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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. away. To throw a boomerang. E. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. apart. as shown in Fig. 1. The pieces are then dressed round. with the hollow side away from you. 1. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 2. as shown in Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Noble. long will make six boomerangs. Toronto. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. A piece of plank 12 in. It is held in this curve until dry. --Contributed by J. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve.Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . wide and 2 ft. 2 -. distant. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Fig. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 2. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. Ontario.

The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. 6 in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. A wall.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. If the snow is of the right consistency. it is not essential to the support of the walls. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. made of 6-in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. which makes the building simpler and easier. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. and with a movable bottom. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. or rather no bottom at all. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. blocks . the block will drop out. thick. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. however. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. First. long. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. high and 4 or 5 in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. minus the top. dry snow will not pack easily. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. but about 12 in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. forcing it down closely. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course.

which can be made of wood. above the ground. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. 1. Union. --Contributed by Geo. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. which is about 1 ft. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and the young architect can imitate them. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Fig. Goodbrod. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 2. A nail. is 6 or 8 in. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. long and 1 in. wide. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 3 -. Ore. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. or an old safe dial will do. D. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. There is no outward thrust. a. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 2. It also keeps them out. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. C. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. 3. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 1. The piece of wood.

The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Syracuse. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. If ordinary butts are used. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. says the Sphinx. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. the box locked . and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. one pair of special hinges.When taking hot dishes from the stove. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. Merrill. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. New York. --Contributed by R. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. S. as the weight always draws them back to place. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts.

Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 3. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 1. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. smooth surface. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown in Fig. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. as shown. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. 2. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. proceed as follows: First. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown in Fig. draw one-half of it. on drawing paper. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. It remains to bend the flaps. All . Place the piece in a vise. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. If the measuring has been done properly. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Ga. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. If they do not. When the sieve is shaken. Alberta Norrell. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. With the metal shears. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine.and the performer steps out in view. Augusta. Fig. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. one for each corner. about 1-32 of an inch. allowing each coat time to dry. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. -Contributed by L. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation.

To keep the metal from tarnishing. The common cork. If a touch of color is desired. In boring through rubber corks. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The current. --Contributed by R. in diameter. causing it to expand. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Galbreath. is fitted tightly in the third hole. 25 German-silver wire. H. should be in the line. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Denver. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. about 6 in. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. R. Colo. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. which is about 6 in. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. if rolled under the shoe sole. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. A piece of porcelain tube. B. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. C. from the back end. A resistance. and in the positions shown in the sketch. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. of No. as shown at AA. long. After this has dried. When the current is turned off. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. used for insulation. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. in passing through the lamp. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. 25 gauge German-silver wire.the edges should be left smooth.

between them as shown in Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. . but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. leaving a space of 4 in. as shown in Fig. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Purchase two long book straps. with thin strips of wood. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Mo. 3.bottom ring. 1. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. --Contributed by David Brown.

Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. to form a handle. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. --Contributed by Katharine D. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 1. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Kane. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. N. having a gong 2-1/2 in. C. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end.An ordinary electric bell. Two strips of brass. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. 1. The string is then tied. Fig. long. which is the right weight for family use. Syracuse. in diameter. 1. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The folds are made over the string. and tack smoothly. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Fig.. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Y. 4. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. B are mounted on the bottom of the box.. --Contributed by James M. Pa. A. 2. Morse. one weighing 15 lb. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. These are shown in Fig. 36 in. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. When the aeroplane tips. 3. and a pocket battery. just the right weight for a woman to use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. as . Doylestown. and one weighing 25 lb. are mounted on the outside of the box.

Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Floral Park. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Day. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 2. such as brackets. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Y. long. and many fancy knick-knacks. AA. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 2. four washers and four square nuts. if once used. 1. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 3/32 or 1/4 in. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bent as shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . in diameter. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. --Contributed by Louis J. N. The saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. two 1/8 -in. machine screws. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw.

An Austrian Top [12] . In the design shown. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. as well as the depth of etching desired. 1 part sulphuric acid. allowing each time to dry. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Detroit. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Apply two coats. of water in which dissolve. therefore. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. of water. green and browns are the most popular. --Contributed by W. use them in place of the outside nuts. Michigan. Scranton. Watch Fob For coloring silver. For etching. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Drying will cause this to change to purple. If it colors the metal red. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Rub off the highlights.may be made of either brass. as well as brass and copper. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Of the leathers. File these edges. of course. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. 1 part nitric acid. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. the most expensive. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. it has the correct strength. copper. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. if copper or brass. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. after breaking up. The buckle is to be purchased.. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Silver is the most desirable but. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. A. or silver. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. be covered the same as the back. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. treat it with color. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. though almost any color may be obtained. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.

Tholl. is formed on one end. hole. When the shank is covered. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. long. in diameter. wide and 3/4 in. Ypsilanti. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.F. starting at the bottom and winding upward. The handle is a piece of pine. Michigan. --Contributed by J. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Bore a 3/4-in. 3/4 in. . A handle. A 1/16-in. pass one end through the 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 1-1/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. long. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 5-1/4 in. thick.

having no sides. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Augusta. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Alberta Norrell. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking surface. --Contributed by Miss L. For black leathers. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Northville. A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Ga. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. --A. . Houghton. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. tarts or similar pastry. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired.

two turns will remove the jar. says Studio Light. Stringing Wires [13] A. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. the same as shown in the illustration. glass fruit jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. When you desire to work by white light. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Centralia. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

as shown in the cross-section sketch. square by 62 in. Janesville. 4 Vertical pieces. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1-1/4 in. They are fastened. 16 Horizontal bars. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1-1/4 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 4 Braces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. . The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. so it can be folded up. Wis. square by 12 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. and not tip over.for loading and development.

Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Cincinnati. Phillipsburg. after filling the pail with water. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. C. O. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. from scrap material. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The front can be covered . -Contributed by Charles Stem. H.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and a loop made in the end. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. --Contributed by Dr. The whole. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Rosenthal. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. After rounding the ends of the studs. New York.

FIG. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. the mouth of which rests against a. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. thoroughly fix. --Contributed by Gilbert A.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. Develop them into strong prints. by all rules of the game. if you try to tone them afterward. 1 FIG. The . small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. By using the following method. you are. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. either for contact printing or enlargements. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. and. If the gate is raised slightly. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. sickly one. The results will be poor. principally mayonnaise dressing. Baltimore. the color will be an undesirable. In my own practice. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. Wehr. Md.

....... Iodide of potassium . A good final washing completes the process....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. With a little practice. without previous wetting.. in size.. etc. San Francisco... When the desired reduction has taken place...... Place the dry print. wide and 4 in..... in this solution.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. to make it 5 by 5 in. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. but. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print..... The blotting paper can . Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. when it starts to bleach. preferably the colored kind... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. transfer it to a tray of water. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. It will bleach slowly and evenly... 16 oz.." Cyanide of potassium ....... L... 2 oz. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.... three times.. 20 gr. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 1 and again as in Fig.. Gray. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 5 by 15 in. long to admit the angle support.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Water . Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. --Contributed by T... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished..... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. where it will continue to bleach.. Cal. 2.

It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the head of which is 2 in. and a length of 5 in.J. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. the shaft 1 in. 3. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Oshkosh. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wisconsin.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide below the . Monahan. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. Wilson Aldred Toronto.

. Allow this to dry. After this has dried. With files. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. After the sawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. using turpentine. For coloring olive green. Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Do not put the hands in the solution. Apply with a small brush. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then coloring. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Make one-half of the design. 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. using a small metal saw. using carbon paper. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. deep. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Trace the design on the metal. being held perpendicular to the work. freehand. then put on a second coat. then trace the other half in the usual way. The metal must be held firmly. The lines at A and B will need to be cut.FIG. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1 Fig. after folding along the center line. 1. 1 part nitric acid. 4. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Pierce a hole with a small drill. 2. but use a swab on a stick. With the metal shears.

Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. on a chopping board. Syracuse. . New York. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Conn. then stain it a mahogany color. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Morse. as shown. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. When this is cold. After the stain has dried. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. --Contributed by Katharine D. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Burnett. Cal. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. thick. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. --Contributed by H. Ii is an ordinary staple. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Richmond. it does the work rapidly. attach brass handles. East Hartford. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. --Contributed by M. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Carl Cramer. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. M. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood.

4. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Florida. Kissimmee.. Fig. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. holes. not over 1/4 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. machine screws. one shaft. also locate the drill holes. Jaquythe. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. about 3/16 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. thick. square. or tin. 1/4 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. brass. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. thick and 4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. A. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 53 steel pens. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. in width at the shank. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. two enameled. saucers or pans. and several 1/8-in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. some pieces of brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. L. . Richmond. indicating the depth of the slots. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. as shown at A. --Contributed by Mrs. --Contributed by W. Cal. H. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. 1. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Atwell. as shown in Fig. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time.

each about 1 in. supply pipe. with 1/8-in. thick. 3. 5. long and 5/16 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. machine screws. can be procured. wide. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. hole. with a 3/8-in.. and pins inserted. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. into the hole. 1.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. wide and bend as shown in Fig. long by 3/4 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. in diameter and 1/32 in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Bend as shown in Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. about 1/32 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 2. 7. with the face of the disk. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. There should be a space of 1/16 in. 6. as shown. 2. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. If metal dishes. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. using two nuts on each screw. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. A 3/4-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. machine screws and nuts. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. brass and bolted to the casing. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. as in Fig. a square shaft used. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. If the shaft is square. 3. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. hole in the center. thick. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw.

Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Hamilton. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. screws. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. or more in diameter. The four legs are each 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. square and 30-1/2 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Ill. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. With a string or tape measure. Be sure to have the cover. long. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. V. from the bottom end of the legs. --Contributed by F. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. from the top of the box. Cooke. 8-1/2 in. --Contributed by S. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. deep and 1-1/4 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. La Salle. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. we will call the basket. The lower part. three of which are in the basket. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. high and 15 in. to make the bottom. Smith. Stain the wood before putting in the . Fasten with 3/4-in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. deep over all. When assembling. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Canada. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base.

The folded part in the center is pasted together. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide and four strips 10 in. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Boston. Md. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. wide. -Contributed by Stanley H. Fig. Baltimore. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. sewing on the back side. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. and gather it at that point. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. When making the display. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Packard.lining. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. as shown in the sketch. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Mass. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 1. If all the parts are well sandpapered. 2. you can. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.2 Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. The side. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Cover them with the cretonne.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape .

saving all the solid part. It is cleanly. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Gloversville. --Contributed by B. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Y. Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. When through using the pad. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Fig. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Cross Timbers. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Mo. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. L. 3. and. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. N. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. with slight modifications. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Crockett. --Contributed by H. It is not difficult to .

or if desired. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. After this is done. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. El Paso. are shown in the diagram. -Contributed by C. Mass. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and scrape out the rough parts. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . across the face. Lowell. After stirring.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Bourne. S. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Texas. remove the contents. Both of these methods are wasteful. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. If a file is used. it should be new and sharp. --Contributed by Edith E. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lane.

and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Geo. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Wheeler. The insects came to the light. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Ill. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Oregon. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Iowa. After several hours' drying. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.cooking utensil. Ill. --Contributed by Loren Ward. A Postcard Rack [25]. Des Moines. Greenleaf. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Oak Park. --Contributed by Marion P. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Canton. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. F. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Those having houses . Turl. The process works well and needs no watching. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. As these were single-faced disk records. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle.

and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. one on each side of what will be the . the bottom being 3/8 in. The single boards can then be fixed. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Rosenberg. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. thick. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. the best material to use being matched boards. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. boards are preferable. Only three pieces are required. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. --Contributed by Wm. Glenbrook. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Mass. material. but for cheapness 3/4 in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and the second one for the developing bench. and both exactly alike. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.. Worcester. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. will do as well. and as they are simple in design. Dobbins. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. plane and pocket knife. Lay the floor next. --Contributed by Thomas E. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Both sides can be put together in this way. Conn. not even with the boards themselves. 6 in. 6 in. by 2 ft.

These are all in section and are self-explanatory. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and should be zinc lined. and to the outside board of the sides. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. so that the water will drain off into the sink. Fig. 3 and 4. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and act as a trap for the light. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on.doorway. 2 in section. 6 and 9. 10). 9). brown wrapping paper. 6. below which is fixed the sink. by screwing to the floor. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. the closing side as at B. and shown to a larger scale in Fig.. 7. 6. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 8. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. hinged to it. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig.. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. nailing them to each other at the ridge. In hinging the door. and in the middle an opening. It is shown in detail in Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 5. so that it will fit inside the sink.. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. and the top as at C in the same drawing. which is fixed on as shown . as shown in Figs. is cut. of the top of the door for the same reason. etc. 9 by 11 in. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. wide. At the top of the doorway. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 11.

Details of the Dark Rook .

It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. screwing them each way into the boards. 16. mixing flour and water. 2. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 15. The house will be much strengthened if strips. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. these being shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 18. Fig. as shown in the sections. Fig. after lining with brown paper. Erie. 20. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. The handle should be at least 12 in. 1. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and a 3/8-in. For beating up an egg in a glass. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. 13. Karl Hilbrich. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . or red light as at K. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. though this is hardly advisable. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. In use. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. as in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. as at M. which makes it possible to have white light. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. but not the red glass and frame. if desired. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 6. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 13. and a tank stand on it. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as at I. A circular piece about 2 in. four coats at first is not too many. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Fig. 19. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 17. Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. --Contributed by W. it is better than anything on the market. 14. preferably maple or ash. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 16. Pennsylvania. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door.in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room.

Mo. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Mitchell. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Yonkers. Eureka Springs. L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Ark. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. G. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. D. To operate. when put together properly is a puzzle. about 3/8 in. New York. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. --Contributed by L. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. Kansas City. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. for a handle. Schweiger. -Contributed by E. --Contributed by Wm. Smith. long. which. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match.copper should be.

for the moment. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 3. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The design shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 1. holes should be drilled in the bottom. After the box is trimmed. as well as improve its appearance. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. which binds them together. 3. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. If the sill is inclined.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. in order to thoroughly preserve it. to make it set level. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. Each cork is cut as in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. especially for filling-in purposes. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as is usually the case. need them. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. . the rustic work should be varnished. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. A number of 1/2-in. Having completed the bare box. the box will require a greater height in front. as shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable.

Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. share the same fate. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. it's easy. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Each long projection represents a leg. can't use poison. F. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 3. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. etc. 4. 2. life in the summer time is a vexation. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. cabbages. being partly eaten into. 1. too dangerous. and observe results. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Traps do no good.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. as shown in Fig. When the corn is gone cucumbers. But I have solved the difficulty. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. . but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary..

tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. -. About 9-1/2 ft. strips. cut some of it off and try again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. If. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. . Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The solution can be used over and over again. Iowa. and made up and kept in large bottles. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. by trial. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. long. of No.

--Contributed by Katharine D. of gasoline. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. coffee pot. In cleaning silver. Knives. of oleic acid with 1 gal. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Fig 2. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. forks. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Stir and mix thoroughly. Morse. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Y. to cause the door to swing shut. as shown in the sketch. C. hot-water pot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Doylestown.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. 1) removed. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. it falls to stop G. Do not wash them. Dallas. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Kane. Syracuse. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. but with unsatisfactory results. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. N. --Contributed by James M. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. D. is a good size--in this compound. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Texas. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. and a strip. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Pa. . The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig.

Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Theodore L. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. but unfixed. New Orleans. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. which is. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Ill. Harrisburg. later fixed and washed as usual. of course. --Contributed by Oliver S. using the paper dry. La. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Waverly. negatives. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Sprout. . To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Pa. Fisher.

a harmonograph is a good prescription. 1. To obviate this difficulty. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. then . The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Fig. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. metal. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other.

1-3/4 by 2 in. Rosemont. ceiling. A small weight. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Gaffney. in diameter. for instance. in the center of the circle to be cut. Ingham. one-fifth. of about 30 or 40 lb. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. and unless the shorter pendulum is. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. as shown in the lower part of Fig. A length of 7 ft. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. J. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. G. Holes up to 3 in. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. with a nail set or punch. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A small table or platform. is about right for a 10-ft. or the lines will overlap and blur. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. K. is attached as shown at H.. as shown in Fig.. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. 1. Punch a hole. Chicago. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. A pedestal. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. --Contributed by James T.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. exactly one-third. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A weight. to prevent any side motion. The length of the short pendulum H. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. one-fourth. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. what is most important. such as a shoe buttoner. --Contributed by Wm. Another weight of about 10 lb. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Arizona. provides a means of support for the stylus. 1. R. which can be regulated. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. makes respectively 3. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. etc. that is. as long as the other.

N.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. and proceed as before. and 4 as in Fig. Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. --Contributed by J. a correspondent of . 5. The two key cards are made alike. distributing them over the whole card. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. 2. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 6. then put 2 at the top. then 3 as in Fig. 4. one for the sender and one for the receiver. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 3.J. Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. of course. dividing them into quarters. Chicago. -Contributed by W. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Morey. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.H. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints.J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cruger. Cape May City. The capacity of the vise. 1.

and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. long. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. citrate of iron and ammonia. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. drill 15 holes. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Wind the successive turns of . How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Augusta. 22 gauge German-silver wire. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of 18-per-cent No. 30 gr. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. acetic acid and 4 oz. 6 gauge wires shown. 1/4 in. Cut through the center. After preparing the base and uprights. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of the uprights. Asbestos board is to be preferred. To assemble. respectively. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. of water. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 1/2 oz. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. from the top and bottom. After securing the tint desired. If constructed of the former. Alberta Norrell. the portion of the base under the coil. --Contributed by L. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. deep. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. remove the prints. of ferricyanide of potash. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Ga. wood-screws. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. says Popular Electricity. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. then cut slices from the center toward the ends.

Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.. cut and dressed 1/2 in. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. etc. Ampere. Ward. Small knobs may be added if desired. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. square. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Y. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 16 gauge copper wire. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. 14 gauge. screws. --Contributed by Frederick E. if one is not a smoker. N. The case may be made of 1/2-in. which. but these are not necessary. rivets. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. then fasten the upright in place. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Labels of some kind are needed. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.

gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. --Contributed by A.. Wis. If the soldering copper is an old one. zinc. In soldering galvanized iron. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. California. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. and one made of poplar finished black. Jaquythe. of water. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. B. D. The material can be of any wood. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. tin. the pure muriatic acid should be used. E and F. Larson. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Ark. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Copper. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. --Contributed by W. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. or has become corroded. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them.14 oz. Richmond. This is considerable annoyance. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. C. . This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. and rub the point of the copper on it. particularly so when the iron has once been used. it must be ground or filed to a point. sandpaper or steel wool. especially if a large tub is used. then to the joint to be soldered. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. The parts are put together with dowel pins. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. being careful about the heat. lead. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. A. brass. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. S. --C. galvanized iron. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Eureka Springs. G. of glycerine to 16 oz. and labeled "Poison. as shown in the sketch. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. tinner's acid. Kenosha. a piece of solder.

N. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Place the band. wide. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. in diameter. 2. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. -Contributed by H. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Hankin. B. however. W. Y. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Fig. nut. and drill out the threads. which gives two bound volumes each year. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. The disk will come out pan shaped. The dimensions shown in Fig. The covers of the magazines are removed. This will leave a clear hole. round iron. in diameter. C. such as copper. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Six issues make a well proportioned book. with good results. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. D. This completes the die. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Apart from this. a ring may be made from any metal. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Take a 3/4-in. brass and silver. Troy. Brass rings can be plated when finished. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. 1. thick and 1-1/4 in. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The punch A. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. 7/8 in.

and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. deep. and then to string No. is used for the sewing material. of the ends extending on each side. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. C. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. and a third piece. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. on all edges except the back. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 5. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Coarse white thread. threaded double. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. which is fastened the same as the first. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. The covering can be of cloth. . the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. then back through the notch on the right side. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. size 16 or larger. using . Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. If started with the January or the July issue. The string No. 2. allowing about 2 in.4. After drawing the thread tightly. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Start with the front of the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. as shown in Fig. The sections are then prepared for sewing. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. is nailed across the top. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1/8 in. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 2. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Five cuts. 1 in Fig.

Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Nebr. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Tinplate. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Place the cover on the book in the right position. For the blade an old talking-machine . --Contributed by Clyde E. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. College View. Cal. on which to hook the blade. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. round iron.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Divine. and. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. and mark around each one. Encanto. at opposite sides to each other. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.

Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and file in the teeth. C. with 10 teeth to the inch. or double extra heavy. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. at the same end. Moorhead. B. Make the blade 12 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. in order to drill the holes in the ends. On the upper side. -Contributed by Willard J. hydraulic pipe. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. as shown. and 1/4 in. Ohio. Then on the board put . To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. thick. as it is sometimes called. bore. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. Miss. F... E. long. Summitville. Hays. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. A. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. by 1 in. thick. with a steel sleeve. by 4-1/2 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and 1/4 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and a long thread plug. fuse hole at D.

4 jars. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. as from batteries. of rubber-covered wire. high around this apparatus. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. some sheet copper or brass for plates.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. the jars need not be very large. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Philadelphia. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. and some No. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Boyd. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . A lid may be added if desired. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. Connect up as shown. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. H. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. If you are going to use a current of low tension. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.

. Their size also depends on the voltage.. gives full current and full speed. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 3. and four pieces 14 in. C. and for the rear runners: A. two pieces 34 in. with the cushion about 15 in. B. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. An iron washer. long. oak boards. apart. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. On the door of the auto front put the . by 5 in. 16-1/2 in. B and C. Fig. above the ground. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 3 and No. two for each jar. 4) of 3/4-in. Use no screws on the running surface. 34 in. Use no nails. 5 on switch. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. by 2 in. wide and 2 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. thick. A 3/4-in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The connection between point No. C. direct to wire across jars. two pieces 14 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. by 1 in. and bolt through. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 4 in. long. At the front 24 or 26 in. In proportioning them the points A. 7 in. 11 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 1-1/4 in. For the brass trimmings use No. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in.. The illustration shows how to shape it. For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 1. First sandpaper all the wood. is used to reduce friction. or source of current. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The stock required for them is oak. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. as they are not substantial enough. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The current then will flow through the motor. square by 14 ft. 2 is lower down than in No. by 1-1/4 in. 2. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 30 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. To wire the apparatus. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 1 and so on for No. wide and 3/4 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. These are to keep the cushion from falling out.. 2. by 2 in. 27 B. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. & S. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Z... one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. two pieces 30 in. are important. however. B. 4. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. on No. 1 is connected to point No. long. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 2. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 2 and 3. beginning at the rear. 2 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. thick.the way. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Equip block X with screw eyes. 3 in. 15-1/2 in. and plane it on all edges. wide by 3/4 in. long. A variation of 1/16 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Put arm of switch on point No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. wide. as they "snatch" the ice. . No. The top disk in jar No. making them clear those in the front runner. sheet brass 1 in. 1 on switch. by 6 in. See Fig. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. long by 22 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. by 5 in.

brass plated. cutting it out of sheet brass. such as burlap. cheap material. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. a brake may be added to the sled. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . If desired. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 30 in. parcels. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. If the expense is greater than one can afford. to the wheel. If desired. Fasten a horn. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. by 1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Then get some upholstery buttons. a number of boys may share in the ownership. or with these for $25. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. fasten a cord through the loop. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. long. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. which is somewhat moist. lunch. may be stowed within. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. overshoes. such as used on automobiles. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. to improve the appearance.

. Lexington. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Ill. --Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. with twenty-four teeth. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Draw a circle on paper. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Fig. some files. 2. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. With no other tools than a hacksaw. thick. CD. say 1 in. The straight-edge. This guide should have a beveled edge. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. E. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. will be over the line FG. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. 1. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. London. the cut will be central on the line. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. from F to G. 3. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. FC. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. First take the case of a small gearwheel. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. made from 1/16-in. so that the center of the blade. outside diameter and 1/16 in. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. sheet metal. The Model Engineer.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. 4). In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Fig. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. by drawing diameters. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . the same diameter as the wheel. when flat against it. The first tooth may now be cut. A small clearance space. which. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. mild steel or iron. though more difficult. a compass. Fig. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in.

2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. ground it with a large piece of zinc. B. each in the center. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. No shock will be perceptible. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. R. Focus the camera in the usual manner. electric lamp. some wire and some carbons. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 1. as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. as shown in Fig. transmitter. 1. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Then take one outlet wire. hold in one hand. as shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. 2. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. B. . With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Make a hole in the other. or several pieces bound tightly together. and the other outlet wire. either the pencils for arc lamps. If there is no faucet in the house. A bright.

A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. of course. For a base use a pine board 10 in. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. --Contributed by Geo. are also needed. as indicated by E E.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. 36 wire around it. B. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. and about that size. Pa. at each end for terminals. They have screw ends. Emsworth. Then set the whole core away to dry. One like a loaf of bread. and again wind the wire around it. A is a wooden block. Wrenn. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. by 1 in. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Several battery cells. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Ashland. leaving about 10 in. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. a transmitter which induces no current is used. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Ohio. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. under the gable. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. J. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. But in this experiment. serves admirably. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and will then burn the string C. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. as shown. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. D D are binding posts for electric wires. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. by 12 in. Dry batteries are most convenient. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. or more of the latter has been used. Slattery. If desired.

wire. the terminal of the coil. C. B B. Turn on switch. These should have hollow ends. as shown. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. E. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 14 wire. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. At one side secure two receptacles. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. as shown. until the hand points to zero on the scale. F. for the . --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and one single post switch. The coil will commence to become warm. in series with bindingpost. Fig. The oven is now ready to be connected. while C is open.. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. and the lamps. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Place 16-cp. C. 1. Jr. 2. in parallel. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Fig. From the other set of binding-posts. B B. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. First make a support. Newark. run a No. Connect these three to switch. 12 or No. Ohio. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. D. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. D. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. and switch. connecting lamp receptacles.

10 turns to each layer. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. a standard ammeter. After drilling. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 1. 3 amperes. C. To make one. long. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. Fig. and D. At a point a little above the center. The box is 5-1/2 in. deep. 3. drill through the entire case and valve. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 1/2 in. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. drill a hole as shown at H. A wooden box. high. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. long. 4 amperes. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Fig. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. is made of iron. wide and 1-3/4 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand.or 4-way valve or cock. where A is the homemade ammeter. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. The pointer or hand.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 14 wire. until the scale is full. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 4. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. wide and 1/8 in. is then made and provided with a glass front.. 2.E. thick. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. to prevent it turning on the axle. 6. 1/4 in. 5. from the lower end. B. 4 in. although copper or steel will do. Fig. wind with plenty of No. 7. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. It is 1 in. --Contributed by J. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. If for 3-way. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 14. 5. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. This may be made of wood. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. This is slipped on the pivot. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. D. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. etc. remove the valve. drill in only to the opening already through. as shown in the cut. a variable resistance. E. The core. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Montreal. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 1. although brass is better. is made of wire. inside measurements. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. a battery. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. long and make a loop. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. Dussault. but if for a 4way.

The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the other connects with the water rheostat. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. D. in thickness . in diameter. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. E. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. as shown. A. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the arc light. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. To start the light. B. F. high. which is used for reducing the current. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. One wire runs to the switch. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water.performing electrical experiments. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. By connecting the motor. making two holes about 1/4 in. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. This stopper should be pierced. provided with a rubber stopper. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and a metal rod.

connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. As there shown. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. A piece of wood. --Contributed by Harold L. B. Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A. Having finished the interrupter. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 2. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 2. Jones. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. long.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in B. Having fixed the lead plate in position. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 1. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. To insert the lead plate. Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Turn on the current and press the button. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. Fig. 1. as shown in C. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 1. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Carthage. N. If all adjustments are correct. Y. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. If the interrupter does not work at first.

which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. to aid the illusion. The model. They need to give a fairly strong light. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. could expect from a skeleton. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. within the limits of an ordinary room. should be miniature electric lamps. by 7-1/2 in. giving a limp. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. The skeleton is made of papier maché. high. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and can be bought at Japanese stores. which can be run by three dry cells. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. light-colored garments. by 7 in. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and must be thoroughly cleansed. until it is dark there. L and M. loosejointed effect. All . is constructed as shown in the drawings. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down.. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. the illusion will be spoiled. especially the joints and background near A. A. especially L. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The lights. If everything is not black. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. inside dimensions. with the exception of the glass. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. from which the gong has been removed. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and wave his arms up and down. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. should be colored a dull black. dressed in brilliant.coffin. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. Its edges should nowhere be visible. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. figures and lights. as the entire interior. The glass should be the clearest possible. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.

If a gradual transformation is desired. --Contributed by Geo. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps.that is necessary is a two-point switch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. San Jose. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. square block. fat spark. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. as shown in the sketch. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Fry. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . placed about a foot apart. after which it assumes its normal color. W. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Cal.

into the receiver G. or a solution of sal soda. If a lighted match . If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. In Fig. A (see sketch). Cohen. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. by small pieces of wood. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. F.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. The plates are separated 6 in. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. New York. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. as shown. and should be separated about 1/8 in. with two tubes. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. soldered in the top. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. the remaining space will be filled with air. B and C. 1. hydrogen gas is generated. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. In Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. One of these plates is connected to metal top. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. to make it airtight. -Contributed by Dudley H.

says the Model Engineer. either by passing a current of electricity around it. from the bottom. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. copper pipe. 1/2 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. in diameter and 6 in. If desired. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. Fig. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. copper pipe. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. London. 1. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A piece of 1/8-in. long. N. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A 1/64-in. and the ends of the tube. A nipple. A. P. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. N. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. The distance between the nipple. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. which forms the vaporizing coil. long. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. 36 insulated wire. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . of No. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. which is plugged up at both ends. is then coiled around the brass tube. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. Fig. then a suitable burner is necessary. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. 2 shows the end view. should be only 5/16 of an inch. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A. B. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. by means of the clips. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. is made by drilling a 1/8in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. C C. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. 1-5/16 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. or by direct contact with another magnet. as is shown in the illustration.

If you have access to a printer's paper knife. but if the paper knife cannot be used. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1/4 in. 3. taking care not to bend the iron. Fig. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. smoothly. cut to the size of the pages. boards and all. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Cut four pieces of cardboard. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. trim both ends and the front edge. with a fine saw. Fig. leaving the folded edge uncut. longer and 1/4 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed.lamp cord. Fig. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. fold and cut it 1 in. should be cut to the diameter of the can. 1. at the front and back for fly leaves. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Take two strips of stout cloth. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 2). How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. larger all around than the book. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. duck or linen. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. about 8 or 10 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. this makes a much nicer book. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use.

is turned on it. without a head. or rather the top now. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is soldered onto tank A. deep. In the bottom.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. --Contributed by Joseph N. in diameter and 30 in. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Toronto. but its diameter is a little smaller. the joint will be gas tight. Bedford City. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. and a little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. A gas cock. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Noble. Ont. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Another can. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is made the same depth as B. H. Va. as shown in the sketch. Another tank. of tank A is cut a hole. is fitted in it and soldered. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. --Contributed by James E. D. pasting them down (Fig. E. which will just slip inside the little can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. 18 in. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. . Parker. B. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. 4). from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is perforated with a number of holes. as shown. C.

B. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. as shown at C. should be cut a little too long. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. to prevent splitting. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. which moves to either right or left. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. thus adjusting the . which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. should be 1/4 in. should be 3/8 in. The bridle knots. Fig. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. N. fastened in the bottom. 1. The wiring diagram. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. B. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. The armature. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. square by 42 in. A. Beverly. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. shows how the connections are to be made. S. tacks. A A. If the pushbutton A is closed. long. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. D. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. which may be either spruce. The small guards. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. basswood or white pine. D. are shown in detail at H and J. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. H is a square knot. and sewed double to give extra strength. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon.. Bott. exactly 12 in. and the four diagonal struts. when finished. by 1/2 in. The diagonal struts. J. Fig. with an electric-bell magnet. making the width. 2. -Contributed by H. The longitudinal corner spines. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. C. E. If the back armature. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. and about 26 in. long. B. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1.

A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. can be made of a wooden . --Contributed by Edw. D. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Harbert.lengths of F and G. however. for producing electricity direct from heat. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Kan. and. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Stoddard. the batteries do not run down for a long time. that refuse to slide easily. thus shortening G and lengthening F. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. with gratifying results. and if a strong wind is blowing. to prevent slipping. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. A bowline knot should be tied at J. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. If the kite is used in a light wind. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. --Contributed by A. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Clay Center. as shown. E. shift toward F. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Chicago.

D. B. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires.. which conducts the current into the cannon. placed on top. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. C. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. spark. by means of machine screws or. 16 single-covered wire. with a number of nails. F. E. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Chicago. to the cannon. A. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. E. A and B. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. Then. and also holds the pieces of wood. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw.frame. or parallel with the compass needle. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. When the cannon is loaded. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. --Contributed by A. and the current may then be detected by means. C. with a pocket compass. Fasten a piece of wood. 14 or No. The wood screw. in position. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. C. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device.

but no weights or strings. Chicago. To lock the door. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. square and 3/8 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Fig. To reverse. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. A and S. Fig. To unlock the door. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Big Rapids. press the button. H. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Henry Peck. to receive the screw in the center. within the reach of the magnet. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Mich. A. where there is a staple. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. 1. B. L. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Bend the strips BB (Fig. requiring a strong magnet. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. in this position the door is locked. now at A' and S'. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. In Fig. Ohio. Keil. Marion. A and S. screw is bored in the block.the current is shut off. --Contributed by Joseph B. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. A hole for a 1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. 1. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. with the long arm at L'. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. when in position at A'. . 1. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse.

are enameled a jet black. J. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. or for microscopic work. When ready for use. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. When the holes are finished and your lines set. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. West Somerville.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and C is a dumbbell. put in the handle. Mass. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and may be made at very slight expense. pipe with 1-2-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. if enameled white on the concave side. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The standard and base. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. --Contributed by C. and if desired the handles may . The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Thread the other end of the pipe. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. about 18 in. Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. hole. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. long. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. gas-pipe.

and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Warren. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. as shown at A in the sketch. A. with a cover. 8 in. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Make a cylindrical core of wood. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Mass. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . North Easton. E. high by 1 ft.. B. M. Fig. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. which shall project at least 2 in. Fig. across. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in.be covered with leather. long and 8 in. 1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. inside the pail. --Contributed by C. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 1. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. D. This peculiar property is also found in ice.

it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. thick.. as dictated by fancy and expense. if there is to be any glazing done. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. as is shown in the sketch. C.mixture of clay. about 1 in. 3) with false top and bottom. and 3/4 in. pipe. and your kiln is ready for business. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and graphite. Whatever burner is used. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and cut it 3-1/2 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. When lighted. W. and varnish. which is the hottest part.-G. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. After removing all the paper. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. sand. 1). let this dry thoroughly. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. The 2 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. bottom and sides. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. say 1/4 in. C. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. and on it set the paper wrapped core. 1330°. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. full length of iron core. wider than the kiln. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. carefully centering it. pipe 2-ft. 25%. long. This done. diameter. 60%. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. but will be cheaper in operation. thick. in diameter. layer of the clay mixture. projecting from each end (Fig. Cover with paper and shellac as before. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. the point of the blue flame. 1390°-1410°. If the cover of the pail has no rim. Wind about 1/8 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. or make one yourself. Fig. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Line the pail. make two wood ends. C. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Fit all the parts together snugly. L. It is placed inside the kiln. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 15%. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. After finishing the core. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and 3/8 in. of fine wire. 1). If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. the firing should be gradual. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and with especial caution the first time. 2.. to hold the clay mixture. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. E. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. in diameter. hotel china. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. hard porcelain. strip of sheet iron. such . pack this space-top. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway.. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. if you have the materials. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner.

every alternate card being the same color. square them up and place in a vise. C. diameter. Next restore all the cards to one pack. T. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. overlaps and rests on the body. as in Fig.53 in. leaving long terminals. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. and discharges into the tube. Then take the black cards. red and black. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. 2.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. . C. all cards facing the same way. length of . Then. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. 8 in. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Washington. You can display either color called for. procure a new deck. and divide it into two piles. C. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. D. about 1/16 in. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. The funnel. and plane off about 1/16 in. as shown in the sketch herewith. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones.. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. square them up. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. A. taking care to have the first card red. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Chicago. --Contributed by J. Take the red cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. the next black. 2). the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. B. 1. and so on. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. as in Fig. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. 2. R. bind tightly with black silk. around the coil. Of course. with a plane.

so that when they are assembled. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.C. The upright pieces. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. through the holes already drilled. to form a dovetail joint as shown. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The cement. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. B. about 20 in. of the frame. Let . To find the fall of snow. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. and then the frame is ready to assemble. A. stove bolts. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. E. B. A. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. 1 gill of litharge. Long Branch. 1 gill of fine white sand.J. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. thus making all the holes coincide. F. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter.. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. D. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. angle iron for the frame. When the glass is put in the frame a space. All the horizontal pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces. N. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. 1. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Fig. B. It should be placed in an exposed location. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. C. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. E. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. the same ends will come together again. as the difficulties increase with the size. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E.

B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fasten the lever. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Fig. Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. having a swinging connection at C. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. a centerpiece (A. and. A.

wide . screwed to the door frame. with a water pressure of 70 lb. C. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Cut two pieces 30 in. to keep the frame from spreading. 1 is the motor with one side removed. will open the door about 1/2 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Fig. Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. from the outside top of the frame.. Fig. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. Fig. Fig. for the top. wide by 1 in. another. --Contributed by Orton E. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. another. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. They are shown in Fig. and another. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 2 is an end view. 3 shows one of the paddles. B. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. N. approximately 1 ft. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. E. 1 . All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. to form the main supports of the frame. showing the paddle-wheel in position. White. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. to form the slanting part. Fig. F. and Fig. Two short boards 1 in. long. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. several lengths of scantling 3 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 2 at GG. 6 in. according to the slant given C. 1. Buffalo. as at E. Y. A small piece of spring brass. 2 ft. I referred this question to my husband. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. long. 26 in. thus doing away with the spring. D. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. AA. but mark their position on the frame. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. which is 15 in. To make the frame. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1. Do not fasten these boards now. PAUL S. Cut two of them 4 ft. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. long.

Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. iron. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. 1. hole through their sides centrally. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole from the tops to the 1-in. These are the paddles. (I. and drill a 1-in. remove the cardboard. 2) and another 1 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Tack one side on. take down the crosspieces. 24 in. thick. long to the wheel about 8 in. tapering from 3/16 in. pipe. thick (HH. then drill a 3/16-in. GG. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. When it has cooled. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Now block the wheel. Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 2) form a substantial base. hole through them. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. by 1-1/2 in. to a full 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 2) with a 5/8-in. Drill 1/8-in. and drill a 1/8-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. hole through its center. Fasten them in their proper position. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. that is. in diameter. steel shaft 12 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. 4. Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. with the wheel and shaft in place. Fig. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Make this hole conical. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. after which drill a 5/8 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. and a 1/4 -in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. holes. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. from one end by means of a key. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole to form the bearings. iron 3 by 4 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Take the side pieces. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in.burlap will do -. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -.along the edges under the zinc to form .

and the subject may move. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. of course. Drill a hole through the zinc. Darken the rest of the window. place the outlet over a drain. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. and as near to it as possible.a water-tight joint. Correct exposure depends.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. ice-cream freezer. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. If the bearings are now oiled. says the Photographic Times. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. start the motor. drill press. . remove any white curtains there may be. as shown in the sketch at B. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. or what is called a process plate. If sheet-iron is used. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. The best plate to use is a very slow one. on the lens. any window will do. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. but as it would have cost several times as much. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Do not stop down the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. but now I put them in the machine. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and leave them for an hour or so. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. sewing machine. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Raise the window shade half way. it would be more durable. light and the plate. Focus the camera carefully. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. as this makes long exposure necessary. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. It is obvious that. shutting out all light from above and the sides. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible.

2. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. With a piece of black paper. The core C. full of water. which is made of iron and cork. The current required is very small. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. until the core slowly rises. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. hard rubber. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. by twisting. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. a glass tube. as shown in Fig. a core. A. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. 2. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The glass tube may be a test tube. with binding posts as shown. without detail in the face. or can be taken from an old magnet. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. D. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. the core is drawn down out of sight. B. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. as a slight current will answer. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. and a base. and without fog. or an empty developer tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. On completing . or wood. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. an empty pill bottle may be used. C.

Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. white lead. This is a mysterious looking instrument. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . finest graphite. The colors appear different to different people. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and make a pinhole in the center. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and one not easy to explain. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. water and 3 oz. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. according to his control of the current. is Benham's color top. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 pt. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. whale oil.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. 1 lb.

with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. C. or three spot. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus partly filling bottles A and C.B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. deuce. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. nearly every time. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. when the action ceases. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. before cutting. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. especially if the deck is a new one. In making hydrogen. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. fan-like. As this device is easily upset. In prize games. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. Chicago. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.L. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. A. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.. -Contributed by D. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.

can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Make a 10-sided stick. Detroit. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. W. J. in length and 3 in. as shown in Fig. long and 3 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 2. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Jr. long. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 10 in. in diameter. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Detail of Phonograph Horn .. Fig. 4. 3). wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. . Huron. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 12 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Bently. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by F. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft.. 9 in. S. S. (Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 1. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Dak.

most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Denver. it is equally easy to block that trick. with a pin driven in each end. making it three-ply thick. on one side and the top. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Fortunately. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. A. A piece of tin. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . long. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. 6. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fig. but bends toward D. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. about the size of a leadpencil. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. and walk in. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. push back the bolt. allowing 1 in. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Remove the form. bend it at right angles throughout its length. C. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Cut out paper sections (Fig. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. A second piece of silk thread. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. E. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. --Contributed by Reader. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip.

posts. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. as shown. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. W. S. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. West St. while the lower switch. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Jr. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The feet. will last for several years. long. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.. The upper switch. S. --Contributed by J. are 7 ft. The reverse switch. R. Fremont Hilscher. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. long. 4 ft. B. S S. put together as shown in the sketch.strip. Two wood-base switches. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine.. are made 2 by 4 in. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. B. The 2 by 4-in. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. and rest on a brick placed under each end. or left to right. is connected each point to a battery. By this arrangement one. A. Minn. Paul.

We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. is an old bicycle pump. H and K. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3/8 in. which will be described later. and a cylindrical . Fig. or anything available. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. with two washers. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 2 and 3. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The steam chest D. which is made of tin. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood.every house. and the crank bearing C. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. In Fig. FF. and in Fig. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 2. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. cut in half. pulley wheel. 1. either an old sewing-machine wheel. thick. E. Fig. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The base is made of wood. and valve crank S. and has two wood blocks. is part of the piston tube of the same pump.

and a very amusing trick. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. First. of Cuba. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. The valve crank S. 3. using the positive wire as a pen. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Fig. at that. This is wound with soft string. is cut out of tin. 4. powder can. C. and the desired result is obtained. This engine was built by W. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. G. Fig. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Wis. --Contributed by Geo. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Cal. W. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. or galvanized iron. as it is merely a trick of photography. . write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. G. San Jose. Fry. as shown in Fig. 1. Schuh and A. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then.piece of hard wood. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. to receive the connecting rod H. and saturated with thick oil. The boiler. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Eustice. can be an old oil can. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. J.

They may be of any size. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. diameter. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. as shown. to cross in the center. and Fig. C. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. The smaller wheel. B. B. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and pass ropes around . Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. When turning. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. as shown at AA. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 by covering up Figs.

M. such as clothes lines. produces a higher magnifying power). but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A (a short spool. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. To make this lensless microscope. --Contributed by H. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. long..G. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. Mo. Louis.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. St. procure a wooden spool. From a piece of thin . and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which accounts for the sound. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. which allows the use of small sized ropes. as shown in the illustration. This in turn will act on the transmitter. from the transmitter. W. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. but not on all. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.

the diameter will appear twice as large. by means of brads. The pivot. and at the center. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. as in all microscopes of any power. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. if the distance is reduced to one-third. can be made of brass and the armature. E. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and so on.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. cut out a small disk. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. which are pieces of hard wood. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and look through the hole D. the diameter will appear three times as large. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. H. darting across the field in every direction. C. An innocent-looking drop of water. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. To use this microscope. (The area would appear 64 times as large. A. in which hay has been soaking for several days. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. 2. i. is made of iron. otherwise the image will be blurred. held at arm's length. 1. D. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. 3... bent as shown. . or 64 times. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.) But an object 3/4-in. C. the object should be of a transparent nature. fastened to a wooden base. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The lever. D. B. The spring. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. place a small object on the transparent disk. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. Viewed through this microscope. e. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. if the distance is reduced to one-half. B. is fastened at each end by pins. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. Fig. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. which costs little or nothing to make.

All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. soft iron. The back. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. C. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in.SOUNDER-A. coils wound with No. wood: F. is cut from a board about 36 in. connection of D to nail. KEY-A. brass. or a single piece. DD. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. B. 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. E. D. long by 16 in. wood. wide. binding posts: H spring The stop. The base of the key. AA. 16 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. can be made panel as shown. or taken from a small one-point switch. A. between the armature and the magnet. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wood: C. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. in length and 16 in. brass: E. K. long. 1. B. Each side. A switch. . F. similar to the one used in the sounder. 26 wire: E. nail soldered on A. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. The door. Cut the top. K. Fig. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. and are connected to the contacts. C. HH. The binding posts. FF. brass: B. wide and set in between sides AA. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide. should be about 22 in. long and 14-1/2 in. D. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wide and about 20 in. wide. D. fastened near the end. wide. thick. Fig.

Ill. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. AA.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. E. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . When the electrical waves strike the needle. as shown in the sketch. as shown. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. long.. with 3/4-in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Make 12 cleats. 13-1/2 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. In operation. Garfield. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. brads. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. 2 and made from 1/4-in. cut in them.

--Contributed by R. in order to increase the surface. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. pulls down the armature. down into the water increases the surface in contact.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. when used with a motor. A. filled with water. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . When the pipe is used. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. B. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Fairport. --Contributed by John Koehler. J. A fairly stiff spring. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. C. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. and. Y. F. and thus decreases the resistance. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Pushing the wire. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. E. through which a piece of wire is passed. Brown. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. The cord is also fastened to a lever. N. A. A (see sketch). Ridgewood. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. the magnet.

N. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Borden. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.for the secret contact. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Gachville. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. if desired. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. --Contributed by Perry A. even those who read this description. Of course. B. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open.

The top board is made 28-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. long and 5 in. records and 5-5/8 in. 2. Jr. A. --Contributed by H. records. wide. --Contributed by Dr. Two drawers are fitted in this space. With about 9 ft. E. wide. N. Mangold. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. from the bottom. deep and 3/4 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. where the other end of wire is fastened. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. C. wide. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. D. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. for 6-in. Connect switch to post B. Cal. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. From a piece of brass a switch. Compton. C. for 10in. wide. Washington. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. 1. East Orange. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. . Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. thick and 12-in. long and full 12-in. apart. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. in a semicircle 2 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. J. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in.whenever the bell rings. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. as shown in Fig. Dobson. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf.. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. H. as shown in Fig.

E. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. closed. B. When the cord is passed over pulley C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. A. Roanoke. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. 1. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown in Fig. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Va.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown by the dotted lines. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.

Put the rubber tube. D. Do not fasten the sides too . 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. In these grooves place wheels. against which the rubber tubing. Now put all these parts together. which should be about 1/2 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. thick (A. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. long. wide. Cut two grooves. CC. thick. The crankpin should fit tightly. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. they will bind. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. to turn on pins of stout wire. 3. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. apart. Fig. E. it too loose.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 1 in. as shown in the illustration. Notice the break (S) in the track. in diameter. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. they will let the air through. In the sides (Fig. one in each end. through one of these holes. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. excepting the crank and tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Figs. wide. in diameter. holes (HH. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. deep. 3). pass it around the track and out through the other hole. E. square and 7/8 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 4 shows the wheel-holder. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. is compressed by wheels. 1 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Figs. B. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Fig. 5) when they are placed. These wheels should be 3/4 in. If the wheels fit too tightly.

2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Fig. mark again. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 15 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 2. Then turn the crank from left to right. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. of material. from each end. because he can . from the bottom and 2 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. the other wheel has reached the bottom. beyond each of these two. as shown in Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Two feet of 1/4-in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The screen which is shown in Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. though a small iron wheel is better. To use the pump. Hubbard. Kan. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. long. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Cut six pieces. Fig. Idana. AA. and mark for a hole. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. A in Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. --Contributed by Dan H. from each end. 2. a platform should be added. tubing. and 3-1/2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Take the center of the bar. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. B. 17-1/2 in. mark for hole and 3 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The three legs marked BBB. 1. iron. is all the expense necessary. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from each end. 1. as it gives steadiness to the motion. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. costing 10 cents. For ease in handling the pump. and are 30 in. stands 20 in. Fig. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. AA. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. from that mark the next hole.

it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. acid 1 part). take out the carbon and lower the zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. add slowly. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. dropping. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. rub the zinc well. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 1) must be prepared. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. there is too much liquid in the jar. If it is wet. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. --Contributed by H. giving it a bright. silvery appearance. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. of water dissolve 4 oz. If the battery has been used before. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. If the solution touches the zinc. long having two thumb screws. Philadelphia. The truncated. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. and the solution (Fig. Meyer. The battery is now ready for use. of the top. stirring constantly. potassium bichromate. or small electric motors. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. some of it should be poured out. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The mercury will adhere. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 14 copper wire. or. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. sulphuric acid. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. When through using the battery. . 4 oz. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. C. until it is within 3 in. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. shuts him in. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Place the carbon in the jar. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. however. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury.see through it: when he enters. When the bichromate has all dissolved. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. To cause a flow of electricity. 2). but if one casts his own zinc. The battery is now complete.

with slight changes. i. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.. which opens the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. e. The price of the coil depends upon its size.Fig. pressing the pedal closes the door. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. however. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. while the coal door is being opened. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. Madison. the jump-spark coil . one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. If. Wis. After putting in the coal. the battery circuit. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.

coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. which is made of light copper wire.described elsewhere in this book. Now for the receiving apparatus. 7. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. in a partial vacuum. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. the full length of the coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. while a 12-in. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. W W. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. Change the coil described. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 7). This coil. and closer for longer distances. 6. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.7. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. 6. as shown in Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This will make an excellent receiver. . This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. being a 1-in. W W. coil. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. made of No. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. diameter. 7. 5. as shown in Fig. apart. After winding. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal.

No. A. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. only. which will be described later. 90°. . where A is the headstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. I run my lathe by power. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire.6 stranded. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 1 to 4. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. but simply illustrates the above to show that. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. at any point to any metal which is grounded. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. above the ground. 90°. For an illustration. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. being at right angles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles.The aerial line. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. as it matches the color well. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. Figs. being vertical. 1). using an electric motor and countershaft. to the direction of the current. B the bed and C the tailstock. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. These circles. are analogous to the flow of induction. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. and hence the aerial line. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. after all. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. A large cone pulley would then be required. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). in the air. may be easily made at very little expense. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. to the direction of the force that caused the circles.

B. 6 Headstock Details D. thick. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. making half of the square in each half of the bearing.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The bearing is then ready to be poured. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 6. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. deep. After pouring. just touching the shaft. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 2 and 3. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. 4. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . To make these bearings. one of which is shown in Fig. 4. The headstock. steel tubing about 1/8 in. too. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. A. The bolts B (Fig. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. and runs in babbitt bearings. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. on the under side of the bed. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. tapered wooden pin. which are let into holes FIG. 5. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. and it is well to have the shaft hot. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. If the bearing has been properly made. which pass through a piece of wood. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and Fig. but not hot enough to burn it.

If not perfectly true. Take up about 5 ft. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. embedded in the wood. B. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.J. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. N. lock nut.other machines. Oak Park. so I had to buy one. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. of the walk . This prevents corrosion. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. FIG. the alarm is easy to fix up. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. and a 1/2-in. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Newark. A. The tail stock (Fig. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. Ill. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. If one has a wooden walk. they may be turned up after assembling.

Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. water. Jackson. to roughen the surface slightly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. --Contributed by R. S. so that they will not touch. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then make the solution . and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Finally. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. To avoid touching it. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. save when a weight is on the trap. of water. to remove all traces of grease. Minn. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. hang the articles on the wires. before dipping them in the potash solution. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. silver or other metal. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Fig. (A. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Do not touch the work with the hands again. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. 2). clean the articles thoroughly. and the alarm is complete. add potassium cyanide again. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Connect up an electric bell. leaving a clear solution. Minneapolis.

zinc. Fig. and then treated as copper. lead. Then. square. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Can be made of a 2-in. hole in its center. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. 1). as shown in Fig. When all this is set up. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. which is held by catch B. Before silver plating. shaking. an old electric bell or buzzer. with water. 18 wire. Repeat six times. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. also. 3) directly over the hole. but opens the door. To provide the keyhole. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. 10 in. will serve for the key. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Where Bunsen cells are used. of water. On brass. about 25 ft. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. and the larger part (F. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Having finished washing the precipitate. a circuit is completed. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated.5 to 4 volts. Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. 1 in. 3) strikes the bent wire L. The wooden catch. 1 not only unlocks.up to 2 qt. use 2 volts for large articles. 3. piece of broomstick. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Fig. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. make a key and keyhole. long. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. saw a piece of wood. a hand scratch brush is good. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. If more solution is required. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. --Model Engineer. Take quick. as at F. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1). the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. must be about 1 in. I. German silver. which . which is advised. B should be of the same wood. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. With an electric pressure of 3. Fig. copper. silver can be plated direct. A (Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of clothesline rope and some No. A 1/4 in. if one does not possess a buffing machine. thick by 3 in. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. This solution. The wooden block C. long. nickel and such metals. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. from the lower end. light strokes. when the point of the key touches the tin. If accumulators are used. 1. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. with water. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. with the pivot 2 in. and 4 volts for very small ones. Make a somewhat larger block (E. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. pewter. such metals as iron. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Screw the two blocks together.

but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. To prepare such a magic cave. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Next. New Jersey. the illumination in front must be arranged. The magician stands in front of this. --Contributed by E. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and hands its contents round to the audience. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. H. between the parlor and the room back of it. the requisites are a large soap box.. he tosses it into the cave. and finally lined inside with black cloth. enlarged. 2. he points with one finger to the box. no painting inside is required. should be cut a hole. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. floor. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. such as forks. so much the better. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. East Orange. spoons and jackknives. The interior must be a dead black. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. 2. One end is removed. On either side of the box. 1. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. with the lights turned low. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. He removes the bowl from the black box. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. B. 3. 0. and a slit. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Objects appear and disappear. sides and end. Thus. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Heavy metal objects. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. one-third of the length from the remaining end. or cave. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. 116 Prospect St. and black art reigns supreme. with a switch as in Fig. some black paint. Fig. H. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. a few simple tools. half way from open end to closed end. Next. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and plenty of candles. Fig. The box must be altered first.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. shows catch B. Receiving the bowl again. surrounding a perfectly black space. although a little more trouble. . and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. cut in one side. 1. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. some black cloth. One thing changes to another and back again. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Klipstein. to throw the light toward the audience. is the cut through which the rope runs. in his shirt sleeves. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. In front of you. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. top. heighten the illusion. Fig. H. which unlocks the door.

but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. But illusions suggest themselves. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. if. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. only he. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. his confederate behind inserts his hand.Finally. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. into the eyes of him who looks. and pours them from the bag into a dish. as presented by Hermann. which are let down through the slit in the top. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. a screen must be used. and if portieres are impossible. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. was identical with this. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. the room where the cave is should be dark. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Consequently. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. in which are oranges and apples. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The illusion. of course. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The exhibitor should be . which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. is on a table) so much the better. you must have an assistant. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. The audience room should have only low lights. and several black drop curtains. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. one on each side of the box. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. had a big stage. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut.

b1.. by 4 in.a boy who can talk. when handle K is turned to one side. or binding posts. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. at L. and a common screw. FIG.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. so arranged that. f2. and c2 to the zinc. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. terminal c3 will show +. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. by means of two wood screws. b3. Fig. with three brass strips. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. terminal c3 will show . as shown in Fig. and c1 – electricity. b2. 2. is shown in the diagram. 2). c3. 1. A. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. A represents a pine board 4 in. c1. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . b3. square. b2. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. vice versa. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. 1. 2. c2. held down on it by two terminals. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. making contact with them. respectively. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. and c4 + electricity. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. d. respectively. if you turn handle K to the right. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. making contact with them as shown at y. c4. On the disk G are two brass strips. or b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. respectively. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. e1 and e2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. their one end just slips under the strips b1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. Then. About the center piece H moves a disk. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. Finally.

in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 1. . and then hold the receiver to your ear. 5. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Joerin. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Newark.. thus making the message audible in the receiver. and C and C1 are binding posts. When switch B is closed and A is on No. from five batteries. 4. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. you have the current of one battery. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. and when on No. B is a onepoint switch. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Jr. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Ohio. --Contributed by Eugene F. -Contributed by A. from three batteries. when on No. when A is on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. E. from four batteries. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Tuttle. when on No. 3. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. jump spark coil. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made.

mark. La. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. The device thus arranged. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. New Orleans. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. mark. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. over the bent portion of the rule. and placed on the windowsill of the car. so one can see the time. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. as shown in the sketch. traveled by the thread. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A.. B. Redmond. rule. per second. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. E. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. which may be a button or other small object.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. and supporting the small weight. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. is the device of H. A. per second for each second. When you do not have a graduate at hand. of Burlington. Thus. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. P. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Handy Electric Alarm . Wis.

which illuminates the face of the clock. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Lane. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. --C. . for a wetting is the inevitable result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. C. and with the same result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. B. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. but may be closed at F any time desired. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Pa. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. wrapping the wire around the can several times. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Instead. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. --Contributed by Gordon T. When the alarm goes off. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened.which has a piece of metal. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then if a mishap comes. S. Crafton.

Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. If there is no foundry Fig. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. whence it is soon tracked into the house. when it is being prepared.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. L. Two cleats. C. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. and many other interesting and useful articles. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. battery zincs. It is possible to make molds without a bench. AA.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . which in turn support the mold while it is being made. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. 1 . bearings. small machinery parts. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Macey. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. 1. cannons. as shown in Fig. A. engines. binding posts. which may. With the easily made devices about to be described. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. as shown. models and miniature objects. and duplicates of all these. ornaments of various kinds. BE. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. --Contributed by A. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. New York City. The first thing to make is a molding bench.

Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. by 6 in. as shown. the "cope. The rammer. A wedge-shaped piece. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. 2 . E. makes a very good sieve.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it." or upper half. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. try using sand from other sources. and this. CC. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. say 12 in. is filled with coal dust. is made of wood. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. a little larger than the outside of the flask. which should be nailed in. J. G. A A. is shown more clearly in Fig. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Fig. An old teaspoon. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. The flask. F. The cloth bag. as shown. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. D. and the "drag. If desired the sieve may be homemade. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which can be either aluminum. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. is about the right mesh. II . A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. H. but this operation will be described more fully later on. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. If the box is not very strong. It is made of wood and is in two halves. DD. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. will be required.near at hand. high. 2. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Fig. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. CC. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. previous to sawing. by 8 in. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. 1. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. and the lower pieces. A slight shake of the bag Fig. is nailed to each end of the cope. and saw it in half longitudinally. 1. and a sieve. white metal. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated." or lower part.How to Make a Mold [96] . This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. The dowels.

which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The sand is then ready for molding. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown at D. as shown at E. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. as it is much easier to learn by observation. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It is then rammed again as before. and by grasping with both hands. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. or "drag. as described. After ramming. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. turn the drag other side up. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and then more sand is added until Fig. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. Place another cover board on top. or "cope." in position. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and if water is added. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and thus judge for himself." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. where they can watch the molders at work. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as shown at C. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. in order to remove the lumps. and scatter about 1/16 in. the surface of the sand at . In finishing the ramming. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle.

as shown in the sketch. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. The "sprue. thus holding the crucible securely. thus making a dirty casting. made out of steel rod. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. place the cope back on the drag. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. wide and about 1/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. deep. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown at G. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. it shows that the sand is too wet. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Fig. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. This is done with a spoon. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. is next cut. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. as shown at J. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. after being poured. in diameter. . by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown at H. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. III. to give the air a chance to escape. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. After drawing the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in order to prevent overheating." or pouring-hole.E should be covered with coal-dust. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at F. and then pour. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at H. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold.

A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. battery zincs. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. may be used in either direction. although somewhat expensive. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. is very desirable. babbitt. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but any reasonable number may be used. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. used only for zinc. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Morton. white metal and other scrap available. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. the following device will be found most convenient. Minneapolis. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and. or from any adjacent pair of cells. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Referring to the figure. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Although the effect in the illustration . --Contributed by Harold S. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In my own case I used four batteries. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. 15% lead. If a good furnace is available. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw.

by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. which will be sufficient to hold it. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. shaft made. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. Then walk down among the audience. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . 2. If desired. Then replace the table. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Make one of these pieces for each arm. as shown in the illustration. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. The bearings. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Chicago. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. By replacing the oars with paddles. Fig. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The brass rings also appear distorted. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. B. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. --Contributed by Draughtsman. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. backward. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. outward. A. connected by cords to the rudder. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. may be made of hardwood. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Put a sharp needle point. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. To make it take a sheet-iron band. as shown at A. 3/4 in.

as shown in Fig. The hubs. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The covers. 1. A block of ice. being simply finely divided ice. 2. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. A. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. If galvanized iron is used. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. or the paint will come off. 1. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 3. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. W. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. spoiling its appearance. D. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. C. but when in motion.melted babbitt. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. If babbitt is used. when it will again return to its original state. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. Snow. E. In the same way. It may seem strange that ice . 1. Fig. or under pressure. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 2 and 3. should be made of wood. as shown in Fig. and a weight. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process.

makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 5 in. which resembles ice in this respect. thus giving a high resistance contact. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Crafton. but. but by placing it between books. brass. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. whenever there is any connection made at all. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 1/2 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. sometimes only one or two feet a day. square. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. B. no matter how slow the motion may be. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 2 in. Pa. Lane. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.should flow like water. or supporting it in some similar way. it will gradually change from the original shape A. --Contributed by Gordon T. as shown on page 65. as per sketch. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. P. in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pressing either push button. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and assume the shape shown at B. by 1/4. the contact posts being of 1/4 in.

K . draft chain. cord. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. D. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. pulleys. vertical lever. Ward. --Contributed by A. B. G. J. F. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. as shown. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. the induction coil. The success depends upon a slow current. the battery. and C. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Pa. weight. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. and five dry batteries.000 ft. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. In the wiring diagram. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. as shown. about the size used for automobiles. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. Wilkinsburg. E. B. wooden supports. furnace. I. The parts are: A. Indianapolis. A is the circuit breaker. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. draft. C. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.thumb screws. horizontal lever. G. H. alarm clock. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3.

This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. will fit nicely in them. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. such as used for a storm window. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. Kalamazoo. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. as well as the bottom. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. material framed together as shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Mich. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . which will provide a fine place for the plants. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 2 are dressed to the right angle. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. -Contributed by Gordon Davis.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day.

An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Canada. Push the needle into the cork. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. which sells for 25 cents. W.. as indicated by Fig. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. but maintain the voltage constant. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. where they are glad to have them taken away. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. It must be remembered. one can regulate the batteries as required. for some time very satisfactorily. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. e. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. S. However. This is more economical than dry cells. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. Halifax. i. --Contributed by Wm. 1 each complete with base. can be connected up in series. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. in diameter. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. this must be done with very great caution. in this connection. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. A certain number of these. However. in any system of lamps. 1 cp. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. after a rest. and a suitable source of power. since a battery is the most popular source of power. and cost 27 cents FIG. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it.. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. as if drawn upon for its total output. so as to increase the current. Grant. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. and will give the .. by connecting them in series. and the instrument will then be complete. is something that will interest the average American boy. Thus. a cork and a needle. 1. The 1/2-cp. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. multiples of series of three. N.

proper voltage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and for Christmas trees. 1-cp. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. double insulated wire wherever needed. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. In conclusion. to secure light by this method. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. These will give 3 cp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. for display of show cases. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Thus. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. or 22 lights. where the water pressure is the greatest. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. Fig. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. lamp. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. Thus.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. . and insert in the nearest lamp socket. especially those of low internal resistance. 18 B & S. if wound for 6 volts. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. So. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and diffused light in a room. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 11 series. and then lead No. and running the series in parallel. as in Fig. 3. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. lamps. lamps. making. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. 2 shows the scheme. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. generates the power for the lights. However. although the first cost is greater. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. we simply turn on the water. according to the water pressure obtainable. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. by the proper combination of these. each.. FIG. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. If wound for 10 volts. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. which is the same as that of one battery. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. Chicago.

or a tempting bone. B. After I connected up my induction coil. Plymouth. CC. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Cal. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. DD. or from one pattern. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. outside points of switch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. a bait of meat. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. . --Contributed by F. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. B. thus reversing the machine. To reverse the motor. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Santa Clara. we were not bothered with them. Emig. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. A. BB. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. center points of switch. Parker. switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. and the sides. bars of pole-changing switch. field of motor. brushes of motor. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Leonard E. are cut just alike. simply change the switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. the letters indicate as follows: FF. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Ind. and C. AA. A indicates the ground.

San Jose. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. When the circuit is broken a weight. Fry. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. one cell being sufficient. a hammer. Hutchinson. To unlock the door. merely push the button E. The experiment works best . which is in the door. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. and a table or bench. -Contributed by Claude B. Melchior.. or would remain locked. W. Minn. Cal. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. If it is not. as it is the key to the lock. The button can be hidden. A. attached to the end of the armature B. a piece of string. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. thus locking the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. 903 Vine St. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked.

I. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. releasing the weight.. the stick falls away. Canada. as shown in Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Wis. 3. forming a loop. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. the key turns. Madison.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. run through a pulley. Ontario. Culebra. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Crawford Curry. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 2. On another block of wood fasten two wires. --Contributed by Geo. A. D. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. where it will remain suspended as shown. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 3. Porto Rico. Brockville. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. . 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. attached at the other end. 1). When the alarm rings in the early morning. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. W. 4). which pulls the draft open. -. Schmidt. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. 18 Gorham St. P.Contributed by F. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Tie the ends of the string together. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. C. the current flows with the small arrows.

First. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. thence to a switch. or tree. D.. R. and the other to the battery. and then to the receiver. including the mouthpiece. J. or from a bed of flowers. N. running one direct to the receiver. square and 1 in. which fasten to the horn. Jr. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and break the corners off to make them round. --Contributed by Wm. Farley. S. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The cut shows the arrangement. Use a barrel to work on. Camden. get two pieces of plate glass. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. J. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. thick. and . made with his own hands. 6 in. Connect two wires to the transmitter. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described.

of water. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. also rotate the glass. in length. or it will not polish evenly. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. as in Fig. a round 4-in. and spread on the glass. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When dry. and is ready for polishing. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. L. and label. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. When polishing the speculum. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. the coarse grinding must be continued. wetting it to the consistency of cream. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. and the under glass or tool convex. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. by the side of the lamp. wet till soft like paint. and a large lamp. so the light . 1. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. melt 1 lb..Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. unless a longer focal length is wanted. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. twice the focal length away. Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. In a dark room. set the speculum against the wall. with 1/4-in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. 2. Then warm and press again with the speculum. then 8 minutes. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Have ready six large dishes. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. while walking around the barrel. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. spaces. 2. Fasten. wide around the convex glass or tool. Fig. or less. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. A.. using straight strokes 2 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. then take 2 lb. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. with pitch.

in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. 100 gr. also how the rays R from a star . large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. 4 oz. then ammonia until bath is clear. When dry. the speculum will show some dark rings. 4 oz. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. face down.……………………………. deep.……………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. The polishing and testing done. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Fig.. that was set aside.………………………………. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Fig. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 25 gr.. When the focus is found. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.100 gr. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. must be procured. Then add solution B. 2. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. longer strokes. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. If not. fill the dish with distilled water. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. long to the back of the speculum. 2. Now add enough of the solution A. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 840 gr. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. from the lamp. Place the speculum S. cement a strip of board 8 in. as in K. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears... if a hill in the center.. Then add 1 oz. touched with rouge. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 39 gr. or hills. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. With pitch. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Place the speculum. the speculum is ready to be silvered.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Nitric acid . Fig. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. with distilled water. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.

two glass prisms. Place over lens. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. cover with paper and cloth. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.John E. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. deg.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. long and cost me just $15. My telescope is 64 in. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. stop down well after focusing. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. . is a satisfactory angle. Mellish. Then I made the one described. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. which proves to be easy of execution. and proceed as for any picture. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Thus an excellent 6-in. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Make the tube I of sheet iron. telescope can be made at home. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. About 20. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. using strawboard and black paper. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. slightly wider than the lens mount.

How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. The paper is exposed. The rays of the clear.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. but will not preserve its hardening. push the button D. . B. or powdered alum. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. and reflect through the negative. add the plaster gradually to the water. A. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. complete the arrangement. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. then add a little sulphate of potash. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. To unlock. -Contributed by A. as shown in Fig. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Zimmerman. Ill. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Boody. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. instead of the contrary. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. 2. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Fig. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. says the Master Painter. Do not stir it. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. 1. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. through the lens of the camera and on the board.

so that it can rotate about these points. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. as at A and B. Then blow through the spool. 2. as shown in the sketch. as in Fig. To reverse. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Fasten on the switch lever. throw .Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 3. 2. 1). and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. also provide them with a handle. but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.

making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. North Bend. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. . 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. carbons. C C. L. Tex. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. binding posts. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. B. as shown in the sketch. wash in running water. Neb. Levy. Thomas. Tex. In the sketch. -Contributed by Morris L. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Go McVicker. and E E. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and rub dry with linen cloth. A is the electricbell magnet. carbon sockets. San Marcos. --Contributed by Geo. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by R. San Antonio. the armature. Take out. rinse in alcohol. D.

Brooklyn. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. By means of two or more layers of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. long or more. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. --Contributed by Joseph B.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 14 or No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Bell. wound evenly about this core. 36 magnet wire. 16 magnet wire. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself.

a box like that shown in Fig. 4. This makes a condenser which may be folded. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. hole is bored in the center of one end. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. with room also for a small condenser. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. wide. one piece of the paper is laid down. coil illustrates the general details of the work. In shaping the condenser. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. which is desirable. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Beginning half an inch from one end. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The condenser is next wrapped . in diameter. diameter. A 7/8-in. making two layers. 1. No. and the results are often unsatisfactory. about 6 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. in length. 2 may be purchased at a small cost.which would be better to buy ready-made. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. at a time. and finally the fourth strip of paper. The following method of completing a 1-in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. After the core wires are bundled. long and 2-5/8 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 2 yd. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. the entire core may be purchased readymade. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. as shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. but if it is not convenient to do this work. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. long and 5 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. then the strip of tin-foil. or 8 in. which is an important factor of the coil.

and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. B. spark. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. 4 in. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. B. switch. open switch C. copper lever with 1-in. to the door. one from bell. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the other sheet. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. which allows wiring at the back.securely with bands of paper or tape. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. wide.. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. The alarm key will turn and drop down. round so that the inside . by 12 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. G. which is insulated from the first. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. the letters indicate as follows: A. 3. whole length. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. Fig. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. C. lines H. A. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. E. long to key. shows how the connections are made. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. battery . Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. D. F. long and 12 in. V-shaped copper strip. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. flange turned on one side. I. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. and one from battery. forms the other pole or terminal. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. ready for assembling.) The wiring diagram. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. shelf for clock. go. bell. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter.

If desired for use immediately. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. of zinc sulphate. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. do not shortcircuit. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. and the battery is ready for use. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Line the furnace. That is what they are for. . A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.diameter is 7 in. 2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. This is for blowing. of blue stone. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. from the bottom. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Use a glass or metal shade. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. but with the circuit. but add 5 or 6 oz.. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. London. Short-circuit for three hours. says the Model Engineer. and then rivet the seam. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.

for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. changes white phosphorus to yellow.. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. grip the stick firmly in one hand. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. oxygen to ozone. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. This type of battery will give about 0. imparting to them a violet tinge. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. square and about 9 in. Try it and see. Enlarge the hole slightly. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Ohio. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. below the bottom of the zinc. the second finger along the side.9 of a volt. g. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Outside of the scientific side involved. but the thing would not move at all. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. If too low. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. herein I describe a much better trick. and then. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. for others the opposite way. as in the other movement. To operate the trick. At least it is amusing. or think they can do the same let them try it. and therein is the trick. affects . porcelain and paper. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. 2. 1. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus producing two different vibrations. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right." which created much merriment. long.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in.

carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . and. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. but not essential. says the Photographic Times. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. earth.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. an old tripod screw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. insects. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. chemicals. To the front board is attached a box. but this is less satisfactory. a means for holding it vertical. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. if possible. a short-focus lens. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. however. but small flowers. and one of them is photomicrography. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera.

65 4 lb. Cap. 7 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 113 7 lb. or 31 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper.--Contributed by George C. 8 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. 12 ft. 1. 179 11 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 5 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 7-1/2 in. 905 57 lb. Boston. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. AB. balloon. 11 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 3 ft. 381 24 lb. 697 44 lb. CD. while it is not so with the quill. Madison. The following table will give the size. Mass. in diameter. Ft Lifting Power. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. which is 15 ft. 5 in. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Fig. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 268 17 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. A line. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 9 ft. 6 ft. 7-1/2 in. in Cu. long and 3 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. and a line. 10 ft 523 33 lb.

making a double seam as shown in Fig. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This pattern is used to mark the cloth.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 2. Procure 1 gal. The amounts necessary for a 10- . A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. using a fine needle and No. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. of beeswax and boil well together. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The pattern is now cut. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. keeping the marked part on the outside. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. on the curved line from B to C. Repeat this operation four times. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 3. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 70 thread. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. 4. cutting all four quarters at the same time. and so on. The cloth segments are sewed together. of the very best heavy body.

Green Iron ammonium citrate . by fixing. ft. using a fine brush. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel.ft. Water 1 oz. 5. 5 . as shown in Fig. B. of iron borings and 125 lb. A. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. which may sound rather absurd. When the clock has dried. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. A. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. or a fan. capacity and connect them. balloon are 125 lb. 1 lb. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. until no more dirt is seen. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. with water 2 in. . . 150 gr. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. with 3/4in. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. or dusting with a dry brush. to the bag. All FIG. of gas in one hour. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. should not enter into the water over 8 in. this should be repeated frequently. of iron. if it is good it will dry off. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The 3/4-in. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. C. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Fill the other barrel. leaving the hand quite clean. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. B. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. B. After washing a part. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. A. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. of water will make 4 cu. but if any grease remains on the hand. a clean white rag. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. it is not fit to use. About 15 lb. The outlet. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. above the level of the water in barrel A. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. with the iron borings. 1 lb. of sulphuric acid. oil the spindle holes carefully. Vegetable oils should never be used.. C. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. In the barrel. ]. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. pipe.

of the cell is connected to a ground wire. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. The negative pole. and keep in the dark until used. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Exposure. Port Melbourne. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. This aerial collector can be made in . Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. A cold. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. of any make. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry in the dark. or battery. dry atmosphere will give best results. toning first if desired.Water 1 oz. keeping the fingers out of the solution. to avoid blackened skin. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. . . fix in hypo. says the Moving Picture World. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or zinc. The positive pole. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Dry the plates in the dark. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. A longer exposure will be necessary. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. at the time of employment. The miniature 16 cp. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. and a vigorous negative must be used. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. or carbon. Printing is done in the sun.000 ft. 20 to 30 minutes..

and as less current will flow the short way. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. lay a needle. long. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. forming a cup of the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. If the waves strike across the needle. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. As the telephone offers a high resistance. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. a positive and a negative. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. in diameter. lead pipe. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. If the wave ceases. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. the resistance is less. The storage cell. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. as described below. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. when left exposed to the air. 5 in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. both positive and negative. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. will soon become dry and useless. This will complete the receiving station. making a ground with one wire. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. holes .various ways.

in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. namely: a square hole. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . This box can be square. by soldering the joint. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. This. This support or block. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. B. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. on each end. except for about 1 in.as possible. says the Pathfinder. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Two binding-posts should be attached. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. one to the positive. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. of course. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. D. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. a round one. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. an oblong one and a triangular one. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The other plate is connected to the zinc. does not need to be watertight. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the other to the negative. or tube B. or tube C. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled.

between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Only galvanized nails should be used. deep and 4 ft. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. as shown in Fig. 1. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. in place on the wood. back and under.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. . The third piece of brass. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 1. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. This punt. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. 2. were fitted by this one plug. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. Chicago. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. long. C. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. 2. leaving about 1/16 in. is built 15 ft. as shown in Fig. about 20 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. all around the edge. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 3. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as it is not readily overturned. wide. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. Ill. A and B. and match them together. wide. thick cut two pieces alike.

The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] .-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. is cut 1 in. square (Fig 2). Wash. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. thick and 3-1/2 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. In Fig.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. gas pipe. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. A. Tacoma. A piece of 1/4-in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. B.

it had to be borne in mind that. lamp. or "rotor. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.--Contributed by Charles H. In designing. without auxiliary phase. The winding of the armature. and to consume. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. which the writer has made.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night." has no connection with the outside circuit. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . no more current than a 16-cp. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. H. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. may be of interest to some of our readers. no special materials could be obtained. Wagner. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. says the Model Engineer. with the exception of insulated wire. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. if possible. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.

B. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. with the dotted line." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and all sparking is avoided. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. bolts put in and tightened up. while the beginnings . and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. no steel being obtainable. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The stator is wound full with No. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. thick. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. C. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. about 2-1/2 lb. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. to be filed out after they are placed together. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. 2. Holes 5-32 in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and filled with rivets. 4. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. A. 1. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. as shown in Fig. Unfortunately. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 3. were then drilled and 1/4-in. also varnished before they were put in. as shown in Fig. this little machine is not self-starting.the field-magnet. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. holes. wrought iron. being used. They are not particularly accurate as it is. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. or "stator. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. After assembling a second time. 5.

One is by contact. it would be very simple to build. The image should . Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 2. J. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. This type of motor has drawbacks. a regulating resistance is not needed. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. if applied immediately. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. as before stated. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. having no commutator or brushes. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. McKinney. Jr. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. as a means of illustrating songs. film to film.. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Newark. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. E. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. 1. and as the motor runs at constant speed. No starting resistance is needed. and as each layer of wire was wound. N. In making slides by contact. and especially of colored ones. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and the other by reduction in the camera. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The lantern slide is a glass plate. The rotor is wound with No. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and all wound in the same direction. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and would not easily get out of order. 3-Contributed by C.

and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. 4. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. A. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. D. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. they are much used by travelers. C. These can be purchased from any photo material store. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. the formulas being found in each package of plates. a little extra work will be necessary. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. 3. Fig. also. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. B. and then a plain glass. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Select a room with one window. over the mat. as shown in Fig. 1. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. about a minute. If the exposure has been correct. Draw lines with a pencil. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative.appear in. Being unbreakable. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. to use a plain fixing bath. if possible. as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. 5. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. except that the binding is different. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 2. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate.

as shown at A. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Fig. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. is to be used for the seat. as shown at B. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. 2. as shown in Fig. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. 16 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. Hastings. holes bored in the end pieces. known as rods and cones. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. in diameter and 20 in. These longer pieces can be made square. Corinth. from the center of this dot draw a star. long. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. long. from the end piece of the chair. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. from the ends. A piece of canvas. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. If the star is in front of the left eye. or other stout cloth. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. in diameter and 40 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. 1. Vt. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Fig. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 1. wide and 50 in.

and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A belt. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. 1. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A disk 1 in. They will be found to be exactly the same distance.-Contributed by P. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. O'Gara. J. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Auburn. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. 2. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Cal. as well as to operate other household machines. made from an ordinary sash cord. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. as shown in Fig. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. . A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. in thickness and 10 in. per square inch. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.

A simple. then removing the object. long. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. wide. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. or inconvenient to measure. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. with as fine a thread as possible. divided by the number of threads to the inch. direction. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and the construction is complete. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. says the Scientific American. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. will be the thickness of the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. leaving it shaped like a bench. Put the bolt in the hole. to the top of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. screwing it through the nut. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. . The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. 3/4 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. fairly accurate. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. square for a support. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. thick and 2-1/2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. it serves a very useful purpose. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.

How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. long is used for the center pole. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. beyond the end of the wood. Oal. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. which show up fine at night. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Bore a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. The wheel should be open . Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Santa Maria. piece of wood 12 ft. bolt in each hole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long. material 12 ft. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Place a 3/4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets.

A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. long. wide and 1/8 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. and on its lower end a socket. at the top and 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. pieces used for the spokes. in diameter. and the lower part 61/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. thick. which should be 1/4 in. from the ends. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. square and 3 or 4 in. wide and 1/8 in. P. thick. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. O. long. is soldered. C. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. of the ends with boards. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The boards may be nailed or bolted. L. A cross bar. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. 1/2 in. long. Tex. A piece of brass 2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Fort Worth. H and J. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The spool . B. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. A. The coil. thick is used for the armature. at the bottom. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Graham. from the top end. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. C. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. made of the same material. long. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No.-Contributed by A.Side and Top View or have spokes.

A.000 for irrigation work. do it without any apparent effort. S. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. S. A soft piece of iron. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. C. D and E.--A. and in numerous other like instances. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 1. Mass. long. --Contributed by Arthur D.J. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. and directly centering the holes H and J. This is a very neat trick if performed right. F. one without either rubber or metal end. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. . Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.E. is drilled. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. 2. that holds the lower carbon. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. for insulating the brass ferrule. 2 the hat hanging on it. This tie can be used on grain sacks. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. which may be had by using German silver wire. At the bottom end of the frame. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. R. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. B. Bradlev. and place it against a door or window casing. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Randolph. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. The armature. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.is about 2-1/2 in. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. then with a firm. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. by soldering. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. or a water rheostat heretofore described. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.000.

in diameter. 2. S. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The vibrator B. for adjustment. for the primary.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The coil ends are made from cardboard. long. is connected to a flash lamp battery. and then 1. Fig. in diameter and 2 in. F. 1. with a 3/16-in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. hole in the center. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The core of the coil. thick. 1. about 1/8 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. long and 1 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. is constructed in the usual manner. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. C. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. S. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The vibrator. in diameter. leaving the projections as shown. about 1 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. B. about 3/16 in.500 turns of No. in diameter and 1/16 in. for the secondary. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. About 70 turns of No. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. wide. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. mixed with water to form a paste. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The switch. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. A. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. D. from the core and directly opposite. Fig.

between the boards. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. Fig. 16 in. long and when placed over the board. which seemed to be insufficient. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The tin is 4 in. 1. as shown in the sketch.Place a small piece of paper. The knob on the dial extends out too far. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The lock. in an ordinary water glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. . While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is only 3/8-in. as shown. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. lighted. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. thick on the inside. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. with which to operate the dial. board. was to be secured by only three brass screws. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. brass plate. wide. which is cut with two holes. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. 1. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 2 to fit the two holes. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. and the same distance inside of the new board. The hasp. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. it laps down about 8 in. and then well clinched. The three screws were then put in the hasp. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position.

any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. clear glass as shown. which completely divides the box into two parts. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When the rear part is illuminated. not shiny. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. square and 10-1/2 in. but when the front part is illuminated. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. square and 8-1/2 in. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. the glass.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. black color. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or in the larger size mentioned. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. When making of wood. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. and the back left dark. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. If the box is made large enough. one in each division.

into the other. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. When there is no electric current available. as it appears. .Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. and with the proper illumination one is changed. above the top of the tank. When using as a window display.. alternately. as shown at A in the sketch. long and 1 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. wide will be about the right size. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. a tank 2 ft. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as shown in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The pieces can then be taken out. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. O. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. 1 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. high. thick and 3 in. hole bored the full length through the center. 6 in. from the ground. however. The 13-in. as shown. each. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. one for each side. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. gauge for depth. Three windows are provided. and 6 ft. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. with a length of 13 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. 5 ft. This hole must be continued . all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. then use a red-hot iron to finish. A small platform. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. wide. lines gauged on each side of each. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. square and 40 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and a door in front. square. long. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. under sides together. bit. Iron sulphate. and boring two holes with a 1-in. is the green vitriol. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. 2 ft. Shape the under sides first. radius. bore from each end. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. long. If a planing mill is near. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. but with a length of 12 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. is built on the front. Columbus.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This precipitate is then washed. using a 3/4-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. wide. hole. or ferrous sulphate. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch.

and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Electric globes--two. A better way. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. if shade is purchased.through the pieces forming the base. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. If the parts are to be riveted." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. For art-glass the metal panels are . apply two coats of wax. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. When the filler has hardened. three or four may be attached as shown. The sketch shows one method of attaching. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. When this is dry. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. thick and 3 in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Saw the two blocks apart. hole in each block. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.Construction of Shade .

This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. the other. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. Figure 1 shows the side. and Fig. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. one way and 1/2 in. the object and the background. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The arms holding the glass. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. 2 the front view of this stand. as in ordinary devices. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons.

in diameter for a base. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. and swinging freely. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. outside diameter. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and an inside diameter of 9 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Put the ring in place on the base. Before mounting the ring on the base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as shown in the cut. If the light becomes dim. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. uncork and recork again. An ordinary pocket compass. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. pointing north and south. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. thick 5/8-in. as shown in the sketch. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. wide and 11 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. wide and 6-5/16 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. channel in the circumference of the ring. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. long. as it is very poisonous. about 1-1/4 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. in diameter.

are mounted on a base. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. black oxide of copper.500 . and north of the Ohio river. 1 oz.600 . of the top. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. EE. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. above the half can.289 . Corresponding mirrors.182 .715 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. B. and mirrors. from the second to the third. Place on top the so- .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. in diameter and 8 in. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.865 1. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.420 .088 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. CC. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. into these cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The results given should be multiplied by 1.

This device makes an attractive advertising sign. little crystals forming in the liquid. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. In Fig. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. says Metal Worker. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Colo. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. always remove the oil with a siphon. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the wheel will revolve in one direction. which otherwise remains clear.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When renewing. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Put the solution in a long. alcohol. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. 62 gr. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. then they will not rust fast. 31 gr. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. slender bottle. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. University Park. of pulverized campor. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.

a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. on the under side of the cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. will allow the magnet to point north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. floating on a solution. Lloyd Enos.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Attach to the wires. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. --Contributed by C. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. A paper-fastener box. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and carbon are used. about 1-1/4 in. This is used in place of the spoon. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If zinc and copper are used. Solder in the side of the box .

Take a small piece of soft iron. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. 1/2. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The base. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. and on the other around the glass tube. and then solder on the cover.in. one on each side of the board. 1-1/4 in. The bottom of the box. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. A circular piece of cardboard. Thos. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. A. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Use a board 1/2. stained and varnished. wide and 6 in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Bore holes for binding-posts.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. E. D. A. The spring should be about 1 in. 1. To this standard solder the supporting wire. . The standard. piece of 1/4-in. brass tubing. H. wide and 2-1/2 in. E. or made with a little black paint. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. C. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. glass tubing .1-in. Put ends. If the hose is not a tight fit. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. thick. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. D. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.not shorter than 18 in. long that has about 1/4-in. Rhamstine. C. 3 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. of No. as shown in Fig. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long. can be made of oak. F. B. 10 wire about 10 in. G--No.Contributed by J.in. is made from a piece of No. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. C. long. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. of wire on each end extending from the coil. hole. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. B. away. to it. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 14 wire will do. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.

of mercury will be sufficient. Cuba. Wis. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Milwaukee. of 8-oz. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. canvas. 3. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. long are used for the legs. making a support as shown in Fig. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. about 1 in. Y. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. in diameter. 3 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. E.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer.--Contributed by Edward M. long. 1. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. from the right hand. When the glass becomes soft. J. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. long. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. four hinges. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. N. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. 2. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. two pieces 2 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. The iron plunger.of the coil. 5. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. of No. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Smith. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. long. D. 3-in. About 1-1/2 lb. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long. Teasdale. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. .

At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Break off the piece of glass. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Toronto. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. leaving 8 in. Fig.. of vacuum at the top. long. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 2. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. expelling all the air. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 4. 5. holding in the left hand. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in.. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. thus leaving a. Measure 8 in. small aperture in the long tube. Keys. The tube now must be filled completely. 6. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. 3. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Take 1/2 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. --Contributed by David A. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Can. This tube as described will be 8 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury.

9 in. 7. thick. This forms a slot. 1 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . thick.6 -. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. thick. These are bent and nailed. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. with each projection 3-in. 3 in. long. wide and 5 ft. 6. wide and 3 in. long. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. as in Fig. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. material 2 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. in diameter. 3 in. from the end of same. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. but yellow pine is the best. Fig. 4 in. wood screws. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 2. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. wide and 12 in. 5. long. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 1 in. thick. joint be accurately put together. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. FIG. The large pulley is about 14 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. and 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thick.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Four blocks 1/4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 4. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 1. cut in the shape shown in Fig. 3. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.

Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Manhattan. attach runners and use it on the ice. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. first removing the crank. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Water 1 oz. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. --Contributed by C. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. by 1-in. R. . Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Kan. Welsh.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. above the runner level. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. says Photography. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string.

and very much cheaper. Printing is carried rather far. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 1 oz. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. of water. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. 1. 3. Mass. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Newton. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. . 2. from an ordinary clamp skate. Leominster. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. --Contributed by Wallace C. also. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. --Contributed by Edward M. The print is washed. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Treasdale. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr.

causing the door to swing back and up. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. 1. Church. --Contributed by H. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The thread is broken off at the . high for rabbits. Take two glass tubes. A. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. about 10 in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. from one end. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. long. and to the bottom. too. Fig. with about 1/8-in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and 3 ft. wide and 4 in. Fig. Then. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Place a 10-in. fasten a 2-in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. which represents the back side of the door. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 2. extending the width of the box. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. say. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. 1. high.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. as shown in the sketch. 1-1/2 ft. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Alexandria. The swing door B. hole. square piece. Va. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1 ft. wide. F. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig.

10 in. high and 12 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. says Camera Craft. say 8 in. 3.by 7-in. to be used as a driving pulley. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. This opening. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. C. . in size. long. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Paste a piece of strong black paper. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. 1. Cut an opening in the other piece. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Fig. automobiles. black surfaced if possible. 1 in.by 5-in. Fig. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. long. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Out two rectangular holes. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. being 1/8 in. shorter at each end. -Contributed by William M. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. wide. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. wide. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. D. as shown in Fig. Jr. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. camera and wish to use some 4. shorter. but cut it 1/4 in. A and B. from the edge on each side of these openings. B. trolley cars. and go in the holder in the same way. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. wide and 5 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. inside of the opening. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera.proper place to make a small hole. Chicago.. plates. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 2. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Take two pieces of pasteboard. horses and dogs. Crilly. in size.

The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. making a . A cell of this kind can easily be made. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The needle will then point north and south. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. into which the dog is harnessed. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. wide will be required. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. in diameter. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. long and 6 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if it has previously been magnetized. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.

and a notch between the base and the pan. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. when the paraffin is melted. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. leaving about 1/2-in. sal ammoniac. for a connection. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. 1 lb.watertight receptacle. of rosin and 2 oz. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Place the pan on the stove. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. B is a base of 1 in. of the plate at one end. of water. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. 1/4 lb. Do not paint any surface. Form a 1/2-in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. filter. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. says Electrician and Mechanic. fuel and packing purposes. File the rods to remove the copper plate. long which are copper plated. 3/4 lb. This makes the wire smooth. one that will hold about 1 qt. . Pack the paste in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. in which P is the pan. pine. beeswax melted together.in. A is a block of l-in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. fodder. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. zinc oxide. under the spool in the paraffin. only the joints. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. with narrow flanges. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. F is a spool. of the top. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. in diameter and 6 in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. plaster of paris. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. short time. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pull out the wire as needed.

let them try it. for some it will turn one way. 2. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top.. Enlarge the hole slightly. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. At least it is amusing. Try it and see. and therein is the trick. Ohio. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and he finally. grip the stick firmly in one hand. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. thus producing two different vibrations.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and one friend tells me that they were . Make a hole through the center of this one arm. or think they can do the same. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Toledo. as in the other movement. g. If any of your audience presume to dispute. but the thing would not move at all. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. while for others it will not revolve at all. for others the opposite way. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. long. and then." which created much merriment. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. square and about 9 in. from vexation. by the Hindoos in India. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley.

if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and I think the results may be of interest. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 7. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. To operate. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 2. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. p. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The experiments were as follows: 1. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. secondly. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. 3. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and. 6. Speeds between 700 and 1. gave the best results. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. 5. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the pressure was upon an edge. 4. the rotation may be obtained.100 r. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. rotation was obtained. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. m. by means of a center punch. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. Thus a circular or . no rotation resulted. A square stick with notches on edge is best.

--Contributed by G. G. so far as can be seen from the photographs. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.D. D. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. at first. Lloyd. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. A. Minn. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Washington. if the pressure is from the left. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. . The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. and the resultant "basket splash. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. or greasy. unwetted by the liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. it will be clockwise. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the upper portion is. --Contributed by M. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. a piece of wire and a candle. Duluth. A wire is tied around the can. Sloan. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. as shown. and not to friction of the pin in the hole.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Ph. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. C. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. forming a handle for carrying. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough..

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. as shown. with a 1/16-in. as shown in Fig. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. axle. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Each wheel is 1/4 in. flange and a 1/4-in. 1. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. thick and 1 in. in diameter. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. hole drilled in the center. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person.

Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. San Antonio. The motor is now bolted. and the locomotive is ready for running. 6. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . This will save buying a track. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. Fig. long. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The first piece.50. of No. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. wood. A trolley. put together complete. which must be 110 volt alternating current.brass. Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. If the ends are to be soldered. The parts. 2. holes 1 in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 1 from 1/4-in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. These ends are fastened together. 5. as shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. wide and 16 in. is made from a piece of clock spring. --Contributed by Maurice E. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Texas. The current. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Fuller. bottom side up. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 4. as shown in Fig. with cardboard 3 in. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 3. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. each in its proper place. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 3. are shown in Fig. bent as shown. 3/4 in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. is made from brass. lamp in series with the coil. 2. or main part of the frame.

This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. 1. Cincinnati. 3. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and holes drilled in them. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. the length of a paper clip. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Fig. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. then continue to tighten much more. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. O.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig. but do not heat the center. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. 2. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. The quarter will not go all the way down. and as this end . Fig 1. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top.

Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. or apparent security of the knot. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. In the sketch. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. has finished a cut for a tooth. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. When the trick is to be performed. and adjusted . The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. When the cutter A. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. 2 and 1 respectively. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief.

spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. above the surface. Brooklyn. such as brass or marble. holding it in place with the left hand. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Fig.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. (1. book mark.to run true. draw center lines across the required space. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.) Make on paper the design wanted. In this manner gears 3 in. dividing it into as many parts as desired. (6. trace the outline.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. lady's belt bag. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (3. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. at the same time striking light. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. if four parts are to be alike. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. or one-half of the design. (2. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (4. Second row: -Two book marks. note book. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Fold over along these center lines. Bott. Y. twisted around itself and soldered. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. tea cosey.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. An ordinary machine will do. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The frame holding the mandrel. N. (5. 2. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. swing lathe. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). long. if but two parts. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . blotter back. about 1-1/2 in. Bunker. lady's card case. --Contributed by Howard S. watch fob ready for fastenings.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. tea cosey. gentleman's card case or bill book. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. When connecting to batteries. 1. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. --Contributed by Samuel C. and a nut pick. in diameter can be made on a 6-in.) Place the paper design on the leather and. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. coin purse.

some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. where it condenses. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. A. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.C. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. If the needle is not horizontal. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Florida. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. B. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The electrodes are made . and push it through a cork. a distance of 900 miles.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. D. and bore a hole through the center. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Thrust a pin. C. into which fit a small piece of tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. from Key West. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.

--Contributed by Edwin L. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 1. as shown in Fig. 3. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. thick. by 3/4 in. D. All wiring is done with No. using a high resistance receiver. and also to keep it steady in its flight. wide and 3 ft. 1-1/4 in. 16 piano wire. wide and 4 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. If 20-ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. or flying-machine. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. take the glider to the top of a hill. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 2. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. as shown in Fig. Powell. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. lumber cannot be procured. thick. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 2 arm sticks 1 in. square and 8 ft long. long. which is tacked to the front edge. wide and 3 ft. Washington. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. long for the body of the operator. C. 1/2. 2 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. apart and extend 1 ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 1-1/2 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. wide and 20 ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 1. To make a glide. 2. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. free from knots. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. the rudder sticks 3/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. slacken speed and settle. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. long. wide and 4 ft long. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. several strips 1/2 in. use 10-ft. as shown in Fig. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Four long beams 3/4 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position.in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. lengths and splice them. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 3/4 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The operator can then land safely and . both laterally and longitudinally. 1. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 4 ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. thick. thick. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.gently on his feet. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be . the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course.

otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. as shown in Fig. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Olson. 2. which causes the dip in the line. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 1. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. When heated a little. half man and half horse.exercised in making landings. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Bellingham. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. a creature of Greek mythology. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. --Contributed by L. M.

square. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. 14 in. of small rubber tubing. The light from the . about the size of door screen wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. making it 2-1/2 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. in diameter. will complete the material list. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. long. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. long and about 3/8 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. outside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. a piece of brass or steel wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete.

Hunting. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. 2.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. --Photo by M. . A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. M. as shown in the sketch. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 1. as shown in Fig. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. This is very simple when you know how. If done properly the card will flyaway. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Dayton.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. O.

This game is played by five persons. as described. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Cool in water and dry. hold the lump over the flame. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. If a certain color is to be more prominent. When the desired shape has been obtained. place the other two. closing both hands quickly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. as before. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. then put it on the hatpin head. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as shown. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve.

Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. passing through neutralizing brushes. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. or more in width. distribute electric charges . and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in.

1 in. and of a uniform thickness. GG. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. in diameter. and the outer end 11/2 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. as shown in Fig. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter and 15 in. The collectors are made. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. after they are mounted. and pins inserted and soldered. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. long. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. 3/4 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. as shown in Fig. Two solid glass rods. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. material 7 in. These pins. EE. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. D. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Two pieces of 1-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. or teeth. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. free from wrinkles. 3. in diameter. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 1-1/2 in. are made from solid. The drive wheels. 2. C C. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the shank 4 in. The plates. and 4 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. RR. in diameter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The plates are trued up. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. at the other. in diameter. to which insulating handles . turned wood pieces. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter. The two pieces. wide at one end. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 4. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 1. the side pieces being 24 in. Fig. wide. Fig. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. brass tubing and the discharging rods. are made from 7/8-in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The fork part is 6 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 3. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. long and the standards 3 in.

The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. in diameter. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.. --Contributed by C. which are bent as shown. and the work was done by themselves. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. wide and 22 ft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. D. 12 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colo. KK. one having a 2-in. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement.are attached. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. long. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colorado City. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers.

Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. using a 1-in. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. They can be used to keep pins and needles. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. string together. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.is a good one. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. deep. bit. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. yet such a thing can be done. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. pens . The key will drop from the string. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. as at A. and bore a hole 1/2 in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.

etc. This is to make a clean. 2. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one.and pencils. 9. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. sharp division between background and design. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. or cigar ashes. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 23 gauge. also trace the decorative design. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. stamp the background promiscuously. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. flat and round-nosed pliers. etc. 4. two spikes. 5. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. they make attractive little pieces to have about. about 3/4-in. and the third one 1/4 in.. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. When the stamping is completed. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. inside the first on all. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 3. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. above the metal. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. 7. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Draw one-half the design free hand. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Having determined the size of the tray. 8. file. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. then the other side. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. unless it would be the metal shears. Raise the ends. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Proceed as follows: 1. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. They are easily made. very rapid progress can be made. Use . inside the second on all. 6. slim screw. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Inside this oblong.. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked.

second fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 8. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 6. The eyes. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 10. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. first fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. and fourth fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. In the first numbering. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. third fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 7.

12. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. as high as you want to go. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 25 times 25. above 20 times 20. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. thumbs. 11. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20.. 2 times 2 equals 4. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. which would be 16. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. etc. or 60. if we wish. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Put your thumbs together. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. viz. Two times one are two. Still. there are no fingers above. the product of 12 times 12. etc.. or the product of 6 times 6. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or numbers above 10. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. first fingers. or 80. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. renumber your fingers. or the product of 8 times 9. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. etc. which would be 70. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Let us multiply 12 by 12. which tens are added. 600. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. . 400. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. In the second numbering. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.

in the case of a nearsighted person. And the lump sum to add. For figures ending in 6. adding 400 instead of 100. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. and so on. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. however. 21. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. thumbs.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. as one might suppose. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. and. It takes place also. any two figures between 45 and 55. thirties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. being 80). whether the one described in second or third numbering. the lump sum to add. 8. the value which the upper fingers have. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 7. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. For example. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 75 and 85. the inversion takes place against his will. lastly. twenties. Take For example 18 times 18. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the value of the upper fingers being 20. . At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. beginning the thumbs with 16. which is the half-way point between the two fives. about a vertical axis. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. first fingers 22. not rotation. at the will of the observer. 2. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the revolution seems to reverse. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. or from above or from below. when he removes his spectacles. further. or what. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. This system can be carried as high as you want to go.. first finger 17. Proceed as in the second lumbering. etc. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. forties. 3. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Oppose the proper finger tips as before.

The ports were not easy to make. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. sometimes the point towards him. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. Looking at it in semidarkness. when he knows which direction is right. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. as . the other appearance asserts itself. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and putting a cork on the point. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. A flat slide valve was used.

about 3 by 3 by 6 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. inexpensive. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. as in a vise. across and 1/2 in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. across the head.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. if continued too long without proper treatment. The tools are simple and can be made easily. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. secure a piece of No. Kutscher. -Contributed by W. H. The eccentric is constructed of washers. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The steam chest is round. apart. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. pipe 10 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.. If nothing better is at hand. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. and make in one end a hollow. . and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. While this engine does not give much power. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Springfield. deep. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Fasten the block solidly. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. pipe. Ill. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. in diameter. bottom side up. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. such as is shown in the illustration. it is easily built. about 2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Next take a block of wood.

sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Vinegar. To produce color effects on copper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. C. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. S. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To overcome this hardness. the other to the left. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. --Contributed by W. and. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side.will cause the metal to break. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Hay. O. especially when the object is near to the observer. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Camden. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.

one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. But they seem black. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. that for the right. because of the rays coming from them. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. . at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. the one for the left eye being blue. diameter. it. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground.stereoscope. although they pass through the screen. from the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. only the orange rays may pass through. and without any picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. It is just as though they were not there. disappears fully. because. as for instance red and green. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. however. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. and lies to the right on the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. The red portions of the picture are not seen. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The further apart the pictures are. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. in the proper choice of colors. with the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. In order to make them appear before the card. not two mounted side by side. the left eye sees through a blue screen. So with the stereograph. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. would serve the same purpose. while both eyes together see a white background.

which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. long and a hole drilled in each end. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. wide and 1 in. 12 gauge wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. San Francisco. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. thick. wireless. in the shape of a crank. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cal. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. etc. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The weight of the air in round . in diameter. Place a NO. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 1/4 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. or the middle of the bottle. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.

but before attempting to put in the mercury. if you choose. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. long. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. will calibrate itself. if accurately constructed.numbers is 15 lb. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. a bottle 1 in. the contrary. high. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. wide and 4 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Before fastening the scale. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. long. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. . In general. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31.. But if a standard barometer is not available. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. thick. inside diameter and 2 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. long. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. and a slow fall. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. or. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. wide and 40 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. pine 3 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. high. square. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The 4 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. 34 ft. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. a glass tube 1/8 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. 30 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. the instrument. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury.6) 1 in. high. square. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.

thick. 1. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Number the pieces 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Procure a metal can cover. wide and 10 in. 5. the size of the outside of the bottle. 3. 6 and 7. long. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 2. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. which is slipped quickly over the end. Mark out seven 1-in. and place them as shown in Fig. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.

2's place. 7 over No. 3 into No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2 over No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. L. 5. 6. 2's place. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 6 to No. Make 22 sections. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3. Move 6-Move No. Move 10-Move No. 5's place. Move 14-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. 3. 2. 1 into No. 5's place. 6 over No. Move ll-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 13-Move No. in diameter. Cape May Point. N. Move 2-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. using checkers for men. each 10 ft. shaped like Fig. 3 over No. procure unbleached tent duck. 6 in. Move 9-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. 6 into No. 5 over No. long and 2 ft. 2 over No. 6. To make such a tent. 1. Move 12-Jump No. 2 . This can be done on a checker board. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 1. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 7. l over No. 2. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer.-Contributed by W. 1 to No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 7's place. Woolson. Move 4-Jump No. 7 over No. as shown in Fig. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 8-Jump No. 3. 3 to the center.J. 5 over No.

as in Fig. round galvanized iron. Nail a thin sheet of brass. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.in. diameter. Tress. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. 6. Emsworth. high. Pa. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 2 in. in diameter. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide by 12 in. 9 by 12 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. made in two sections. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. fill with canvas edging. about 9 in. 2. Fig. leaving the rest for an opening. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. from the top. to a smooth board of soft wood. After transferring the design to the brass. Have the tent pole 3 in.J. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 6-in.. long. These are ventilators. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Punch holes in the brass in . tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. long and 4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. wide at the bottom. 3 in. In raising the tent. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. wide at the bottom. 5. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. added. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Use blocks. 5) stuck in the ground. will do. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Fig. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. --Contributed by G. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. As shown in the sketch.

. around the outside of the pattern. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When all the holes are punched. excepting the 1/4-in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The pattern is traced as before. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand.the spaces around the outlined figures. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. Corr. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. Chicago. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. apart. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. When the edges are brought together by bending. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. It will not. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. bend into shape. but before punching the holes. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

A 6-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. If a wheel is selected. E. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Badger. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. better still. pipe. Dunham. or. allowing 2 ft. pipe is used for the hub. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard.. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. Que. --Contributed by Geo. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Stevens. partially filled with cream. or less. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. These pipes are . The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. --Contributed by H.however. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. G. or center on which the frame swings. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Oregon. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. between which is placed the fruit jar. A cast-iron ring. Mayger.

This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. An extra wheel 18 in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe clamps. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel.

1. 3. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. which was placed in an upright position. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The performer. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. as shown in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and dropped on the table. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and the guide withdrawn. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . while doing this. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead.

Colo. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Harkins. St. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. D. --Contributed by H. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. in diameter on another piece of tin. it requires no expensive condensing lens. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. and second. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Mo. Denver. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. -Contributed by C. in a half circle. 2. first. Louis. The box can be made of selected oak or . cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. White. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. 1. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. F. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in.

2. long. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. high and must . AA. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. focal length. represented by the dotted line in Fig. fit into the runners. wide by 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. but not tight. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. long and should be placed vertically. high and 11 in. from each end of the outside of the box. as shown in Fig. If a camera lens is used. wide and 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 3-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 6-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. from each end. Two or three holes about 1 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat.mahogany. and 2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. wide. 5-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. This will be 3/4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. long. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. and. 1. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. An open space 4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in.

The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. provided it is airtight. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling this February. calling that knuckle January. as it requires an airtight case. West Toledo. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. This process is rather a difficult one. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. April.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. 1. and so on. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year.. C. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then the second knuckle will be March. Ohio. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. June and November. --Contributed by Chas. Bradley." etc. and extending the whole height of the lantern. the article may be propped up . The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand.

and the lead 24 sq. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 1. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. fruit jars are required. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. --Contributed by J. In both Fig. Pour in a little turpentine. 1 and 2. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. In each place two electrodes.with small sticks. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. N. in. H. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. or suspended by a string. but waxed. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Schenectady. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. one of lead and one of aluminum. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. . running small motors and lighting small lamps. and set aside for half a day. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Y. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. giving it an occasional stir. The top of a table will do. 2. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Crawford. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lid or cover closed.

Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. You have an understanding with some one in the company.. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. He. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . After a few seconds' time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. O. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. which you warm with your hands. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. you remove the glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. he throws the other. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Cleveland. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as you have held it all the time.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. as well as others. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. This trick is very simple.

Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. . it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.-Contributed by E. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Be sure that this is the right one. Victor. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. J. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. but by being careful at shores. Crocker. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. in diameter in the center. near a partition or curtain. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Pull the ends quickly.take the handiest one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. but in making one. put it under the glass. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Colo. if any snags are encountered. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. on a table.

for center deck braces. 14 rib bands. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . and. by 16 ft. long. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 in. 3 and 4. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. of 1-1/2-yd. by 2 in. 8 in. 50 ft. 1 in. as illustrated in the engraving. wide. wide and 12 ft. long. by 15 ft. 3 in. 1 mast. one 6 in. wide and 12 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. 2 and braced with an iron band. from the bow and the large one. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care.. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 16 ft. clear pine. 9 ft. wide unbleached muslin. by 8 in. 1 in. for the bow. is 14 ft. for the stern piece. 2 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. thick and 3/4 in. 11 yd. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 in. Both ends are mortised. 4 outwales. by 2 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. and is removed after the ribs are in place. the smaller is placed 3 ft. at the ends. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1/4 in. ducking. 1. 1/8 in. 1 piece. Two forms are made as shown in Figs.. by 12 in. selected pine. 7 ft. and the other 12 in. of 1-yd. 8 yd. and fastened with screws. Fig. 1 piece. for cockpit frame. by 10 ft. apart. square by 16 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. of rope. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 2 gunwales. The keelson. drilled and fastened with screws. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. long. Paint. wide 12-oz. from each end to 1 in. long. screws and cleats. from the stern.

The trimming is wood. Fig. A piece of oak. A block of pine. and fastened to them with bolts. long is well soaked in water. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 1 in. wide and 3 ft. wide and 24 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Before making the deck. in diameter through the block. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. The deck is not so hard to do. wide and 14 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. long. This block. 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick. also. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. corner braces. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. A seam should be made along the center piece. 6. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 1/4 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide. 4 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. doubled. 5. length of canvas is cut in the center. long. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. thick and 12 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 7 and 8. . board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. 3-1/2 ft. thick and 1/2 in. long. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. is cut to fit under the top boards. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Braces. A 6-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. from the bow. These are put in 6 in. apart. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The 11-yd. 6 and 7. is a cube having sides 6 in. 1 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick. Figs. wide. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wood screws. a piece 1/4 in. 9. Fig. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. thick 1-1/2 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. screws. gunwales and keelson. They are 1 in.

is 6 in. Fig. 11. Tronnes. 12. wide. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. --Contributed by O. thick by 2 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. long. The keel. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The sail is a triangle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. apart in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. A strip 1 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Wilmette. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 10 with a movable handle. The house will accommodate 20 families. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. The mast has two side and one front stay. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. wide at one end and 12 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Ill. each 1 in. . E. at the other. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. in diameter and 10 ft. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room.

Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. E. and the other 18 in. one 11-1/2 in. 3. thick. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide and 30 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. long. wide and 2 ft.into two 14-in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 4. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 2 in. 2-1/2 in. 2. square. 2-1/2 in. 5. 1. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Wilmette. flat headed screws. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. flat-headed screws. Fig.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. long and five 1/2-in. about 5/16 in. flat on one side. Ill. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. and 3 ft. as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. with the ends and the other side rounding. Cut the maple. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long. wide. wide. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Tronnes. thick. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 1 yd. --Contributed by O. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. thick. five 1/2-in.

1. Cut another piece of board. long. thick. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. leaving a small opening at one corner. 1-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. long. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Fig. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. then centered. thick. but can be governed by circumstances. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The front. D. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. of each end unwound for connections. A. pieces 2-5/8 in. about 3/8 in. Another piece. Glue a three cornered piece. as well as the edges around the opening. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. 5 from 1/16-in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. About 1/2 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Bliss. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. wide and 5 in. forming an eye for a screw. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Figs. St. 6-1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. the mechanical parts can be put together. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. soaked with water and blown up. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. A. wide and 2-1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. --Contributed by W. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. C. 3 in. thick and 3 in. If carefully and neatly made. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 2 and 3. this square box is well sandpapered. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. Wind three layers of about No.once. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. B. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. F. When the glue is set. C. After the glue. the top and bottom. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. and the four outside edges. E. square. wide . Make a double stitch all around the edge. 3-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. Mo. 3/8 in. Louis. is set. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. are rounded. square. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered.

4 is not movable. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. When the current flows through the coil. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. board. 5. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. long. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. 1/4 in. bored in the back. The base is a board 5 in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Austwick Hall. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. the same size as the first. R. F. Richmond Hill. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. W. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A pointer 12 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. so it will just clear the tin. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and fasten in place. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Like poles repel each other. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. from one end. long. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . and as the part Fig. G. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. thick. The stronger the current. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. 5-1/2 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Chapman. The end of the polar axis B. from the spindle. that has the end turned with a shoulder. in diameter.A.and 2-5/8 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. the part carrying the pointer moves away. and the farther apart they will be forced. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Another strip of tin. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. Yorkshire. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. I. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. L. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. 4.S. wide and 2-1/2 in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Place the tin. wide and 9 in. 4. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Fig. hole is fastened to the pointer. Fig. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. 1/16 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark.R. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. C. long.

M. shows mean siderial. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. at 9 hr. thus: 9 hr. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 30 min. 10 min. A. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 1881. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. say Venus at the date of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The following formula will show how this may be found. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

if one of these cannot be had. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. . How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.m. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. --Contributed by Robert W. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Hall.f. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or. Conn. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. and then verify its correctness by measurement.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. owing to the low internal resistance. New Haven.

after scraping away the greater part of the coals. thick. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. of alum and 4 oz. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. 1. arsenic to every 20 lb. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. leaves or bark. as shown in the accompanying picture. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. The boring bar. put the fish among the ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Fig. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. especially for cooking fish. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Wet paper will answer. fresh grass.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1-3/4 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Then. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . When the follower is screwed down. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. 3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. long. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. cover up with the same.

the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe. and threaded on both ends. thick. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. when they were turned in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. about 1/2 in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. fastened with a pin. pipe were fitted to these holes so that.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron.

Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. however. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. was then finished on an emery wheel. This plate also supports the rocker arms. as the one illustrated herewith. 30 in. and which gave such satisfactory results. labor and time. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. the float is too high. square iron. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. bent in the shape of a U. Fig. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. 3. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Clermont. then it should be ground to a fit. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts.valve stems. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. a jump spark would be much better. but never one which required so little material. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. A 1-in. 2. long. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 5. If the valve keeps dripping. It . The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Iowa. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The rough frame. 4. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. wide.

timber. so it must be strong enough. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. in the ground with 8 ft. in fact. The illustration largely explains itself. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. from all over the neighborhood. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. It looks like a toy. from the center. square and 2 ft. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. The crosspiece is 2 in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. in diameter and 15 in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. strong clear material only should be employed. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Use a heavy washer at the head. A malleable iron bolt. no matter what your age or size may be. W. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. strengthened by a piece 4 in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. set 3 ft. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. As there is no bracing. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. hole bored in the post. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. with no trees or buildings in the way. long. and a little junk. rope is not too heavy. A 3/4 -in. This makes an easy adjustment. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. butting against short stakes. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. long is the pivot. being held in position by spikes as shown. long. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. --Contributed by C. long. square and 5 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. 3/4 in. completes the merry-go-round. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. for the "motive power" to grasp. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. The seats are regular swing boards. and. If it is to be used for adults. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. square. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. 12 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Nieman. extending above." little and big. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. which adds greatly to the flying sensation.

as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 1/4 by 3/32 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. one for the backbone and one for the bow. light and strong. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. and sent to earth. away. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. and 18 in. a wreck. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. Both have large reels full of . If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. then it is securely fastened. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice.the fingers. 4. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. square. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. 2. A reel is next made. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. These ends are placed about 14 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. long. 1. The bow is now bent. The backbone is flat. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Having placed the backbone in position. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.2 emery. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. if nothing better is at hand. To wind the string upon the reel.

the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Bunker. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Y. Brooklyn. N. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. --Contributed' by Harry S. common packing thread. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. If the second kite is close enough. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. he pays out a large amount of string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The handle end is held down with a staple. Moody. Newburyport. or glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Mass. First. C. often several hundred yards of it. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. the balance. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.

Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Hastings. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. --Contributed by Earl R. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. make the pad as shown in the illustration. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. square (Fig. lengths (Fig. then draw the string up tight. must be attached to a 3-ft. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. then a dust protector. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. If the table is round. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Vt. each the size of half the table top. such as mill men use. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Corinth. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required.

not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. and E to G.9-1/4 in.. E. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 16-1/4 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Moisten the . hard pencil. from C to D. Wharton. trace the design carefully on the leather. which spoils the leather effect. 17-1/2 in. Calif. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.. G to H. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 6-1/4 in.. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Oakland. Use a smooth. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. 2-1/4 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. .Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.-Contributed by H. from E to F.

G-J. and corresponding lines on the other side. with the rounded sides of the tools. wide. Now cut narrow thongs. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Trace the openings for the handles. about 1/8 in. and E-G. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. also lines A-G. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. place both together and with a leather punch. and lace through the holes. get something with which to make a lining.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. H-B. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. is taken off at a time. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. if not more than 1 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. To complete the bag. apart. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. I made this motor . Cut it the same size as the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.

1. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Calif. long. as shown in Fig. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. each being a half circle. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 1. iron. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. D. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Pasadena. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. B.M. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. of No. --Contributed by J. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. . 2. Shannon. in length. 2-1/4 in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 24 gauge magnet wire. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.

from the bottom end. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and the gores cut from these. The gores for a 6-ft. 1. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. balloon should be about 8 ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. near the center. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. pasted in alternately. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in.

A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A. --Contributed by R. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 5. 4. Staunton. so it will hang as shown in Fig. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. in diameter. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles.widest point. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. as shown in Fig. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The steam. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. lap on the edges. The boat soon attains considerable speed. B. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. as shown in Fig. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. leaving the solution on over night. In starting the balloon on its flight. These are to hold the wick ball. somewhat larger in size. If the gores have been put together right. saturating it thoroughly. Fig. In removing grease from wood. coming through the small pipe A. leaving a long wake behind. 2. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. After washing. E. 1. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. using about 1/2-in. As the boat is driven forward by this force. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. 3. after which the paint will adhere permanently.

long and each provided with a handle. Second. In using either of the two methods described. high and 8 in. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. long. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Third. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The blocks are about 6 in. wide by 6 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. as is shown in Fig. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. in bowling form. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. There are three ways of doing this: First. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. 1. apart on these lines.

Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2. N. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Hellwig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. thick. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. --Contributed by John A. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. being careful not to dent the metal. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Albany. Y. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch.

--Contributed by R. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 6 in. Richmond. in diameter. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Break off the frame. with a set screw. CC.upon any particular object. Paine. thick. are screwed to the circular piece. A. wide and 8 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. With this device. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . which is 4 in. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. and Fig. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 1 Fig. A. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 5 in. and not produce the right sound. S. A circular piece of wood. These corner irons are also screwed to. long for the base. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Corner irons. through which passes the set screw S. B. Va. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. wide and of any desired height. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. and. 2 the front view. In Fig.

Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. thus producing sound waves. pine boards. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. -1. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Lake Preston. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. This horn. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. R. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. . I made a wheel 26 in.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Kidder. This will make a very compact electric horn. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. as only the can is visible. S. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. in diameter of some 1-in. La Salle. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Ill. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. D.

O. 2. Kane. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Feet may be added to the base if desired. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Doylestown. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Purdy.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. square. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Fig. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The frame is made of a heavy card. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . A. 1. B. Ghent. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. thick and 12 in. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the same thickness as the coins. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. --Contributed by C. If there is a large collection of coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. --Contributed by James R.

Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. It will hold 4 oz. Wis. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. A lead pencil. into which to place the screws . Smith. thick. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Cal. for after the slides have been shown a few times. they become uninteresting. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. a hammer or mallet. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. of developer. If desired. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. several large nails. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. border all around. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Neyer. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. though not absolutely necessary. Toronto. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. melted and applied with a brush.E. Milwaukee. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by August T. Noble. cut and grooved. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. --Contributed by R. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The material required is a sheet of No. plus a 3/8-in. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Canada. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. and then glued together as indicated. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. One Cloud. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. A rivet punch is desirable.J.

The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. draw one part. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. like the one shown. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Remove the screws. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. never upon the metal directly. using 1/2-in. and file it to a chisel edge. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. There are several ways of working up the design. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Take the nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. both outline and decoration. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. screws placed about 1 in. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.

2. l-1/8 in. and two lengths. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. square. square and 11 in. as shown in Fig. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. 1. Rivet the band to the holder. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. in the other. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. using a 1/2in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. being ball bearing. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. 3/4 in. long. . hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long.wall. of 11-in. The pedal. About 1/2 yd. long. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. up from the lower end. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. 3. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. two lengths. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square and 181/2 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the top. each 1 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. for the lower rails. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid.

New York City. Attalla. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. F. --Contributed by John Shahan. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Ala. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. having quite a length of threads. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by W. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps.

Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Ironwood. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. one about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and the other 2-3/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. --Contributed by C. from the end. long. using class. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Mich. long. wide and 8-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. something that is carbonated. Luther. and two holes in the other. and 3/8 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. college or lodge colors. Two pieces of felt. The desired emblem. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. initial. D. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . in depth. from one end. wide and 4-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. making a lap of about 1 in.. long. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. the end of the other piece is folded over. each 1-1/4 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in.

sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. as shown in the sketch. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . if desired by the operator. Schatz. Ind. --Contributed by John H. 1/4 in. Punch two holes A. A piece of lead. from the center and opposite each other. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. in diameter and 2 in. or a pasteboard box. 1. 2. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. about 2 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. and the cork will be driven out. Fig. in the cover and the bottom. as shown at B. or more in height. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Indianapolis. which can be procured from a plumber. This method allows a wide range of designs.

and the ends of the bands looped over them. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 5. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. Fig. 3. O. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. 4. When the can is rolled away from you. The pieces of tin between the holes A. on both top and bottom. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. . These tools can be bought for this special purpose. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. or marble will serve. allowing the two ends to be free. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. it winds up the rubber band. metal. 1. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. putting in the design. A piece of thick glass. Columbus. are turned up as in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead.

long and bored a 1/2-in. 1 in. and. A pencil may be used the first time over. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Next place the leather on the glass. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. New York City. I secured a board 3/4 in. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. deep in its face. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. wide and 20 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. or more thick on each side. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. hole through it. face up. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. 3 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. from each end. thicker than the pinion. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. thick. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. After this has been done. The edges should be about 1/8 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside.

square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. M. Make the lower frame first. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Rice. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Cut the 2-in. 2 crosspieces. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. in diameter. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 screw block. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 piece for clamp.in the board into the bench top. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Fig. Syracuse. 1 by 12 by 77 in. New York. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1. 2 end rails. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 piece. 1 back board. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. pieces for the vise slides. 2. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Brooklyn. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 top board. N. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 4 guides. lag screws as shown. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 piece for clamp. Now fit up the two clamps. --Contributed by A. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 top board. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 2 side rails. 3 by 3 by 36. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Y. thick top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.

1 countersink. 1 compass saw. 1 marking gauge. rule. Only the long run.. 1 wood scraper.. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 rip saw. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 2-ft. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 set gimlets.. They can be purchased at a hardware store. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 cross cut saw.screws. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair pliers. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 pair dividers. 2 screwdrivers. in diameter. 24 in. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 3 and 6 in. The bench is now complete. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 set chisels. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 monkey wrench. as well as the pattern maker. 24 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. . will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 nail set. The amateur workman. 1 claw hammer. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 pocket level. 1 brace and set of bits.

it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. The calf skin. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. try square. 1. the projecting point A. but will not make . after constant use. 2. becomes like A.1. Fig. Kane.1 6-in. Doylestown. Pa. will be easier to work. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1 oilstone. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 3. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. will sink into the handle as shown at D. No. Fig. being softer. Fig.

then prepare the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Turn the leather. such as copper or brass. lay the design on the face. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. secure a piece of modeling calf. New York City. The form can be made of a stick of wood.as rigid a case as the cow skin. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. After the outlines are traced. but a V-shaped nut pick. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. White. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. cover it completely with water enamel and. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. the same method of treatment is used. and the length 6-5/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size. First draw the design on paper. which steam. water or heat will not affect. Having prepared the two sides. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. If cow hide is preferred. when dry. . If calf skin is to be used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. -Contributed by Julia A. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. will do just as well.

C. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Portland. --Contributed by W. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. --Contributed by Chas.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cobb. A. --Contributed by Chester L. Cal. . and an adjustable friction-held loop. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Herrman. Maine. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Jaquythe. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Richmond. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. as shown in the sketch. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. New York City.

Wright. was marked out as shown.. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. --Contributed by Geo. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Conn. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Middletown. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. A thick piece of tin. --Contributed by Wm. Mass. Roberts. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. .Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. This was very difficult. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. for instance. Cambridge. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. B. an inverted stewpan.

If the article is highly polished. on a clear piece of glass. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by C. and quite new. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. When dry. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. face down. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Indianapolis. --Contributed by Paul Keller. pulverized and applied. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. so some bones were quickly calcined. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. well calcined and powdered.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. and the grease will disappear. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. which has been tried out several times with success. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz.. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Herbert. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. If any traces of the grease are left. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. There was no quicklime to be had. as shown. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. L. of boiling water. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. A beautifully bound book. Illinois. Ind. but not running over. used as part of furniture. Bone. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. F. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. such as chair seats. Chicago. .

2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. thick. the pieces . New York. The pieces marked S are single. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. long. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. A. says Scientific American. Tarrytown. soft steel with the opening 6 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 6 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. If properly adjusted. --Contributed by Geo. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. deep and 5 in. wide and 12 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Howe. set and thumbscrews..

E. The seat is a board. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. to the underside of which is a block. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. albums and the like. for sending to friends. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Their size depends on the plate used. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. says Camera Craft. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. no doubt. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. A sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. If the letters are all cut the same height.

pasting the prints on some thin card. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. In cutting out an 0." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The puzzle is to get . do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. So made. using care to get it in the right position. after. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. mount them on short pieces of corks. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. for example. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. photographing them down to the desired size. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. So arranged. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card.

hung on pivots. so they will lie horizontal. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Cape May Point. He smells the bait. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . N. long that will just fit are set in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.-Contributed by I. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. Bayley. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. with the longest end outside. says the American Thresherman. A hole 6 or 7 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. of its top. Old-Time Magic . The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.J. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. snow or anything to hide it. G. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.

faced up. Pawtucket. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. then spread the string. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Press the hands together. Pocatello. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. E. --Contributed by L. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. --Contributed by L. N. Szerlip. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Parker. Rhode Island. then expose again. Brooklyn. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. --Contributed by Charles Graham. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Idaho. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it.

3 Fig. using a straightedge and a pencil. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. end of the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. or green oil paint. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 4 on the blade. in width. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. full size. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. long. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The handle is next made. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. if any. dark red. narrower. near the point end. whether he requires a single sword only. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. they will look very much like the genuine article. or a complete suit of armor. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. 1 Fig. The pieces. When the glue is thoroughly dry. thick. When the whole is quite dry. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. wipe the blade . in building up his work from the illustrations. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. 2 Fig. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and if carefully made. The blade should be about 27 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. says the English Mechanic. wide and 2 in. 1. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade.. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor.

If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. in the widest part at the lower end. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. thick and 5 in. and 3 in. 1. of course. the other is flat or half-round. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. In making. In the finished piece. take two pieces of wood. 3. the length of the blade 28 in. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1. 3. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1. The length of the handle. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 1/8 in. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. long. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 2. In making this scimitar. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. about 1-1/2 in. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 2.with light strokes up and down several times. 4. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. shows only two sides. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. as it is . 1. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the other is flat or halfround.. the other two are identical. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. in diameter. This sword is about 68 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. square and of any length desired. should be about 9 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.. Fig. the illustration. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. preferably of contrasting colors.

A cold . are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Franklin. Syracuse. A piece of mild steel. as can the pitch bed or block. square. --Contributed by Katharine D. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. at the lower end. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. On each edge of the board. and if so. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. about 3/8 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. long. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as there was some at hand. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. and. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. each about 1 ft. piping and jackets by hard water. It is made of a plank. as shown in the sketch. Morse. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. or an insecure fastening. 2 in. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Both can be made easily. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. N. however. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. in an attempt to remove it. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Doctors probed for the button without success. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Y. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Mass. --Contributed by John Blake. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. The thinness of the plank.

To remedy this. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. using a small metal saw. When the desired form has been obtained. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. a file to reduce the ends to shape. plaster of Paris. 18 gauge. secure a piece of brass of about No. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. When this has been done. design down.. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Trim up the edges and file them . A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. tallow. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. To put it in another way. on the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils.. 5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.

Cutter. or 550 ft.smooth. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 1) and the other 12 in. but not to stop it. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 30 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. per minute.000 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Fill the 3-in. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. The smaller is placed within the larger. Before giving the description. in one second. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. lb.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Fig. or fraction of a horsepower. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. and still revolve. space between the vessels with water. in diameter (Fig. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Clean the metal thoroughly. lb. using powdered pumice with lye. in one minute or 550 lb. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. make an unusual show window attraction. in the center. 1 ft. This in turn divided by 33. per second. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. . one 18 in. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. That is lifting 33. --Contributed by Harold H. 2). Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. it may be well to know what horsepower means. over the smaller vessel. A. 3. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. and hang a bird swing. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen.000 lb. in diameter (Fig. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.

--Contributed. The effect is surprising. Brooklyn.18 in. --Contributed by J. 1 Fig. Mass. Diameter Fig. or on a pedestal. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Diameter 12 in. Campbell.3 Fig. Szerlip.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . by L. N. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. 2 Fig. Y. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. F. Somerville.

With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and cut out the shape with the shears. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Rivet the cup to the base.copper of No. keeping the center high. This compound is impervious to water. and then. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. with other defects. then by drawing a straightedge over it. as a rule. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. the same as removing writing from a slate. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. is. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. after which it is ready for use. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. which may be of wood or tin. In riveting. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. and the clay . with the pliers. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. often render it useless after a few months service. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. using any of the common metal polishes. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. away from the edge. Do not be content merely to bend them over. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Polish both of these pieces. which. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. unsatisfactory. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference.

Northville. Dunlop. 1. Houghton. --Contributed by A. A. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. long. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. DeLoof. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. -Contributed by Thos. Shettleston. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Grand Rapids. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. . in diameter and 5 in. Mich. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Mich. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. It is made of a glass tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. 2. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Scotland. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below.

This sword is 4 ft. London. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.FIG.1 FIG. in width and 2 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. stilettos and battle-axes. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. long. put up as ornaments. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. 1. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.

sometimes called cuirass breakers. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. long with a dark handle of wood. This sword is about 4 ft. 11 were used. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The ball is made as described in Fig. When dry. 7. very broad. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. firmly glued on. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. with both edges of the blade sharp. 5. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The crossbar and blade are steel. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The handle is of wood. one about 1/2 in. 9. sharp edges on both sides. in length. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 20 spike. In Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. studded with brass or steel nails. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. 3 is shown a claymore. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. is shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig. In Fig. Both handle and axe are of steel. long. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. the same as used on the end of the handle. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. narrower. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. 8. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. the axe is of steel. in length. with both edges sharp. wood with a keyhole saw. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. with wire or string' bound handle. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 6. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Three large. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. glue and put it in place. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. This axe is made similar to the one . which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. This weapon is also about 1 ft. in width. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. A German poniard is shown in Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. When the glue is thoroughly dry. paint it a dark brown or black. the upper part iron or steel. string. A German stiletto. When the whole is quite dry. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. This stiletto has a wood handle.represent copper. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 4. then glued on the blade as shown. In Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in.

Old-Time Magic . 10. 2. together as shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. . Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. This will make a very good flexible belt. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. such as braided fishline. --Contributed by E. so the contents cannot be seen. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened.described in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. high. will pull where other belts slip. W. When wrapped all the way around. Chicago. Davis. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.

Bridgeton. N. four glass tumblers. or using small wedges of wood. 2. apparently. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. filled with water. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. 1 and put together as in Fig. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. causing the flowers to grow. some of the liquid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . As zinc is much lighter than iron. --Contributed by A. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Before the performance. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. in a few seconds' time. about one-third the way down from the top. These wires are put in the jar. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Calif. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. with the circle centrally located. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies.J. held in the right hand. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Oakland.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The dotted lines in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. an acid. There will be no change in color. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. S. Macdonald.

Cal. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. --Contributed by W. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. When many slides are to be masked. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. A. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. 4 for width and No. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Jaquythe. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Richmond. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. unless some special device is used. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. If the size wanted is No. which are numbered for convenience in working. This outlines the desired opening. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . says a correspondent of Photo Era. and kept ready for use at any time. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. practical and costs nothing. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. 2 for height. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size.

When etched to the desired depth. which is dangerous. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a little less acid than water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. not the water into the acid. possibly. but they can be easily revived. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. about half and half. paint the design. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. This done. using the carbon paper. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. is about right for the No. Draw a design. With a stick. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. and the extreme length 7 in. and do not inhale the fumes. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. or a pair of old tongs. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Secure a sheet of No. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. the paper is folded along the center line. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. may be changed. too. The decoration. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. or.

P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. in diameter and 1/4 in. The connections are simple: I. long. 3/8 in. Then get two posts. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. with the wires underneath. A. 2. 3. 5. . as at H. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 1. repeat as many times as is necessary. Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 0 indicates the batteries. about 3 ft. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. so that when it is pressed down. Cut out a piece of tin. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. When the button S is pressed. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. or more wide. as shown in Fig. Paint the table any color desired. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. high. 5. as in Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. to the table. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 2. Nail a board. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 24 parts water. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. wide and of the same length as the table. the bell will ring. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. C and D. it will touch post F. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. long and 1 ft. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 2. through it. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig. attached to a post at each end. 4. J is another wire attached in the same way. wide. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Nail or screw the buttons to the table.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. about 8 in. thick. as shown in the illustration. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. about 2-1/2 in. about 1 in. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. and about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. and bore two holes.

A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. long. says the English Mechanic. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. handle and all. The imitation articles are made of wood. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. The entire weapon.. the wood peg inserted in one of them. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. but they are somewhat difficult to make. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. such as . These rings can be carved out. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circle is marked out with a compass. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. This weapon is about 22 in. 1. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. A wood peg about 2 in. is to appear as steel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. thick. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. long serves as the dowel. 2.Imitation Arms and Armor . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.

This weapon is about 22 in. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as described in Fig.ornamental scrolls. . A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. If such a tool is not at hand. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as shown. The handle is of steel imitation. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. or the amateur cannot use it well. 3. The entire handle should be made of one piece. the hammer and spike. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. also. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. as before mentioned. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. long. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. All of these axes are about the same length. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The axe is shown in steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 2. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. with a sharp carving tool. studded with large brass or steel nails. leaves. 8. covered with red velvet. 5. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spikes are cut out of wood. 6. Its length is about 3 ft. etc. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The handle is of wood. flowers. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The tinfoil should be applied carefully.

as shown in Fig. 3. 2. as in Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. . 6. 4). 5. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 1. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Fig. calls for a home run. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 7) calls for one out. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. the knife resting on its back. Chicago.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. a three-base hit. Each person plays until three outs have been made. then the other plays. and so on for nine innings.

as shown in Fig. Mass. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 2. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. one of them burning . Campbell. of water for an hour or two. If it is spotted at all. with the rope laced in the cloth. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Somerville. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. F. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. 1. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. while the committee is tying him up. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative.-Contributed by J.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. This he does. of the rope and holds it. Old-Time Magic . The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 3. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.

B. showing that there is nothing between them. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. 3/4 in. --Contributed by C. of turpentine. --Contributed by L. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome. New York City. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thus causing it to light. of plumbago.brightly. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. . 4 oz. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. etc. bolt. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. and. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. The magician walks over to the burning candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. with which he is going to light the other candle. shades the light for a few seconds. 4 oz. the other without a light. Ky. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.Contributed by Andrew G. Brown. Lebanon. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. invisible to them (the audience). A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Evans. He then walks over to the other candle. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of sugar. Louisville. of water and 1 oz. Ky. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand.. Drill Gauge screw. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. thick.

with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. 5 in. long. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Its current strength is about one volt. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. but is not so good. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. H. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Pulteney. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. In making up the solution. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. or blotting paper. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. thick. for the material. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. diameter. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. N. Denniston. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. which will give a strong. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Y. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. steady current. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. into a tube of several thicknesses. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. --Contributed by C. Do not add water to the acid. about 5 in.

It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. a positive adjustment was provided. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up.station. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.) may be obtained. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. steel. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. but somewhat lighter. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The . After much experimentation with bearings. One hole was bored as well as possible. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. while the other end is attached by two screws. steel. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. As to thickness. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. To insure this. long with a bearing at each end. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. the other holding them apart. steel. one drawing them together. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. Finally. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.

They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Each shaft. save the one in the pipe.. Instead. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The pole is 1 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The aperture should be 1/4 in. All these adjustments. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Set the declination circle to its reading. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. To find a star in the heavens. apart. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. If the result is more than 24 hours. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Cassiopiae. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. 45 min. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Declination is read directly." When this is done. once carefully made. turn the pointer to the star." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. and 15 min. need not be changed. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. are tightened.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. It is. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg." Only a rough setting is necessary. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Point it approximately to the north star. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The pointer is directed to Alpha. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. excepting those on the declination axis. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. All set screws. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. When properly set it will describe a great circle.. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes.

of ether. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. cannon balls. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. is folded several times. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. long. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. La. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. which is the one examined. Plain City. If this will be too transparent. taking care not to add too much. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. -Contributed by Ray E.. Ohio. benzole. the others . as shown in the sketch. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. is the real cannon ball. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Strosnider. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. The dance will begin. New Orleans. add a little more benzole. 3 or 4 in. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. a great effect will be produced. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. In reality the first ball. The ball is found to be the genuine article. then add 1 2-3 dr.

etc. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. taps. Somerville. small brooches. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. --Contributed by J. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Campbell. San Francisco. Fig. without taking up any great amount of space. Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. 2. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. F. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Wis. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 1). The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. In boxes having a sliding cover. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Cal. Milwaukee. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Return the card to the pack. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.. as shown in the illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.

Connecticut. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. as shown in the illustration. prints. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This box has done good service. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Hartford. . Beller. from the bottom of the box. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. thus giving ample store room for colors.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. round pieces 2-1/4 in.

West Lynn. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 1). about threefourths full. When the ends are turned under. 2). and pour water on it until it is well soaked. O. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. holes in the bottom of one. Mass. . The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. tacking the gauze well at the corners. FIG. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. with well packed horse manure. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. will answer the purpose. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Fill the upper tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. or placed against a wall. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. costing 5 cents. -Contributed by C.

with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. Eifel. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. when they are raised from the pan. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. and each bundle contains . --Contributed by L. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. M. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Chicago. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If the following directions are carried out. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. if this is not available. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. oil or other fluid. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft.

as it must be removed again. In addition to the cane. after having been pulled tight. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. it should be held by a plug. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. a square pointed wedge. held there by inserting another plug. then across and down. as shown in Fig. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. No plugs . the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. 1. put about 3 or 4 in.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs.

making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 41°-30'. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 4. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 5 in. or the style. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. it is 4. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. stretch the third one. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . When cool. -Contributed by E. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. as shown in Fig. is the horizontal dial. The style or gnomon. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Even with this lubrication. for 2°. trim off the surplus rosin. 3. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.= 4. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. W. This will make three layers.075 in. --Contributed by M. If handled with a little care. Detroit. Patrick. D. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. It consists of a flat circular table.2+. If you have a table of natural functions. as shown in Fig. the next smallest. From table No. 40°. Fig. There are several different designs of sundials. using the same holes as for the first layer. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. Michigan. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 3. R.15 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. 41 °-30'. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. as the height of the line BC for lat. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. and for lat. called the gnomon. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 5. During the weaving.075 in. we have 4. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. is the base (5 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. 1. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 42° is 4. as for example. Fig. Their difference is . 1 lat. After completing the second layer. in this case) times the .5 in. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. All added to the lesser or 40°. The chemicals will not affect the rosin.42 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. the height of which is taken from table No. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. lat. No weaving has been done up to this time. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.3 in. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. and for 1° it would be . 1. the height of the line BC. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.15+. but the most common. 1.2 in.

68 5-30 6-30 5.33 42° 4.41 38° 3.02 1.96 32° 3.38 . The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.77 2.44 44° 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.85 1.42 .88 36° 3.56 .33 . long.81 4.37 54° 6.20 60° 8.97 5 7 4.99 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.39 . To layout the hour circle.46 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.66 1.12 52° 6.28 .82 5. .66 latitude.82 3.50 26° 2.79 4.00 40° 4.46 . Draw two semi-circles.32 6. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.59 2.23 6. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.37 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.57 1. 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.55 5. and intersecting the semicircles.49 3.85 35 .83 27° 2. or if of stone. Chords in inches for a 10 in.40 1. 2 for given latitudes.42 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .16 40 . Draw the line AD. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.03 3.07 4.55 46° 5.16 1. using the points A and C as centers.93 6.91 58° 8.87 1.82 2.10 6. Table NO. 2.11 3. Its thickness. or more.27 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 30° 2.55 4.57 3. 2. with a radius of 5 in.49 30 . Fig. if of metal. and for this size dial (10 in.42 45 .93 2.26 4.40 34° 3. an inch or two. base.87 4. gives the 6 o'clock points.14 5. and perpendicular to the base or style. which will represent the base in length and thickness.64 4 8 3.19 1. according to the size of the dial. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.18 28° 2.76 1.30 1.06 2.30 2.66 48° 5. For latitudes not given.63 56° 7.89 50° 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. circle Sundial.94 1.

London. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.12 5. This correction can be added to the values in table No.24 5. Mitchell.53 1.89 3. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.49 3.77 3. 3.50 55 . it will be faster. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. April 16.50 . The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.37 2. --Contributed by J. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. will enable one to set the dial.from Sundial lime.10 4.01 1. E. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. 3.57 1.98 4. As they are the genuine reproductions. Sun time to local mean time.46 4.21 2.19 2.72 5.14 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sioux City.49 5.79 6.63 1. if west.54 60 . The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.60 4. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.82 3. and the . The + means that the clock is faster. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.. says the English Mechanic. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.71 2. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.30 2.08 1. Sept. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.means that the dial is faster than the sun.93 6. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.06 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. adding to each piece interest and value. 25. Each weapon is cut from wood. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.46 5. after allowing for the declination.add those marked + subtract those Marked . Iowa. then the watch is slower. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. An ordinary compass. 900 Chicago.68 3. each article can be labelled with the name. June 15.34 5. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.87 6. 2 and Dec.52 Table No.

long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. . brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 3. the length of which is about 5 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 1. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Partisan.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. When putting on the tinfoil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry.

The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 7. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. A gisarm or glaive. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. sharp on the outer edges. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. long. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. . At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. long with a round wooden handle. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The edges are sharp. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long. This weapon is about 6 ft. 8. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 5. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. press it well into the carved depressions. 6 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. is shown in Fig. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. about 4 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe.which is square. long with a round staff or handle. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood.. the holes being about 1/4 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. in diameter. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. which are a part of the axe. The spear is steel. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. It is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The extreme length is 9 ft.

B. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. apart. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Loudonville. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. the cross cords. Cut all the cords the same length. Substances such as straw. This is important to secure neatness. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 4. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Ohio. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. The twisted cross cords should . used for spacing and binding the whole together. are put in place. 1. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. They can be made of various materials. the most durable being bamboo. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Workman. 2 and 3.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. In Figs. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. as shown in Fig. H. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 5. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are less durable and will quickly show wear. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere.

and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. below the top to within 1/4 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. -Contributed by Geo. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . This was turned over the top of the other can. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Harrer. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. M. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping.be of such material. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. shaped as shown at C. bamboo or rolled paper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. in which was placed a piece of glass. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. 3 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The first design shown is for using bamboo. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. New York. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. New Orleans. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. La. A slit was cut in the bottom. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. as shown at B. Lockport. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. To remedy this. of the bottom. wide.

and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. --Contributed by Joseph H. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Maywood. Sanford. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. and two along the side for attaching the staff. about 1/16 in. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Cal. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. wide. giving the appearance of hammered brass. --Contributed by W. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Schaffner. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. is shown in the accompanying sketch. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This plank. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Ill. the brass is loosened from the block. H. N. After this is finished. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. This should be done gradually. do not throw away the gloves. Shay. Y. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. turned over but not fastened. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end.tape from sticking to the carpet. Newburgh. Pasadena. --Contributed by Chas. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper.

Oak Park. Marshall. --E. the pendulum swings . in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Unlike most clocks. Cal. Richmond. bent as shown. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. -Contributed by W. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Jaquythe.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Ill. A. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. K.

C.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Metzech. 3/4 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. wide that is perfectly flat. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. thick. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. is an electromagnet. only have the opposite side up. --Contributed by V. on the board B. . Now place the board to be joined. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. bar. A. high and 1/4 in. by 1-5/16 in. away. Chicago. says the Scientific American. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. about 12 in. in diameter. Secure a board. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. are secured in the base bar. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. long and at each side of this. to the first one with screws or glue. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. wide. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. 5/16 in. high. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. bearing on the latter. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. such as this one. high. The construction is very simple. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Two uprights. 6 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl.. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Fasten another board. about 6 in. B. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 7-1/2 in. In using this method.

whose dimensions are given in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. . wide and 5 in. wide and 1 in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Fig. from one end. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. is fastened in the hole A. Phoenixville. Vanderslice. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Pa. 4. as shown at A. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 3. The trigger. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. The assembled parts are shown in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. square. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. 2. long. square inside. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. by driving a pin through the wood. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. plates should be made 8 in. or more.

as shown in the illustration. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.A. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the . one-half the length of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. -Contributed by J. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Simonis. square. by weight. Fostoria. which allows 1/4 in.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Ohio. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 2 parts of whiting. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. and the picture can be drawn as described. A double convex lens. It must be kept moist and well . The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is necessary. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. long. Michigan. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. II. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. If a plain glass is used. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. 1. Dartmouth. Mass. A piece of metal. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. No. DeLoof.lower strings. -Contributed by Abner B. says the English Mechanic. A mirror. preferably copper. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. In use. as shown in Fig. G. and it may be made as a model or full sized. keeps the strong light out when sketching. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Grand Rapids. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. deep. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. 8 in. place tracing paper on its surface. --Contributed by Thos. which may be either of ground or plain glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. In constructing helmets. Shaw. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. wide and about 1 ft. London. in the opposite end of the box. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection.

The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. shown in Fig. take. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. All being ready. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 1. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 2. and the deft use of the fingers. or some thin glue. joined closely together. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. a few clay-modeling tools. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as in bas-relief. as shown in Fig. This being done. 3. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. with a keyhole saw. 1. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. will be necessary. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich.kneaded. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. Scraps of thin. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. brown. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and left over night to soak. and over the crest on top. on which to place the clay. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The clay. After the clay model is finished. the clay model oiled.

8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. a few lines running down. In Fig. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. as shown: in the design. owing to the clay being oiled. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 1. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. the skullcap. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The center of the ear guards are perforated. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. then another coating of glue. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The band is decorated with brass studs. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. or. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. 5. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and so on. 7. square in shape. the piecing could not be detected. and the ear guards in two pieces. which should be no difficult matter. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal.as possible. Before taking it off the model. In Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. When the helmet is off the model. should be modeled and made in one piece. They are all covered with tinfoil. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. one for each side. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. a crest on top. with the exception of the vizor. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 9. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The whole helmet. Indiana. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. will make it look neat. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . When dry. Indianapolis. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. When perfectly dry. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This contrivance should be made of wood.

long. screws. FF. and two large 3in. for connections. about 80 ft. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. E and F. in diameter and 9 in. of No. Fig. of mineral wool. one fuse block. 1. GG. if this cannot be obtained. 4. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. is then packed down inside the collar. 1. Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 4. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 1. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. one oblong piece of wood. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 1.same size. 1. should extend about 1/4 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. with slits cut for the wires. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. long. and. and C. 22 gauge resistance wire. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. about 1/4 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. German-silver wire is better. thick sheet asbestos. The reverse side of the base. is shown in Fig. the fuse block. 3. Fig. AA. as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. until it is within 1 in. 1 in. one small switch. 4. or. This will make an open space between the plates. also the switch B and the fuse block C. long. AA. AA. 4. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. The mineral wool. 1. of fire clay. Fig. Fig. 4. 2. as shown in Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 3 in. one glass tube. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. the holes leading to the switch. 4 lb. two ordinary binding posts. If asbestos is used. 4. The two holes. high. if the measurements are correct. This will allow the plate. of the top. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. 2. above the collar. each 4-1/2 in. thick. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. A round collar of galvanized iron. about 1 lb. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. The plate. which can be bought from a local druggist. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. as it stands a higher temperature. 4. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. JJ. 2. 12 in. as shown in Fig.

As these connections cannot be soldered. apart. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. 2. When the tile is in place.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Fig. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. as the turns of the wires. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. deep. H. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Richmond. more wire should be added. If it is not thoroughly dry. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Jaquythe. When this is done. when cool. will slip and come in contact with each other. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. --Contributed by W. allowing a space between each turn. A file can be used to remove any rough places. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The clay. Can. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. While the clay is damp. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. It should not be left heated in this condition. Next. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. and pressed into it. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. A. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. then. Catherines. so that the circuit will not become broken. Cnonyn. --Contributed by R. it leaves a gate for the metal. Cut a 1/2-in. KK. steam will form when the current is applied. Cal. St. 4. causing a short circuit. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. If this is the case. using care not to get it too wet. Fig. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cover over about 1 in. It should not be set on end. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. above the rim. This point marks the proper length to cut it. II. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. when heated. This completes the stove. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in.

Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Thorne. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Ky. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Louisville. says the Photographic Times. the pie will be damaged. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. and the prints will dry rapidly. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. --Contributed by Andrew G. is large enough. constructed of 3/4-in. and the frame set near a window.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. square material in any size. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. as shown." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Then clip a little off the . The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. but 12 by 24 in.

long. wide and 7 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The upright B. long. each 1 in. Herron. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. in diameter. at GG. 4 in. causing a break in the current. Iowa. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Fig. thereby saving time and washing. The driving arm D. which are fastened to the base. slip on two cardboard washers. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. open out. A 1/8-in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The board can be raised to place . long. high. for the crank. 1. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 22 gauge magnet wire. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. each 1/2 in. As the shaft revolves. Le Mars.Paper Funnel point. which gives the shaft a half turn. 1. as shown. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Two supports. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 14 in. 1 and 3. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. high. -Contributed by S. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 2-1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. wide and 3 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. An offset is bent in the center. 2. thick and 3 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Fig. W. 1. high. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. wide. in diameter and about 4 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. allowing each end to project for connections. 1/2 in. 3. long. Fig. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. thick. Figs. The connecting rod E.

The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. . Place the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. In designing the roost. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. making a framework suitable for a roost. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. in height. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Dorchester. bottom side up. Mass. as shown in the sketch. 3 in. on a board. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. One or more pots may be used.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him.

common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The materials required are rope or. paraffin and paint or varnish. preferably. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. The bottom part of the sketch. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. 1. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. and give it time to dry. shelves. windows. that it is heated. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. F. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. will produce the pattern desired. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. in diameter.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Wind the .. etc. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. adopt the method described. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. grills and gratings for doors. without any corresponding benefit. ordinary glue. when combined.. if it is other than straight lines. 1. odd corners. as shown in Fig. Fig. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more.

N. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Y. cut and glue them together. Fig. Lockport. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.Fig. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . M.

and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. 1. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. As the . will be retained by the cotton. when it will be observed that any organic matter.. etc. but no farther. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. says the English Mechanic.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc.. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. This piece of horse armor. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. which was used in front of a horse's head. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London.

give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as the surface will hold the clay. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. This triangularshaped support. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which is separate. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. 2. 2. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. This can be made in one piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. except the thumb and fingers. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. All being ready. An arrangement is shown in Fig. the same as in Fig. which can be made in any size. and will require less clay. but for . 8. with the exception of the thumb shield. the rougher the better. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. The armor is now removed from the model. then another coat of glue. but the back is not necessary. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 6 and 7. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. In Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. and therefore it is not described. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. and the clay model oiled. as shown in the sketch. 4. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This being done.

Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. fastened to the rod. Y. and the instrument is ready for use. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Redondo Beach. running down the plate. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Calif. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. --Contributed by John G. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. two in each jaw. Buxton. The two pieces of foil. Fasten a polished brass ball to. wide and 1/2 in. 2. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Ralph L. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Goshen. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. the top of the rod. La Rue. 9. When locating the place for the screw eyes. . each about 1/4 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. are glued to it. long. If it does not hold a charge. are better shown in Fig. the two pieces of foil will draw together. A piece of board. N.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. 1/2 in. the foils will not move. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. in depth. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. but 3-1/2 in. will be about right.

A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Bryan. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. long. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. hole bored through it. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as indicated in the . as this will cut under the water without splashing. 2-1/2 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. A. pine board. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. from the smaller end. about 15 in. enameled or otherwise decorated. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. is made of a 1/4-in. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. The can may be bronzed. When a fish is hooked. Texas. M. silvered. as shown in the illustration. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Corsicana. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. At a point 6 in. --Contributed by Mrs.

22 is plenty heavy enough. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. such as basswood or pine was used." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. using a piece of carbon paper. and trace upon it the design and outline. or even pine. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Polish the metal. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. thick. Any kind of wood will do. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. If soft wood. long over all. Next prepare the metal holder. Having completed the drawing. then with a nail. wide by 6 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. using powdered pumice and lye. as shown. Basswood or butternut. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. take a piece of thin wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A good size is 5 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. punch the holes. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. When it has dried over night. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways.

Richmond. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. 2 in. If carving is contemplated. . hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. of pure olive oil.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Jaquythe. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. If one has some insight in carving. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. It is useful for photographers. Cal. --Contributed by W. Instead of the usual two short ropes. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. 1/2 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. are used for the cores of the magnets. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Two wire nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. long. A. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. wide and 5 in. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. long. is used for the base of this instrument. thick. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. can be made on the same standards. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood.

--Contributed by W. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. in the shape shown in the sketch. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. . of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. when the key is pushed down. H. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. About 1 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. London.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Lynas. then covered with red. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. except that for the legs. A piece of tin. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. as shown by the dotted lines. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. as shown in Fig. A rubber band. 3. All of the parts for the armor have been described. about No. says the English Mechanic. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. at A. the paper covering put on. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. similar to that used in electric bells. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. leaving about 1/4 in. 25 gauge. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. 1.

can be made in a few minutes' time. drill six 1/4-in. Secure two strips of wood. about 1 in. one to another . and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Fig. and eight small holes. for the sake of lightness.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. 1 in. holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Cut them to a length or 40 in. The two pieces are bolted together.. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. completes the equipment. Take the piece shown in Fig. By moving the position of the bolt from. apart. make the same series of eight small holes and. Instead of using brass headed nails. Silver paper will do very well. long. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. A 1/4-in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. flat headed carriage bolt. or ordinary plaster laths will do. in the other end. 3 in. not too tight. In one end of the piece. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 1 and drill a 1/4in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. apart. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. says Camera Craft. 2. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. So set up. hole in the center. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. at each end. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel.

leaving a loop 1-1/2 in.of the larger holes in the strip. D over A and C. long. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as in portraiture and the like. 2. 2. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A round fob is made in a similar way. for instance. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. doubled and run through the web of A. taking the same start as for the square fob. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. lay Cover B and the one under D. A is the first string and B is the second. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. and lay it over the one to the right. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. the one marked A. 4. and the one beneath C. 1. as shown in Fig. but instead of reversing . Start with one end. in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. C over D and B. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. In this sketch. Then take B and lay it over A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. Fig.

then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. always lap one string. over the one to its right. as in making the square fob. as at A in Fig. Monroeville. A loop. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Rupp.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as B. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. the design of which is shown herewith. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Ohio. 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. especially if silk strings are used. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. long. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 3. is to be made of leather. is left out at the center before starting on one side. 5. Other designs can be made in the same manner. --Contributed by John P. The round fob is shown in Fig.

A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. such as a nut pick. Northville. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Mich. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. . pressing it against the wood. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. When the supply of wax is exhausted. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. A. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Houghton. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. using the reverse side. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. beeswax or paraffin. filling them with wax. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. it can be easily renewed. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. -Contributed by A. door facing or door panel. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Any smooth piece of steel. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose.

place it face down in the dish. apart and driven in only part way. and after wetting. Enough plaster should. .Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. remaining above the surface of the board. The tacks should be about 1 in. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. those on matte paper will work best. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Y. Ill. long. E and F. D. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. if blueprints are used. Petersburg. --Contributed by O. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Select the print you wish to mount. thick. it is best to leave a plain white margin. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. says Photographic Times. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. leaving about 1/4 in. J. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. N. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Thompson. although tin ones can be used with good success. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. New York. Fold together on lines C. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and about 12 in. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch.

filling the same about onehalf full. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. will be rendered perfectly white. without mixing the solutions. violets.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. One of the . Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. bell flowers. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. as shown in the right of the sketch. etc. roses. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.

most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. to keep the core from coming off in turning. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. turned a little tapering. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and at the larger end. as shown in the sketch. is about 2-1/2 in. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. should be soldered to the box. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. in diameter and 1 in. Shabino. Millstown. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The tin horn can be easily made. --Contributed by L. The diaphragm. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Fig. The sound box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. 3. When soldering these parts together. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . South Dakota. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 2. as shown. made of heavy tin. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. or delicate tints of the egg. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. 1. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. 1-7/8 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. long. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. but which will not wobble loose. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. L.. not too tightly. about 1/8s in. long and made of wood. shading. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A rod that will fit the brass tube. thick. The first point should be ground blunt.

says the Iowa Homestead. Gold. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. put a board on top. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. and weighted it with a heavy stone. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. E.Contributed by E. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Chicago. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Victor. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Jr. Ill. mice in the bottom. Colo.

Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Buffalo. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. N. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira. . The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Y. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.

which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. longer than the length of the can. Jaquythe. Cal. A. De Loof. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Grand Rapids. Richmond. through which several holes have been punched. above the end of the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. This cart has no axle.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. --Contributed by Thos. Put a small nail 2 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Mich. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. by means of a flatheaded tack. a piece of tin. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. cut round. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. --Contributed by W. and at one end of the stick fasten. as it can be made quickly in any size. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do.

The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 1/4 in. were below the level of the bullseye. 1 ft. Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . The strip of wood is 1/4 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The candles. apart. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Notches 1/8 in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. deep and 3 in. 2. 2. --Contributed by James M. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. as shown.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 2 in. long. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The baseboard and top are separable. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. thick. La. board. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. 2. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide and 1/8 in. Pa. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 1-1/2 in. I reversed a door gong. Doylestown. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. wide. of course. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Kane. cut in the center of the rounding edge. New Orleans. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 1.1. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide and as long as the box. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 3 ft.

Ia. After completing the handle. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. take two pieces of hard wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. dressing one surface of each piece. by cutting away the ends. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. West Union. Worcester. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Needles. Mass. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Wood. it can be removed without marring the casing.. scissors. Cover the block with rubber. wide rubber bands or felt. to prevent its scratching the desk top. will. as shown in Fig. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. After the glue has dried. --Contributed by G. etc. the blade is put back into the groove . A. when placed as in Fig. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. 3. When not in use. the reason being that if both were solid. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. wide into each side of the casing. stone or wood. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. The block can also be used as a paperweight. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages.Book Back Holders metal. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. This device is very convenient for invalids. 1. For the handle. can be picked up without any trouble.

a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Ohio. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Malden. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A. 1. -Contributed by W. Jacobs. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 1 in. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Hutchins. A notch is cut in one side. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Mass. square and 4 in. 2. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Pa. S. as shown in Fig. If desired. thus carrying the car up the incline. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. Erie. is shown in the accompanying sketch. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Cleveland. long. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. --Contributed by Maud McKee. . Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces.

and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. a board on which to work it. One sheet of metal. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.J. will be needed. N. This will insure having all parts alike. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Prepare a design for the front. . and an awl and hammer. If one such as is shown is to be used.. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point. The letters can be put on afterward. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.

The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. that can be worked in your own parlor. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The music will not sound natural. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. says Master Painter. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. placed on a table. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. but weird and distant. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. 1/4 part. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. or. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed.Fasten the metal to the board. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. So impressive are the results. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 2 parts white vitriol. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The stick may be placed by the side of. a violin. to right angles. One coat will do. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. behind or through the center of a table leg. . in the waste metal. turpentine. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. On the back. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. as shown. varnish. If any polishing is required. applied by means of a brush. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. mandolin or guitar. 3/4 part. if desired. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin." In all appearance. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Remove the metal. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. which is desirable. flat brush. 1 part.

apart. long and measuring 26 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. without them. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. says Work. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and is easy to construct. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. 3. across the top. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. round-head machine screws. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. square bar iron. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. . The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. wide. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. each 28 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. long and spread about 8 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. thick by 1/2 in. With proper tools this is easy. London. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. each 6 in. The longest piece. it might be difficult. Two pairs of feet. long.

as shown in Fig. A. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The glass. After the glass is cut. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. Fig. 7. The design is formed in the lead. C. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. in the grooves of the borders. The brads are then removed. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. 6. 5. using rosin as a flux. is held by the brads. 4. B. After the joints are soldered. lead. on it as shown. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. While the piece of lead D. or. Place the corner piece of glass. D. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. better still. the latter being tapped to . and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. 5. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. cut a long piece of lead. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. and the base border.

Two styles of hand holds are shown. as shown in Fig. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. long. and two wood blocks. rounded at the top as shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. then flatten its end on the under side. square and of the length given in the drawing. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. bolt. holes through their centers.. This . To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours.the base of the clip. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. bolt. The center pin is 3/4-in. Camden. in diameter and 1/4 in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Secure a post. not less than 4 in. Bore a 5/8-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Jr. plates. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. --Contributed by W. Make three washers 3-in. in diameter and about 9 in. long. H. Fasten the plates to the block B. rocker bolt. thick and drill 3/4-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. N. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. plank about 12 ft. then drill a 3/4-in. Dreier. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. one on each side and central with the hole. A and B. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. J. This ring can be made of 1-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. wood screws in each washer. 8. Bore a 3/4-in.

apart for a distance of 3 ft. and some one can swing an axe. If trees are convenient. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. boards along the side of each from end to end. 50 ft. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1-1/4in. New Orleans. 1. 7 in. 4 in. 2-1/2 in. straight-grained hickory. long. of 1/4-in. in diameter and 7 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. bolts and rope. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. chestnut or ash. by 6-1/2 ft. 4 pieces.will make an excellent cover for a pot. long. 16 screws. bit. long and 1 piece. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 1 by 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. can make a first class gymnasium. long. 9 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 4 pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. hickory. To substitute small. 3 in. long. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. by 2 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. horse and rings. 2 by 4 in. screws. shanks. because it will not stand the weather. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. maple. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. The four 7-in. square by 5 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. La. square by 9-1/2 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 4 in. 4 filler pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 3/4 by 3 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. from one edge. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. by 3 ft. 1/2 in.

and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. so the 1/2-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. apart. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. piece of wood. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. boards coincide. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. each 3 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Bore a 9/16-in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. 8 in.bored. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. apart. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. from the end. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire.. 2. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. at each end. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.

in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the effect is very striking. in an endless belt. it is taken to the edge of the foot. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. not much to look at in daytime. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. passing through a screweye at either end." which skimmed along the distant horizon. was at its height. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. disappearing only to reappear again. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. it follows the edge for about 1 in. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. about 100 ft. If the tumbler is rotated. and ascends the stem. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. When the interest of the crowd. W. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and materially heightened the illusion. which at once gathered. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. just visible against the dark evening sky. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed.. apart. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He stretched the thread between two buildings. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. . And all he used was a black thread. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. and then passes in a curve across the base. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. but most deceptive at dusk. not even the tumbler. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others.

2 by 4 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. Bevel the ends of . New Orleans. from either side of the center. 2 cross braces. 2 base pieces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. La. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. 2 in. 2 by 4 in. long. by 7 ft. by 3 ft. square and 51/2 ft. Fig. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 4 in. 8 bolts. 8 in. 8 in. long. The cork will come out easily. 4 in. square and 6 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 wood screws. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 by 3 in. 8 in. 1. beginning at a point 9 in. and turned in a spiral D. so the point will be on top. wide and 1 in. 4 bolts. A wire about No. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 6 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long. long and 1 doz. long. long. preferably cedar. 4 knee braces. by 2 ft. 4 in. long. 7 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. To make the apparatus. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 side braces. deep. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. by 10 ft. large spikes.

. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. of 7 ft.. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Richmond. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. A. etc. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. leaving the strainer always in position. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. using four of the 7-in bolts. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Cal. equipped with a strainer. except the bars. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. but even unpainted they are very durable. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. --Contributed by W. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. screws. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. If using mill-cut lumber. ( To be Continued. Two endpieces must be made. The wood so treated will last for years. After the trenches are dug. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. as shown in the diagram. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. save the bars. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. leave it undressed. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts.the knee braces. Jaquythe. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. A large sized ladle. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. jellies. so the bolts in both will not meet. These will allow the ladle to be turned. and countersinking the heads. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. which face each other. additional long. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather.

which seems impossible. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. milling machine. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. In order to accomplish this experiment. drill press or planer. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a barrier for jumps. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. A. . between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. thus holding the pail as shown.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. of sufficient 1ength. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is necessary to place a stick. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.

apart in a central position on the horse. ten 1/2-in. bolts. bolts. These are well nailed in place. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4 in. 4-1/2 in. bolt. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 4 knee braces. long. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. but 5 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. 2 bases. 2 by 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Hand holds must be provided next. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. square by 5-1/2 ft. bolts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 7 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 by 4 in. apart. 1 cross brace. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 by 4 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. long. wood yard or from the woods. To construct. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. from each end. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. two 1/2-in. by 3 ft.. long.. The round part of this log must be planed. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. and free from knots. 1 in. 2 adjusting pieces. in the ground. piece of 2 by 4-in. 4 in. long. 4 in. long. projections and splinters. by 3 ft. long. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. is a good length. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. Procure from a saw mill. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. These are placed 18 in. square by 5 ft. 3 in. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in.

The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Cal. such as a dent. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. it is caused by some obstruction. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. A. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. pipe and fittings. then bending to the shape desired. etc. Richmond. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. water. Also. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. over and around. no one is responsible but himself. it is caused by an overloaded shell. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. snow. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Such a hand sled can be made in a . The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but nevertheless. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping.horse top.--Contributed by W. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition.

is much better than a wood sled. thick. at E and F. when complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Joerin. then run a string over each part. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. --Contributed by J. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. W. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by James E. 1. which. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Toronto. Mass. These. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. France. Paris.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Noble. The end elevation. will give the length. . Vener. Boston. are all the tools necessary. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. 2. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. when straightened out. --Contributed by Arthur E. in width and 1/32 in. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Ontario. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete.

Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 3. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. nor that which is partly oxidized. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. are nailed.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. It is best to use soft water. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 4. AA and BB. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. . A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig.

The materials used are: backbone. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Percy Ashley in Rudder.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. 4. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 1). or various rulings may be made. 3. Broad lines can be made. as shown in Fig. class ice-yacht. as shown in Fig. . Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or unequal widths as in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 8 and 9.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. 1. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. a tee and a forging. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The headstock is made of two tees. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. bent and drilled as shown. It can be made longer or shorter. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. but if it is made much longer. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. 1-Details of Lathe sort. out from the collar. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. Both the lower . nipples and flanges arranged as shown. A good and substantial homemade lathe. pins to keep them from turning. a larger size of pipe should be used.Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. about 30 in. long. pipe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work.

Laporte. Held. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Cal. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. but also their insulating properties. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. Indiana. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Man. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. M. Musgrove. as shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Boissevain. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. W. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. It is about 1 in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. or a key can be used as well. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Fruitvale. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. UpDeGraff. 3/4 or 1 in. as shown in Fig. . The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. else taper turning will result. --Contributed by W. 2. thick as desired. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 1. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. a corresponding line made on this. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. To do this. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by M.

In use. J. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Cline. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Smith. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. long. as shown. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Ft. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. --Contributed by E. Ark. To obviate this. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.

A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. which should be backed out of contact. New Orleans. After being entered. the drill does not need the tool. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Walter W.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Colo. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This prevents the drill from wobbling. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. take . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Denver. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. face off the end of the piece. La. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. on starting the lathe. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. if this method is followed: First. White. and when once in true up to its size. centering is just one operation too many.

It can be used in a great number of tricks. by applying caustic soda or . says the Sphinx. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. is put into the paper tube A. After the wand is removed. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. In doing this. a bout 1/2 in. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The glass tube B. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. and this given to someone to hold. unknown to the spectators. all the better. The handkerchief rod.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as shown in D. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. shorter t h a n the wand. vanishing wand. shown at C. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and can be varied to suit the performer.

The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in.potash around the edges of the letters. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. preferably hard maple. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. thick. 1/4 in. Glue the neck to the box. cut to any shape desired. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Glue strips of soft wood. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. square and 1-7/8 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. with the back side rounding. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. With care and patience. 1 Bottom. End. as shown by K. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. by 14 by 17 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 End. This dimension and those for the frets . A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. and glue it to the neck at F. can be made by the home mechanic. long. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Cut a piece of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. across the front and back to strengthen them. As the cement softens. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 2 Sides. The sides.

E. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Six holes. Norwalk. -Contributed by J. and beveled . Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. 3/16 in. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. O. Carbondale. thick and about 1 ft. Frary. H. wide and 11-1/2 ft. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. long is used for a keel. 1) on which to stretch the paper. toward each end. but it is not. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.Pa. A board 1 in. Stoddard. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. or backbone. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.should be made accurately. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.

Fig. 2). stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. thick. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. wide by 26 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B. 4). For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. The cross-boards (B. 1 and 2. Fig. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. b. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. such as is used for making chairbottoms. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. The ribs. a. Any tough. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. procure at a carriage factory. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. These are better. by means of a string or wire. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fig. C. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. as they are apt to do. 3). and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fig. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. long are required. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. the loose strips of ash (b. 4. C. but twigs of some other trees. such as hazel or birch.) in notches. Fig. 2.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. as before described. when made of green elm. two strips of wood (b. b. are next put in. thick. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. as shown in Fig. probably. with long stout screws. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. In drying. slender switches of osier willow. some tight strips of ash. or similar material. long. and are not fastened. Fig. 2). Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. will answer nearly as well. b. two twigs may be used to make one rib. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. but before doing this. which are easily made of long. Fig. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Shape these as shown by A. 3/8 in. B. or other place. For the gunwales (a. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. twigs 5 or 6 ft. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 1. and so.. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Green wood is preferable. in thickness and should be cut. Osiers probably make the best ribs. 3). Fig. 3. 13 in. 3. apart. . buy some split cane or rattan. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. in such cases. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and. and the smaller ends to the gunwales.

This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. 5). If not. and steady in the water. Being made in long rolls. and as soon as that has soaked in. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. If the paper be 1 yd. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. It should be drawn tight along the edges.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. It should be smooth on the surface. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. The paper is then trimmed. You may put in . fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and very tough. but with less turpentine. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Then take some of the split rattan and. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. When the paper is dry. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. tacking it to the bottom-board. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. preferably iron. apply a second coat of the same varnish. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Fig. of very strong wrapping-paper. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. B. after wetting it. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. wide. and light oars. and held in place by means of small clamps. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. but neither stiff nor very thick. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. When thoroughly dry. however.

1. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 5). A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 1 and the end in . allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5. to fit it easily. We procured a box and made a frame. fore and aft. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.

Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. Pittsburg. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another.Fig. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the glass. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Close the other end with the same operation. 5. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This is an easy . A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the result is. this makes the tube airtight. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. This way has its drawbacks. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 3. Pa. A good way to handle this work. 4. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity.

How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. file. flat and round-nosed pliers. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. The candle holders may have two. above the work and striking it with the hammer. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. fifth. -Contributed by A. Give the metal a circular motion. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. also trace the decorative design. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. second. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. then reverse. thin screw. rivet punch. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 23 gauge. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Oswald. extra metal all around. three. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. or six arms. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. fourth. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. metal shears. Seventh. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the metal. with a piece of carbon paper. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. After the bulb is formed.way to make a thermometer tube. very rapid progress can be made. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . Work from the center along concentric rings outward. Sixth. third. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. four. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.

Metal polish of any kind will do. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. and holder. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. drip cup. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

thus it was utilized. The gaff. Soak 1 oz. on a water bath. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. alcohol 2 parts. is a broomstick. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. smooth it down and then remove as before. except they had wheels instead of runners. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. J. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. glycerine 4 parts. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Mother let me have a sheet. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. deep. if it has not absorbed too much ink. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and it will be ready for future use. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Shiloh. when it will be ready for use. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. they were like an ice boat with a sail. N. winding the ends where they came together with wire. the stick at the bottom of the sail. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and other things as they were needed. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Fifty. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. using a steel pen. and in a week . sugar 1 part. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. A saw. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. F. hammer. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. and water 24 parts. all the rest I found. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Twenty cents was all I spent. of glycerine to about 200 deg. The boom. I steer with the front wheel. and brace and bit were the tools used. and add the gelatine. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. at a point 1 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. If a small saw is used. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. or glue. provided the material is of metal. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. high. and the lens slide. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. A and B. wide. 8 in. as desired. 3. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. and 14 in. but if such a box is not found. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. above the center. and the work carefully done. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. and a projecting lens 2 in.. at a distance of 24 ft. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. or a lens of 12-in. and. H. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. E. well seasoned pine. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. DD. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A table. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. Fig. The board is centered both ways. This ring is made up from two rings. G. wide and 15 in. thick. focus enlarging a 3-in. long.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The slide support. 1. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. 1/2 to 3/4 in. about 2 ft. wire brads. are . slide to about 6 ft. describe a 9-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp.

placed on the water. B.constructed to slip easily on the table. the strips II serving as guides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. but not long enough. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. P. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. light burning oil. E. Minn.-Contributed by G. apply two coats of shellac varnish. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Small strips of tin. Paul. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. and when the right position is found for each. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. A sheet . should the glass happen to upset. JJ. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. St. The arrangement is quite safe as. To reach the water.

form a piece of wire in the same shape.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 3. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3 in. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 1. Crawford. Schenectady. from a tent company. --Contributed by J. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. I ordered a canvas bag. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. N. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. If one of these clips is not at hand.. Y. 12 ft.H. 2. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. to cover the mattresses. then the corners on one end are doubled over. by 12 ft. 9 in. 4. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig.

first mark the binding-post A. thick. wide.each edge. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. Teasdale. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Walter W. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. to the coil of small wire for volts. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 2. Attach a piece of steel rod. Colo. Fig. Warren. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 3/4 in. Denver. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 1. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. apart. holes in the edge. A rubber band. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 1/2 in. D. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. open on the edges. 2. Fasten the wire with gummed label. An arc is cut in the paper. C. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. insulating them from the case with cardboard. to keep it from unwinding. drill two 3/16 in. in the center coil. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. --Contributed by Edward M. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 1. To calibrate the instrument. so as to form two oblong boxes. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. through which the indicator works. long. Pa. 2. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. Fig. V. long and 3/16 in. and insert two binding-posts. A Film Washing Trough [331] . White. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. for amperes and the other post.

board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. M. Cut a 1/4-in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. --Contributed by M. Place this can on one end of the trough. with the large hole up. as shown. Wood Burning [331] . Dayton.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Ala. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thick. wide and 4 in. long. This will make a very pretty ornament. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 2. many puzzling effects may be obtained. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by John Shahan. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Auburn.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. as shown in the sketch. provided the bottle is wide. 1. Upper Troy. If the small bottle used is opaque. If the cork is adjusted properly. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Whitehouse. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. but not very thick. --Contributed by Fred W. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. N.Y. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. 3/4 in.

1. long. The wire L was put . The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. was keyed to shaft C. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Fig. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. to the shaft. which was nailed to the face plate. 4. 2. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. in diameter and 1 in. thick. high without the upper half. I. W. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. Fig. On a 1000-ft. If a transmitter is used. A staple. pulley F. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. 2 ft. 1 in. G. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 1. Its smaller parts. 3. B. thick and 3 in. which was 6 in. even in a light breeze. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. line. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Both bearings were made in this manner. Fig. thick. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. K. The bearing blocks were 3 in. by the method shown in Fig. --Contributed by D. which gave considerable power for its size. The shaft C. pulley. which extended to the ground. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. was 1/4in. Fig. iron rod. were constructed of 1-in. Milter. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. wide. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The 21/2-in. 1. such as blades and pulleys. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. as shown in Fig.

H. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. long and 1/2 in. 5. across the thin edge of a board. square to the board P at the top of the tower. To make the key. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. apart in the tower. was tacked. 6. Fig. To lessen the friction here. hole for the shaft G was in the center. was 2 ft. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Fig. Fig. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. This fan was made of 1/4-in. in diameter. 2. washers were placed under pulley F. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. for instance. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 1. G. Fig. hole was bored for it. a 1/2-in. pine 18 by 12 in. strips. so that the 1/4-in. The power was put to various uses. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long and bend it as . when the windmill needed oiling.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. with all parts in place. long and bend it as shown at A. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 25 ft. 0. through the latter. Fig. The other lid. There a 1/4-in. long and 3 in. long. The smaller one. as. 3 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. in the center of the board P. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. If you have no bell. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. with brass headed furniture tacks. 1) 4 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. The bed plate D. 1. Fig. wide and 1 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. This board was 12 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. R. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. cut out another piece of tin (X. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 1. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. top down also. long. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. and was cut the shape shown.

The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. 2. When tired of this instrument. fitted with paddles as at M. and. 1. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Now. By adjusting the coils. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. using cleats to hold the board frame. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The rear barrels are. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.shown. Thus a center drive is made. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Going back to Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. like many another device boys make. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. at the front. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. McConnell. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. although it can be made with but two. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Before tacking it to the board. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. as shown at Water. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. -Contributed by John R. after the manner of bicycle wheels. causing a buzzing sound. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. consisting of four pieces of board nailed .

The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The speed is slow at first. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. feet on the pedals. there will not be much friction. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. To propel it. which will give any amount of pleasure. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. 1. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. There is no danger. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as shown in Fig. 3. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. can be built. or even a little houseboat. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. If the journals thus made are well oiled.

and so creating a false circuit. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. C. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. B. Turn a small circle of wood.of pleasure for a little work. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. A. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Place one brass ring in cylinder. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1. 1. Shape small blocks of boxwood. D. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 2. or it may be put to other uses if desired. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 2. then the glass disc and then the other ring. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig.

Throw lever off from the right to center. Pa. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. contact post. To operate this. such as is used for cycle valves. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. thick. switch. The parts indicated are as follows: A. X. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. To get the cylinder into its carriage. while lying in bed. key of alarm clock. D. after two turns have been made on the key. C. --Contributed by Geo. which stops bell ringing. bracket. J. brass rod. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. long. F. bell. Utah.. 4-1/2 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. I. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. T. H. wire from light to switch.india rubber tubing. 4 in. wire from batteries to switch. Chatland. dry batteries. after setting alarm. Brinkerhoff. and pulled tight. brass strip. Ogden. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. S. wire from bell to switch. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. if too small. Swissvale. shelf. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . set alarm key as shown in diagram. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. E. When alarm goes off. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. C. long. In placing clock on shelf. by having the switch on the baseboard. wide and 1/16 in. some glue will secure them. near the bed. B. copper tubing. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. 5-1/4 by 10 in. --Contributed by C. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . or 1/4in. 3/8 in. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. G. The contact post may be of 1/4-in.

A flannel bag. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. gives the heater a more finished appearance. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 2. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. A small lamp of about 5 cp. being careful not to get the sand in it. letting it extend 3/4 in. S. Having finished this. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. --Contributed by Chas.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. This is to form the fuse hole. wide. from one end. Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. beyond the end of the spindle. 1/4 in. as at B. for instance. as at A. Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. as . Chapman. in diameter. 2. Make the spindle as in Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. making it as true and smooth as possible. Make a shoulder. as at A. Minn. which can be made of an old can. Lanesboro. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 3. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 1. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. as in Fig. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. in diameter. about 6 in. 4 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. about 3-1/2 in. will do the heating. a bed warmer. 1. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. long.

thick. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . thick. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1 in. 1. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. or hickory. long. wide and 3/8 in. 11/2 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 6 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. ash. wide and 6 ft. A piece of oak. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 5/8 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of tin. long. 3/8 in. deep. will be sufficient to make the trigger. good straight-grained pine will do. Joerin. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. spring and arrows. The material must be 1-1/2 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. long. wide and 3 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.

Wilmette. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 2. The trigger. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. thick. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. from the end of the stock. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A spring. place the arrow in the groove. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. from the opposite end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 9. 4. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 7. The stick for the bow. 8. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. To shoot the crossbow. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. The bow is not fastened in the stock. When the trigger is pulled. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. it lifts the spring up. in diameter. better still. E. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. wide at each end. Trownes. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Such a temporary safe light may be . having the latter swing quite freely. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. To throw the arrow. Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. or through the necessity of. and one for the trigger 12 in. which is 1/4 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. Ill. 3. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Fig. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold.

from the ground. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. making lighting and trimming convenient. and nail it in position as shown at A. The cut should be about 5 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. This lamp is safe. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. is used as a door. the bark lean-to is a . and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. and replace as shown at B. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Moreover. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Remove the bottom of the box. apart. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. says Photo Era. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The hinged cover E. The Indian camp is the easiest to make.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. respectively. it is the easiest camp to make. or only as a camp on a short excursion. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. since the flame of the candle is above A. By chopping the trunk almost through. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. make the frame of the wigwam. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Remove one end. C. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover.

cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. long and 1-1/2 in. A piece of elm or hickory. makes a good pair of tongs. long. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. will dry flat. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. make the best kind of a camp bed. 6 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Tongs are very useful in camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. thick. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. wide. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. For a permanent camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. nails are necessary to hold it in place. long and 2 or 3 ft. In the early summer. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and when the camp is pitched. and cedar. . A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 3 ft. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Sheets of bark. Where bark is used. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. a 2-in. and split the tops with an ax. are a convenient size for camp construction. For a foot in the middle of the stick. wide and 6 ft. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. spruce. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. selecting a site for a camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. piled 2 or 3 ft. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. deep and covered with blankets. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. . and affording accommodation for several persons.

A. Doylestown. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. I drove a small cork. Fig. B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Pa. to another .. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. --Contributed by James M. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. changing the water both morning and night. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. 1. and provide a cover or door.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. wide. the interior can. B. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Kane. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. about 4 in.

open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. until. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The current is thus compelled. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 3. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. which project inside and outside of the tube. C. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. to pass through an increasing resistance. such as ether. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. Fig. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. E. fused into one side. This makes . a liquid.glass tube. for instance. The diagram. 2. if necessary. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted.

After cleaning them with the solution. which may be of any thickness so that. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. thick. hole is . then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. or even 1/16 in. If the thickness is sufficient. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. brass. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. mark off a space. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. is composed of wrought sheet iron. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. larger than the dimensions given. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. tap. as shown in Fig. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. by turning the lathe with the hand. drill the four rivet holes. A. between centers. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. making it 1/16 in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. and for the outside of the frame. When the frame is finished so far. Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. Then the field can be finished to these marks. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 1. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. 2. or pattern.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. assemble and rivet them solidly. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Michigan. therefore. bent at right angles as shown. 4-1/2 in. Fig. 3-3/8 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. two holes. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. to allow for finishing. in diameter. These holes are for the bearing studs. thicker. brass or iron. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. clamp the template. in diameter. Alpena. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. 3-3/8 in. on a lathe. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. but merely discolored. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. as shown in the left-hand sketch. they will make a frame 3/4 in. thick. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. set at 1/8 in. A 5/8in. cannot be used so often. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. screws. After the template is marked out. The bearing studs are now made. when several pieces are placed together. which will make it uniform in size. Before removing the field from the lathe.

leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. Fig. soldered into place. file them out to make the proper adjustment. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. solder them to the supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and build up the solder well. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The shaft of the armature. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. 4. brass rod is inserted. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. or otherwise finished.

The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 1/8 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. and then they are soaked in warm water. 3. then drill a 1/8-in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size.. threaded. thick. 3. 9. as shown in Fig. as shown m Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Armature-Ring Core.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 6. The pins are made of brass. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. After the pieces are cut out. by 1-1/2 in. thick. sheet fiber. as shown in Fig. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. thick and 1/4 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. When annealed. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. thick. After they . brass rod. Find the centers of each segment at one end. being formed for the ends. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. deep and 7/16 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. or segments. 3/4 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. wide. and held with a setscrew. to allow for finishing to size. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 6. holes through them for rivets. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 1-1/8 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. When this is accomplished. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. The sides are also faced off and finished. wide. thick are cut like the pattern. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. inside diameter. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 5. 7. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 8. as shown in Fig. washers. as shown in Fig. Rivet them together. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Make the core 3/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars.

being required. wide and 1 in. shown at B. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. When the glue is set. 8 in. of the wire. 6 in. they are glued to the core insulation. All connections should be securely soldered. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. thick. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. and wind on four layers. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. by bending the end around one of the projections. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. until the 12 slots are filled. This winding is for a series motor. sheet fiber. The winding is started at A. about 100 ft. of No. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. In starting to wind. The source of current is connected to the terminals. or side. Run one end of the field wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Fig. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. long. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. 1.have dried. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The field is wound with No. After one coil. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. shown at A. are soldered together. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. To connect the wires. Fig. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. and bring the end of the wire out at B. yet it shows a series of . is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. of the end to protrude. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. which will take 50 ft. sheet fiber. the two ends of the wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. after the motor is on the stand. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. 5. The two ends are joined at B. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 1.

Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. is fastened to the metallic body. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. A 1/2-in. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. as in the case of a spiral. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. still more simply. or. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. which serves as the ground wire.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Nine wires run from the timer. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts. and one. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires.

Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. It should be . The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. thus giving 16 different directions. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. board. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. long. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Without this attachment. circle. of the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. 45 deg. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts.The Wind Vane. Covering these is a thin. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. 6 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.

The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Buffalo. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. if not too high. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. making it heavy or light. Blackmer. high. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. thus making a universal joint. will be enough for the two sides. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. long to give the best results. Place the leather on some level. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. is most satisfactory. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. -Contributed by James L. Y. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. 14 by 18 in. called a chip carving knife. . A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. will be sufficient. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. also a piece of new carpet. To make it. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. will answer the purpose just as well.about 6 ft." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. N. however. though a special knife. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. To work these outlines. according to who is going to use it. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. and about 6 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. or. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Cut 3-in. Before tacking the fourth side. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Fill the box with any handy ballast. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. and securely nail on the top of the box. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown.

Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

away from it. a needle and some feathers. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. rather than the smooth side. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Morse. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. B.will do if a good stout needle is used. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of water. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. as in cases of a sprained ankle. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Syracuse. or a hip that has been wrenched. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Y. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. and fasten the feathers inside of it. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. --Contributed by Katharine D. of common salt and 10 lb. N. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. If a fire breaks out. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. temporary lameness. square and tying a piece of .

made up of four layers of No. --Contributed by J. This not only keeps the rats out. Albany. long. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. high. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. but not sharp. The coil is 1 in. E. N. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. setting traps. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. and the receiver is ready for use. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. board all around the bottom on the inside. One end is removed entirely. A. F. and tacked it to the boards. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Hellwig. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume.J. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. cut to the length of the spool. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Gordon Dempsey. the corners being wired. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. wide and 1/16 in. . 1/8 in. The diaphragm C. --Contributed by John A. The body of the receiver. Paterson. letting it go at arm's length. N. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. Ashland. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. is cut on the wood. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. There is a 1-in. etc. laying poisoned meat and meal. deep. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Wis. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. A small wooden or fiber end. B. which is the essential part of the instrument. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. as shown. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The strings should be about 15 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. wound on the head end.string to each corner. Y. commonly called tintype tin. thus helping the rats to enter. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. G.. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. long. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The end is filed to an edge. and a coil of wire.

to . wide. The vase is to have three supports. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. a piece of small wire. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a piece of string or. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. better still. To clean small articles. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. gold. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. begin with the smallest scrolls.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. and bend each strip in shape. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh.

4-1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. as shown in the sketch. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.. 3-1/4 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. 3-1/2 in. and does not require coloring. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. sharp pencil. thus raising it. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. After taking off the pattern. . Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. wide when stitching up the purse. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. from the lines EF on the piece. Trace also the line around the purse. About 1 in. using a duller point of the tool. through which to slip the fly AGH. from C to D.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Work down the outside line of the design. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Fold the leather on the line EF. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 6-3/8 in. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from E to F. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern..

then place the square piece out of which Fig. then nail it. leaving the lug a. This also should be slightly beveled. Fit this to the two . and a model for speed and power. 1. square. deep. First. When it is finished. long. all the way around. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. around the wheel. with the largest side down. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. being cast in wooden molds. with a compass saw. 1/2 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. 1 was cut. as shown in Fig. with the open side down. deep. and which will be very interesting. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. It is neat and efficient. and tack the other piece slightly. and. following the dotted lines. b. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Make the lug 1/4 in. 3. thick. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. by 12 ft. with pins or small nails. Cut off six pieces 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 2. the "open" side. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Then nail the wheel down firmly. and the projections B. It can be made without the use of a lathe.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and cut out a wheel. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Now take another piece of wood. as well as useful. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood.

4. deep. in the center of it. hole entirely through at the same place. slightly beveled.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. square pieces of wood. Take the mold apart. one of which should have a 3/8-in. then bolt it together. and lay it away to dry. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. as shown by the . Now put mold No. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole bored through its center. and bore six 1/4-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. bolts. hole 1/4 in. After it is finished. Now take another of the 12-in.pieces just finished. and boring a 3/8-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 1. place it between two of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. holes through it.

6.2. and pour babbitt metal into it. long. over the defective part. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. wide and 16 in.black dots in Fig. This is mold No. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Now take mold No. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. the other right-handed. one in the projections. and 3/8-in. see that the bolts are all tight. from the one end. put the top of the brace through this hole. and drill it entirely through. true it up with a square. 4. b. and lay it away to dry. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.1. Put this together in mold No. so that it will turn easily. screw down. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. lay it on a level place. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and two 1/4-in. where the casting did not fill out. Let it stand for half an hour. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. This is the same as Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. d. and bore three 1/4-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. place it under the drill. take an ordinary brace. one in the lug. holes at d. After it is fitted in. B. as shown in illustration.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. only the one is left-handed. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and run in babbitt metal again. Pour metal into mold No. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and drill them in the same manner. Then bolt the castings together. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and the other in the base. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made.1. 1. holes. Fig. This is for a shaft. fasten a 3/8-in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. drill in it. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. until it is full. place the entire machine in a vise. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and connect to the boiler.2. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in diameter must now be obtained. Now cut out one of the 12-in. instead of the right-handed piece. 5. Using the Brace . long. 6. This will cast a paddle-wheel.

and. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. piece and at right angles to it. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. while it is running at full speed.. will do good service. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Then take a knife or a chisel. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and if instructions have been carefully followed. with a boss and a set screw. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and the other 8 ft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. one 6 ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. At each end of the 6ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Plan of Ice Boat .The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. long. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

Fig. which may come in handy in heavy winds. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. long. The tiller. at the end. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. boards to make the platform. at the butt and 1 in. plank nail 8-in. in the top before the skate is put on. 8 a reef point knot. in diameter in the center. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. in front of the rudder block. should be of hardwood. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. as the runners were fastened. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. so much the better will be your boat. at the top. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Fig. in diameter. in diameter at the base. piece and at right angles to it. projecting as in Fig. leaving 1 ft. 1. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Over the middle of th