a No. Fig. C. and the lamps. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 14 wire. Turn on switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and switch. Connect these three to switch. D. E. First make a support. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. as shown. for the . B B. in series with bindingpost.. B B. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 2. The coil will commence to become warm. while C is open.

To make one. wide and 1/8 in. although copper or steel will do. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. a standard ammeter. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. etc. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. drill through the entire case and valve. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 7. to prevent it turning on the axle. inside measurements. The core. deep. The box is 5-1/2 in. 1. 4 amperes. is then made and provided with a glass front. 14 wire. long and make a loop. After drilling. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 1. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. Fig. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. This may be made of wood. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. Montreal. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. It is 1 in.or 4-way valve or cock. remove the valve. drill in only to the opening already through. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. from the lower end. C. 5. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Fig. wind with plenty of No. drill a hole as shown at H. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. until the scale is full. At a point a little above the center. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. thick. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. --Contributed by J. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Dussault. Fig. is made of wire. 4 in. 10 turns to each layer.. 5.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 1/4 in. wide and 1-3/4 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. This is slipped on the pivot. 4. 3. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand.E. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 6. but if for a 4way. 3 amperes. high. long. If for 3-way. 36 magnet wire instead of No. E. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. and D. The pointer or hand. 14. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. a battery. D. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. although brass is better. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. B. 2. 1/2 in. a variable resistance. long. where A is the homemade ammeter. is made of iron. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Mine is wound with two layers of No. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. A wooden box.

and the other connects with the water rheostat. One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. in diameter. E. high. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and the arc light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. B. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. provided with a rubber stopper. F. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. To start the light. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.performing electrical experiments. D. A. which is used for reducing the current. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. as shown. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and a metal rod. in thickness . making two holes about 1/4 in. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. This stopper should be pierced. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. By connecting the motor.

2. as shown in B. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A piece of wood. As there shown. 1. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. 2. Having fixed the lead plate in position. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Y. where he is placed in an upright open . B. Carthage. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Fig. Jones. A. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. --Contributed by Harold L. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. If the interrupter does not work at first. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Having finished the interrupter. 1. If all adjustments are correct. N. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. long. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. To insert the lead plate. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 1. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. as shown in C. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig.

appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. All . inside dimensions. and can be bought at Japanese stores. light-colored garments. The skeleton is made of papier maché. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The lights. high. especially L. and wave his arms up and down. until it is dark there. dressed in brilliant.coffin. by 7-1/2 in. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. should be miniature electric lamps. L and M. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. loosejointed effect. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. and must be thoroughly cleansed. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. with the exception of the glass. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. is constructed as shown in the drawings. by 7 in. from which the gong has been removed. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. the illusion will be spoiled. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. A. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. They need to give a fairly strong light. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. to aid the illusion. could expect from a skeleton. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. giving a limp. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. as the entire interior. within the limits of an ordinary room. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The model. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The glass should be the clearest possible. If everything is not black. should be colored a dull black. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which can be run by three dry cells. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. figures and lights. A white shroud is thrown over his body. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. Its edges should nowhere be visible. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass.. If it is desired to place the box lower down. especially the joints and background near A.

so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. San Jose. after which it assumes its normal color. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. If a gradual transformation is desired. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . --Contributed by Geo. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. placed about a foot apart. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Fry. fat spark. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Cal. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. W. as shown in the sketch. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Two finishing nails were driven in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. square block. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good.

2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. If a lighted match . If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. A (see sketch). which is filled with melted rosin or wax. B and C. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. One of these plates is connected to metal top. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. with two tubes. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. to make it airtight. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. In Fig. the remaining space will be filled with air. -Contributed by Dudley H. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. soldered in the top. by small pieces of wood. 1. This is a wide-mouth bottle.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. hydrogen gas is generated. F. or a solution of sal soda. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Cohen. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. and should be separated about 1/8 in. into the receiver G. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. In Fig. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. as shown. The plates are separated 6 in.

which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A 1/64-in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A piece of 1/8-in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. copper pipe. as is shown in the illustration. should be only 5/16 of an inch. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A. 1-5/16 in. long. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 36 insulated wire. which forms the vaporizing coil. either by passing a current of electricity around it. N. A. and the ends of the tube. is then coiled around the brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 1/2 in. A nipple. which is plugged up at both ends. C C. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. or by direct contact with another magnet. by means of the clips. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . from the bottom. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. P. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. N. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. 2 shows the end view. London. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. If desired. Fig. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. B. A. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. The distance between the nipple. Fig. 1. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. of No. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. in diameter and 6 in. A. then a suitable burner is necessary.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. long. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. copper pipe. says the Model Engineer. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft.

It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. 3. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. smoothly. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Turn the book over and paste the other side. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. but if the paper knife cannot be used. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. fold and cut it 1 in. 1/4 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. at the front and back for fly leaves. about 8 or 10 in. boards and all. 2). with a fine saw. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. longer and 1/4 in.lamp cord. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. cut to the size of the pages. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 1. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. larger all around than the book. Take two strips of stout cloth. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. taking care not to bend the iron. should be cut to the diameter of the can. trim both ends and the front edge. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. this makes a much nicer book. duck or linen. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out.

--Contributed by James E. deep. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. is soldered onto tank A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. as shown. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Bedford City. which will just slip inside the little can. . which expands and stops the lowering of tank A.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. C. or rather the top now. A. 18 in. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. In the bottom. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. and a little can. is turned on it. as shown in the sketch. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Another can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. 4). --Contributed by Joseph N. E. is made the same depth as B. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Noble. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Parker. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. in diameter and 30 in. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Another tank. Toronto. A gas cock. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. D. is fitted in it and soldered. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. of tank A is cut a hole. is perforated with a number of holes. H. but its diameter is a little smaller. the joint will be gas tight. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. pasting them down (Fig. without a head. Va. B. Ont. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached.

C. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. when finished. by 1/2 in. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. fastened in the bottom. with an electric-bell magnet. Bott. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Fig. are shown in detail at H and J. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. D. The small guards.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. H is a square knot.. The longitudinal corner spines. -Contributed by H. which may be either spruce. J. square by 42 in. long. to prevent splitting. The bridle knots. B. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Beverly. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The diagonal struts. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. exactly 12 in. A A. and the four diagonal struts. The armature. thus adjusting the . N. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. shows how the connections are to be made. as shown at C. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. B. should be 3/8 in. 2. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. S. If the back armature. The wiring diagram. should be 1/4 in. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. E. basswood or white pine. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. which moves to either right or left. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. Fig. should be cut a little too long. A. If the pushbutton A is closed. 1. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. making the width. tacks. D. long. and sewed double to give extra strength. and about 26 in.

--Contributed by Edw. with gratifying results. and. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. however. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Kan. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. for producing electricity direct from heat. A bowline knot should be tied at J. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. that refuse to slide easily. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by A. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. can be made of a wooden . D. Chicago. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Harbert. E. and if a strong wind is blowing. shift toward F.lengths of F and G. to prevent slipping. as shown. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Stoddard. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. If the kite is used in a light wind. Clay Center. Closing either key will operate both sounders.

and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. C. and the current may then be detected by means. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. C. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Then. F. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. or parallel with the compass needle.frame. A and B. 14 or No.. and also holds the pieces of wood. E. The wood screw. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. D. E. by means of machine screws or. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark. in position. When the cannon is loaded. placed on top. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . Fasten a piece of wood. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. A. --Contributed by A. with a pocket compass. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A. B. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. A. to the cannon. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. with a number of nails. Chicago. C. 16 single-covered wire. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. which conducts the current into the cannon.

Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. within the reach of the magnet. where there is a staple. when in position at A'. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. Chicago. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Keil. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Ohio. . it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse.the current is shut off. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. In Fig. square and 3/8 in. Big Rapids. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. screw is bored in the block. --Contributed by Henry Peck. to receive the screw in the center. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. in this position the door is locked. To unlock the door. To lock the door. Marion. requiring a strong magnet. A and S. --Contributed by Joseph B. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. press the button. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Connect as shown in the illustration. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Fig. A hole for a 1/2 in. 1. 1. L. but no weights or strings. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. with the long arm at L'. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. A and S. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. B. Mich. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. now at A' and S'. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. H. A. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. To reverse. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block.

When ready for use. Mass. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. about 18 in. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. --Contributed by C. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. Thread the other end of the pipe.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. pipe with 1-2-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. West Somerville. if enameled white on the concave side. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and C is a dumbbell. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The standard and base. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. are enameled a jet black. J. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and may be made at very slight expense. and if desired the handles may . More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. hole. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. or for microscopic work. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. put in the handle. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. gas-pipe. When the holes are finished and your lines set. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. long. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

across. Fig. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. --Contributed by C. across. high by 1 ft. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. 1. long and 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. with a cover. Warren. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Fig. A. North Easton. M. B.. E. 8 in.be covered with leather. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a cylindrical core of wood. D. Mass. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 1. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. as shown at A in the sketch. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . which shall project at least 2 in. inside the pail. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. This peculiar property is also found in ice. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.

60%. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. cutting the hole a little smaller. in diameter. It is placed inside the kiln. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. When lighted. say 1/4 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. layer of the clay mixture. sand. but it will burn a great deal of gas. After removing all the paper. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. long. wider than the kiln. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. E. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in.-G. and on it set the paper wrapped core. pipe. W. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. Whatever burner is used. to hold the clay mixture. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. passing wire nails through and clinching them.. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. pipe 2-ft. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. projecting from each end (Fig. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. as dictated by fancy and expense. if you have the materials. which is the hottest part. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 15%. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. 1330°. L. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 2. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. let this dry thoroughly. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and 3/8 in. but will be cheaper in operation. if there is to be any glazing done. diameter. Line the pail. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and 3/4 in. and your kiln is ready for business. and varnish. make two wood ends.. thick. the point of the blue flame. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust.mixture of clay. This done. and cut it 3-1/2 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. in diameter. Fig. such . C. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. or make one yourself. 2 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. of fine wire. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. hard porcelain. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. bottom and sides. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and graphite. C. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. about 1 in. 3) with false top and bottom. carefully centering it. 1). After finishing the core. C. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. hotel china. the firing should be gradual. 25%. as is shown in the sketch. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. full length of iron core. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Fit all the parts together snugly. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. strip of sheet iron. pack this space-top. Wind about 1/8 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. 1). By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. The 2 in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. thick.. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 1390°-1410°. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and with especial caution the first time.

Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. T. D. . --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. 2). and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and divide it into two piles. every alternate card being the same color. C. square them up. taking care to have the first card red. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. the next black. procure a new deck. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. 2. Then. about 1/16 in. bind tightly with black silk. length of . on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed.53 in. 1. Chicago. C. overlaps and rests on the body. Washington. R. and so on. B. Take the red cards. and discharges into the tube. square them up and place in a vise. --Contributed by J. around the coil. with a plane. Then take the black cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. and plane off about 1/16 in. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as shown in the sketch herewith. leaving long terminals.. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. as in Fig. The funnel. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. all cards facing the same way. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. diameter. 2. C.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. red and black. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. A. as in Fig. Of course. 8 in. You can display either color called for.

A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. stove bolts. To find the fall of snow. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. the same ends will come together again.J. All the horizontal pieces. Let . E. stove bolts. to form a dovetail joint as shown. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. the first thing to decide on is the size. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. 1 gill of litharge. C. A. and this is inexpensive to build. F. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Drill all the horizontal pieces. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. E. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. D. 1. The cement. Long Branch. of the frame.C. about 20 in. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. so that when they are assembled. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces.. and then the frame is ready to assemble. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. through the holes already drilled. 1 gill of fine white sand. It should be placed in an exposed location. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. N. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. B. The upright pieces. When the glass is put in the frame a space. The bottom glass should be a good fit. B. B. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. thus making all the holes coincide. as the difficulties increase with the size. A. Fig. angle iron for the frame. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.

In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fig. A. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. B. D. Fasten the lever. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. a centerpiece (A. and. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. having a swinging connection at C. Aquarium Finished If desired. to the door knob. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. on the door by means of a metal plate. if desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.

2 ft. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. and Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. to form the main supports of the frame. AA. N. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. another. long. A small piece of spring brass. Do not fasten these boards now. soldered to the end of the cylinder. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. F. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole.. 1. Fig. C. for the top. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 2 is an end view. Fig. long. Fig. 2 at GG. according to the slant given C. approximately 1 ft. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. 26 in. Buffalo. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. I referred this question to my husband. To make the frame. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. PAUL S. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. thus doing away with the spring. wide . 6 in. another. 1. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. showing the paddle-wheel in position. long. 1 . 3 shows one of the paddles. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. but mark their position on the frame. --Contributed by Orton E. E. White. several lengths of scantling 3 in. as at E. long. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to form the slanting part.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. and another. to keep the frame from spreading. D. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. Cut two of them 4 ft. B. Fig. screwed to the door frame. with a water pressure of 70 lb. wide by 1 in. Cut two pieces 30 in. which is 15 in. from the outside top of the frame. Y. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. They are shown in Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles.

holes. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole from the tops to the 1-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. thick. iron. When it has cooled. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. hole through its center.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Make this hole conical. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. by 1-1/2 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). GG. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. that is. Now block the wheel. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. then drill a 3/16-in. and a 1/4 -in. and drill a 1-in. and drill a 1/8-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. These are the paddles. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. remove the cardboard. 2) and another 1 in. in diameter. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame.burlap will do -. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 2) form a substantial base. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole through their sides centrally. 4. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . from one end by means of a key. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Drill 1/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position. take down the crosspieces. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. after which drill a 5/8 in. 1. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. steel shaft 12 in. Tack one side on. pipe. (I. to a full 1/2 in. iron 3 by 4 in. Take the side pieces. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. hole through them. tapering from 3/16 in. 24 in. Fig. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Fig. thick (HH. hole to form the bearings. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig.

and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. of course. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.a water-tight joint. It is obvious that. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. says the Photographic Times. it would be more durable. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. sewing machine. . but now I put them in the machine. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. light and the plate. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If the bearings are now oiled. Correct exposure depends. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. any window will do. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. place the outlet over a drain. but as it would have cost several times as much. as shown in the sketch at B. or what is called a process plate. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and the subject may move. Darken the rest of the window. Focus the camera carefully. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. remove any white curtains there may be. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and as near to it as possible. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. as this makes long exposure necessary. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Raise the window shade half way. Drill a hole through the zinc. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Do not stop down the lens. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and leave them for an hour or so. start the motor. If sheet-iron is used. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. drill press. ice-cream freezer. on the lens. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft.

as shown in Fig. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. with binding posts as shown. by twisting. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. without detail in the face. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. or wood. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. C.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. a glass tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. 2. as a slight current will answer. which is made of iron and cork. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. D. until the core slowly rises. The core C. A. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. With a piece of black paper. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. 2. full of water. an empty pill bottle may be used. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The current required is very small. B. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. a core. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. hard rubber. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. the core is drawn down out of sight. or an empty developer tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. On completing . and a base.

Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. according to his control of the current. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 pt. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. is Benham's color top. and make a pinhole in the center. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. water and 3 oz. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. 1. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. whale oil. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. white lead. finest graphite. and one not easy to explain. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1 lb. and are changed by reversing the rotation.

In prize games. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. Chicago. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. fan-like. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.B. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. -Contributed by D. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. when the action ceases. or three spot. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. deuce. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. As this device is easily upset. In making hydrogen. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. especially if the deck is a new one.L. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. A.. B. before cutting. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. nearly every time. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. thus partly filling bottles A and C.

can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. as shown in Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Jr. 9 in. long and 3 in. . connecting the bottom by cross pieces.. 2. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. (Fig. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. 4. Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. in diameter. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A.. --Contributed by C. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. in length and 3 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. --Contributed by F. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 12 in. 3). W. Fig. Huron. 10 in. 1. S. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Dak. Detroit. Make a 10-sided stick. long. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Bently. J. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation.

put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. --Contributed by Reader. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. C. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. allowing 1 in. Denver. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Remove the form. and walk in. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the .The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. making it three-ply thick. will cause an increased movement of C. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. with a pin driven in each end. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. 6. A piece of tin. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. E. bend it at right angles throughout its length. push back the bolt. it is equally easy to block that trick. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. long. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. but bends toward D. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. about the size of a leadpencil. A second piece of silk thread. Cut out paper sections (Fig. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. on one side and the top. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A. Fortunately.

S. while the lower switch. Minn. By this arrangement one. 4 ft. Fremont Hilscher. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Two wood-base switches. will last for several years. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. R. The 2 by 4-in. B. is connected each point to a battery. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. The reverse switch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. and rest on a brick placed under each end. --Contributed by J. Jr. or left to right. The feet. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. are made 2 by 4 in.. B. as shown. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. posts. are 7 ft.. West St. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. S S. put together as shown in the sketch. S. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Paul.strip. A. long. The upper switch. W. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. long.

and valve crank S. with two washers. Fig. 1. 2. the other parts being used for the bearing B. Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. E. 3/8 in. The piston is made of a stove bolt. pulley wheel. The base is made of wood. and the crank bearing C. The hose E connects to the boiler. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. which will be described later.every house. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. the size of the hole in the bearing B. FF. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and in Fig. and a cylindrical . either an old sewing-machine wheel. is an old bicycle pump. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. In Fig. which is made of tin. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The steam chest D. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and has two wood blocks. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. thick. 2 and 3. H and K. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. cut in half. or anything available.

Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first.piece of hard wood. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. and a very amusing trick. Cal. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. is cut out of tin. J. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. of Cuba. W. . photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. G. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. 3. can be an old oil can. Fig. Schuh and A. This is wound with soft string. This engine was built by W. The boiler. The valve crank S. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Eustice. Fry. Wis. and the desired result is obtained. 4. First. or galvanized iron. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. as it is merely a trick of photography. to receive the connecting rod H. at that. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and saturated with thick oil. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. as shown in Fig. San Jose. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. 1. powder can. --Contributed by Geo. using the positive wire as a pen. C. G.

must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. They may be of any size. and place a bell on the four ends. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. B. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. as shown. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Cut half circles out of each stave. diameter. and Fig. as shown at AA. When turning. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. The smaller wheel. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 1 by covering up Figs. and pass ropes around . B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. C.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 will be seen to rotate. to cross in the center. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.

but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. To make this lensless microscope. Mo. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. as shown in the illustration. W.G. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. from the transmitter.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. long. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. From a piece of thin . which allows the use of small sized ropes. produces a higher magnifying power). and enlarge the bore a little at one end. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. --Contributed by H.M. but not on all. St.. procure a wooden spool. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. which accounts for the sound. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. Louis.

is fastened at each end by pins. which are pieces of hard wood. bent as shown.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. is made of iron. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. as in all microscopes of any power. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. darting across the field in every direction. if the distance is reduced to one-third. A. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. the diameter will appear three times as large. An innocent-looking drop of water. B. held at arm's length. To use this microscope. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. Fig. E. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. 1. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and at the center. fastened to a wooden base. or 64 times. by means of brads. cut out a small disk. the diameter will appear twice as large. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. the object should be of a transparent nature. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and so on. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The spring. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. 3. The pivot. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. C. .) But an object 3/4-in. place a small object on the transparent disk. The lever. can be made of brass and the armature. (The area would appear 64 times as large. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle.. i. H. otherwise the image will be blurred. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and look through the hole D. 2. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. B. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. D. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. if the distance is reduced to one-half. Viewed through this microscope. which costs little or nothing to make. C. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. D. e. in which hay has been soaking for several days. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.

A switch. B. fastened near the end. K. B. E. long. KEY-A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. can be made panel as shown. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 16 in. . K. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. D. brass. in length and 16 in. wide. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. binding posts: H spring The stop. D.SOUNDER-A. wood. which are made to receive a pivot. D. HH. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. brass: B. wood: F. brass: E. wide. or a single piece. Cut the top. FF. 1. coils wound with No. AA. C. Each side. The binding posts. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. wide. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wood: C. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. wide and set in between sides AA. nail soldered on A. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. and are connected to the contacts. thick. should be about 22 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. 16 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. F. A. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. wide. long by 16 in. soft iron. The base of the key. connection of D to nail. wide and about 20 in. DD. The back. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. 26 wire: E. or taken from a small one-point switch. similar to the one used in the sounder. between the armature and the magnet. Fig. long and 14-1/2 in. Fig. C. The door.

from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. material. AA. cut in them. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. long. Make 12 cleats. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Garfield. 13-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. 2 and made from 1/4-in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. When the electrical waves strike the needle.. as shown. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. brads. Ill. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . E. with 3/4-in. In operation. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one.

B. --Contributed by John Koehler. A. E. Brown. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. pulls down the armature. filled with water. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. F. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. the magnet. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. N. Ridgewood. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. C.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. J. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. When the pipe is used. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. in order to increase the surface. Pushing the wire. --Contributed by R. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when used with a motor. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . The cord is also fastened to a lever. will give a greater speed. and thus decreases the resistance. N. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Y. and. A fairly stiff spring. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. through which a piece of wire is passed. Fairport. A. A (see sketch). when the coil is not provided with a regulator. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork.

the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Of course. B. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. even those who read this description. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. if desired. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Borden. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. N. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Gachville. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder.for the secret contact. --Contributed by Perry A.

D. thick and 12-in. from the bottom. for 10in. wide. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. C. East Orange. for 6-in. apart. Mangold. long and full 12-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Compton. as shown in Fig. With about 9 ft. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Jr. H. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. wide bore holes about 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. E. J. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Washington. N. 1.. C. The top board is made 28-in. . long and 5 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. A. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. --Contributed by Dr. From a piece of brass a switch. Cal. records and 5-5/8 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. --Contributed by H. records. wide. Dobson. deep and 3/4 in. Connect switch to post B. in a semicircle 2 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. 2. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. as shown in Fig.

Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. closed. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. to which is fastened a cord. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Roanoke. B. A. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. E. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. which in operation is bent. as shown by the dotted lines. Va. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown in Fig. 1.

Cut two grooves. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Put the rubber tube. as shown in the illustration. Fig. in diameter. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 4 shows the wheel-holder. which should be about 1/2 in. holes (HH. through one of these holes. E. deep. they will let the air through. they will bind. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 3). E. Fig. Now put all these parts together. In the sides (Fig. thick. In these grooves place wheels. Notice the break (S) in the track. Figs. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. long. square and 7/8 in. wide. Do not fasten the sides too . this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. wide. one in each end. These wheels should be 3/4 in. D. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 1. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. CC. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Bore two 1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. is compressed by wheels. Figs. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. apart. 1 in. Fig. 1 in. The crankpin should fit tightly. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. to turn on pins of stout wire. in diameter. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. against which the rubber tubing. excepting the crank and tubing. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 3. it too loose. deep and 1/2 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. thick (A. B. 5) when they are placed.

Then turn the crank from left to right. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Take the center of the bar. 1. 17-1/2 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. AA. Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Fig. Two feet of 1/4-in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. because he can . a platform should be added. The animal does not fear to enter the box. from the bottom and 2 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Fig. Kan. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. iron. of material. and mark for a hole. though a small iron wheel is better. stands 20 in. is all the expense necessary. and 3-1/2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. A in Fig. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 2. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. costing 10 cents. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Fig. as shown in Fig. and are 30 in. AA. Cut six pieces. 2. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. B. 1. from that mark the next hole. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. mark again. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. from each end. 1. 15 in. To use the pump. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. --Contributed by Dan H. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. beyond each of these two. The three legs marked BBB. For ease in handling the pump. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Idana. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from each end. from each end. tubing. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. long. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. In the two cross bars 1 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. the pump will give a steady stream. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The screen which is shown in Fig. 1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Hubbard.

1) must be prepared. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. If the battery has been used before. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. acid 1 part). of the top. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. sulphuric acid. The battery is now ready for use. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. 4 oz. long having two thumb screws. --Contributed by H. and the solution (Fig. It is useful for running induction coils. When the bichromate has all dissolved. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Meyer. there is too much liquid in the jar. 2). and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. dropping. until it is within 3 in. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. 14 copper wire. and touches the bait the lid is released and. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. silvery appearance. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. shuts him in. stirring constantly. The mercury will adhere. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. C. The truncated. Place the carbon in the jar. or. potassium bichromate. When through using the battery. The battery is now complete. rub the zinc well. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. If it is wet. however. or small electric motors. If the solution touches the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. giving it a bright. . but if one casts his own zinc. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. of water dissolve 4 oz. add slowly. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. some of it should be poured out.see through it: when he enters. Philadelphia. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution.

If. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. After putting in the coal. while the coal door is being opened. with slight changes. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. the battery circuit. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however. i. the jump-spark coil . RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The price of the coil depends upon its size. which opens the door.. pressing the pedal closes the door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Madison. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.Fig. e.

Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line.described elsewhere in this book. in a partial vacuum. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 6. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. .7. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. being a 1-in. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Now for the receiving apparatus. and closer for longer distances. 7. After winding. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. W W. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. W W. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. diameter. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. while a 12-in. 6. Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in a straight line from top to bottom. 5. coil. 7. Change the coil described. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. the full length of the coil. made of No. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. apart. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7). Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This coil. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. which is made of light copper wire.

and for best results should extend up 50 ft. No. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 90°. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. but simply illustrates the above to show that. B the bed and C the tailstock. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. I run my lathe by power. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. but it could be run by foot power if desired. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. may be easily made at very little expense. A large cone pulley would then be required. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. being at right angles. to the direction of the current. in the air. 1 to 4. A. 90°. 1). For an illustration. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. where A is the headstock. above the ground. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. after all. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. which will be described later. These circles. Run a wire from the other binding post. . as it matches the color well. and hence the aerial line. The writer does not claim to be the originator. using an electric motor and countershaft. only. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. Figs. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded.6 stranded. being vertical. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them.The aerial line.

hardwood being preferable for this purpose. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. tapered wooden pin. A. 6. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. thick. and runs in babbitt bearings. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. on the under side of the bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Heat the babbitt well. which pass through a piece of wood.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. one of which is shown in Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 5. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 6 Headstock Details D. Fig. 4. 5. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 4. just touching the shaft. Fig. which are let into holes FIG. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The bearing is then ready to be poured. pitch and 1/8 in. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The headstock. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. steel tubing about 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. too. but not hot enough to burn it. Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. B. 2 and 3. If the bearing has been properly made. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. After pouring. deep. The bolts B (Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. To make these bearings.

Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. If not perfectly true. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. of the walk . N. Oak Park. A. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. the alarm is easy to fix up. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. and a 1/2-in. so I had to buy one. The tail stock (Fig. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Ill.other machines. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. If one has a wooden walk. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.J. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. FIG. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. This prevents corrosion. Newark. Take up about 5 ft. they may be turned up after assembling. B. embedded in the wood.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. lock nut.

save when a weight is on the trap. and the alarm is complete. Finally. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Connect up an electric bell. To avoid touching it. add potassium cyanide again. Fig. (A. Minneapolis. --Contributed by R. hang the articles on the wires. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. of water. Jackson. leaving a clear solution. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. to remove all traces of grease.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. silver or other metal. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Minn. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. clean the articles thoroughly. S. before dipping them in the potash solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. water. Then make the solution . 2). to roughen the surface slightly. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. so that they will not touch.

A 1/4 in. long. B should be of the same wood. an old electric bell or buzzer. and the larger part (F. 1). make a key and keyhole. Where Bunsen cells are used. 3) directly over the hole. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Then. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 3. 3) strikes the bent wire L. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. and then treated as copper. In rigging it to a sliding door. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. long. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. about 25 ft. Take quick. thick by 3 in. square. if one does not possess a buffing machine. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. with water. of water. When all this is set up. which . Repeat six times. hole in its center. when the point of the key touches the tin. and 4 volts for very small ones. light strokes. shaking. On brass. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Can be made of a 2-in. silver can be plated direct. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. which is advised. --Model Engineer. with water. from the lower end. Fig. which is held by catch B. must be about 1 in. 18 wire. use 2 volts for large articles. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. If accumulators are used. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. such metals as iron. Before silver plating. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. The wooden catch. 10 in. a hand scratch brush is good. The wooden block C. 1 in. Fig. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. copper. To provide the keyhole. 1 not only unlocks. Screw the two blocks together. zinc. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. 1). lead. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. This solution. With an electric pressure of 3. I. as shown in Fig. piece of broomstick. Having finished washing the precipitate. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. also. saw a piece of wood. but opens the door. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. as at F. nickel and such metals. German silver. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. If more solution is required. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. pewter.5 to 4 volts. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Fig. of clothesline rope and some No. Fig. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. a circuit is completed. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. will serve for the key. 1. A (Fig. with the pivot 2 in.up to 2 qt. Make a somewhat larger block (E.

and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Heavy metal objects. so much the better. Next. B. 116 Prospect St. although a little more trouble. H. The magician stands in front of this.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. 2. One end is removed. 1. shows catch B. top. H. . to throw the light toward the audience. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. enlarged. Fig. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. one-third of the length from the remaining end. half way from open end to closed end. Fig. Objects appear and disappear. 2. Fig. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. spoons and jackknives. sides and end. Klipstein. the requisites are a large soap box.. On either side of the box. and hands its contents round to the audience. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. surrounding a perfectly black space. He removes the bowl from the black box. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 3. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. New Jersey. with the lights turned low. Receiving the bowl again. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. To prepare such a magic cave. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. he points with one finger to the box. or cave. In front of you. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. he tosses it into the cave. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and plenty of candles. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The interior must be a dead black. and finally lined inside with black cloth. such as forks. some black cloth. the illumination in front must be arranged. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. 0. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and black art reigns supreme. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Next. in his shirt sleeves. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. cut in one side. --Contributed by E. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. 1. floor. heighten the illusion. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. no painting inside is required. between the parlor and the room back of it. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. some black paint. Thus. East Orange. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Fig. with a switch as in Fig. and a slit. H. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The box must be altered first. One thing changes to another and back again. is the cut through which the rope runs. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. which unlocks the door. a few simple tools. should be cut a hole. is an upright square of brightly burning lights.

and several black drop curtains. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. in which are oranges and apples. a screen must be used. But illusions suggest themselves. is on a table) so much the better. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. was identical with this. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The illusion. into the eyes of him who looks. The audience room should have only low lights. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. only he. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. his confederate behind inserts his hand. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. one on each side of the box. had a big stage. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which can be made to dance either by strings. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Consequently. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The exhibitor should be . and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. if. which are let down through the slit in the top. of course. you must have an assistant. as presented by Hermann. the room where the cave is should be dark. of course. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and if portieres are impossible.Finally. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated.

It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. or binding posts. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. b1. 2. FIG. so arranged that. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. is shown in the diagram. held down on disk F by two other terminals. vice versa. 2). respectively. making contact with them. A represents a pine board 4 in. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. b3. held down on it by two terminals. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c3. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them as shown at y. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. Then. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. by 4 in. 1. if you turn handle K to the right. On the disk G are two brass strips. at L. or b2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. c4. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. held down by another disk F (Fig. with three brass strips. 2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. square. Finally. f2. c2. Fig.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. b3. d. A. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . and c1 – electricity. when handle K is turned to one side. c1. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. and a common screw. b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. b2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.a boy who can talk. and c4 + electricity. respectively. terminal c3 will show +.. terminal c3 will show . respectively. and c2 to the zinc.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. by means of two wood screws. 1. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). e1 and e2. as shown in Fig.

Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. and when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. when on No. Tuttle. you have the current of one battery. --Contributed by Eugene F. Newark. and C and C1 are binding posts. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Jr.. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. from three batteries. when A is on No. 1. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. jump spark coil. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 3. Joerin. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. When switch B is closed and A is on No. from five batteries. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 4. 5. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Ohio. from four batteries. when on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. . a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. -Contributed by A. B is a onepoint switch. E. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 2 you receive the current from two batteries.

When you do not have a graduate at hand. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. which may be a button or other small object. La. B. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. The device thus arranged. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Wis. per second for each second. A. New Orleans. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. A. of Burlington. A. over the bent portion of the rule. is the device of H. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second.. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Handy Electric Alarm . mark. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. traveled by the thread. Thus. rule. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. per second. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. P. E. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. so one can see the time. Redmond. and supporting the small weight. mark.

putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. and with the same result. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. which illuminates the face of the clock. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. . for a wetting is the inevitable result. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. but may be closed at F any time desired. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Lane. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then if a mishap comes. Crafton. wrapping the wire around the can several times. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Instead. --C. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood.which has a piece of metal. When the alarm goes off. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. --Contributed by Gordon T. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. B. soldered to the alarm winder. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. S. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Pa. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.

models and miniature objects. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. A. when it is being prepared. 1. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and many other interesting and useful articles. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Macey. and duplicates of all these. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. cannons. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. L. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. BE. as shown in Fig. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. engines. New York City. but it is a mistake to try to do this. battery zincs. --Contributed by A. The first thing to make is a molding bench. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. Two cleats. binding posts. whence it is soon tracked into the house. C. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. which may. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. 1 . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. as shown. It is possible to make molds without a bench. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. If there is no foundry Fig. small machinery parts. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. ornaments of various kinds.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . AA.

white metal. by 6 in. and a sieve. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed.near at hand. The flask. by 8 in. high. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. as shown. and saw it in half longitudinally. but this operation will be described more fully later on. 1. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. If desired the sieve may be homemade. F. G.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. previous to sawing. is shown more clearly in Fig. say 12 in. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. will be required." or upper half. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The cloth bag. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. makes a very good sieve. is nailed to each end of the cope. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which can be made of a knitted stocking. DD. the "cope. and the lower pieces. which can be either aluminum. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 2. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. is made of wood. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. E. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. Fig. J. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. as shown. Fig." or lower part. The dowels. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. An old teaspoon. is filled with coal dust. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. and the "drag. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and this. A slight shake of the bag Fig. is about the right mesh.How to Make a Mold [96] . A A. 1. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. CC. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A wedge-shaped piece. a little larger than the outside of the flask. CC. which should be nailed in. 2 . H. II . are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. The rammer. If the box is not very strong. D. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. try using sand from other sources.

A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. In finishing the ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. as described. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as shown at C. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as it is much easier to learn by observation. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and by grasping with both hands. in order to remove the lumps. The sand is then ready for molding. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. and then more sand is added until Fig. or "drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It is then rammed again as before.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed." in position. and thus judge for himself. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. Place another cover board on top. After ramming. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or "cope. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. turn the drag other side up." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. and if water is added. as shown at E. and scatter about 1/16 in. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. as shown at D. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. where they can watch the molders at work. the surface of the sand at . but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial.

the next operation is that of melting and pouring. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at H. is next cut. as shown in the sketch. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in diameter. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. III. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. to give the air a chance to escape. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. . which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. as shown at H. wide and about 1/4 in. made out of steel rod. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. after being poured. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at F. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. Fig. it shows that the sand is too wet. The "sprue. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. thus holding the crucible securely. This is done with a spoon. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. deep. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. in order to prevent overheating. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. and then pour. Place a brick or other flat. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. thus making a dirty casting. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. After drawing the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. place the cope back on the drag. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream." or pouring-hole. as shown at J.E should be covered with coal-dust. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at G. The next operation is that of cutting the gate.

aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. and. may be used in either direction. --Contributed by Harold S. the following device will be found most convenient. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but any reasonable number may be used. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. and the casting is then ready for finishing. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. although somewhat expensive. white metal and other scrap available. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. 15% lead. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Referring to the figure. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In my own case I used four batteries. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Although the effect in the illustration . or from any adjacent pair of cells. battery zincs. babbitt. Minneapolis. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. used only for zinc. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. If a good furnace is available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. is very desirable. Morton.

The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. backward. 3/4 in. shaft made. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. If desired. may be made of hardwood. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . 2. Make one of these pieces for each arm. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. The bearings. B. Fig. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. as shown in the illustration.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Then replace the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. A. By replacing the oars with paddles. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. outward. as shown at A. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. To make it take a sheet-iron band. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. The brass rings also appear distorted. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Then walk down among the audience. Chicago. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. B. connected by cords to the rudder. which will be sufficient to hold it. Put a sharp needle point.

This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. The hubs. being simply finely divided ice. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. or under pressure. Fig. Snow. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. or the paint will come off. and a weight. should be made of wood. A block of ice. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. as shown in Fig. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. C. If galvanized iron is used. A.melted babbitt. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. but when in motion. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 1. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. It may seem strange that ice . 1. 2. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. E. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. 3. The covers. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. In the same way. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. 2 and 3. If babbitt is used. 1. spoiling its appearance. when it will again return to its original state. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. W. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. D. as shown in Fig. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball.

which resembles ice in this respect.. Lane. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. as shown on page 65. P. whenever there is any connection made at all. Crafton. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 1/4. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. as per sketch. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. thus giving a high resistance contact. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . brass. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 2 in. but by placing it between books. it will gradually change from the original shape A. --Contributed by Gordon T. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. square. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. or supporting it in some similar way. Pressing either push button. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. Pa. in. by 5 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. and assume the shape shown at B. but. B. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. by 1/2 in.should flow like water. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. The current is flowing through both bells all the time.

E. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. J. vertical lever. K . In the wiring diagram. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. wooden supports. and five dry batteries. The parts are: A. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. weight. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. F. G. draft.000 ft. alarm clock. C. B. B. Indianapolis. the battery. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. cord. G. draft chain.thumb screws. about the size used for automobiles. Ward. furnace. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Wilkinsburg. I. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. H. pulleys. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. D. the induction coil. horizontal lever. and C. The success depends upon a slow current. as shown. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Pa. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. --Contributed by A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. A is the circuit breaker. as shown. a key or push-button for completing the circuit.

which will provide a fine place for the plants. will fit nicely in them. material framed together as shown in Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. such as used for a storm window. where house plants are kept in the home. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Mich. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Kalamazoo. 2 are dressed to the right angle. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. The frame (Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. as well as the bottom.

this must be done with very great caution. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and a suitable source of power. in diameter. This is more economical than dry cells. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. --Contributed by Wm. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. in this connection. N. where they are glad to have them taken away.. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Halifax. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. i.. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. by connecting them in series. Canada. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. However. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. but maintain the voltage constant. so as to increase the current..An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. as indicated by Fig. S. However. as if drawn upon for its total output. and will give the . in any system of lamps. a cork and a needle. 1 cp. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. W. is something that will interest the average American boy. Grant. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. multiples of series of three. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. e. for some time very satisfactorily. 1. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. after a rest. one can regulate the batteries as required. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Push the needle into the cork. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Thus. 1 each complete with base. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. can be connected up in series. A certain number of these. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. and cost 27 cents FIG. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. It must be remembered. since a battery is the most popular source of power. The 1/2-cp. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and the instrument will then be complete. which sells for 25 cents.

and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and for Christmas trees. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. making. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. according to the water pressure obtainable. where the water pressure is the greatest. generates the power for the lights. and then lead No. or 22 lights. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. each. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. we simply turn on the water. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. 11 series. Chicago. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. lamp. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. 1-cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 18 B & S. So. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and diffused light in a room. 3. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Thus. although the first cost is greater. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. if wound for 6 volts.. especially those of low internal resistance. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. These will give 3 cp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Fig. and cost about the same as a 32-cp.proper voltage. In conclusion. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. . Thus. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. If wound for 10 volts. However. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. by the proper combination of these. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. FIG. to secure light by this method. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. for display of show cases. 2 shows the scheme. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. lamps. double insulated wire wherever needed. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. as in Fig. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. which is the same as that of one battery. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. lamps. and running the series in parallel. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp.

A. BB. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. outside points of switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. we were not bothered with them. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. or from one pattern. thus reversing the machine. To reverse the motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. brushes of motor. and the sides. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. After I connected up my induction coil. CC. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or a tempting bone. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. switch. Parker. --Contributed by F. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Plymouth. B. AA. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. A indicates the ground. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. are cut just alike. simply change the switch. as shown in the sketch. DD. B. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. bars of pole-changing switch. and C. --Contributed by Leonard E. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. . center points of switch. Santa Clara. Cal. a bait of meat. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Ind. Emig. field of motor.

which is in the door. A. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. Hutchinson. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B. Melchior. W. San Jose. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. as it is the key to the lock. The button can be hidden. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The experiment works best . 903 Vine St. If it is not.. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Cal. a hammer. and a table or bench. one cell being sufficient. Minn. To unlock the door. thus locking the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. a piece of string. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B.

Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. run through a pulley. in the ceiling and has a window weight. P. 3. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. forming a loop. I. --Contributed by Geo. W. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 4). Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. as shown in Fig. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. which pulls the draft open. where it will remain suspended as shown. C. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Crawford Curry. 18 Gorham St.Contributed by F. -. Madison. 3. 1). --Contributed by Edward Whitney. . When the alarm rings in the early morning. Canada. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Wis. the stick falls away. Brockville. Culebra. 2. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. the current flows with the small arrows.. Ontario. D. the key turns. A.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. attached at the other end. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Porto Rico. Schmidt. releasing the weight.

a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. including the mouthpiece. running one direct to the receiver. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. 6 in. which fasten to the horn. get two pieces of plate glass. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. N. and then to the receiver. Jr. and the other to the battery. and . These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. S. First. Connect two wires to the transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. or from a bed of flowers. or tree. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. --Contributed by Wm. Camden.. J. J. and break the corners off to make them round. thence to a switch. Use a barrel to work on. Farley. The cut shows the arrangement. made with his own hands. R. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. square and 1 in. thick. D. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph.

A. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. twice the focal length away. or it will not polish evenly. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Fasten. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. also rotate the glass. melt 1 lb. and spread on the glass. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. in length.. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. with 1/4-in. with pitch. wetting it to the consistency of cream. using straight strokes 2 in. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. wet till soft like paint. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. then 8 minutes. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. set the speculum against the wall. Use a binger to spread it on with. or less. 2. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When polishing the speculum. Have ready six large dishes. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. In a dark room. Then warm and press again with the speculum. a round 4-in. and a large lamp. Fig. by the side of the lamp. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. while walking around the barrel. wide around the convex glass or tool. the coarse grinding must be continued. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. as in Fig. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. so the light . after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. When dry. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. When done the glass should be semitransparent. then take 2 lb. 1. and the under glass or tool convex. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and label. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. unless a longer focal length is wanted. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. of water. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. spaces. L.. Fig. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. 2. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and is ready for polishing.

. Fig. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Then add solution B. as in K. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. 39 gr.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. When the focus is found. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 4 oz. longer strokes. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Then add 1 oz. or hills. face down. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. touched with rouge. long to the back of the speculum. also how the rays R from a star .. With pitch. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 100 gr. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.. cement a strip of board 8 in. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Place the speculum S. Solution D: Sugar loaf .…………………………….………………………………. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Fig. the speculum will show some dark rings.……………. 4 oz. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 25 gr. that was set aside. The knife should not be more than 6 in. When dry. Two glass or earthenware dishes. must be procured. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Nitric acid . The polishing and testing done. then ammonia until bath is clear. deep. 840 gr.100 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Place the speculum. Now add enough of the solution A. 2. If not. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Fig. from the lamp. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. with distilled water. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. if a hill in the center. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. fill the dish with distilled water.. Silver nitrate ……………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. 2. Alcohol (Pure) …………….

The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Then I made the one described. slightly wider than the lens mount. which proves to be easy of execution. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. long and cost me just $15. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. My telescope is 64 in.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. is a satisfactory angle. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. and proceed as for any picture.John E. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Make the tube I of sheet iron. telescope can be made at home. deg. Thus an excellent 6-in. Place over lens. . using strawboard and black paper. stop down well after focusing. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. About 20. The flatter they are the less they will distort. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. two glass prisms. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment.. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Mellish. cover with paper and cloth.

add the plaster gradually to the water. Boody. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. B. . 1. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. To unlock. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. -Contributed by A. as shown in Fig. through the lens of the camera and on the board. instead of the contrary. 2. Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. but will not preserve its hardening. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Ill. Zimmerman. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The paper is exposed. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. complete the arrangement. or powdered alum. Do not stir it. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. then add a little sulphate of potash. D. and reflect through the negative. unobstructed light strike the mirror. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. A. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. push the button D. says the Master Painter. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The rays of the clear.

Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. use a string. also provide them with a handle. 3. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as at A and B. throw . 2. so that it can rotate about these points. Then blow through the spool. To reverse. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Fig. 2. as in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 1). thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as shown in the sketch.

A is the electricbell magnet. although this is not necessary. --Contributed by R. rinse in alcohol.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. --Contributed by Geo. the armature. binding posts. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. wash in running water. D. L. San Antonio. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. . Neb. as shown in the sketch. carbons. Levy. Push one end of the tire into the hole. and rub dry with linen cloth. Tex. Tex. Go McVicker. North Bend. and E E. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Thomas. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. B. San Marcos. -Contributed by Morris L. carbon sockets. In the sketch. Take out. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. C C. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.

It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. --Contributed by Joseph B. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 16 magnet wire. long or more. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Brooklyn. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 14 or No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. wound evenly about this core. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Bell. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. By means of two or more layers of No. 36 magnet wire.

so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. After the core wires are bundled. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. When cut and laid in one continuous length. one piece of the paper is laid down. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. which is desirable. at a time. wide. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. a box like that shown in Fig.which would be better to buy ready-made. about 6 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. hole is bored in the center of one end. or 8 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. No. Beginning half an inch from one end. diameter. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. A 7/8-in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. as shown in Fig. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. 4. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. 1. in diameter. 2 yd. making two layers. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This makes a condenser which may be folded. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. in length. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. as the maker prefers. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. long and 2-5/8 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. The following method of completing a 1-in. which is an important factor of the coil. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. long and 5 in. The condenser is next wrapped . then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. In shaping the condenser. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. with room also for a small condenser. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. then the strip of tin-foil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious.

in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. bell. I. The alarm key will turn and drop down. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Fig. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. to the door. open switch C. one from bell. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. which allows wiring at the back. by 12 in. C. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. and one from battery.. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. round so that the inside . but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the other sheet. switch. 4 in.securely with bands of paper or tape. G. spark. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. V-shaped copper strip. lines H. which is insulated from the first. D. shelf for clock. copper lever with 1-in. wide. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. long and 12 in. whole length. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. B.) The wiring diagram. A. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. E. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. B. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. go. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. battery . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. forms the other pole or terminal. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. 3. long to key. F. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. ready for assembling. the letters indicate as follows: A. shows how the connections are made. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. flange turned on one side. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour.

2 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. but add 5 or 6 oz. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. If desired for use immediately. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. do not shortcircuit. This is for blowing. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. but with the circuit. That is what they are for. of zinc sulphate. says the Model Engineer. Short-circuit for three hours. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. of blue stone. Use a glass or metal shade. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. and the battery is ready for use. .. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. and then rivet the seam. London. The circuit should also have a high resistance. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. from the bottom. Line the furnace. instead of close to it.diameter is 7 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat.

" which created much merriment. Outside of the scientific side involved. for some it will turn one way. below the bottom of the zinc. If too low. g. thus producing two different vibrations. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and then. herein I describe a much better trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and therein is the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Enlarge the hole slightly. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified.. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. but the thing would not move at all. porcelain and paper. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. the second finger along the side. square and about 9 in.9 of a volt. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Ohio. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Try it and see. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. long. 1. changes white phosphorus to yellow. for others the opposite way. grip the stick firmly in one hand. oxygen to ozone. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. At least it is amusing. affects . This type of battery will give about 0. 2. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To operate the trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. as in the other movement. or think they can do the same let them try it. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. imparting to them a violet tinge. If any or your audience presume to dispute.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.

These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. insects. says the Photographic Times. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. To the front board is attached a box. if possible. an old tripod screw. but not essential. however. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and one of them is photomicrography. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but this is less satisfactory. a short-focus lens.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. chemicals. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a means for holding it vertical. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but small flowers. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. earth.

Divide one-quarter of the circle . 6 ft. 5 ft. 7 ft. 113 7 lb. in diameter. 5 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 11 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 8 ft. balloon. CD. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 7-1/2 in. Fig. 179 11 lb.--Contributed by George C. If the balloon is 10 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. AB. 7-1/2 in. which is 15 ft. A line. 268 17 lb. Cap. 65 4 lb. long and 3 ft. 9 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Madison. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. in Cu. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 381 24 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. or 31 ft. while it is not so with the quill. Boston. Mass. 905 57 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 12 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 697 44 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. or 3 ft. and a line. The following table will give the size. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 1.

2. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. of the very best heavy body. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. of beeswax and boil well together.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. on the curved line from B to C. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. and so on. 70 thread. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. The amounts necessary for a 10- . If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The cloth segments are sewed together. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This test will show if the bag is airtight. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Procure 1 gal. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. using a fine needle and No. 4. keeping the marked part on the outside. The pattern is now cut. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 3. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Repeat this operation four times. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly.

capacity and connect them. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of gas in one hour. if it is good it will dry off. ]. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. B. using a fine brush. leaving the hand quite clean. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. The 3/4-in. Water 1 oz. of sulphuric acid. C. until no more dirt is seen. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. balloon are 125 lb. 5 . . washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. with the iron borings. with water 2 in. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. 5. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine.Green Iron ammonium citrate . A. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. In the barrel. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. oil the spindle holes carefully. with 3/4in. 1 lb. A. of iron borings and 125 lb. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. as shown in Fig. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. A. B. After washing a part. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. by fixing. All FIG. above the level of the water in barrel A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. this should be repeated frequently. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. or dusting with a dry brush. it is not fit to use. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. or a fan. The outlet. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. ft. 150 gr. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. . but if any grease remains on the hand. to the bag. pipe. a clean white rag. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. B. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. When the clock has dried. About 15 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. Fill the other barrel. Vegetable oils should never be used. of iron. which may sound rather absurd. 1 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of water will make 4 cu..ft. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. C.

Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. and a vigorous negative must be used. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. and keep in the dark until used. The positive pole. or battery. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. keeping the fingers out of the solution. or zinc. or carbon. A cold. fix in hypo. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. The miniature 16 cp. at the time of employment.. Exposure. Dry in the dark. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. This aerial collector can be made in . but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Port Melbourne.000 ft. dry atmosphere will give best results. Printing is done in the sun. Dry the plates in the dark. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. of any make. The negative pole. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. . A longer exposure will be necessary. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. says the Moving Picture World. to avoid blackened skin. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. . of the cell is connected to the aerial line. toning first if desired.Water 1 oz. 20 to 30 minutes.

either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. in diameter. This will complete the receiving station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. both positive and negative. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. If the waves strike across the needle. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and as less current will flow the short way. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. making a ground with one wire. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. a positive and a negative. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. will soon become dry and useless. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. when left exposed to the air. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. the resistance is less. and have the other connected with another aerial line. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. The storage cell. long. lay a needle. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. 5 in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. lead pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. If the wave ceases. holes . In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in.various ways. as described below. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. forming a cup of the pipe. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell.

or tube C. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This support or block. This box can be square. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. does not need to be watertight. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. except for about 1 in. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. a round one. B. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. D. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup.as possible. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. by soldering the joint. or tube B. Two binding-posts should be attached. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. and the other to the negative. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This. says the Pathfinder. one to the positive. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. of course. an oblong one and a triangular one. on each end. namely: a square hole. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells.

were fitted by this one plug. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. wide. as shown in Fig. 2. and match them together. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Ill. The third piece of brass. back and under. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 3. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. in place on the wood. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. Chicago. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 1. deep and 4 ft. Only galvanized nails should be used. . using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. thick cut two pieces alike. 2. A and B. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. long. about 20 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. This punt. as shown in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. as it is not readily overturned. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. is built 15 ft. 1. C. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. wide. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. all around the edge. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards.

long and fitted with a thumbscrew.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. B. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. In Fig. gas pipe. is cut 1 in. Tacoma. A piece of 1/4-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Wash. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. square (Fig 2).

and to consume. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which the writer has made." has no connection with the outside circuit. it had to be borne in mind that. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. or "rotor. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no special materials could be obtained. says the Model Engineer. may be of interest to some of our readers. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. lamp. Wagner. In designing. The winding of the armature. without auxiliary phase. with the exception of insulated wire. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. no more current than a 16-cp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. if possible.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. which can be developed in the usual manner. H.

The stator is wound full with No. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. B. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 4. Holes 5-32 in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. and all sparking is avoided. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. bolts put in and tightened up. as shown in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. holes. C. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. They are not particularly accurate as it is. were then drilled and 1/4-in. 5. this little machine is not self-starting. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. After assembling a second time. or "stator. in diameter were drilled in the corners. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. also varnished before they were put in. thick. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. no steel being obtainable. being used. as shown in Fig. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. about 2-1/2 lb. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. while the beginnings . and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 3. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. to be filed out after they are placed together. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. with the dotted line. and filled with rivets. Unfortunately. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. A.the field-magnet. wrought iron. 2. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. 1. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in.

and the other by reduction in the camera. N. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. it would be very simple to build. In making slides by contact. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Jr. If too late for alcohol to be of use. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and as the motor runs at constant speed. a regulating resistance is not needed. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. E. as shown in Fig. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. One is by contact. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways.. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. if applied immediately. McKinney. 2. No starting resistance is needed. and especially of colored ones. and would not easily get out of order. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. J. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. having no commutator or brushes. The rotor is wound with No. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The image should . To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. This type of motor has drawbacks. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Newark. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. as before stated.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. and all wound in the same direction. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 1. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. and as each layer of wire was wound. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. film to film. as a means of illustrating songs. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 3-Contributed by C. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in.

as shown in Fig.appear in. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 2. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. B. It is best. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. These can be purchased from any photo material store. they are much used by travelers. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. C. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 4. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. If the exposure has been correct. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. 1. also. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Select a room with one window. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Being unbreakable. and then a plain glass. 3. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 5. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . a little extra work will be necessary. about a minute. if possible. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. to use a plain fixing bath. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. over the mat. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Draw lines with a pencil. D. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. as shown in Fig. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Fig. except that the binding is different. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. A.

16 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. wide and 50 in. in diameter and 20 in. from the ends. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the end piece of the chair. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. These longer pieces can be made square. Fig. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. while the dot will be in front of the other. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Fig. Hastings. is to be used for the seat. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Vt. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. long. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. from the center of this dot draw a star.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. as shown in Fig. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. long. 1. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. holes bored in the end pieces. 2. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. as shown at A. Corinth. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. or other stout cloth. in diameter and 40 in. known as rods and cones. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. as shown at B. 1. A piece of canvas.

which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. . Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. 2. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. A belt. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.-Contributed by P.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A disk 1 in. 1. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. O'Gara. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Cal. J. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as shown in Fig. Auburn. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. as well as to operate other household machines. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. made from an ordinary sash cord. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. per square inch. in thickness and 10 in.

screwing it through the nut. thick and 2-1/2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. it serves a very useful purpose. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. direction. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. will be the thickness of the object. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. . long. leaving it shaped like a bench. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. or inconvenient to measure. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. square for a support. A simple. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The part of a rotation of the bolt. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. says the Scientific American. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Bore a 1/4-in. 3/4 in. with as fine a thread as possible. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. wide. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and the construction is complete. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. to the top of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Put the bolt in the hole. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. then removing the object.

globe that has been thrown away as useless. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. bolt in each hole. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. long is used for the center pole. Place a 3/4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. which show up fine at night. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. beyond the end of the wood. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Santa Maria. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Oal. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. piece of wood 12 ft. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Bore a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. long. The wheel should be open . material 12 ft.

-Contributed by A. pieces used for the spokes. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. 1/2 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B.Side and Top View or have spokes. wide and 1/8 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. C. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. long. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. long. A piece of brass 2 in. Tex. The coil. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. to be operated by the magnet coil. made of the same material. and the lower part 61/2 in. and on its lower end a socket. The spool . thick. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. L. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. from the top end. at the bottom. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. of the ends with boards. is soldered. H and J. A. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. in diameter. at the top and 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. thick is used for the armature. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. C. O. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. P. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Fort Worth. long. Graham. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. B. long. from the ends. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. which should be 1/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. thick. square and 3 or 4 in. A cross bar.

B. long. Mass. and in numerous other like instances. S. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. S. for insulating the brass ferrule. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. The armature. which may be had by using German silver wire. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.000. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. do it without any apparent effort. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.is about 2-1/2 in.J. When you slide the pencil along the casing. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. This tie can be used on grain sacks. then with a firm. F. . is drilled. 2. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.E. D and E. Randolph. that holds the lower carbon. one without either rubber or metal end. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. or a water rheostat heretofore described. This is a very neat trick if performed right. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.000 for irrigation work. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. 2 the hat hanging on it. R. --Contributed by Arthur D. 1. and place it against a door or window casing.--A. Bradlev. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. A. At the bottom end of the frame. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. by soldering. C. and directly centering the holes H and J. A soft piece of iron. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core.

S. in diameter and 1/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. long and 1 in. B. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. D. leaving the projections as shown. from the core and directly opposite. for adjustment.500 turns of No. The core of the coil. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. for the secondary. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. long. hole in the center. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Experiment with Heat [134] . of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. S. The coil ends are made from cardboard. thick. about 1/8 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. Fig. in diameter. mixed with water to form a paste. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. for the primary. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. and then 1. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. wide. in diameter. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. About 70 turns of No. in diameter and 2 in. F. Fig. about 3/16 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. 1. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 1. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The vibrator B. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The vibrator. A. about 1 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 2. with a 3/16-in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. C. is constructed in the usual manner. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The switch. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. may be made from a 3/8-in.

says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. in an ordinary water glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. board. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. 16 in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which is cut with two holes.Place a small piece of paper. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. which is only 3/8-in. which seemed to be insufficient. brass plate. Fig. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 2 to fit the two holes. thick on the inside. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. and the same distance inside of the new board. The hasp. between the boards. The knob on the dial extends out too far. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. with which to operate the dial. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 1. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. wide. as shown in the sketch. The tin is 4 in. long and when placed over the board. as shown. it laps down about 8 in. lighted. was to be secured by only three brass screws. . and then well clinched. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. 1. The lock. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section.

which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. When making of wood. which completely divides the box into two parts. clear glass as shown. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. If the box is made large enough. or in the larger size mentioned. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. high for use in window displays. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. but when the front part is illuminated. black color. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. and the back left dark.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. not shiny. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. any article placed therein will be reflected in. When the rear part is illuminated. square and 10-1/2 in. square and 8-1/2 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . one in each division.

a tank 2 ft. and with the proper illumination one is changed. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. into the other. as shown in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as shown at A in the sketch. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. . wide will be about the right size. as it appears. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.. above the top of the tank. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. When using as a window display. When there is no electric current available. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. long and 1 ft. alternately. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. however. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. each. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. 5 ft. is the green vitriol. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. dried and mixed with linseed oil. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. or ferrous sulphate.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. This precipitate is then washed. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. high. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. and 6 ft. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. with a length of 13 in. square and 40 in. long. radius. and a solution of iron sulphate added. O. wide. long. Shape the under sides first. bore from each end. hole. under sides together. thick and 3 in. from the ground. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The 13-in. using a 3/4-in. and a door in front. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. 2 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. lines gauged on each side of each. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Iron sulphate. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. If a planing mill is near. is built on the front. as shown. 6 in. one for each side. 1 in. A small platform. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Columbus. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The pieces can then be taken out. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole bored the full length through the center. square. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. gauge for depth. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This hole must be continued . bit. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Three windows are provided. wide. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. but with a length of 12 in.

Electric globes--two. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. three or four may be attached as shown. if shade is purchased." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. When the filler has hardened. apply two coats of wax. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. When this is dry. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The sketch shows one method of attaching.through the pieces forming the base. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. If the parts are to be riveted. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. square and drawing a diagonal on each. For art-glass the metal panels are . sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Saw the two blocks apart. A better way. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. thick and 3 in. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper.

the other. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. Figure 1 shows the side. The arms holding the glass. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . 2 the front view of this stand. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. the object and the background. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. one way and 1/2 in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and Fig. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. as shown in the sketch. as in ordinary devices.

and swinging freely. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. in diameter. pointing north and south. An ordinary pocket compass. as shown in the sketch. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . and an inside diameter of 9 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. If the light becomes dim. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. about 1-1/4 in. long. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. as shown in the cut. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Put the ring in place on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. in diameter for a base. thick 5/8-in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. outside diameter. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. channel in the circumference of the ring. as it is very poisonous. Before mounting the ring on the base. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. thus forming a 1/4-in. wide and 11 in. uncork and recork again. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. wide and 6-5/16 in.

182 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.289 . 1 oz.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. into these cylinders. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. The results given should be multiplied by 1. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.420 . B. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. and north of the Ohio river.865 1.600 . EE. above the half can. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. AA. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and mirrors. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Corresponding mirrors. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. of the top.088 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. CC. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of copper.500 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.715 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Place on top the so- . are mounted on a base. in diameter and 8 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. from the second to the third. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.

This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. the wheel will revolve in one direction. 62 gr. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. slender bottle. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. alcohol. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. says Metal Worker. then they will not rust fast.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Colo. which otherwise remains clear. always remove the oil with a siphon. University Park. When renewing. of pulverized campor. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. little crystals forming in the liquid. Put the solution in a long. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. In Fig. 31 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.

The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Lloyd Enos. If zinc and copper are used. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Solder in the side of the box .A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. about 1-1/4 in. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. A paper-fastener box. If zinc and carbon are used. Attach to the wires. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. on the under side of the cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. This is used in place of the spoon. --Contributed by C. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.

is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. G--No. Thos. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. long that has about 1/4-in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Bore holes for binding-posts. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. D. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. D. E. or made with a little black paint. F. hole. to it. 14 wire will do. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. B. as shown in Fig. brass tubing. The bottom of the box. of wire on each end extending from the coil.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. 1/2. away. of No. is made from a piece of No. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. and on the other around the glass tube. wide and 6 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Put ends. A.in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. A circular piece of cardboard. thick.not shorter than 18 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. 10 wire about 10 in.Contributed by J. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. C. If the hose is not a tight fit. wide and 2-1/2 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The spring should be about 1 in. Rhamstine. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . B. and then solder on the cover. H. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. To this standard solder the supporting wire. A. Use a board 1/2. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. glass tubing . Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. long. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. The base. 1-1/4 in. piece of 1/4-in. one on each side of the board. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. E. 1. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.1-in. . stained and varnished.in. C. 3 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. can be made of oak. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. D. The standard. Wind evenly about 2 oz.

long. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. of 8-oz. 5. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. . D. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.--Contributed by R. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. two pieces 2 ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 2. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. The iron plunger. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. four hinges. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long. 3 in. N. 3. in diameter. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb. 3-in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. canvas. When the glass becomes soft. Smith. 1. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Cuba. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long are used for the legs. Wis.of the coil. J. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. from the right hand. about 1 in. as shown in Fig. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Y. Milwaukee. E. making a support as shown in Fig. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. of mercury will be sufficient. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Teasdale.--Contributed by Edward M. of No.

The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. The tube now must be filled completely. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. expelling all the air. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. holding in the left hand. Take 1/2 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Break off the piece of glass.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. leaving 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 3. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. long. --Contributed by David A. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 6. thus leaving a. Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Toronto. 2. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 5. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. small aperture in the long tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. This tube as described will be 8 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Measure 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 4. Can. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in.. of vacuum at the top.

says a correspondent of Camera Craft. and 1/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wood screws. A crosspiece 3/4-in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft. thick. 7. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. joint be accurately put together. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3. 3 in. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. as shown in Fig. long. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 2. but yellow pine is the best. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. as shown in Fig.6 -. 1. This forms a slot.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. in diameter. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 5. material 2 in. FIG. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 1 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. 6. and the single projection 3/4 in. 4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. long. 3 in. 9 in. 1 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. wide and 5 ft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Fig. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. thick. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. wide and 12 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. from the end of same. Four blocks 1/4 in. with each projection 3-in. 4. These are bent and nailed. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 3 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. long.

by 1-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Welsh. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. says Photography.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. first removing the crank. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Water 1 oz. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. . Manhattan. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. above the runner level. --Contributed by C. Kan. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. R. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake.

fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 1 oz. 1. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. and very much cheaper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Leominster.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. The print is washed. --Contributed by Edward M. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Mass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Printing is carried rather far. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. from an ordinary clamp skate. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. of water. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 2. Treasdale. also. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. . --Contributed by Wallace C. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. Newton. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. This is done with a camel's hair brush. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 3. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. as shown in Fig. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws.

fasten a 2-in. Fig. Then. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. 1 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. --Contributed by H. Fig. as shown in the sketch. hole. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and 3 ft. F. The thread is broken off at the . This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. long. extending the width of the box. Place a 10-in. from one end. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. wide. causing the door to swing back and up. high. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. and to the bottom. say. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. which represents the back side of the door. wide and 4 in. Va. The swing door B. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. too. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1. with about 1/8-in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Church. high for rabbits. square piece. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 2. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Take two glass tubes. A. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1-1/2 ft. Alexandria. about 10 in. 1. and bend them as shown in the sketch.

but cut it 1/4 in. B. D. long. Crilly. and go in the holder in the same way. wide and 5 in. Jr. . Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. 3. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. shorter. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Fig. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. to be used as a driving pulley. from the edge on each side of these openings. Take two pieces of pasteboard. says Camera Craft. Chicago. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. inside of the opening. Fig.proper place to make a small hole. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. and exactly 5 by 7 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. plates. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. horses and dogs. camera and wish to use some 4. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5.by 7-in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through.. being 1/8 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. trolley cars. automobiles. This opening. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. wide. 1. in size. A and B. wide.by 5-in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. 10 in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. long. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by William M. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. shorter at each end. 2. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. high and 12 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 1 in. say 8 in. black surfaced if possible. Cut an opening in the other piece. Out two rectangular holes. in size. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. C.

This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. The needle will then point north and south. into which the dog is harnessed. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. long and 6 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. in diameter. if it has previously been magnetized. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. making a . wide will be required.in. A cell of this kind can easily be made.

pull out the wire as needed.watertight receptacle. sal ammoniac. B is a base of 1 in. beeswax melted together. and a notch between the base and the pan. says Electrician and Mechanic. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. pine. Do not paint any surface. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. 3/4 lb. one that will hold about 1 qt. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Form a 1/2-in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of the plate at one end. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. with narrow flanges. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. fuel and packing purposes. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Place the pan on the stove. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in.in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. 1/4 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. leaving about 1/2-in. zinc oxide. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. This makes the wire smooth. filter. in diameter and 6 in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. only the joints. for a connection. under the spool in the paraffin. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. fodder. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. . of water. of the top. of rosin and 2 oz. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. in which P is the pan. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. A is a block of l-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. short time. long which are copper plated. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Pack the paste in. when the paraffin is melted. F is a spool. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. 1 lb. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. plaster of paris. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. The details of the construction are given in the diagram.

in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. from vexation. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Enlarge the hole slightly. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and therein is the trick. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. long. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. by the Hindoos in India. for some it will turn one way. thus producing two different vibrations. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. let them try it. as in the other movement. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.. or think they can do the same. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. while for others it will not revolve at all. g. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Toledo.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Ohio. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig." which created much merriment. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and one friend tells me that they were . square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. but the thing would not move at all. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. 2. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Try it and see. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and he finally. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. for others the opposite way. At least it is amusing. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and then. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.

although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. the rotation may be obtained. The experiments were as follows: 1. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. rotation was obtained.100 r. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. 2. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. If the pressure was upon an edge. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 3. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. and I think the results may be of interest. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 6. no rotation resulted. m. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 5. 7. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. and. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. Thus a circular or . To operate. gave the best results. Speeds between 700 and 1. secondly. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. by means of a center punch. 4. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. p.

at first. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Duluth. A wire is tied around the can. the upper portion is.. G. a piece of wire and a candle. Lloyd. Minn. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. is driven violently away. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.D." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. so far as can be seen from the photographs. forming a handle for carrying. it will be clockwise. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. and the resultant "basket splash. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. . and the height of the fall about 6 in. unwetted by the liquid. C. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. D. as shown. --Contributed by G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Ph. or greasy. Sloan.. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. if the pressure is from the left. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Washington. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. A. --Contributed by M. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. long. flange and a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. about 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy ." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. axle. thick and 1 in. in diameter.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. 1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. with a 1/16-in.

and the locomotive is ready for running. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 3/4 in. bottom side up. These ends are fastened together. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. long. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. holes 1 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. of No. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Texas. San Antonio. Fuller. as shown in Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. are shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. with cardboard 3 in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. A trolley. as shown in Fig. bent as shown. The parts. which must be 110 volt alternating current. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. lamp in series with the coil. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. each in its proper place. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Fig. 2. or main part of the frame. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. This will save buying a track. 3. put together complete. 6. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place.brass. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 3. 4. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. If the ends are to be soldered. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 2. The first piece. is made from brass. 5.50. wood. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The current. Fig. The motor is now bolted. is made from a piece of clock spring. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.

Cincinnati. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. and holes drilled in them. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. 3. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in Fig. Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. O. When cold treat the other end in the same way. 1. but do not heat the center. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Fig 1. the length of a paper clip. 2. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. The quarter will not go all the way down. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. and as this end . Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. then continue to tighten much more. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed.

One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. In the sketch. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. or apparent security of the knot. A pair of centers are fitted. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. When the cutter A. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. When the trick is to be performed. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. and adjusted . In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear.

spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Second row: -Two book marks. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . When connecting to batteries. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. watch fob ready for fastenings. and a nut pick. In this manner gears 3 in. such as brass or marble.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). 2.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. (3. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. gentleman's card case or bill book. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. note book. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. twisted around itself and soldered. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Brooklyn. if four parts are to be alike. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Make on paper the design wanted. Bott. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. --Contributed by Howard S. long. (1. draw center lines across the required space.to run true. 1. swing lathe. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). N. Fig. Y. Fold over along these center lines. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. lady's card case. book mark. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. or one-half of the design. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (4. at the same time striking light. (2. dividing it into as many parts as desired. trace the outline. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. tea cosey. coin purse. holding it in place with the left hand. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. above the surface. Bunker. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. blotter back. if but two parts. (5. lady's belt bag.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (6. The frame holding the mandrel. --Contributed by Samuel C. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. about 1-1/2 in. An ordinary machine will do. tea cosey.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.

or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. from Key West. A. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. B. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a distance of 900 miles.C. where it condenses. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. D. into which fit a small piece of tube. and push it through a cork. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. C. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and bore a hole through the center. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. If the needle is not horizontal. The electrodes are made . Thrust a pin. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Florida.

for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 20 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. which is tacked to the front edge. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. use 10-ft. using a high resistance receiver. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. thick. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. C. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 3. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. long. 2. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. long. If 20-ft. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 1-1/4 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. long for the body of the operator. several strips 1/2 in. 1/2. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 3/4 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 1.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. long. thick. --Contributed by Edwin L. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. thick. thick. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1. slacken speed and settle. thick. wide and 3 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. long. lumber cannot be procured. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. or flying-machine. 12 uprights 1/2 in. by 3/4 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 2. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight.in. Powell. Four long beams 3/4 in. 16 piano wire. Washington. D. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. All wiring is done with No. 1. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. free from knots. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The operator can then land safely and . wide and 3 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. wide and 4 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. To make a glide. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 4 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. take the glider to the top of a hill. as shown in Fig. 2 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. square and 8 ft long. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 1-1/2 in. wide and 4 ft long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. long. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. lengths and splice them. as shown in Fig. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. both laterally and longitudinally. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. apart and extend 1 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. Of course. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet.

Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. M. half man and half horse. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Bellingham. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. When heated a little. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. --Contributed by L. 2. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. as shown in Fig. which causes the dip in the line. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Olson.exercised in making landings. a creature of Greek mythology. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.

wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. long. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. this will cost about 15 cents. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. square. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. will complete the material list.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. about the size of door screen wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. long and about 3/8 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. at the other. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. a piece of brass or steel wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. outside the box. The light from the . To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. 14 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. of small rubber tubing. in diameter. making it 2-1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator.

leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Dayton. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. M. 2. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig. . O. as shown in Fig. 1. Hunting. as shown in the sketch. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. --Photo by M. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. while others will fail time after time. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. This is very simple when you know how.

and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as shown. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . This game is played by five persons. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. hold the lump over the flame. then put it on the hatpin head. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. place the other two. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. closing both hands quickly. When the desired shape has been obtained. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. as before.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Cool in water and dry.

or more in width. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. distribute electric charges . This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. passing through neutralizing brushes.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

3. material 7 in. in diameter. in diameter. and pins inserted and soldered. long and the shank 4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. the side pieces being 24 in. free from wrinkles. long and the standards 3 in. 1. 3. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The two pieces. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. brass tubing and the discharging rods. EE. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The collectors are made. wide. 2. and 4 in. GG. after they are mounted. and of a uniform thickness. or teeth. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. D. C C. Fig. from about 1/4-in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. in diameter and 15 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The plates are trued up. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. in diameter. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 4. are made from 7/8-in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The drive wheels. are made from solid. These pins. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. as shown in Fig. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. long. The fork part is 6 in. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. RR. Two solid glass rods. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. and the outer end 11/2 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 1-1/2 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. as shown in Fig. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and this should be done before cutting the circle. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Fig. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. wide at one end. long. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. at the other. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. turned wood pieces. 3/4 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. to which insulating handles . The plates. Two pieces of 1-in. in diameter. 1 in.

The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D.. --Contributed by C. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Colorado City. Colo. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. KK. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the work was done by themselves. 12 ft. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . in diameter. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.are attached. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. wide and 22 ft. one having a 2-in. long. which are bent as shown. Lloyd Enos. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall.

Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. and bore a hole 1/2 in. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. deep. using a 1-in. bit. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. They can be used to keep pins and needles. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. string together. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. as at A. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. yet such a thing can be done. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch.is a good one. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. pens . The key will drop from the string. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut.

They are easily made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 9. about 3/4-in. Proceed as follows: 1. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. The second oblong was 3/4 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. etc. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. unless it would be the metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. 23 gauge. using a nail filed to chisel edge. very rapid progress can be made. This is to make a clean. then the other side. etc. file.. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. 2. or cigar ashes. 8. two spikes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. above the metal. 7.and pencils. flat and round-nosed pliers. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. 3. Use . rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. they make attractive little pieces to have about. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. stamp the background promiscuously. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the work and striking it with the hammer. slim screw. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. and the third one 1/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. inside the second on all. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Draw one-half the design free hand. 4. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 6. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Raise the ends. Inside this oblong. When the stamping is completed. 5.. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. sharp division between background and design. inside the first on all. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. extra metal on each of the four sides.

The eyes. third fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 10. and the effect will be most pleasing. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. second fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. In the first numbering. 6. first fingers. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 7. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 8. and fourth fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are .

. Still. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. the product of 12 times 12. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. renumber your fingers. above 20 times 20. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc.. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. or the product of 8 times 9. if we wish. 600. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. thumbs. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 12. etc. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. as high as you want to go. which would be 70.. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.. 25 times 25. 400. Put your thumbs together. 2 times 2 equals 4. Let us multiply 12 by 12. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. but being simple it saves time and trouble. which would be 16. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 11. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. or 60. Two times one are two. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. viz. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. above 15 times 15 it is 200. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. first fingers. there are no fingers above. etc. or the product of 6 times 6. At a glance you see four tens or 40. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. or numbers above 10. or 80. In the second numbering. which tens are added.

In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. For figures ending in 6. however. forties.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. And the lump sum to add. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. which is the half-way point between the two fives. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 8. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the value of the upper fingers being 20. thirties. 21. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the inversion takes place against his will. thumbs. in the case of a nearsighted person. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. further. not rotation. and so on. about a vertical axis. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. when he removes his spectacles. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. . the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the value which the upper fingers have. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. and. 3. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. or what. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. adding 400 instead of 100. The inversion and reversion did not take place. being 80). twenties. any two figures between 45 and 55. first finger 17. beginning the thumbs with 16. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. first fingers 22. lastly. Proceed as in the second lumbering. as one might suppose. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the lump sum to add. etc. 2. 75 and 85. 7. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. For example. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. or from above or from below. It takes place also. the revolution seems to reverse. at the will of the observer. Take For example 18 times 18.

Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. as . and putting a cork on the point. tee. A flat slide valve was used. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. sometimes the point towards him. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the other appearance asserts itself.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. when he knows which direction is right. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. The ports were not easy to make.

and make in one end a hollow. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. . How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Fasten the block solidly. Beating copper tends to harden it and. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Next take a block of wood. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Kutscher. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. saw off a section of a broom handle. The steam chest is round. across the head. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Ill. The eccentric is constructed of washers. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Springfield.. in diameter. H. inexpensive. If nothing better is at hand. deep. bottom side up. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. it is easily built. across and 1/2 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. if continued too long without proper treatment. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The tools are simple and can be made easily. While this engine does not give much power. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. apart. about 2 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. pipe 10 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. -Contributed by W. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. pipe.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. as in a vise. secure a piece of No. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in.

In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Hay. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. especially when the object is near to the observer. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. O. the other to the left. To produce color effects on copper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To overcome this hardness. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. --Contributed by W. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal. S. and. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.will cause the metal to break. Camden. C. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Vinegar. This process is called annealing. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.

The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because of the rays coming from them. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The further apart the pictures are. and without any picture. disappears fully. orange. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. with the stereograph. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. and lies to the right on the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the one for the left eye being blue. that for the right. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. . would serve the same purpose. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. while both eyes together see a white background. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. But they seem black. not two mounted side by side. although they pass through the screen.stereoscope." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. diameter. they must be a very trifle apart. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. because. The red portions of the picture are not seen. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. however. from the stereograph. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. So with the stereograph. it. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. the left eye sees through a blue screen. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. as for instance red and green. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In order to make them appear before the card. in the proper choice of colors. only the orange rays may pass through. It is just as though they were not there. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils.

The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. wide and 1 in. etc. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 1/4 in. Cal. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. 12 gauge wire. wireless. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. or the middle of the bottle. A No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. in diameter. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The weight of the air in round . thick. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Place a NO. San Francisco. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. long and a hole drilled in each end. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol.

Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. long. . but before attempting to put in the mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. long.. wide and 40 in. high.6) 1 in. Before fastening the scale. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. the contrary. a bottle 1 in. The 4 in. square. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. But if a standard barometer is not available. thick. 30 in. inside diameter and 2 in. will calibrate itself. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. square. if accurately constructed. the instrument. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or. 34 ft.numbers is 15 lb. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. pine 3 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. Only redistilled mercury should be used. if you choose. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. In general. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. and a slow fall. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. long. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. internal diameter and about 34 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. wide and 4 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. or a column of mercury (density 13. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. high. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame.

The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . long. 3. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. 5.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Number the pieces 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. the size of the outside of the bottle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. thick. 1. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Mark out seven 1-in. 6 and 7. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. wide and 10 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 2. Procure a metal can cover. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.

as shown in Fig. 5's place. 2 . 2's place. Move 8-Jump No. 3. Move 9-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 3-Move No. 6 to No. 1 to No. Make 22 sections. 1. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. l over No. N. 1. 6 into No. 3. Move 5-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. 7.Position of the Men move only one at a time. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. procure unbleached tent duck.J. Move ll-Jump No. Cape May Point. Move 12-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. 7's place. shaped like Fig. Move 4-Jump No. 2's place. 6 over No. 2. 7 over No. using checkers for men. 6 in. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 6. Move 13-Move No. L. Move 7-Jump No. 3 into No. long and 2 ft. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 5's place. 3. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6. Move 15-Move No. 2 over No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 6-Move No. 5 over No. in diameter. 5.-Contributed by W. This can be done on a checker board. 7 over No. 5 over No. Move 10-Move No. 3 to the center. 2. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 2 over No. each 10 ft. Woolson. 1 into No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 3 over No. To make such a tent.

wide at the bottom. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Fig. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. 6. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Emsworth. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. As shown in the sketch. as in Fig. Pa. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. 5) stuck in the ground. In raising the tent. After transferring the design to the brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Tress. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. from the top. fill with canvas edging. wide at the bottom. diameter. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. long. 2. Use blocks. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 2 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. added. Punch holes in the brass in . long and 4 in. Fig. These are ventilators. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide by 12 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 9 by 12 in. made in two sections. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. in diameter. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. will do. high. Nail a thin sheet of brass. 6-in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable.. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. --Contributed by G. leaving the rest for an opening. to a smooth board of soft wood. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in.J. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.in. Have the tent pole 3 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. round galvanized iron. 5. about 9 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 3 in.

The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When the edges are brought together by bending. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. excepting the 1/4-in. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. When all the holes are punched. bend into shape. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. . It will not. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together.the spaces around the outlined figures. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. but before punching the holes. Corr. apart. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. Chicago. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The pattern is traced as before. around the outside of the pattern.

The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. E. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. partially filled with cream. --Contributed by H. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Dunham. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. pipe is used for the hub. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Stevens. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. --Contributed by Geo. G. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. or. better still. Oregon. Badger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. between which is placed the fruit jar. allowing 2 ft. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. A 6-in. If a wheel is selected. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. or less. Mayger. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. A cast-iron ring. Que.. These pipes are . The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph.however. or center on which the frame swings.

This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. bent to the desired circle. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe clamps. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. An extra wheel 18 in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in.

The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. which was placed in an upright position. as shown in Fig. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. 3. 1. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. while doing this. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and dropped on the table. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and the guide withdrawn. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The performer.

make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by H. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Louis. in diameter on another piece of tin. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. and second. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. St. F. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Colo. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Denver. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Harkins. 1. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. first. White. in a half circle. Mo. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The box can be made of selected oak or . The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. 2. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. -Contributed by C. D.

wide and 6-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. fit into the runners. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. This will be 3/4 in.mahogany. high and 11 in. but not tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. from each end of the outside of the box. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. If a camera lens is used. 1. wide and 6-1/2 in. and 2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. Two or three holes about 1 in. wide. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide by 5 in. high and must . focal length. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. AA. 2. long and should be placed vertically. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. An open space 4 in. as shown in Fig. and. long. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. long. wide and 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 5-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. from each end. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light.

The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. then the second knuckle will be March. provided it is airtight. as it requires an airtight case. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. Bradley. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and so on. This process is rather a difficult one. the article may be propped up . --Contributed by Chas. April. and extending the whole height of the lantern. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. C. calling that knuckle January. calling this February. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. June and November. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown." etc. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen.. Ohio. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. 1. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.

The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. taking care to have all the edges closed. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. --Contributed by J. the lid or cover closed. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. . and set aside for half a day. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. N. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. 1 and 2. fruit jars are required. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. but waxed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. 2. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. In both Fig. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Crawford. Y. giving it an occasional stir. In each place two electrodes. H. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The top of a table will do. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and the lead 24 sq. or suspended by a string. 1. in. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. running small motors and lighting small lamps.with small sticks. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Schenectady. Pour in a little turpentine.

When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as you have held it all the time. you remove the glass. This trick is very simple.. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. You have an understanding with some one in the company. which you warm with your hands. he throws the other. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Cleveland. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. He. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. as well as others. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. After a few seconds' time. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces.

-Contributed by E. Colo. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. J. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Crocker. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. near a partition or curtain. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.take the handiest one. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. put it under the glass. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Be sure that this is the right one. Pull the ends quickly. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. if any snags are encountered. but by being careful at shores. but in making one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. on a table. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Victor. . in diameter in the center.

clear pine. Fig. by 8 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 11 yd. 3 in. by 15 ft. 1/4 in. as illustrated in the engraving. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 piece. and the other 12 in. one 6 in. of 1-yd. 1 in. thick and 3/4 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 1.. long. 8 yd.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1 mast. square by 16 ft. 1/8 in. wide and 12 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. and is removed after the ribs are in place. Paint. 3 in. long. by 16 ft. 3 and 4. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. and. long. screws and cleats. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 14 rib bands. are as follows: 1 keelson. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. Both ends are mortised. and fastened with screws. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. ducking. selected pine. wide. by 2 in. by 16 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. for center deck braces. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. drilled and fastened with screws. 7 ft. at the ends. of rope. apart. 1 in. by 10 ft. wide unbleached muslin. 4 outwales. by 12 in. 1 piece. 8 in.. from the stern. 1 in. 2 in. 2 gunwales. 9 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 2 in. is 14 ft. from the bow and the large one. for the stern piece. for cockpit frame. 50 ft. long. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. from each end to 1 in. 1 in. for the bow. 2 and braced with an iron band. The keelson. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide 12-oz. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . wide and 12 ft.

The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. corner braces. wide. wide and 3 ft. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 5. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Figs. long. These are put in 6 in. apart. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. screws. from the bow. Fig. gunwales and keelson. thick. also. A seam should be made along the center piece. 4 in. The deck is not so hard to do. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 9. wide and 24 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. They are 1 in. doubled. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. This block. and fastened to them with bolts. wide. Braces. The 11-yd. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. A 6-in. wood screws. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide and 14 in. The trimming is wood. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Fig. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. thick. A piece of oak.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick and 12 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. long is well soaked in water. long. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 1 in. A block of pine. 6 and 7. thick and 1/2 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. in diameter through the block. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 1/4 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. long. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 7 and 8. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 6. . a piece 1/4 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Before making the deck. 3-1/2 ft. thick 1-1/2 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 1 in.

With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 10 with a movable handle. Wilmette. A strip 1 in. Fig. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. long. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. --Contributed by O. in diameter and 10 ft. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. wide. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. thick by 2 in. E. is 6 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Tronnes. at the other.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. each 1 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. long. Ill. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. 12. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The keel. 11. apart in the muslin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The house will accommodate 20 families. . are used for the boom and gaff. wide at one end and 12 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The mast has two side and one front stay. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The sail is a triangle. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts.

The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. flat on one side. as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 5. one 11-1/2 in. long. about 5/16 in. wide and 2 ft.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 3. 2-1/2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Ill. 2. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 1 yd. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Wilmette. thick. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. wide and 30 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. --Contributed by O. Bevel both sides of the pieces. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 2 in. 1. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. thick. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. long and five 1/2-in. E. wide. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Cut the maple. Take this and fold it over . flat headed screws. flat-headed screws. 4. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Tronnes. and 3 ft. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. long. with the ends and the other side rounding.into two 14-in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. thick. and the other 18 in. square. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. long. wide. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. five 1/2-in.

has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. E. wide and 6-1/2 in. 5 from 1/16-in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Glue a three cornered piece. are rounded. soaked with water and blown up. 1. --Contributed by W. about 3/8 in. long. The bag is then turned inside out. 6-1/2 in. B. If carefully and neatly made. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. After the glue. of each end unwound for connections. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Bliss. 1-1/4 in. Louis. and take care that the pieces are all square. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. C. When the glue is set. long. long.once. wide and 2-1/2 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Mo. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. pieces 2-5/8 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Cut another piece of board. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Another piece. the mechanical parts can be put together. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. wide and 2-3/4 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. wide . thick. A. is set. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. leaving a small opening at one corner. the top and bottom. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. A. F. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. wide and 5 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. long. The front. D. forming an eye for a screw. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. thick. Figs. 3-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. long. 2 and 3. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. thick and 3 in. as well as the edges around the opening. About 1/2 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. long. Fig. St. then centered. Wind three layers of about No. 3/8 in. and the four outside edges. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. square. but can be governed by circumstances. 3 in. C. this square box is well sandpapered. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. square. wide and 3 ft. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Make a double stitch all around the edge.

wide and 2-1/2 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. long. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Like poles repel each other. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The end of the polar axis B. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. F. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. 5. Place the tin. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. the same size as the first. Austwick Hall. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. These wires should be about 1 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show . showing a greater defection of the pointer. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities.and 2-5/8 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. G. Fig.S. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. I. and the farther apart they will be forced. long. The base is a board 5 in.A. 1/4 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. that has the end turned with a shoulder. and fasten in place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. from one end. board. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. from the spindle. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. wide and 9 in. C. When the current flows through the coil. A pointer 12 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. 4 is not movable. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. 4. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. W. Yorkshire. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. R. 4. hole is fastened to the pointer.R. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. thick. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Fig. Another strip of tin. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Chapman. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. L. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . so it will just clear the tin. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. and as the part Fig. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Richmond Hill. 5-1/2 in. 1/16 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. bored in the back. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The stronger the current. long. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. in diameter. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface.

10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 10 min. M. 30 min. shows mean siderial. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. say Venus at the date of observation. and vice .and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. A. 1881. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. thus: 9 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. The following formula will show how this may be found. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. at 9 hr.

Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.f. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Hall. or. owing to the low internal resistance. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. New Haven. and then verify its correctness by measurement. --Contributed by Robert W. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Conn. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. if one of these cannot be had. . Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.m.

was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. arsenic to every 20 lb. 1. 1-3/4 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The boring bar. especially for cooking fish. Then. 3/8 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. thick. of alum and 4 oz. fresh grass. cover up with the same. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. long. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. put the fish among the ashes. When the follower is screwed down. as shown in the accompanying picture. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. leaves or bark. Wet paper will answer. Fig. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. and heap the glowing coals on top. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. inside diameter and about 5 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole .

Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. thick. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. when they were turned in. about 1/2 in. and threaded on both ends. pipe. fastened with a pin. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

Iowa. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Fig. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. however. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. the float is too high. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. labor and time. square iron. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The rough frame. If the valve keeps dripping. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. but never one which required so little material. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Clermont. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. was then finished on an emery wheel. a jump spark would be much better. and which gave such satisfactory results. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. long. Fig. 4. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. bent in the shape of a U. 2. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. 5.valve stems. wide. 3. as the one illustrated herewith. It . one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. A 1-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. thick and 3 in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. 30 in.

Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. butting against short stakes. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. If it is to be used for adults. strengthened by a piece 4 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. so it must be strong enough. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. Use a heavy washer at the head. strong clear material only should be employed. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. long. It looks like a toy. set 3 ft. from the center. being held in position by spikes as shown. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. timber. square. completes the merry-go-round. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. --Contributed by C." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. Nieman. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. The illustration largely explains itself. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. W. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. hole bored in the post. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. and. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The crosspiece is 2 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. A 3/4 -in. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. from all over the neighborhood. The seats are regular swing boards. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. 3/4 in. in fact. rope is not too heavy. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. long. for the "motive power" to grasp. 12 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. extending above. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. A malleable iron bolt. As there is no bracing.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. square and 2 ft. with no trees or buildings in the way. square and 5 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. no matter what your age or size may be. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. in diameter and 15 in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. and a little junk. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. long is the pivot." little and big. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. in the ground with 8 ft.

These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Having placed the backbone in position. and sent to earth. as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The bow is now bent. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. a wreck. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. To wind the string upon the reel. and 18 in. 2.the fingers. one for the backbone and one for the bow. light and strong. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. These ends are placed about 14 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer.2 emery. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. away.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. long. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. then it is securely fastened. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1. square. The backbone is flat. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. if nothing better is at hand. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. A reel is next made. 4. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. Both have large reels full of .

The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Mass. Bunker. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he pays out a large amount of string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. common packing thread. the balance. often several hundred yards of it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. C. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The handle end is held down with a staple.string. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. or glass-covered string. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Newburyport. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . If the second kite is close enough. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Brooklyn.-Contributed by S. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. N. Moody. Y. First.

Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. --Contributed by Earl R.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 1) which will make five layers of cloth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Vt. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. then a dust protector. then draw the string up tight. If the table is round. must be attached to a 3-ft. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. lengths (Fig. such as mill men use. Corinth. each the size of half the table top. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. length of 2-in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. square (Fig. Hastings.

. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.. Wharton. trace the design carefully on the leather. Calif. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Moisten the . This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and E to G. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H. 6-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Use a smooth. G to H. hard pencil. which spoils the leather effect. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. from E to F. 16-1/4 in... A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Oakland. E. 2-1/4 in. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. from C to D. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.

get something with which to make a lining. I made this motor . also lines A-G. apart. G-J. and lace through the holes. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. wide. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. To complete the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and E-G. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. place both together and with a leather punch. is taken off at a time. and corresponding lines on the other side. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. if not more than 1 in. Trace the openings for the handles. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. H-B. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool.

The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. . Shannon. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. 1. long. in length. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Pasadena. 2. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. iron. 1. --Contributed by J. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. each being a half circle. 24 gauge magnet wire. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Calif. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 2-1/4 in. D. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. of No. as shown in Fig. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.M. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. B. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support.

How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. pasted in alternately. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and the gores cut from these. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. high. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. balloon should be about 8 ft. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. 1. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. from the bottom end. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. are the best kind to make.

Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. B. leaving the solution on over night. lap on the edges. leaving a long wake behind. The boat soon attains considerable speed. somewhat larger in size. 5. 1. --Contributed by R. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. If the gores have been put together right. after which the paint will adhere permanently. In removing grease from wood. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 4. Fig. Staunton. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. in diameter. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. as shown in Fig. These are to hold the wick ball. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. 2. After washing. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. E. A. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles.widest point. using about 1/2-in. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. As the boat is driven forward by this force. coming through the small pipe A. 3. so it will hang as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. saturating it thoroughly. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The steam. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe.

The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . high and 8 in. apart on these lines. long and each provided with a handle. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. There are three ways of doing this: First. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. In using either of the two methods described. as is shown in Fig. long. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. if you have several copies of the photograph. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Second. in bowling form. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The blocks are about 6 in. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. 1. Third. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. wide by 6 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface.

Albany. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Rinse the plate in cold water. N. thick. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. --Contributed by John A. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. being careful not to dent the metal.Fig. 2. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig.

2 the front view. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Va. In Fig. Break off the frame. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. B. wide and 8 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. wide and of any desired height. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . A. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Paine. and Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. --Contributed by R.upon any particular object. 1 Fig. and not produce the right sound. Corner irons. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. which is 4 in. thick. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Richmond. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. are screwed to the circular piece. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. through which passes the set screw S. 5 in. CC. These corner irons are also screwed to. S. 6 in. long for the base. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. With this device. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. A circular piece of wood. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. and. A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. with a set screw. in diameter.

shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. -1. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. thus producing sound waves. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. R. La Salle. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. in diameter of some 1-in. . D. S. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Ill. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. This horn. This will make a very compact electric horn. Kidder. pine boards.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. as only the can is visible. I made a wheel 26 in.

The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. --Contributed by James R. A. Fig. --Contributed by C. thick and 12 in. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Ghent. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. 1. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. square. If there is a large collection of coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . the same thickness as the coins.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. If the collection consists of only a few coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The frame is made of a heavy card. 2. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. O. Purdy. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Doylestown. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 1. Kane. B. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack.

and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The material required is a sheet of No. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Neyer. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.E. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. It will hold 4 oz. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. --Contributed by J. A lead pencil. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. several large nails. cut and grooved. Toronto. plus a 3/8-in.J.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. a hammer or mallet. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Wis. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. One Cloud. of developer. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. thick. A rivet punch is desirable. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Milwaukee. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. they become uninteresting. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. border all around. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. into which to place the screws . and then glued together as indicated. --Contributed by August T. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. --Contributed by R. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Cal. If desired. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Smith. melted and applied with a brush. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. though not absolutely necessary. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Noble. Canada. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.

The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. There are several ways of working up the design. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. using 1/2-in. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. like the one shown. never upon the metal directly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. screws placed about 1 in. and file it to a chisel edge.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Remove the screws. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Take the nail. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. both outline and decoration. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. draw one part.

hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. l-1/8 in. two lengths. About 1/2 yd. up from the lower end.wall. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. square. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Provide four lengths for the legs. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 2. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square and 181/2 in. being ball bearing. Do not bend it over or flatten it. 3/4 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. long. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Rivet the band to the holder. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. using a 1/2in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. and two lengths. 3. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. as shown in Fig. long. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long. for the lower rails. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. for the top. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. in the other. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 1. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. of 11-in. The pedal. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 11 in. each 1 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. .

The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Quackenbush. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . --Contributed by W.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. New York City. Attalla. --Contributed by John Shahan. F. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. having quite a length of threads.

the end of the other piece is folded over. each 1-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. Luther. and two holes in the other. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. wide and 8-1/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. in depth. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture.. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. from the end. making a lap of about 1 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. and the other 2-3/4 in. Two pieces of felt. college or lodge colors. long. Ironwood. stitched on both edges for appearance. Assemble as shown in the sketch. one about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and 3/8 in. from one end. --Contributed by C. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. long. D. The desired emblem. something that is carbonated. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. using class. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. initial. Purchase a 1/2-in. Mich.

--Contributed by John H. as shown at B. in diameter and 2 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Fig. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or a pasteboard box. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. about 2 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 1/4 in. in the cover and the bottom. or more in height. 1. 2. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Indianapolis. and the cork will be driven out. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. A piece of lead. Ind. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. This method allows a wide range of designs. which can be procured from a plumber. Punch two holes A. from the center and opposite each other. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Schatz.

non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 1. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. Fig. 5. on both top and bottom.Rolling Can Toy lead. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. as shown in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. and the ends of the bands looped over them. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. . are turned up as in Fig. it winds up the rubber band. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 3. Columbus. or marble will serve. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. metal. O. When the can is rolled away from you. A piece of thick glass. 4. putting in the design.

Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. from each end. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. hole through it. face up. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. thicker than the pinion. Next place the leather on the glass. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. If it is desired to "line" the inside. 3 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. 1 in. and. New York City. or more thick on each side. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. long and bored a 1/2-in. wide and 20 in. deep in its face. thick. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. I secured a board 3/4 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. mark over the design. After this has been done. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. A pencil may be used the first time over. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute.

Syracuse. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. in diameter. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Make the lower frame first. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard.in the board into the bench top. 2 side rails. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 top board. much of the hard labor will be saved. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 2 end rails. 3 by 3 by 36. 2 crosspieces. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Fig. 1. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Cut the 2-in. M. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 top board. Brooklyn. N. 1 back board. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Rice. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 4 guides. Now fit up the two clamps. Y. 1 piece. thick top board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. New York. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by A. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1 screw block. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. lag screws as shown. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in.

This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. The amateur workman. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 set chisels. 1 cross cut saw. . it can be easily found when wanted. 1 claw hammer. rule. 1 rip saw. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 24 in. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise... 1 pocket level. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 2-ft. 1 compass saw. 1 monkey wrench. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. Only the long run. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. in diameter.screws. 1 nail set. as well as the pattern maker. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair pliers. 1 brace and set of bits. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.. 3 and 6 in. 1 wood scraper. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 countersink. 1 pair dividers. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The bench is now complete. 1 marking gauge. 1 set gimlets. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.

will be easier to work. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. but will not make . Doylestown. 1. try square. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig.1. the projecting point A. 2. after constant use.1 6-in. No. becomes like A. Kane. 3. 1 oilstone. Fig. Fig. being softer. 1. ---Contributed by James M. The calf skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Pa.

White. First draw the design on paper. Having prepared the two sides. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Turn the leather. such as copper or brass. water or heat will not affect. After the outlines are traced. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. The form can be made of a stick of wood. the same method of treatment is used. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. If cow hide is preferred. secure a piece of modeling calf. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. -Contributed by Julia A.as rigid a case as the cow skin. then prepare the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. New York City. If calf skin is to be used. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. . It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Two pieces will be required of this size. and the length 6-5/8 in. cover it completely with water enamel and. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. when dry. which steam. but a V-shaped nut pick. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. will do just as well. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. lay the design on the face.

Jaquythe. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and an adjustable friction-held loop. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Richmond. New York City. C. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Cal. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Herrman. . --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. as shown in the sketch. Cobb. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. --Contributed by Chester L. Maine. Portland. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.

Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. B. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Roberts. Middletown. Cambridge. --Contributed by Geo. Mass. Wright. A thick piece of tin. --Contributed by Wm. for instance. . 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Conn.. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. an inverted stewpan. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. was marked out as shown. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. This was very difficult.

L. apply powdered calcined magnesia. If the article is highly polished. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. pulverized and applied. . Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. so some bones were quickly calcined. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. There was no quicklime to be had. Chicago.. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. on a clear piece of glass. as shown. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. well calcined and powdered. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. --Contributed by Paul Keller. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Bone. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. and the grease will disappear. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. and quite new. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. When dry. A beautifully bound book. Indianapolis. --Contributed by C. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. The next morning there was no trace of oil. but only an odor which soon vanished. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. such as chair seats. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Ind. Herbert. but not running over. face down. which has been tried out several times with success. If any traces of the grease are left. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. of boiling water. used as part of furniture. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Illinois. F. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch.

set and thumbscrews. deep and 5 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. Tarrytown. If properly adjusted. thick. The pieces marked S are single.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. wide and 12 in. 6 in. the pieces . long. says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. A. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.. 2 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Howe. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. --Contributed by Geo. New York. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. soft steel with the opening 6 in.

many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. E. A sharp knife. albums and the like. says Camera Craft. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Their size depends on the plate used. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The seat is a board. for sending to friends. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. If the letters are all cut the same height. to the underside of which is a block. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. no doubt. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform.

trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. In cutting out an 0. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. The puzzle is to get . and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. So arranged. using care to get it in the right position. pasting the prints on some thin card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. So made." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. after. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. for example. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. photographing them down to the desired size. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mount them on short pieces of corks. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch.

squeezes along past the center of the tube. A hole 6 or 7 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. long that will just fit are set in. of its top. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. with the longest end outside. Cape May Point. so they will lie horizontal. hung on pivots. says the American Thresherman. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. Old-Time Magic . Bayley. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.-Contributed by I.J. N. He smells the bait. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. G. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.

then spread the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pocatello. Brooklyn. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by L. Idaho. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . N. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Press the hands together. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Parker. then expose again. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pawtucket. Szerlip. Rhode Island. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. E. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.faced up. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. --Contributed by Charles Graham.

says the English Mechanic. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. When the whole is quite dry. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. and if carefully made. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. 1. they will look very much like the genuine article. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. wipe the blade . then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. dark red. wide and 2 in. if any.. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. 2 Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. 3 Fig. end of the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. whether he requires a single sword only. 4 on the blade. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. Glue the other side of the blade. 1 Fig. full size. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. in building up his work from the illustrations. or a complete suit of armor. using a straightedge and a pencil. in width. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle.Genuine antique swords and armor. near the point end. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The blade should be about 27 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. narrower. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The handle is next made. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. or green oil paint. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The pieces. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. thick. long.

thick and 5 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. long. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. the other two are identical. 2. the other is flat or halfround. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 3. about 1-1/2 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 1. take two pieces of wood. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the other is flat or half-round. 1. 1. of course. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. Fig. the illustration.with light strokes up and down several times. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In making this scimitar. 4. and 3 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. the length of the blade 28 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. preferably of contrasting colors. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. follow the directions as for Fig. in diameter. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.. In the finished piece. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. shows only two sides. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. square and of any length desired. 2. Both edges of the blade are sharp. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 3. 1/8 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together.. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. In making. The length of the handle. should be about 9 in. as it is . A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in.

Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Both can be made easily. and if so. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. piping and jackets by hard water. Franklin. Mass. It is made of a plank. 2 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. each about 1 ft. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. On each edge of the board. square. as there was some at hand. --Contributed by Katharine D. as can the pitch bed or block. --Contributed by John Blake. The thinness of the plank. Doctors probed for the button without success. however. A piece of mild steel. long. in an attempt to remove it. and. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. A cold . Syracuse. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. about 3/8 in. Morse. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. or an insecure fastening. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. at the lower end. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. as shown in the sketch. Y. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. N. thick and from 14 to 16 ft.

. on the pitch. tallow. To remedy this. When the desired form has been obtained. To put it in another way. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. design down. secure a piece of brass of about No. Trim up the edges and file them . plaster of Paris. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 18 gauge. When this has been done. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. using a small metal saw. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 5 lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 5 lb.. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal.

These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in one minute or 550 lb. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. lb. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. and still revolve. Cutter. That is lifting 33. but not to stop it. 1 ft.000 ft. or fraction of a horsepower. one 18 in.smooth.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. or 550 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in diameter (Fig. 1 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. space between the vessels with water. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. using powdered pumice with lye.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Fig. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. 3. to keep it from floating.000 lb. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. --Contributed by Harold H. lb. 2). It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Before giving the description. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in diameter (Fig. This in turn divided by 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. per minute. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Fill the 3-in. . and hang a bird swing. over the smaller vessel. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Clean the metal thoroughly. in the center. 30 ft. A. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. The smaller is placed within the larger. make an unusual show window attraction. 1) and the other 12 in. per second. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in one second.

Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 1 Fig.3 Fig. F. Diameter Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter 12 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Mass.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Y. Somerville. The effect is surprising. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Campbell.18 in. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. --Contributed. by L. 2 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Brooklyn. or on a pedestal. N. --Contributed by J. Szerlip.

This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. using any of the common metal polishes. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with the pliers. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch.copper of No. away from the edge. often render it useless after a few months service. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. which. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the clay . The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Do not be content merely to bend them over. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Rivet the cup to the base. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and cut out the shape with the shears. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. is. with other defects. This compound is impervious to water. as a rule. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. unsatisfactory. In riveting. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. the same as removing writing from a slate. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. which may be of wood or tin. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. keeping the center high. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Polish both of these pieces. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. and then.

1. Dunlop. Houghton. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. long. It is made of a glass tube. the device will work for an indefinite time.can be pressed back and leveled. 2. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Shettleston. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Scotland. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 5 in. --Contributed by A. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. . Grand Rapids. DeLoof. --Contributed by John T. 3/4 in. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. as shown in Fig. Mich. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Northville. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. -Contributed by Thos. The siphon is made of glass tubes. A.

will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. This sword is 4 ft. long. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. stilettos and battle-axes. London. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.FIG. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. 1. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. As the handle is to . in width and 2 in. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.1 FIG. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. put up as ornaments.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.

The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. very broad. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Three large. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. When the whole is quite dry. in length. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. which is about 2-1/2 ft. sharp edges on both sides.represent copper. string. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. firmly glued on. glue and put it in place. 8. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. long. A German stiletto. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. This weapon is about 1 ft. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. This axe is made similar to the one . 11 were used. in length. This sword is about 4 ft. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. In Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. with wire or string' bound handle. 9. The handle is of wood. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 3 is shown a claymore. paint it a dark brown or black. In Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 7. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. is shown in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. studded with brass or steel nails. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Both handle and axe are of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. small rope and round-headed nails. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. This stiletto has a wood handle. narrower. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. then glued on the blade as shown. 4. with both edges sharp. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. The crossbar and blade are steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. These must be cut from pieces of wood. This weapon is also about 1 ft. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 5. 6. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the axe is of steel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. 20 spike. The sword shown in Fig. In Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. in width. long with a dark handle of wood. one about 1/2 in. The ball is made as described in Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. the same as used on the end of the handle. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. wood with a keyhole saw. A German poniard is shown in Fig. When dry. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig.

2. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. --Contributed by E. Old-Time Magic . together as shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. such as braided fishline. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When wrapped all the way around. Chicago. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. so the contents cannot be seen. . and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. This will make a very good flexible belt. W. 10. Davis. will pull where other belts slip. the ends are tied and cut off.described in Fig.

3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Oakland. or using small wedges of wood. 1 and put together as in Fig. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Macdonald. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. with the circle centrally located. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Bridgeton. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. --Contributed by A. These wires are put in the jar. filled with water.J. Calif. To make the flowers grow in an instant. 2. Before the performance. four glass tumblers. N. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. There will be no change in color. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The dotted lines in Fig. an acid. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. S. held in the right hand. causing the flowers to grow. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. some of the liquid. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. about one-third the way down from the top. in a few seconds' time. apparently. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. As zinc is much lighter than iron.

when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. If the size wanted is No. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. When many slides are to be masked. 4 for width and No. and kept ready for use at any time. says a correspondent of Photo Era.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. --Contributed by W. 2 for height. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. A. which are numbered for convenience in working. unless some special device is used. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Cal. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. This outlines the desired opening. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. practical and costs nothing. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Jaquythe. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Richmond. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.

Secure a sheet of No. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. the paper is folded along the center line. a little less acid than water. but they can be easily revived. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. When etched to the desired depth. paint the design. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The decoration. is about right for the No. using the carbon paper. and the extreme length 7 in. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. not the water into the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. about half and half. 16 gauge. too. possibly. The one shown is merely suggestive. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . or. which is dangerous. and do not inhale the fumes. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Draw a design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. or a pair of old tongs. With a stick. This done. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. may be changed. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water.

about 1 in. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. and about 2-1/2 ft. Nail a board. 3. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 24 parts water. about 2-1/2 in. 5. Cut out a piece of tin. A. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. it will touch post F. When the button S is pressed. high. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 2. with the wires underneath. 5. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. thick. Fig. 2. the bell will ring. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. through it. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. to the table. 1. repeat as many times as is necessary. 2. as in Fig. 0 indicates the batteries.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. about 8 in. The connections are simple: I. Then get two posts. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. and bore two holes. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. wide. 4. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Fig. in diameter and 1/4 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 3/8 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. attached to a post at each end. long and 1 ft. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. or more wide. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. . as at H. as shown in the illustration. about 3 ft. so that when it is pressed down. Paint the table any color desired. long. J is another wire attached in the same way. wide and of the same length as the table. as shown in Fig. C and D. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through.

PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The entire weapon. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The circle is marked out with a compass. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. is to appear as steel. such as . the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. says the English Mechanic. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. but they are somewhat difficult to make. A wood peg about 2 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. These rings can be carved out. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The imitation articles are made of wood. the wood peg inserted in one of them.Imitation Arms and Armor . A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. 1. thick. long. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. 2. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. long serves as the dowel. handle and all.

Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle is of steel imitation. . Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 2. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 8. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. leaves. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. flowers. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. etc. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. 5. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. also. The axe is shown in steel. the hammer and spike. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 6. is shown in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as described in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The upper half of the handle is steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. All of these axes are about the same length. long. with a sharp carving tool. as shown. Its length is about 3 ft. 3. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The entire handle should be made of one piece. as before mentioned. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The spikes are cut out of wood. covered with red velvet. The handle is of wood. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. This weapon is about 22 in. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. If such a tool is not at hand. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil.

a three-base hit. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 4). --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. the knife resting on its back. 5. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. as in Fig. then the other plays. as shown in Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. calls for a home run. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1. . The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 6. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 7) calls for one out. 2. Chicago. and so on for nine innings. 3. Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The knife falling on its side (Fig.

while the committee is tying him up. If it is spotted at all.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. hypo to 1 pt.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Campbell. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Mass. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 2. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. F. with the rope laced in the cloth. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. of the rope and holds it. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.-Contributed by J. This he does. 1. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Old-Time Magic . of water for an hour or two. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Somerville. one of them burning . 3. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.

you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. showing that there is nothing between them. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. 4 oz. thick. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Ky. 3/4 in. shades the light for a few seconds. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of turpentine. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of plumbago. thus causing it to light. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Louisville. --Contributed by L. . The magician walks over to the burning candle.brightly. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. the other without a light. etc. 4 oz. Lebanon. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of water and 1 oz. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. and. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. --Contributed by C. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. with which he is going to light the other candle. invisible to them (the audience). He then walks over to the other candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill Gauge screw. of sugar. New York City.Contributed by Andrew G. Evans. Brown. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. B. bolt. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Ky.. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Thome.

It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Y. diameter. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Do not add water to the acid. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. H. Denniston. which will give a strong. N. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Pulteney. but is not so good. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. about 5 in. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. into a tube of several thicknesses. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. 5 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. To make the porous cell. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Its current strength is about one volt. --Contributed by C. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. or blotting paper. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . steady current. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. for the material. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. thick. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. long. In making up the solution. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work.

so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. long with a bearing at each end.) may be obtained. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. the other holding them apart. while the other end is attached by two screws. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. To insure this. a positive adjustment was provided.station. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. but somewhat lighter. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Finally. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The . one drawing them together. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. As to thickness. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. steel. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. carrying the hour circle at one end. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. After much experimentation with bearings. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other.

Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pointer is directed to Alpha. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Set the declination circle to its reading. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. is provided with this adjustment. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The aperture should be 1/4 in. To find a star in the heavens. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. turn the pointer to the star. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Declination is read directly. Each shaft. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. If the result is more than 24 hours. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. once carefully made. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper.. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. and if it is not again directed to the same point. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. To locate a known star on the map. in each direction from two points 180 deg.. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. subtract 24. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Cassiopiae. save the one in the pipe. and 15 min. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. All these adjustments. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. 45 min. It is. Instead. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. are tightened." When this is done. The pole is 1 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. All set screws. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. excepting those on the declination axis. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. need not be changed." Only a rough setting is necessary. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. apart. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method.

is folded several times. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. -Contributed by Ray E. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. add a little more benzole. taking care not to add too much. then add 1 2-3 dr. Plain City. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. cannon balls. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. is the real cannon ball. as shown in the sketch. In reality the first ball. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. If this will be too transparent. Strosnider. a great effect will be produced.. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. the others . which is the one examined. The dance will begin. 3 or 4 in. Ohio. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. New Orleans. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The ball is found to be the genuine article. of ether. La. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. long.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. benzole.

without taking up any great amount of space. Milwaukee. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by J. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . 1). --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. small brooches. Somerville. San Francisco. F. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Return the card to the pack. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. 2. Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Wis. Cal. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. taps. In boxes having a sliding cover. Campbell. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.. Fig. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. etc. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.

Beller. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. . thus giving ample store room for colors. Connecticut. This box has done good service. from the bottom of the box. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. prints. Hartford.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. as shown in the illustration. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. slides and extra brushes.

it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. will answer the purpose. with well packed horse manure. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. 1). 2). about threefourths full. When the ends are turned under. Darke. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. -Contributed by C. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Fill the upper tub. FIG.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. costing 5 cents. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. or placed against a wall. holes in the bottom of one. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. tacking the gauze well at the corners. West Lynn. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. . O. Mass. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still.

This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. If the following directions are carried out. if this is not available. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Eifel. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. cutting the cane between the holes. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. oil or other fluid. M. --Contributed by L. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If plugs are found in any of the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. and each bundle contains .A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. when they are raised from the pan. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. they should be knocked out. Chicago. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. a square pointed wedge. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. put about 3 or 4 in. In addition to the cane. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. held there by inserting another plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. it should be held by a plug. as shown in Fig. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. then across and down. 1. after having been pulled tight. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. as it must be removed again. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. No plugs . First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs.

and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. After completing the second layer.2+. in this case) times the . 3. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by E. for 2°. 1 lat. W.5 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 41 °-30'. When cool. trim off the surplus rosin. as it always equals the latitude of the place. lat. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. Detroit. From table No.3 in. and for lat. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. During the weaving. No weaving has been done up to this time. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 5. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented.42 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. using the same holes as for the first layer. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. and for 1° it would be . nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. the height of which is taken from table No. All added to the lesser or 40°. 1. Fig. If handled with a little care. as for example. Fig. we have 4. D. stretch the third one. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 1. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.075 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. --Contributed by M. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The style or gnomon. 1. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.15+. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. This will make three layers. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . called the gnomon.= 4. Patrick. 3. 41°-30'. the height of the line BC. 40°. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Their difference is . as the height of the line BC for lat.15 in. the next smallest.075 in. is the base (5 in.2 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. Even with this lubrication. It consists of a flat circular table. but the most common. as shown in Fig. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. There are several different designs of sundials. and the one we shall describe in this article. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. or the style.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. If you have a table of natural functions. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 42° is 4. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. it is 4. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 5 in. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 4. Michigan. R. is the horizontal dial.

according to the size of the dial. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. gives the 6 o'clock points.42 1.00 40° 4.tangent of the degree of latitude. an inch or two.42 .10 6.12 52° 6. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.50 26° 2.79 4.49 30 .66 48° 5.46 .16 1. 2 for given latitudes. if of metal.87 4.40 34° 3.85 35 .57 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.82 2.39 .77 2.82 3. Draw two semi-circles.96 32° 3.38 . which will represent the base in length and thickness. Its thickness. To layout the hour circle.88 36° 3. .02 1.97 5 7 4.16 40 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. For latitudes not given. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.14 5.66 latitude. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. Draw the line AD. and perpendicular to the base or style. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.68 5-30 6-30 5. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.06 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.19 1.66 1.94 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. and intersecting the semicircles. with a radius of 5 in.55 5.76 1.56 .59 2.82 5.40 1.30 2. and for this size dial (10 in. circle Sundial.27 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. 2.07 4. or if of stone.23 6.93 2.33 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD. 2.28 .55 46° 5.30 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.49 3. long.64 4 8 3. or more.42 45 .11 3.63 56° 7.44 44° 4.55 30° 2.89 50° 5.91 58° 8. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . base.81 4.87 1. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.46 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.83 27° 2.41 38° 3. 1.32 6.57 1.37 5.37 54° 6.55 4.03 3.99 2. Fig. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.29 4-30 7-30 3. using the points A and C as centers. Table NO.93 6.33 42° 4.20 60° 8.85 1.26 4.18 28° 2.

If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.08 1. 3.12 5.77 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. London.93 6.50 .add those marked + subtract those Marked .87 6. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.98 4.01 1. and for the difference between standard and local time.49 3.06 2.30 2.53 1.82 3. Sept. June 15. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Sioux City.21 2. An ordinary compass. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.14 1. As they are the genuine reproductions. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The + means that the clock is faster.46 5.19 2. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Iowa. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .46 4. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.57 1. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. each article can be labelled with the name. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. if west.89 3.72 5.37 2. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.. April 16.68 3. it will be faster. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. will enable one to set the dial. Mitchell. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 900 Chicago.10 4.71 2.from Sundial lime. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.54 60 .63 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No. adding to each piece interest and value. after allowing for the declination.50 55 . Each weapon is cut from wood. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. then the watch is slower.49 5.52 Table No. 2 and Dec.60 4.34 5. Sun time to local mean time. 25. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. E. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. --Contributed by J.24 5. and the .79 6. says the English Mechanic. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. 3. Partisan. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. the length of which is about 5 ft..swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. . The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 1. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft.

A gisarm or glaive. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. 7. 6 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long with a round wooden handle. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. long. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. used about the seventeenth century. long. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. press it well into the carved depressions. long with a round staff or handle. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. in diameter. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. 5. is shown in Fig. . with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. about 4 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown.. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. the holes being about 1/4 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails.which is square. 8. The spear is steel. which are a part of the axe. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The edges are sharp. sharp on the outer edges. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. It is about 6 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century.

the most durable being bamboo. are put in place. as shown in Fig. Substances such as straw. are less durable and will quickly show wear. the cross cords. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. apart. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. In Figs. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. They can be made of various materials. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 2 and 3. This is important to secure neatness. 5. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 4. Loudonville. Workman. 1. Ohio. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Cut all the cords the same length. B. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. used for spacing and binding the whole together. H. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. The twisted cross cords should .

Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. 3 in. bamboo or rolled paper. of the bottom. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. La. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A slit was cut in the bottom. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. New Orleans. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. shaped as shown at C. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Four V-shaped notches were cut. To remedy this. This was turned over the top of the other can.be of such material. in which was placed a piece of glass. as shown at B. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. wide. New York. Lockport. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Harrer. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. -Contributed by Geo. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. M. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. below the top to within 1/4 in. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping.

Cal.tape from sticking to the carpet. This should be done gradually. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. about 1/16 in. do not throw away the gloves. Pasadena. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. turned over but not fastened. This plank. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. and two along the side for attaching the staff. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Chas. is shown in the accompanying sketch. H. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . plank as long as the diameter of the platform. After this is finished. --Contributed by Joseph H. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Sanford. the brass is loosened from the block. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. It would be well to polish the brass at first. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Ill. Newburgh. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. wide. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Shay. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. N. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. --Contributed by W. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Y. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Maywood. Schaffner.

Ill. bent as shown. Oak Park. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. --E. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. K. the pendulum swings . Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. A. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. -Contributed by W. in diameter. Unlike most clocks. Cal. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Jaquythe.

thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. 5/16 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. --Contributed by V. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. says the Scientific American. bearing on the latter. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. on the board B. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. by 1-5/16 in. 7-1/2 in. thick. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. . Two uprights. In using this method. the center one being 2-3/4 in. away. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. bar. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. such as this one.. to the first one with screws or glue. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. about 12 in. long and at each side of this. in diameter. B. A. The construction is very simple. are secured in the base bar. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. high. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Secure a board. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. C. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. about 6 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and the other two 2-5/8 in. wide. Now place the board to be joined. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. 3/4 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Chicago. only have the opposite side up. Fasten another board. wide that is perfectly flat. Metzech. is an electromagnet. high and 1/4 in. 6 in.

whose dimensions are given in Fig. 2. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. . or more. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Phoenixville. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. as shown at A. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 3. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 1. --Contributed by Elmer A. Pa. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. wide and 1 in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The trigger. from one end. is fastened in the hole A. wide and 5 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. square. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 1. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. plates should be made 8 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. square inside. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. 4. 1. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. long. Fig. Vanderslice.

Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. which allows 1/4 in. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. by weight.A. as shown in the illustration. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. square. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. one-half the length of the side pieces. Fostoria. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. if only two bands are put in the . 3 parts of stiff keg lead. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis. 5 parts of black filler. -Contributed by J. Ohio. 2 parts of whiting.

Shaw. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. is necessary. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. long. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. In use. It must be kept moist and well . Grand Rapids. Mass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. G. London. preferably copper. as shown in Fig. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. II. Michigan. A mirror. in the opposite end of the box. place tracing paper on its surface. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. wide and about 1 ft. 8 in. No. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. and the picture can be drawn as described. If a plain glass is used. --Contributed by Thos. says the English Mechanic. In constructing helmets. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. A double convex lens. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. DeLoof. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A piece of metal. -Contributed by Abner B. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Dartmouth.lower strings. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. deep. 1.

brown. as shown in Fig. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 2. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. as in bas-relief. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. with a keyhole saw. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. 3. take. the clay model oiled. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This being done. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . will be necessary. 1. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. joined closely together. and the deft use of the fingers. and left over night to soak. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 1. or some thin glue. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. After the clay model is finished. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and over the crest on top. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue.kneaded. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. on which to place the clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. Scraps of thin. All being ready. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well.

which should be no difficult matter.as possible. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. the piecing could not be detected. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. the skullcap. In Fig. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. as seen in the other part of the sketch. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. will make it look neat. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. 9. with the exception of the vizor. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 1. This contrivance should be made of wood. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. When perfectly dry. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Indiana. a crest on top. then another coating of glue. square in shape. They are all covered with tinfoil. as shown: in the design. one for each side. When dry. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. When the helmet is off the model. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 7. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and so on. Before taking it off the model. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The band is decorated with brass studs. In Fig. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. and the ear guards in two pieces. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. or. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The whole helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. --Contributed by Paul Keller. a few lines running down. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . should be modeled and made in one piece. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The center of the ear guards are perforated. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. Indianapolis. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side.

Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. AA. 4 lb. also the switch B and the fuse block C. if the measurements are correct. as shown in Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. if this cannot be obtained. If asbestos is used. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The mineral wool. FF. as shown in Fig. 2. the holes leading to the switch. 4. and. 1. The plate. one glass tube. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. of fire clay. Fig. of the top. 1. of No. or. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. as shown in Fig. 2. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. and two large 3in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. Fig. AA. 4. If a neat appearance is desired. until it is within 1 in. 1 in. thick. with slits cut for the wires. Fig. 3 in. JJ. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. for connections. should extend about 1/4 in. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The reverse side of the base. long. 4. E and F. Fig. GG. is then packed down inside the collar. 1. the fuse block. one small switch. 4. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. above the collar. and C. two ordinary binding posts. AA. one oblong piece of wood. German-silver wire is better. 12 in. 4. The holes B and C are about 3 in. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. This will make an open space between the plates. long. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The two holes. 4. 1. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. This will allow the plate. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. wide and 15 in. about 1 lb. A round collar of galvanized iron. as it stands a higher temperature. screws. when they are placed in opposite positions. about 80 ft. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. is shown in Fig. one fuse block. thick sheet asbestos. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 2. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. long. 1. 4. which can be bought from a local druggist. 3. are allowed to project about 1 in. high. about 1/4 in. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. of mineral wool. Fig.same size.

--Contributed by R. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. While the clay is damp. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. H. St. will slip and come in contact with each other. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. A. It should not be set on end. Richmond. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. This point marks the proper length to cut it. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Cover over about 1 in. apart. it leaves a gate for the metal. This completes the stove. above the rim. as the turns of the wires. Cal. 2. Can. It should not be left heated in this condition. --Contributed by W. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Fig. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. when heated. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. when cool. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Next. 4. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. When the tile is in place. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Catherines. KK. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. causing a short circuit. more wire should be added. II. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. and pressed into it. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. allowing a space between each turn. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. then. using care not to get it too wet. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The clay. Jaquythe. If it is not thoroughly dry. steam will form when the current is applied. Cnonyn. so that the circuit will not become broken. As these connections cannot be soldered. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. When this is done. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cut a 1/2-in. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. deep. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. If this is the case.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Fig.

The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Then clip a little off the . is large enough. and the frame set near a window. and the prints will dry rapidly. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the pie will be damaged. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Thorne. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Ky. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. constructed of 3/4-in. Louisville. but 12 by 24 in. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. --Contributed by Andrew G. square material in any size. says the Photographic Times." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. as shown. the air can enter from both top and bottom. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.

causing a break in the current. for the crank. An offset is bent in the center. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. long. 22 gauge magnet wire. 1. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. high. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. slip on two cardboard washers. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. The upright B. -Contributed by S. Iowa. thereby saving time and washing. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. long. allowing each end to project for connections. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 3. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The board can be raised to place . The driving arm D. As the shaft revolves. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 1. W. open out. 4 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. in diameter and about 4 in. each 1/2 in. Herron. high. 1. in diameter. Fig. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 2-1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Fig. A 1/8-in. high. Figs. 1 and 3. thick and 3 in. which are fastened to the base. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. at GG. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail.Paper Funnel point. 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Two supports. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 14 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 1. as shown. Le Mars. long. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. wide. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thick. wide and 7 in. wide and 3 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The connecting rod E. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 1/2 in. 2. each 1 in. long. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration.

making a framework suitable for a roost. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Dorchester. In designing the roost. in height. Mass. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Place the pot. on a board. 3 in. as shown in the sketch. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Stecher. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. --Contributed by William F. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. One or more pots may be used. bottom side up. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. .

paraffin and paint or varnish. 1. preferably. shelves. grills and gratings for doors. Wind the . Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.. The bottom part of the sketch. odd corners. when combined. that it is heated. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. and give it time to dry.. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. 1. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. etc. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. will produce the pattern desired. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. without any corresponding benefit. in diameter. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. adopt the method described. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. F. if it is other than straight lines. as shown in Fig. Fig. ordinary glue. The materials required are rope or. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. windows.

six designs are shown. Fig. Y. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2.Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. N. cut and glue them together. Lockport. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. M. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. and the sides do not cover the jaws. etc. 1. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. chips of iron rust. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. As the . The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. will be retained by the cotton. but no farther. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. says the English Mechanic.. when it will be observed that any organic matter... which was used in front of a horse's head. This piece of horse armor.

is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This triangularshaped support. and the clay model oiled. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. as the surface will hold the clay. 6 and 7. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. the rougher the better. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 8. In Fig. The armor is now removed from the model. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. but for . brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. then another coat of glue. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. which can be made in any size. An arrangement is shown in Fig. the same as in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. All being ready.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. and therefore it is not described. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This can be made in one piece. and will require less clay. 4. This being done. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which is separate. but the back is not necessary. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. as shown in the sketch. except the thumb and fingers. 2. 2. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. This will make the model light and easy to move around. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before.

The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two in each jaw. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. --Contributed by Ralph L. are glued to it. the foils will not move. 9. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Buxton. Redondo Beach.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. will be about right. running down the plate. A piece of board. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. . and the instrument is ready for use. in depth. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Goshen. --Contributed by John G. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. are better shown in Fig. When locating the place for the screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. N. cut into the shape shown in Fig. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. wide and 1/2 in. 1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. long. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. La Rue. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Y. the top of the rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. fastened to the rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Calif. If it does not hold a charge. 2. but 3-1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes.

The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Texas. pine board. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. silvered. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. A. from the smaller end. is made of a 1/4-in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Mrs. At a point 6 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. The can may be bronzed. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. When a fish is hooked. M.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Corsicana. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as indicated in the . as shown in the illustration. Bryan. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. about 15 in. hole bored through it. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. enameled or otherwise decorated. long. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made.

Basswood or butternut. wide by 6 in. or even pine. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. 3/8 or 1/4 in. using a piece of carbon paper. Having completed the drawing. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A good size is 5 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears.Match Holder accompanying sketch. then with a nail. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. and trace upon it the design and outline. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. as shown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Polish the metal. long over all. using powdered pumice and lye. such as basswood or pine was used. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Any kind of wood will do. Next prepare the metal holder. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. 22 is plenty heavy enough. take a piece of thin wood. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. thick. punch the holes. When it has dried over night. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. If soft wood. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth.

The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. It is useful for photographers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. If carving is contemplated. A. long. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. each 1 in. . the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Richmond.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. the whole being finished in linseed oil. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. --Contributed by W. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Two wire nails. of pure olive oil. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. wide and 5 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. can be made on the same standards. If one has some insight in carving. is used for the base of this instrument. long. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Cal. 2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. thick. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Jaquythe. 1/2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.

cloth or baize to represent the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. then covered with red. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. cut in the shape of the letter T. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. . The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. about No. leaving about 1/4 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. --Contributed by W. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. H. A piece of tin. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. All of the parts for the armor have been described. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. at A. except that for the legs. 3. similar to that used in electric bells. Lynas. in the shape shown in the sketch. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. 25 gauge. the paper covering put on. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. as shown in Fig. A rubber band. London. says the English Mechanic. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. About 1 in. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. 1. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. when the key is pushed down. as shown by the dotted lines.

hole in the center. drill six 1/4-in. 3 in. 2. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A 1/4-in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. not too tight. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. long. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. The two pieces are bolted together. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. for the sake of lightness. Silver paper will do very well.. Take the piece shown in Fig. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. completes the equipment. Secure two strips of wood. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. at each end. flat headed carriage bolt. These can be purchased at a stationery store. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. can be made in a few minutes' time. one to another . apart. 1 in. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. In one end of the piece. So set up. Cut them to a length or 40 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. make the same series of eight small holes and. and eight small holes. apart. says Camera Craft. 1 and drill a 1/4in. Instead of using brass headed nails. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Fig. about 1 in. holes. in the other end.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope.

but instead of reversing . lay Cover B and the one under D. the one marked A. 2. D over A and C. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. of the ends remain unwoven. for instance. taking the same start as for the square fob. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 1. In this sketch. in Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and lay it over the one to the right. 4. 2. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. A is the first string and B is the second. C over D and B. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way.of the larger holes in the strip. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Then draw all four ends up snugly. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Start with one end. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Then take B and lay it over A. long. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 2. as in portraiture and the like. Fig. and the one beneath C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. then B over C and the end stuck under A. doubled and run through the web of A.

a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 5. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. Ohio. long. as in making the square fob. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. the design of which is shown herewith. The round fob is shown in Fig. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. over the one to its right. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 3. A loop. especially if silk strings are used. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as B. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. --Contributed by John P. always lap one string. Rupp. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Monroeville. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 1-1/2 in. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel.

outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. pressing it against the wood. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Mich. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. beeswax or paraffin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Northville. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Any smooth piece of steel. filling them with wax. it can be easily renewed. such as a nut pick. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. -Contributed by A. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. door facing or door panel.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Houghton. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. using the reverse side. . The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork.

but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. and after wetting. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Enough plaster should. apart and driven in only part way. Fold together on lines C. long. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. J. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. E and F. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Y. place it face down in the dish. those on matte paper will work best. but any kind that will not stick may be used. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. leaving about 1/4 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Petersburg. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. . D. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Select the print you wish to mount. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Ill. N. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. New York. thick. although tin ones can be used with good success. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. remaining above the surface of the board. The tacks should be about 1 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. says Photographic Times. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. --Contributed by O. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Thompson. if blueprints are used. and about 12 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks.

as shown at the left in the sketch. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Lower into the test tube a wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. violets. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. without mixing the solutions. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. roses. etc. as shown in the right of the sketch.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. will be rendered perfectly white. filling the same about onehalf full. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. bell flowers. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool.

When soldering these parts together. made of heavy tin. is about 2-1/2 in. shading. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig.. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. long and made of wood. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. turned a little tapering. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. South Dakota. The sound box. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. as shown in the sketch. about 1/8s in. long. The tin horn can be easily made. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Shabino. thick. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. not too tightly.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. --Contributed by L. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The diaphragm. The first point should be ground blunt. 1. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 2. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. should be soldered to the box. 3. as shown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. or delicate tints of the egg. but which will not wobble loose. and at the larger end. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. in diameter and 1 in. 1-7/8 in. Millstown. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. L. Fig.

Chicago. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Ill. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Colo. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. wondering what it was.Contributed by E. says the Iowa Homestead. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr. mice in the bottom. Victor. E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Gold. put a board on top.

Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. N. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. .Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Pereira. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Buffalo.

Grand Rapids. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by W. This cart has no axle. cut round. as shown. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. through which several holes have been punched. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Jaquythe. above the end of the dasher. a piece of tin. De Loof. as it can be made quickly in any size. and at one end of the stick fasten. Cal.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Thos. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Mich. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Richmond. A. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Put a small nail 2 in. longer than the length of the can. by means of a flatheaded tack.

can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 2 in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. as shown. The baseboard and top are separable. Pa. A wedge-shaped piece of . Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 1. Doylestown. Kane. board. deep and 3 in. wide and as long as the box. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 2. wide. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. thick. Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. --Contributed by James M. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. of course.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 1 ft. 1/4 in. apart. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.1. long. La. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. The candles. wide and 1/8 in. 1-1/2 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. I reversed a door gong. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. were below the level of the bullseye. New Orleans. Notches 1/8 in.

Cover the block with rubber. After completing the handle. Ia. A. by cutting away the ends. --Contributed by G. After the glue has dried. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. 3. This device is very convenient for invalids. stone or wood. it can be removed without marring the casing. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Needles. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Mass. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Worcester.Book Back Holders metal. West Union. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. the reason being that if both were solid. can be picked up without any trouble. wide rubber bands or felt. For the handle. the blade is put back into the groove . Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade.. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. wide into each side of the casing. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. etc. Wood. take two pieces of hard wood. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. as shown in Fig. when placed as in Fig. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. will. scissors. 1. dressing one surface of each piece. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. When not in use. to prevent its scratching the desk top.

--Contributed by Maud McKee. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 1 in. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. . thus carrying the car up the incline. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Malden. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Each one is made of a hardwood block. If desired. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Ohio. Cleveland. -Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. Mass. Pa. long. A. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Jacobs. 1. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. --Contributed by H. Erie. Hutchins. S.and sharpened to a cutting edge. A notch is cut in one side. as shown in Fig. 2. square and 4 in. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained.

Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. . 6 by 9-1/2 in.. If one such as is shown is to be used. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. This will insure having all parts alike.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. The letters can be put on afterward. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. and an awl and hammer. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. N. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. will be needed. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. a board on which to work it. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Prepare a design for the front.J.

A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The music will not sound natural. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 1 part. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. If any polishing is required. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which is desirable. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. turpentine. One coat will do. that can be worked in your own parlor. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. varnish. if desired. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced." In all appearance. says Master Painter. a violin. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. or. . as shown. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. but weird and distant. flat brush. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. to right angles. placed on a table. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. behind or through the center of a table leg. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. On the back. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. 2 parts white vitriol. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. 3/4 part. in the waste metal. So impressive are the results. The stick may be placed by the side of. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. 1/4 part. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. Remove the metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. paste the paper design right on the metal. mandolin or guitar.Fasten the metal to the board. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. applied by means of a brush. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick.

across the top. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. apart. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long and measuring 26 in. With proper tools this is easy. round-head machine screws. is bent square so as to form two uprights. square bar iron. and is easy to construct. 2. are shaped as shown in Fig. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. says Work. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. 3.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. wide. long and spread about 8 in. long. each 28 in. without them. each 6 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. it might be difficult. Two pairs of feet. The longest piece. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. . These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. London. thick by 1/2 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft.

of which a cross section is shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. Fig. as shown in Fig. or. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. on it as shown. 4. cut a long piece of lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. is held by the brads. using rosin as a flux. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. A. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The brads are then removed. The design is formed in the lead. 6. and the base border. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The glass. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. special flux purchased for this purpose. After the joints are soldered. 7. lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. better still. the latter being tapped to . in the grooves of the borders. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. Place the corner piece of glass. Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. B. C. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. D. 5. After the glass is cut. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work.

long. in diameter and 1/4 in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. J. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. The center pin is 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. long. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. one on each side and central with the hole. plates. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. rocker bolt. and round the corners of one end for a ring. and two wood blocks. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in.. H. then flatten its end on the under side. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. in diameter and about 9 in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. as shown in Fig. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. long. holes through their centers. rounded at the top as shown. Fasten the plates to the block B. Camden. A and B. bolt. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. square and of the length given in the drawing.the base of the clip. Make three washers 3-in. plank about 12 ft. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. 8. N. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. wood screws in each washer. not less than 4 in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Secure a post. bolt. Two styles of hand holds are shown. This . --Contributed by W. This ring can be made of 1-in. Bore a 3/4-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Bore a 5/8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Dreier. Jr. then drill a 3/4-in.

boards along the side of each from end to end. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. because it will not stand the weather. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. by 2 ft. 4 pieces. 50 ft. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 1. maple. long. long. 4 pieces. If trees are convenient. Draw a line on the four 7-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. horse and rings. can make a first class gymnasium. square by 9-1/2 ft. To substitute small. 1-1/4in. hickory.will make an excellent cover for a pot. La. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 9 in. 1/2 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 4 filler pieces. 3 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. shanks. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. New Orleans. straight-grained hickory. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 7 in. bolts and rope. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 16 screws. 2-1/2 in. by 6-1/2 ft. long and 1 piece. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. and some one can swing an axe. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. bit. long. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. in diameter and 7 in. from one edge. by 3 ft. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. chestnut or ash. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 3/4 by 3 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. screws. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 1 by 7 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. of 1/4-in. square by 5 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. The four 7-in. 2 by 4 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses.

from the end. at each end. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. 2. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar.. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. apart. 8 in. piece of wood. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. each 3 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. apart. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted.bored. so the 1/2-in. boards coincide. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. deep and remove all loose dirt. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result.

in an endless belt. it follows the edge for about 1 in. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. just visible against the dark evening sky. not much to look at in daytime. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous.." which skimmed along the distant horizon. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. W. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. apart. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect is very striking. which at once gathered. And all he used was a black thread. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. it is taken to the edge of the foot. was at its height. and then passes in a curve across the base. but most deceptive at dusk. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. not even the tumbler. disappearing only to reappear again. and materially heightened the illusion. If the tumbler is rotated. .platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and ascends the stem. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. passing through a screweye at either end. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. about 100 ft. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. When the interest of the crowd. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He stretched the thread between two buildings. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible.

long. wide and 1 in. La. 1. New Orleans. and turned in a spiral D. 2 side braces. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. by 7 ft. so the point will be on top. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 8 in. A wire about No. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 8 bolts. 2 by 4 in. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. square and 51/2 ft. Fig. The cork will come out easily. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 7 in. from either side of the center. 2 by 3 in. 8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 knee braces. 4 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. preferably cedar. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 bolts. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. To make the apparatus. 4 wood screws. Bevel the ends of . by 3 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. long and 1 doz. 2 cross braces. 2 in. 4 in. by 10 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. large spikes. long. long. long. 6 in. by 2 ft. long. deep. long. 2 base pieces.

Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. save the bars. screws. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. ( To be Continued. --Contributed by W. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. etc. leave it undressed. The wood so treated will last for years. which face each other. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. of 7 ft. . The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. and countersinking the heads. Cal. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces.. Jaquythe. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. After the trenches are dug. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. additional long. leaving the strainer always in position. jellies. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Two endpieces must be made.the knee braces. except the bars. but even unpainted they are very durable. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Richmond. as shown in the diagram. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. equipped with a strainer. so the bolts in both will not meet. using four of the 7-in bolts. A large sized ladle. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. If using mill-cut lumber. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.

. of sufficient 1ength. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. or various cutting compounds of oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. milling machine. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it is necessary to place a stick. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. In order to accomplish this experiment. A. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. partly a barrier for jumps. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. Oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. thus holding the pail as shown. If a little turpentine is added to the oil.

long. apart. 3 in. in the ground. by 3 ft. 4 in. These are placed 18 in. bolt. long. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. Procure from a saw mill. Hand holds must be provided next. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. bolts. from each end. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. ten 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. These are well nailed in place. 1 cross brace. bolts. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 7 in. two 1/2-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 knee braces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. projections and splinters. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. bolts. 2 by 4 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 4-1/2 in. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. 2 by 4 in. 2 adjusting pieces. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . wood yard or from the woods. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. The round part of this log must be planed. by 3 ft. long. apart in a central position on the horse. To construct. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 1 in. by 3 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. is a good length. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts.. in diameter--the larger the better. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 2 bases. stud cut rounding on one edge. but 5 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. square by 5 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in.. beginning 1-1/2 in. and free from knots. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4 in.

Also. snow. then bending to the shape desired. it is caused by some obstruction. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. etc. no one is responsible but himself. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Jaquythe. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. it is caused by an overloaded shell. water. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Such a hand sled can be made in a .horse top. over and around. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Richmond. such as a dent. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. A.--Contributed by W. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. pipe and fittings. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. but nevertheless. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.

--Contributed by James E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 1. in width and 1/32 in. France. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. then run a string over each part. Mass.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Paris. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. at E and F. . Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Noble. W. when complete. thick. Toronto. --Contributed by Arthur E. which. Vener. Joerin. These. --Contributed by J. will give the length. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. 2. Ontario. Boston. when straightened out. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. is much better than a wood sled. are all the tools necessary. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The end elevation. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.

Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. nor that which is partly oxidized. AA and BB. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. are nailed. The method shown in Figs. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 4. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. and the latter will take on a bright luster. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. . The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 3. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade.

or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 2. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The materials used are: backbone. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. class ice-yacht. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. . Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 4. 8 and 9. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 1). 2. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 3. Broad lines can be made. or unequal widths as in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

but if it is made much longer. It can be made longer or shorter. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A good and substantial homemade lathe. about 30 in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. long. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck.Fig. out from the collar. pipe. a larger size of pipe should be used. 1. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. bent and drilled as shown. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The point should extend about 11/2 in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. pins to keep them from turning. a tee and a forging. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The headstock is made of two tees. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. Both the lower .

1. Man. but also their insulating properties. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Indiana. thick as desired. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. --Contributed by W. a straight line should be scratched Fig. . Musgrove. or a key can be used as well. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. a corresponding line made on this.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. M. Held. It is about 1 in. 2. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 3/4 or 1 in. as shown in Fig. W. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Fruitvale. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. --Contributed by W. Cal. Laporte. UpDeGraff. --Contributed by M. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Boissevain. else taper turning will result. 2. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. To do this. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. and will answer for a great variety of work.

In use. Smith. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. as shown. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. --Contributed by E. To obviate this. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Cline.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. J. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Ark. Ft. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. long.

This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. face off the end of the piece. and when once in true up to its size. on starting the lathe. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. White. take . The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Walter W. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Colo. La. centering is just one operation too many. After being entered. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. if this method is followed: First. New Orleans. the drill does not need the tool. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Denver. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. which should be backed out of contact. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This prevents the drill from wobbling.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut.

Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. is put into the paper tube A. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The handkerchief rod. After the wand is removed. the cap is placed over the paper tube. by applying caustic soda or . after being shown empty. shown at C. unknown to the spectators. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a long piece of glass tubing. and can be varied to suit the performer. The glass tube B. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a bout 1/2 in. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. shorter t h a n the wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. It can be used in a great number of tricks. vanishing wand. says the Sphinx. all the better. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. as shown in D. In doing this.

1. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. can be made by the home mechanic. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 2 Sides. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F.potash around the edges of the letters. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. As the cement softens. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. across the front and back to strengthen them. long. 3/16. 1/4 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. with the back side rounding. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue strips of soft wood. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. preferably hard maple. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. Glue the neck to the box. thick. as shown by K. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Bottom. This dimension and those for the frets . A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1 Neck. Cut a piece of hard wood. The sides. and glue it to the neck at F. square and 1-7/8 in. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. End. cut to any shape desired. 1 End. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck.

and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. A board 1 in. O. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Stoddard. long is used for a keel. Norwalk. Frary.Pa. Carbondale. or backbone. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. --Contributed by Chas. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. but it is not. in diameter. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. and beveled . Six holes. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. thick and about 1 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. When it is completed you will have a canoe. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. toward each end. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. H. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. E. -Contributed by J. 3/16 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.should be made accurately.

Fig. b. b. 13 in. thick. 3. b. Fig. and so. 3). and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Any tough. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. buy some split cane or rattan. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. 1. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. In drying. but before doing this. 2). and the smaller ends to the gunwales. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. as they are apt to do. 2. will answer nearly as well. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The cross-boards (B. Fig. C. and. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. and notched at the end to receive them (B. apart. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. as before described. or other place. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3/8 in. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. some tight strips of ash. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. C.. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. two strips of wood (b. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. wide by 26 in. such as is used for making chairbottoms. as shown in Fig. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. as shown in Fig. in such cases. 3. 4. and are not fastened. a. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. the loose strips of ash (b. Fig. 4). with long stout screws. by means of a string or wire. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. are next put in. or similar material. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 2). while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. . light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout.) in notches. B. slender switches of osier willow. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Green wood is preferable. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Shape these as shown by A. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. For the gunwales (a. These are better. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. For the ribs near the middle of the boat.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. but twigs of some other trees. probably. thick. 1 and 2. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 3). Fig. long. The ribs. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. long are required. Fig. when made of green elm. which are easily made of long. such as hazel or birch. procure at a carriage factory.

The paper is then trimmed. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and held in place by means of small clamps. apply a second coat of the same varnish. 5). it can be obtained in almost any length desired. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. You may put in . and light oars. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then take some of the split rattan and. Fig. If the paper be 1 yd. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. It should be smooth on the surface. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. If not. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and steady in the water. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. tacking it to the bottom-board. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. B. Being made in long rolls. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. When the paper is dry. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. wide. if it has been properly constructed of good material. but with less turpentine. after wetting it. It should be drawn tight along the edges. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. When thoroughly dry. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. preferably iron. of very strong wrapping-paper. however. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and very tough. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint.

they will support very heavy weights. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Fig. 1 and the end in . allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Drive the lower nail first. 5. and if driven as shown in the cut. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Fig. fore and aft. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5). A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. We procured a box and made a frame. to fit it easily. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. and make a movable seat (A. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. 1.

being softer where the flame has been applied. This way has its drawbacks. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. This is an easy . The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. A good way to handle this work. Pa.Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. this makes the tube airtight. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Close the other end with the same operation. 3. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 5. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the result is. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the glass. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Pittsburg. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat.

second. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. three. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Oswald. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Sixth. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. thin screw. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. metal shears. flat and round-nosed pliers. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. above the work and striking it with the hammer. file. or six arms. rivet punch. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Seventh. above the metal. four. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. 23 gauge. third. fourth. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. very rapid progress can be made. -Contributed by A. fifth. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Give the metal a circular motion. After the bulb is formed. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. extra metal all around. with a piece of carbon paper. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The candle holders may have two. also trace the decorative design. then reverse.way to make a thermometer tube. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper.

drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Metal polish of any kind will do. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. and holder. Small copper rivets are used. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .

thus it was utilized. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. on a water bath. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and in a week . A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. and brace and bit were the tools used. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and other things as they were needed. J. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. alcohol 2 parts. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. they were like an ice boat with a sail. the stick at the bottom of the sail. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. and add the gelatine. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. A saw. all the rest I found. Soak 1 oz. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Mother let me have a sheet. using a steel pen. Shiloh. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. when it will be ready for use. deep. Twenty cents was all I spent. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. F. The gaff. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. glycerine 4 parts. hammer. I steer with the front wheel. and water 24 parts. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. winding the ends where they came together with wire. N. except they had wheels instead of runners. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. smooth it down and then remove as before. is a broomstick. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. sugar 1 part. Fifty. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. and it will be ready for future use. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. The boom. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough.

a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

and.. at a distance of 24 ft. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. well seasoned pine. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. provided the material is of metal. high. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. slide to about 6 ft. long. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 8 in. This ring is made up from two rings. focus enlarging a 3-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. but if such a box is not found. H. above the center. A table. DD. and a projecting lens 2 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. If a small saw is used. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. wide. A and B. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. describe a 9-in. G. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. at a point 1 in. The board is centered both ways. wide and 15 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The slide support. 1. E. thick. and the work carefully done. 3. or glue. and 14 in. or a lens of 12-in. and the lens slide. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. wire brads. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. as desired. are . lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. about 2 ft.

The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. B. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. of safe. P. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. E.constructed to slip easily on the table. placed on the water. the water at once extinguishes the flame. but not long enough. and when the right position is found for each. To reach the water. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ. Small strips of tin. The arrangement is quite safe as. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Paul. Minn. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. should the glass happen to upset.-Contributed by G. A sheet . light burning oil. the strips II serving as guides. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. apply two coats of shellac varnish. St.

4. Fig. 9 in. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. 3 in. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 1. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. from a tent company. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Schenectady. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3. If one of these clips is not at hand. Crawford. by 12 ft. --Contributed by J. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. to cover the mattresses.H. Y. I ordered a canvas bag. Fig. 12 ft. 2. N. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. form a piece of wire in the same shape. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat..Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.

thick. Warren. 3 to swing freely on the tack. through which the indicator works. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 1. 1/2 in. To calibrate the instrument. holes in the edge. long and 3/16 in. An arc is cut in the paper. Fold two strips of light cardboard. wide. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. so as to form two oblong boxes. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 1. Pa. apart. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. V.each edge. insulating them from the case with cardboard. A rubber band. 1/2 in. 2. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. as shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. --Contributed by Edward M. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 3/4 in. Fig. Do not use too strong a rubber. Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. Colo. for amperes and the other post. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. C. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. first mark the binding-post A. open on the edges. Denver. in the center coil. Attach a piece of steel rod. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3/4 in. Teasdale. and insert two binding-posts. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. D. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. White. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 2. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. drill two 3/16 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 2. to keep it from unwinding. long.

--Contributed by M. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. O. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. as shown. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Wood Burning [331] . M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. with the large hole up. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Dayton. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Hunting. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a 1/4-in.

draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

wide and 4 in. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Auburn.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by Fred W. N. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. provided the bottle is wide. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. thick. long. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Whitehouse.Y. as shown in the sketch. 3/4 in. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 1. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Place the small bottle in as before. Ala. If the small bottle used is opaque. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Upper Troy. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. but not very thick. --Contributed by John Shahan. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. This will make a very pretty ornament. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. If the cork is adjusted properly. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 2. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume.

or ordinary telephone transmitters. --Contributed by D. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. line. G. by the method shown in Fig. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. K. thick. 3. Its smaller parts. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. W. which was 6 in. sugar pine on account of its softness. A staple. which gave considerable power for its size. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. long. On a 1000-ft. If a transmitter is used. The bearing blocks were 3 in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. B. pulley. 1. 2 ft. was 1/4in. I. was keyed to shaft C. even in a light breeze. Fig. thick and 3 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. The shaft C. 1 in. Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. The wire L was put . Fig. wide. such as blades and pulleys. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. high without the upper half. iron rod. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. were constructed of 1-in. 1. thick. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. as shown in Fig. 1. which extended to the ground. 2. 4. Fig. to the shaft. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Milter. Fig. 1. which was nailed to the face plate. pulley F. in diameter and 1 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The 21/2-in.

when the windmill needed oiling. 2. 1. washers were placed under pulley F. 1. long and bend it as shown at A. 1. Fig. Fig. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. with all parts in place. There a 1/4-in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. long and bend it as . hole for the shaft G was in the center. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The power was put to various uses. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 3 in. R. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. If you have no bell. 1. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. a 1/2-in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. square to the board P at the top of the tower. H. 6. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. across the thin edge of a board. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. in the center of the board P. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. through the latter. 25 ft. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. cut out another piece of tin (X. for instance. top down also. 0. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Fig. 1) 4 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fig. To lessen the friction here. Fig. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. pine 18 by 12 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. This fan was made of 1/4-in. This board was 12 in. long and 3 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. providing one has a few old materials on hand. G. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. was tacked. hole was bored for it. apart in the tower. 5. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. was 2 ft. wide and 1 in. as. The bed plate D. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. strips. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. long. long. To make the key. with brass headed furniture tacks. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. This completes the receiver or sounder. in diameter. The smaller one. long and 1/2 in. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The other lid.

the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. after the manner of bicycle wheels. although it can be made with but two. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig.shown. using cleats to hold the board frame. at the front. fitted with paddles as at M. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. leaving the other wire as it is. and. Now. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. as shown at Water. McConnell. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Going back to Fig. Before tacking it to the board. The rear barrels are. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Thus a center drive is made. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. 2. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. When tired of this instrument. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. causing a buzzing sound. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. -Contributed by John R. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . as indicated. 1. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. like many another device boys make.

seat yourself on the bicycle seat. 1. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. there will not be much friction. 3. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as shown in Fig. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. which will give any amount of pleasure. or even a little houseboat.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The speed is slow at first. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. feet on the pedals. There is no danger. If the journals thus made are well oiled. can be built. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same.

Shape small blocks of boxwood. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Fig. 2. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. and so creating a false circuit. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. D. 1. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Fig. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 2. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. B. 1. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. C. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror.of pleasure for a little work. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Then melt out the rosin or lead. A. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water.

bell. Ogden. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. by having the switch on the baseboard. Brinkerhoff. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. brass strip. Chatland. T. J. E. copper tubing. wire from bell to switch. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. S. after two turns have been made on the key. long.india rubber tubing. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. B. bracket. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 3/8 in. wide and 1/16 in. --Contributed by C. G. some glue will secure them. When alarm goes off. Pa. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. F. wire from light to switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. H. 4-1/2 in. while lying in bed. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. after setting alarm. In placing clock on shelf. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . shelf. thick. or 1/4in. Utah. 4 in. which stops bell ringing. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. C. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Throw lever off from the right to center. To throw on light throw levers to the left. C. I. To get the cylinder into its carriage. and pulled tight. such as is used for cycle valves. long. contact post. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. switch. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. set alarm key as shown in diagram. if too small. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. D. To operate this. dry batteries. X. wire from batteries to switch. 5-1/4 by 10 in. --Contributed by Geo. near the bed. key of alarm clock. Swissvale. brass rod. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The parts indicated are as follows: A.. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used.

Fig. about 6 in. Make a shoulder. which can be made of an old can. Having finished this. S. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Make the spindle as in Fig. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. will do the heating. A small lamp of about 5 cp. A flannel bag. 2. as at A. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as at B. 1. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Fig. 1. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. place stick and all in a pail of sand. from one end. for instance. Pull out the nail and stick. as . Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. in diameter. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. making it as true and smooth as possible. 4 in. Fig. Lanesboro. 2. Chapman. long. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. This is to form the fuse hole. Minn. being careful not to get the sand in it. as in Fig. 3. in diameter. as at A. about 3-1/2 in. wide. All that is required is a tin covering. --Contributed by Chas. beyond the end of the spindle. letting it extend 3/4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. a bed warmer. 1/4 in.

1. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 3/8 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 6 in. A piece of tin. The illustration shows how this is done. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. thick. 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. but if this wood cannot be procured. 5/8 in. ash. or hickory. A piece of oak. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. spring and arrows. Joerin. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . long. wide and 6 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. good straight-grained pine will do.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 3 ft. 1 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 11/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. thick. long. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. deep.

Such a temporary safe light may be . To shoot the crossbow. 6. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. When the trigger is pulled. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 2. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Wilmette. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. --Contributed by O. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. having the latter swing quite freely. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 9. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The trigger. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. 8. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The stick for the bow. A spring. 7. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. in diameter. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Fig. thick. Fig. as shown in Fig. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Fig. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Trownes. Ill. To throw the arrow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. from the opposite end. from the end of the stock. as shown in Fig. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 3. or through the necessity of. 4. and one for the trigger 12 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. wide at each end. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. better still. E. place the arrow in the groove. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. which is 1/4 in.

The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The cut should be about 5 ft. Moreover. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. it is the easiest camp to make. says Photo Era. The hinged cover E. since the flame of the candle is above A. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. from the ground. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. By chopping the trunk almost through. making lighting and trimming convenient. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. the bark lean-to is a .made from an empty cigar box in a short time. C. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. is used as a door. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. make the frame of the wigwam. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Remove one end. from the ground. respectively. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and nail it in position as shown at A. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. or only as a camp on a short excursion. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. apart. and replace as shown at B. Remove the bottom of the box. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. This lamp is safe.

The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. makes a good pair of tongs. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. . long and 2 or 3 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. will dry flat. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Tongs are very useful in camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. are a convenient size for camp construction. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. spruce. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. selecting a site for a camp. Sheets of bark. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. deep and covered with blankets. In the early summer. and cedar.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. A piece of elm or hickory. 3 ft. thick. 6 ft. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. wide and 6 ft. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. long and 1-1/2 in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. a 2-in. piled 2 or 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. long. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. For a permanent camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. make the best kind of a camp bed. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Where bark is used. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. and when the camp is pitched. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and split the tops with an ax. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. wide. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . hinges. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and affording accommodation for several persons.

A. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Pa. --Contributed by James M. B. changing the water both morning and night. Doylestown. I drove a small cork. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. about 4 in. deep and 4 in. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. wide. 1. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Kane.. to another . Fig. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. B. the interior can.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. and provide a cover or door. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.

glass tube. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The current is thus compelled. such as ether. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. This makes . limit. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. for instance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. if necessary. a liquid. E. C. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 3. until. to pass through an increasing resistance. for instance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which project inside and outside of the tube. 4 and 5). The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Fig. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The diagram. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 2. fused into one side. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1.

1.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. but merely discolored. Alpena. or pattern. A 5/8in. in diameter. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. If the thickness is sufficient. by turning the lathe with the hand. thicker. set at 1/8 in. when several pieces are placed together. tap. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. larger than the dimensions given. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. When the frame is finished so far. thick. 2. and for the outside of the frame. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Fig. cannot be used so often. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. assemble and rivet them solidly. Michigan. as shown in the left-hand sketch. which will make it uniform in size. between centers. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. bent at right angles as shown. Before removing the field from the lathe. thick. therefore. The bearing studs are now made. making it 1/16 in. to allow for finishing. After cleaning them with the solution. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. clamp the template. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. brass or iron. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 3-3/8 in. 3. drill the four rivet holes. A. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Fig. 4-1/2 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. as shown in Fig. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. hole is . After the template is marked out. in diameter. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. mark off a space. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. on a lathe. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. brass. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. or even 1/16 in. 3-3/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. two holes. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. which may be of any thickness so that. screws.

These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. file them out to make the proper adjustment. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. When the bearings are located. The shaft of the armature. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. Fig. or otherwise finished. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports. is turned up from machine steel. soldered into place. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. brass rod is inserted.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.

Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Make the core 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. After the pieces are cut out. then drill a 1/8-in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. inside diameter. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 8. by 1-1/2 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. thick. The pins are made of brass. and then they are soaked in warm water. Armature-Ring Core. 9. or segments.. brass rod. 3. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. After they . 1/8 in. 3/4 in. as shown m Fig. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. When this is accomplished. thick and 1/4 in. washers. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. When annealed. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. being formed for the ends. 6. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. to allow for finishing to size. wide. holes through them for rivets. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. thick are cut like the pattern. 1-1/8 in. deep and 7/16 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Rivet them together. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. thick. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. as shown in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 6. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 5. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 3/4 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. thick. 3. hole and tap it for a pin. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. threaded. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 7. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. wide. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and held with a setscrew. sheet fiber.

Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. they are glued to the core insulation. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers.have dried. After one coil. 6 in. The two ends are joined at B. Fig. are soldered together. or side. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. about 100 ft. of the end to protrude. and bring the end of the wire out at B. being required. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. until the 12 slots are filled. of No. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Run one end of the field wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The winding is started at A. This winding is for a series motor. 8 in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. long. sheet fiber. Fig. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. by bending the end around one of the projections. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 1. thick. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. In starting to wind. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 1. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. and wind on four layers. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. When the glue is set. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. shown at A. which will take 50 ft. 5. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. To connect the wires. yet it shows a series of . the two ends of the wire. shown at B. after the motor is on the stand. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. wide and 1 in. All connections should be securely soldered. The source of current is connected to the terminals. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. of the wire. The field is wound with No. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. sheet fiber.

They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. as in the case of a spiral. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. one from each of the eight contacts. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. is fastened to the metallic body. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Nine wires run from the timer. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. or. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. A 1/2-in. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. which serves as the ground wire. and one. still more simply.

circle. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. It should be . of the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. long.The Wind Vane. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. 45 deg. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. board. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Covering these is a thin. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus giving 16 different directions. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 6 in. Without this attachment.

will be sufficient. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. also a piece of new carpet. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. if not too high. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Blackmer. though a special knife. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. called a chip carving knife. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Buffalo.about 6 ft. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. making it heavy or light. -Contributed by James L. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. however. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. is most satisfactory. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Before tacking the fourth side. . Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. according to who is going to use it. or. will answer the purpose just as well. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. long to give the best results. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Place the leather on some level. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. will be enough for the two sides. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. N. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. high. Cut 3-in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. and about 6 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. To work these outlines. thus making a universal joint. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. and securely nail on the top of the box. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. To make it. 14 by 18 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Y.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. and fasten the feathers inside of it. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. of common salt and 10 lb. away from it. Y. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. or a hip that has been wrenched. of water. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. a needle and some feathers. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. N. Morse. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. as in cases of a sprained ankle. --Contributed by Katharine D. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch.will do if a good stout needle is used. rather than the smooth side. Syracuse. If a fire breaks out. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. B. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. square and tying a piece of . throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. temporary lameness. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal.

The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The strings should be about 15 in. and a coil of wire.string to each corner. commonly called tintype tin. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. board all around the bottom on the inside. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. and tacked it to the boards. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. setting traps. A. wound on the head end. is cut on the wood. etc. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. and the receiver is ready for use. N. B. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Y. The diaphragm C. Gordon Dempsey. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. G. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail.. F. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. E. One end is removed entirely. thus helping the rats to enter. Wis. Paterson. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in.J. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. as shown. the corners being wired. --Contributed by John A. There is a 1-in. made up of four layers of No. Albany. This not only keeps the rats out. The end is filed to an edge. but not sharp. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. 1/8 in. long. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. . laying poisoned meat and meal. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. A small wooden or fiber end. Ashland. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. long. N. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. wide and 1/16 in. --Contributed by J. cut to the length of the spool. which is the essential part of the instrument. The coil is 1 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Hellwig. high. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. deep. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The body of the receiver.

Take a piece of string or. better still. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. To clean small articles. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. begin with the smallest scrolls. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. a piece of small wire. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. wide. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. to . dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. gold.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The vase is to have three supports. and bend each strip in shape. A single line will be sufficient. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.

making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. wide when stitching up the purse. thus raising it. Trace also the line around the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from E to F. After taking off the pattern.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Work down the outside line of the design. through which to slip the fly AGH. using a duller point of the tool. Press or model down the leather all around the design.. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 4-1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Fold the leather on the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. . 3-1/4 in. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern.. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. sharp pencil. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. About 1 in. as shown in the sketch. and does not require coloring. from C to D. 6-3/8 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 3-1/2 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol.

long. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. leaving the lug a. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with a compass saw. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Now take another piece of wood. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. the "open" side. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Then nail the wheel down firmly.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 1 was cut. 1/2 in. as well as useful. 3. being cast in wooden molds. 2. following the dotted lines. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. When it is finished. This also should be slightly beveled. It can be made without the use of a lathe. all the way around. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. b. Make the lug 1/4 in. and a model for speed and power. then place the square piece out of which Fig. and tack the other piece slightly. It is neat and efficient. with pins or small nails. square. and the projections B. Cut off six pieces 12 in. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. thick. around the wheel. as shown in Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. by 12 ft. and cut out a wheel. 1. with the largest side down. deep. First. with the open side down. and. and cut it out as shown in Fig. then nail it. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and which will be very interesting. Fit this to the two .

pieces just finished. and bore six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. as shown by the . with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. then bolt it together. and boring a 3/8-in. bolts. Now take another of the 12-in. hole bored through its center. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. and clean all the shavings out of it. place it between two of the 12-in. After it is finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole 1/4 in. 4. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. holes through it. deep. one of which should have a 3/8-in. 1. slightly beveled. Now put mold No. as shown by the black dots in Fig. square pieces of wood. Take the mold apart. and lay it away to dry.

Now cut out one of the 12-in. 6.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. drill in it. Then bolt the castings together. long. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. until it is full. After it is fitted in. This is mold No. and drill it entirely through. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. where the casting did not fill out. from the one end. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. B. and pouring metal in to fill it up. b. only the one is left-handed. lay it on a level place. d. place the entire machine in a vise. and drill them in the same manner. true it up with a square. This is the same as Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in.2. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. long. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. screw down. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and run in babbitt metal again. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and 3/8-in. and two 1/4-in. holes. put the top of the brace through this hole. Put this together in mold No. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. place it under the drill. wide and 16 in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Fig. and connect to the boiler.black dots in Fig. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. over the defective part. one in the projections. fasten a 3/8-in. instead of the right-handed piece. This is for a shaft. in diameter must now be obtained. and lay it away to dry. so that it will turn easily. Using the Brace . holes at d. see that the bolts are all tight. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Now take mold No. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 5.2. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.1. and the other in the base. as shown in illustration. Let it stand for half an hour. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. 4. and pour babbitt metal into it.1. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and bore three 1/4-in. Pour metal into mold No. the other right-handed. one in the lug. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. 1. take an ordinary brace. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft.

. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. At each end of the 6ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. with a boss and a set screw. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. one 6 ft. will do good service. long. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed. Then take a knife or a chisel. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and with three small screw holes around the edge. piece and at right angles to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and. and the other 8 ft.

Over the middle of the 6-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. in diameter. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. piece and at right angles to it. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. plank nail 8-in. This fits in the square hole. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. in diameter at the base. in diameter in the center. Fig. at the butt and 1 in. at the end. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. should be of hardwood. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. as the runners were fastened. long.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 1. The spar should be 9 ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. and about 8 in. in front of the rudder block. long. Make your runners as long as possible. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. at the top. distant. projecting as in Fig. bolt the 8-ft. 3. tapering to 1-1/2 in. plank. where they often did considerable damage. Run the seam on a machine. The tiller. long and 2-1/2 in. 2 by 3 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. 8 a reef point knot. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. in the top before the skate is put on. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. leaving 1 ft. 1. so much the better will be your boat. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. boards to make the platform. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Fig. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. which may come in handy in heavy winds.

The . small piece of wood. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Adams. Pa. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. so that they come in contact at C. bent into a hook at each end. and the alarm bell will ring. R. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. B. and place it behind a stove. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Ariz. block of wood nailed to A. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. When these parts have been put together in the manner described.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. --Contributed by John D. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. wide. --Contributed by J. P. S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Mechanicsburg. P. Its parts are as follows: A. Comstock. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. to block B. Phoenix.

The center pole should be 10 ft. The seat arms may be any length desired. 2. Take the glass. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. including the . Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if pre