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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Toronto. as shown in Fig. with the hollow side away from you. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Ontario. 1. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 2 -. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve.Fig. --Contributed by J. It is held in this curve until dry. away. distant. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Noble. until it is bound as shown in Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Fig. To throw a boomerang. 2. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The pieces are then dressed round. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 2. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 1. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. apart. E. A piece of plank 12 in. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . grasp it and hold the same as a club. wide and 2 ft. long will make six boomerangs. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth.

Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. high and 4 or 5 in. however. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. or rather no bottom at all. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and it may be necessary to use a little water. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. blocks . A wall. made of 6-in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. minus the top. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. the block will drop out. it is not essential to the support of the walls. but about 12 in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. 6 in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. long. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and with a movable bottom. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. one inside of the circle and the other outside. dry snow will not pack easily. thick. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. A very light. If the snow is of the right consistency. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. First. forcing it down closely. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course.

if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and the young architect can imitate them. --Contributed by Geo. above the ground. 1. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Union. A nail. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The piece of wood. which is about 1 ft. Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 2. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. long and 1 in. 1. 2. There is no outward thrust. which can be made of wood. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. is 6 or 8 in. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Goodbrod. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. It also keeps them out. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. D. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. wide. Ore. C. or an old safe dial will do.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. a. 3. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 3 -.

as the weight always draws them back to place. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Syracuse. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the box locked . New York. S. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Merrill. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. one pair of special hinges. If ordinary butts are used. --Contributed by R. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. says the Sphinx.

Ga. Augusta. draw one-half of it. Fig. When the sieve is shaken. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Place the piece in a vise. as shown in Fig. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. 3. If they do not. proceed as follows: First. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. 1. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. about 1-32 of an inch. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. on drawing paper. as shown in Fig. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. -Contributed by L. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. All . A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. To make a design similar to the one shown. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. allowing each coat time to dry. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. If the measuring has been done properly. With the metal shears. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. It remains to bend the flaps.and the performer steps out in view. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. smooth surface. Alberta Norrell. as shown. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. 2. one for each corner.

If a touch of color is desired. To keep the metal from tarnishing. in diameter. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. and in the positions shown in the sketch. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. if rolled under the shoe sole. --Contributed by R. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. about 6 in. from the back end. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. which is about 6 in. R. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . C. Colo. 25 gauge German-silver wire. A resistance. should be in the line. After this has dried. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. used for insulation. When the current is turned off. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. 25 German-silver wire. long. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Denver. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. In boring through rubber corks. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. A piece of porcelain tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The common cork.the edges should be left smooth. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. B. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The current. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. of No. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. causing it to expand. in passing through the lamp. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Galbreath. as shown at AA. H.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 1. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. --Contributed by David Brown. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 3. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 2. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Purchase two long book straps. with thin strips of wood. . The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. leaving a space of 4 in. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Kansas City.bottom ring. as shown in Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Fig. between them as shown in Fig.

These are shown in Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. in diameter. 3. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. A. Fig. as . The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 1. and a pocket battery. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 36 in. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and tack smoothly. Doylestown. which is the right weight for family use. 2.. The string is then tied. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. long. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 4.An ordinary electric bell. --Contributed by James M. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. When the aeroplane tips. and one weighing 25 lb. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Pa. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. to form a handle. N. Fig. Y. Kane. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 1. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. --Contributed by Katharine D. are mounted on the outside of the box. one weighing 15 lb. just the right weight for a woman to use. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 1. Two strips of brass. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Syracuse. C. The folds are made over the string. Morse..

clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. 1. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. which can be purchased at a local hardware store.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . bookracks and shelves can be made with one. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. 2. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. if once used. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. AA. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. two 1/8 -in. The saw. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. machine screws. 3/32 or 1/4 in. long. in diameter. bent as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Louis J. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. Floral Park. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. N. Day. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. four washers and four square nuts. such as brackets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Y. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it.

if copper or brass. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. A. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. of course. Apply two coats. or silver. An Austrian Top [12] . Drying will cause this to change to purple. using a swab and an old stiff brush. therefore. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. If it colors the metal red. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Rub off the highlights. as well as brass and copper. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. be covered the same as the back. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. the most expensive. Scranton. allowing each time to dry. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. as well as the depth of etching desired. In the design shown. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. treat it with color. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. of water. Watch Fob For coloring silver. --Contributed by W. 1 part nitric acid. Michigan. copper. though almost any color may be obtained. 1 part sulphuric acid. it has the correct strength. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Of the leathers. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. of water in which dissolve. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.. after breaking up. Silver is the most desirable but. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. use them in place of the outside nuts. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Detroit. File these edges.may be made of either brass. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. For etching.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. green and browns are the most popular. The buckle is to be purchased.

Parts of the Top To spin the top. Michigan. 3/4 in. --Contributed by J. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. allowing only 1-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole in this end for the top. hole. in diameter. long. 5-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. A handle.F. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 1-1/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. pass one end through the 1/16-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. is formed on one end. Bore a 3/4-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. When the shank is covered. . A 1/16-in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. long. The handle is a piece of pine. Tholl. thick. Ypsilanti.

Houghton. Mich. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. . This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Alberta Norrell. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Northville. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. A. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Ga. For black leathers. --A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. tarts or similar pastry.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Augusta. having no sides. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.

Centralia. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Mo. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Stringing Wires [13] A. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. When you desire to work by white light. glass fruit jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. then solder cover and socket together. says Studio Light. the same as shown in the illustration.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch.

The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Wis. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 62 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Janesville. 1-1/4 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 16 Horizontal bars. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1-1/4 in. square by 12 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 4 Vertical pieces. 4 Braces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. so it can be folded up. --Contributed by Herman Fosel.for loading and development. . An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. They are fastened. and not tip over. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.

Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Charles Stem. H.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. --Contributed by Dr. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Phillipsburg. from scrap material. after filling the pail with water. The whole. After rounding the ends of the studs. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Rosenthal. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. O. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Cincinnati. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. and a loop made in the end. New York. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. C. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The front can be covered . Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath.

--Contributed by Gilbert A. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The . doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. and. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. either for contact printing or enlargements. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Baltimore.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. if you try to tone them afterward. In my own practice. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. 1 FIG. If the gate is raised slightly. Wehr. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you are. FIG. the mouth of which rests against a. principally mayonnaise dressing. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. by all rules of the game. By using the following method. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. sickly one. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. Md. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The results will be poor.

.. A good final washing completes the process. Gray..... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.... preferably the colored kind..... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. Iodide of potassium .. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. in this solution. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax..... When the desired reduction has taken place.. 20 gr. San Francisco. without previous wetting... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table." Cyanide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. --Contributed by T... Water . 2 oz.. long to admit the angle support. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. but... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. 2.. three times. wide and 4 in............ in size... when it starts to bleach... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. L. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. where it will continue to bleach.... 1 and again as in Fig... transfer it to a tray of water.. With a little practice... 16 oz... The blotting paper can .... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. Cal. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 5 by 15 in. It will bleach slowly and evenly. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. etc. to make it 5 by 5 in. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Place the dry print. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder...

and a length of 5 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. the shaft 1 in. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Wisconsin. 3. --Contributed by L. the head of which is 2 in. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide. Oshkosh.J. --Contributed by J. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Monahan. Canada. wide below the .

After this has dried. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. using a small metal saw. 2. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1. then coloring. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Pierce a hole with a small drill. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. which gives the outline of the design Fig. . smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. being held perpendicular to the work. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. after folding along the center line. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Do not put the hands in the solution. but use a swab on a stick. Fig. With files. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. as shown in Fig.FIG. With the metal shears. Trace the design on the metal. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 1 Fig. using turpentine. 3. deep. The metal must be held firmly. freehand. For coloring olive green. Make one-half of the design. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Apply with a small brush. 4. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. After the sawing. Allow this to dry. 1 part nitric acid. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using carbon paper. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. then trace the other half in the usual way. then put on a second coat.

as shown. Burnett. After the stain has dried. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. --Contributed by M. Richmond. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. --Contributed by Katharine D. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. . then stain it a mahogany color. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Carl Cramer. Syracuse. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. New York. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. it does the work rapidly. When this is cold. Cal.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by H. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. East Hartford. attach brass handles. thick. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. on a chopping board. M. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Morse. Ii is an ordinary staple. Conn. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in.

A. Atwell. two enameled. square. machine screws. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. about 3/16 in. not over 1/4 in. indicating the depth of the slots. Kissimmee. also locate the drill holes. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. WARNECKE Procure some brass. brass. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Fig. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk.. and several 1/8-in. 1. holes. as shown at A. in width at the shank. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 4. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. thick and 4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. 53 steel pens. Cal. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. --Contributed by W. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Richmond. --Contributed by Mrs.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. . Florida. as shown in Fig. one shaft. or tin. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Jaquythe. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. saucers or pans. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. some pieces of brass. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. L. thick. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. H. 1/4 in.

The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. 7. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. and pins inserted. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. into the hole. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 5. using two nuts on each screw. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. each about 1 in. hole. A 3/4-in. Fig. If metal dishes. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Fig. long and 5/16 in. with a 3/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. thick. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The shaft hole may also be filed square. in diameter and 1/32 in. with 1/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. machine screws. 3. lead should be run into the segments. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. as in Fig. thick. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. wide. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 2. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. wide and bend as shown in Fig. supply pipe. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. hole in the center. 6. Bend as shown in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. If the shaft is square. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. as shown. can be procured. with the face of the disk. as shown in Fig. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 2. and the ends filed round for the bearings. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. brass and bolted to the casing. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. long by 3/4 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 3. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. machine screws and nuts. hole is drilled to run off the water. 1.. a square shaft used. about 1/32 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in.

arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Cooke. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. When assembling. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. or more in diameter. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Canada. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. from the bottom end of the legs. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. high and 15 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. we will call the basket. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Hamilton. to make the bottom. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. La Salle. Ill. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the top of the box. square and 30-1/2 in. Be sure to have the cover. screws.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. long. The lower part. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. deep and 1-1/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. three of which are in the basket. The four legs are each 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. deep over all. --Contributed by S. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. 8-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. Stain the wood before putting in the . Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Smith. make these seams come between the two back legs. using four to each leg. V. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. --Contributed by F. With a string or tape measure.

Mass. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Cover them with the cretonne. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --also the lower edge when necessary. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Fig.lining. Packard. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. 1. Baltimore. as shown in the sketch. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. wide and four strips 10 in.2 Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Boston. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. If all the parts are well sandpapered. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The side. The folded part in the center is pasted together. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. you can. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. and gather it at that point. Md. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. sewing on the back side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. wide. 2. When making the display. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. -Contributed by Stanley H.

When through using the pad. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Orlando Taylor. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Crockett. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. N. and. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. --Contributed by B. --Contributed by H. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Cross Timbers. saving all the solid part. 3. Fig.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. with slight modifications. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Mo. L. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Gloversville. It is cleanly. Y.

Texas. remove the contents. Lowell. Lane. Both of these methods are wasteful. S.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Mass. -Contributed by C. --Contributed by Edith E. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Bourne. After this is done. and scrape out the rough parts. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. are shown in the diagram. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. across the face. or if desired. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. If a file is used. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. it should be new and sharp. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and secure it in place with glue or paste. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. After stirring. El Paso.

As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Oregon.cooking utensil. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. circled over the funnel and disappeared. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Ill. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Turl. --Contributed by Loren Ward. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Des Moines. The insects came to the light. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. --Contributed by Geo. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. After several hours' drying. F. Ill. Canton. Iowa. A Postcard Rack [25]. Oak Park. Greenleaf. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Wheeler. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. The process works well and needs no watching. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Marion P. Those having houses . As these were single-faced disk records.

. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Worcester. the bottom being 3/8 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. boards are preferable. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and the second one for the developing bench. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Lay the floor next. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. one on each side of what will be the . and both exactly alike. not even with the boards themselves. Rosenberg. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. will do as well. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. material. Dobbins.. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. 6 in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Mass. Only three pieces are required. plane and pocket knife. --Contributed by Thomas E. by 2 ft. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Both sides can be put together in this way. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The single boards can then be fixed. thick. Conn. 6 in. the best material to use being matched boards. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Glenbrook. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. --Contributed by Wm. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. but for cheapness 3/4 in.

5. nailing them to each other at the ridge. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. as shown in Figs. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 6 and 9. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 11. is cut. etc. The developing bench is 18 in. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The roof boards may next be put on. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.. Fig. and act as a trap for the light.doorway. It is shown in detail in Fig. brown wrapping paper. 10).. 6. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. by screwing to the floor. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. so that it will fit inside the sink. 3 and 4. 9 by 11 in. and to the outside board of the sides. of the top of the door for the same reason. 6. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so that the water will drain off into the sink. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. below which is fixed the sink. In hinging the door. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and in the middle an opening. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 7. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. hinged to it. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and should be zinc lined. 2 in section. and the top as at C in the same drawing. the closing side as at B. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. wide.. 9). 8. which is fixed on as shown . At the top of the doorway.

Details of the Dark Rook .

though this is hardly advisable. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. and a tank stand on it. 17. and a 3/8-in. 19. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. are fastened in the corners inside. these being shown in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. after lining with brown paper. as at I. --Contributed by W. 15. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Fig. 14.in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. For beating up an egg in a glass. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 16. as in Fig. 16. it is better than anything on the market. Fig. 6. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 18. The handle should be at least 12 in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. four coats at first is not too many. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 2. as at M. The house will be much strengthened if strips. screwing them each way into the boards. which makes it possible to have white light. Erie. mixing flour and water. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 20. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 1. Pennsylvania. In use. 13. hole bored in the center for a handle. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. preferably maple or ash. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. as shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. or red light as at K. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A circular piece about 2 in. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Karl Hilbrich. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. if desired. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. as shown in the sections. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. but not the red glass and frame. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 13.

Schweiger. for a handle. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Kansas City. D. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. --Contributed by L. Ark. Yonkers. --Contributed by Wm. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Smith. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue.copper should be. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. New York. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . about 3/8 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. -Contributed by E. Mitchell. To operate. when put together properly is a puzzle. L. G. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. which. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. Mo.

especially for filling-in purposes. as well as improve its appearance. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 1. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. holes should be drilled in the bottom. If the sill is inclined. After the box is trimmed. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. A number of 1/2-in.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. Having completed the bare box. for the moment. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as shown in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The corks in use are shown in Fig. to make it set level. The design shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. which binds them together. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 2. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. as is usually the case. . the box will require a greater height in front. need them. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 3. but may be replaced with a panel or other design.

Traps do no good. can't use poison. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. . Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. life in the summer time is a vexation. too dangerous. and observe results. drilled at right angles. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. F. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. etc. 3. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 1. share the same fate. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 4. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. 2. being partly eaten into. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. as shown in Fig. it's easy. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. cabbages. Each long projection represents a leg. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. But I have solved the difficulty. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals.. When the corn is gone cucumbers.

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. cut some of it off and try again. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. and made up and kept in large bottles. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. by trial. Iowa. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. . of No. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The solution can be used over and over again. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. If. strips. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. -. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. long. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft.

D. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Doylestown. Texas. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. it falls to stop G. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. In cleaning silver. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. is a good size--in this compound. hot-water pot. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. and a strip. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of gasoline. of oleic acid with 1 gal. --Contributed by Katharine D. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Morse. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Y. forks. Knives. N. --Contributed by James M. but with unsatisfactory results.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Kane. Stir and mix thoroughly. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Dallas. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. as shown in the sketch. C. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. to cause the door to swing shut. Syracuse. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Fig 2. coffee pot. Do not wash them. 1) removed. Pa. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. .

A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. but unfixed. of course. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Waverly. later fixed and washed as usual. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Harrisburg. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. La. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Oliver S. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. . Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Ill. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. using the paper dry. which is. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. --Contributed by Theodore L. negatives. Pa. New Orleans. Sprout. Fisher. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions.

The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Fig. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. 1. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. In this uncertainty lies the charm. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The harmonograph. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. then . metal. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. To obviate this difficulty.

that is. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. ceiling. A length of 7 ft. A small weight. K. as shown in the lower part of Fig. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Rosemont. Ingham. Arizona. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. 1. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. in the center of the circle to be cut.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. with a nail set or punch. of about 30 or 40 lb. A small table or platform. Chicago. J. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. or the lines will overlap and blur. G. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. exactly one-third. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. A pedestal. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. provides a means of support for the stylus. one-fourth. one-fifth. is about right for a 10-ft. to prevent any side motion. as long as the other. The length of the short pendulum H. makes respectively 3. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Wm. etc.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. what is most important. Punch a hole. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. is attached as shown at H. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. in diameter. which can be regulated. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A weight. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. R. --Contributed by James T. Holes up to 3 in. Another weight of about 10 lb. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Gaffney. for instance. such as a shoe buttoner. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] .. 1. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise.

Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 4. Chicago. 5. then 3 as in Fig. of course. Cape May City. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. a correspondent of . Morey. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Fig. and proceed as before. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. one for the sender and one for the receiver. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Cruger. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side.J. 3. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. distributing them over the whole card. and 4 as in Fig.J. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. N. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The capacity of the vise. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. -Contributed by W. 2. then put 2 at the top. Fig.H. 6. dividing them into quarters. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The two key cards are made alike. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 1. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.

and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. --Contributed by L. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. After securing the tint desired. Cut through the center. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 1/2 oz. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. citrate of iron and ammonia. of water. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. sheet of well made asbestos paper. respectively. the portion of the base under the coil. Ga. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. of the uprights. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. To assemble. from the top and bottom. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. 6 gauge wires shown. acetic acid and 4 oz. deep. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. wood-screws. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Alberta Norrell. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Asbestos board is to be preferred. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Augusta. says Popular Electricity. of 18-per-cent No.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. of ferricyanide of potash. 1/4 in. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. After preparing the base and uprights. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. drill 15 holes. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. remove the prints. If constructed of the former. Wind the successive turns of . 30 gr. long.

rivets. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ward. Small knobs may be added if desired. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. 16 gauge copper wire. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. cut and dressed 1/2 in.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Ampere. as they are usually thrown away when empty. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. but these are not necessary. Labels of some kind are needed. square. --Contributed by Frederick E. 14 gauge. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. then fasten the upright in place. if one is not a smoker.. etc. N. Y. screws. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The case may be made of 1/2-in. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding .

and rub the point of the copper on it. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Heat it until hot (not red hot). lead. C. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. particularly so when the iron has once been used.14 oz. the pure muriatic acid should be used. zinc." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. it must be ground or filed to a point. or has become corroded. a piece of solder. D. tinner's acid. This is considerable annoyance. Copper. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. of glycerine to 16 oz. tin. B. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. --Contributed by W. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Wis. galvanized iron. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. A. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. sandpaper or steel wool. and one made of poplar finished black. Eureka Springs. --C. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. especially if a large tub is used. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Jaquythe. E and F. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. S. . or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. If the soldering copper is an old one. being careful about the heat. Richmond. In soldering galvanized iron. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. of water. brass. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work.. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. California. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. as shown in the sketch. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. then to the joint to be soldered. Larson. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. The material can be of any wood. Kenosha. G. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Ark. --Contributed by A. and labeled "Poison. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered.

Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Y. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. such as copper. B. and drill out the threads. The dimensions shown in Fig. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. round iron. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Troy. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. a ring may be made from any metal. -Contributed by H. 1. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. D. wide. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. which gives two bound volumes each year. nut. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. N. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. with good results. Take a 3/4-in. however. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Fig. This completes the die. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Apart from this. W. Hankin. Place the band. I bind my magazines at home evenings. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. brass and silver.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. 7/8 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. thick and 1-1/4 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. in diameter. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. C. This will leave a clear hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. The punch A. 2. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of .

passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. size 16 or larger. as shown in Fig. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. using . The sections are then prepared for sewing. then back through the notch on the right side. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. deep. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1. After drawing the thread tightly. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. and place them against the strings in the frame. allowing a margin of 1/4 in.4. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. . which is fastened the same as the first. 2. Start with the front of the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. threaded double. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. If started with the January or the July issue. 5. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. The covering can be of cloth. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 1/8 in. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Five cuts. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Coarse white thread. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 1 in Fig. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. C. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 1. of the ends extending on each side. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. These sections are each removed in turn from the others.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and a third piece. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. allowing about 2 in. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. is nailed across the top. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. through the notch on the left side of the string No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. is used for the sewing material. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1. 2. and then to string No. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. on all edges except the back.

and. and mark around each one. Divine. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Clyde E. at opposite sides to each other. Cal. For the blade an old talking-machine . Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. on which to hook the blade. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. round iron. Encanto. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Tinplate. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Place the cover on the book in the right position. College View. Nebr.

--Contributed by Carson Birkhead. fuse hole at D. A. B. E. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and file in the teeth.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. bore. or double extra heavy. thick. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Ohio. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Then on the board put . and another piece (B) 6 in. and 1/4 in. Miss. -Contributed by Willard J. Summitville. Make the blade 12 in.. at the same end. and a long thread plug. thick. hydraulic pipe. by 1 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. C. as shown. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. in order to drill the holes in the ends. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in. as it is sometimes called. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). On the upper side. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. long. F. with a steel sleeve. Hays.. Moorhead. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. by 4-1/2 in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.

4 jars. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of rubber-covered wire. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas. of wire to each coil. Connect up as shown. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Boyd. Philadelphia. the jars need not be very large. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . The size of the jars depends on the voltage. high around this apparatus.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. H. If you are going to use a current of low tension. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. and some No. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. A lid may be added if desired.

however. by 5 in. two for each jar. by 1-1/4 in.the way. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. long. At the front 24 or 26 in. Construct the auto front (Fig.. two pieces 34 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. wide and 3/4 in. C. 2 and 3. The sled completed should be 15 ft. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results.. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. with the cushion about 15 in. by 6 in. The top disk in jar No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. wide. The connection between point No. 2. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in.. In proportioning them the points A. A variation of 1/16 in. An iron washer. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 4) of 3/4-in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. C. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. and bolt through. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. two pieces 14 in. sheet brass 1 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. by 1-1/4 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The illustration shows how to shape it. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. On the door of the auto front put the . Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 2 is lower down than in No. To wire the apparatus. B. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. and plane it on all edges. 2 in. & S. by 2 in.. 4 in.. on No. Their size also depends on the voltage. by 5 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The current then will flow through the motor. by 2 in. beginning at the rear. 7 in.. long by 22 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 16-1/2 in. No. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 on switch. long. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. direct to wire across jars. Use no screws on the running surface. The stock required for them is oak. 30 in. B. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 1 and so on for No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Equip block X with screw eyes. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. as they are not substantial enough. Put arm of switch on point No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 27 B. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 11 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 3 in. and four pieces 14 in. A 3/4-in. wide by 3/4 in. oak boards. square by 14 ft. Use no nails. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. and for the rear runners: A. 2. two pieces 30 in. First sandpaper all the wood. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. apart. 5 on switch. 1 is connected to point No. B and C. by 1 in. Z. 1. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 3 and No. are important. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 15-1/2 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. . making them clear those in the front runner. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 4. Fig. is used to reduce friction. thick. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. as they "snatch" the ice. above the ground. or source of current. wide and 2 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 3. 34 in. gives full current and full speed. For the brass trimmings use No. thick. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. long. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 2. long. See Fig.

and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. fasten a cord through the loop. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. or with these for $25. Fasten a horn. which is somewhat moist. a brake may be added to the sled. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. such as used on automobiles. by 30 in. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. Then get some upholstery buttons. overshoes. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . long. parcels. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. lunch. to improve the appearance. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. etc. cheap material. by 1/2 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. brass plated. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. such as burlap.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. may be stowed within. The best way is to get some strong. a number of boys may share in the ownership. to the wheel. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Make the cushion for the back in the same way.

The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.tree and bring. Leland. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H.

Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. The Model Engineer. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Draw a circle on paper. 4). the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. by drawing diameters. a compass. say 1 in. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. outside diameter and 1/16 in. FC. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. This guide should have a beveled edge. so that the center of the blade. 2. CD. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Fig. Fig. the cut will be central on the line. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. though more difficult. mild steel or iron. made from 1/16-in. 3. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. 1. With no other tools than a hacksaw. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. will be over the line FG. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. A small clearance space. thick. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. with twenty-four teeth. The straight-edge. E. sheet metal. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. which. when flat against it. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. from F to G. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. London. The first tooth may now be cut. First take the case of a small gearwheel. some files. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. the same diameter as the wheel.

R. A bright. each in the center. . If there is no faucet in the house. Then take one outlet wire. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. either the pencils for arc lamps. Focus the camera in the usual manner. hold in one hand. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. B.Four Photos on One Plate of them. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 1. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. electric lamp. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. 1. transmitter. and the other outlet wire. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. some wire and some carbons. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 2. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. B. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Make a hole in the other. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. or several pieces bound tightly together.

and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. A is a wooden block. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Emsworth. For a base use a pine board 10 in. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Ashland. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. J. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. are also needed. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. at each end for terminals. 36 wire around it. by 1 in. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. If desired. and again wind the wire around it. Ohio. Dry batteries are most convenient. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. of course. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. leaving about 10 in. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. They have screw ends. But in this experiment. as shown. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Several battery cells. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. by 12 in. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Pa. B. One like a loaf of bread. one at the receiver can hear what is said. or more of the latter has been used. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. under the gable. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. and will then burn the string C. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. as indicated by E E. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Wrenn. --Contributed by Geo. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. serves admirably. Then set the whole core away to dry. Slattery. and about that size.

while C is open. connecting lamp receptacles. B B. for the . 12 or No. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. and switch. as shown.. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. C. in parallel. C. The coil will commence to become warm. Newark. as shown. run a No.wire. and the lamps. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. From the other set of binding-posts. the terminal of the coil. Place 16-cp. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Jr. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Connect these three to switch. At one side secure two receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. F. Fig. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. 2. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. D. The apparatus is now ready for operation. D. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. 1. Fig. First make a support. These should have hollow ends. E. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. in series with bindingpost. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The oven is now ready to be connected. Ohio. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. and one single post switch. 14 wire. Turn on switch.

Fig. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 1. This may be made of wood. drill in only to the opening already through. where A is the homemade ammeter. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. After assembling the core as shown in Fig.. is made of wire. 6. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. C. The box is 5-1/2 in. The pointer or hand. drill a hole as shown at H. This is slipped on the pivot. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. from the lower end. The core. 14 wire. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. B. drill through the entire case and valve. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 7. thick. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. After drilling. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. to prevent it turning on the axle. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. wide and 1-3/4 in. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for .E. although brass is better. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. etc. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. --Contributed by J. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 1/4 in. D. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. is then made and provided with a glass front. although copper or steel will do. 10 turns to each layer. If for 3-way. 4 amperes. 3. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. deep. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 3 amperes. At a point a little above the center. Fig. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. a battery. and D. E. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 14. D. 1/2 in. 4 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 5. A wooden box. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. Montreal. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. To make one. long and make a loop. 36 magnet wire instead of No. remove the valve. a variable resistance. high. until the scale is full. inside measurements.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 5. 4. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. long. Mine is wound with two layers of No. Fig.or 4-way valve or cock. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. It is 1 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. is made of iron. wind with plenty of No. but if for a 4way. 2. long. as shown in the cut. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. a standard ammeter. Dussault. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated.

F. and the other connects with the water rheostat. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. A. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. This stopper should be pierced. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. By connecting the motor. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. making two holes about 1/4 in. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. E. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. high. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. provided with a rubber stopper. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. One wire runs to the switch. B. in thickness . in diameter. which is used for reducing the current. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. To start the light. and the arc light. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and a metal rod. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. as shown. D.performing electrical experiments.

To insert the lead plate. Turn on the current and press the button. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 1. If all adjustments are correct. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. 2. Y. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Having finished the interrupter. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in B. B. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. long. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. As there shown. --Contributed by Harold L. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. as shown in C. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. 1. A piece of wood. A. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Jones. 2. N. Carthage. If the interrupter does not work at first. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . One of the audience is invited onto the stage. 1. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid.

and can be bought at Japanese stores. figures and lights. the illusion will be spoiled. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. dressed in brilliant. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. within the limits of an ordinary room. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. to aid the illusion. inside dimensions. could expect from a skeleton. until it is dark there. by 7-1/2 in. from which the gong has been removed. loosejointed effect. L and M. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. especially L. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. A white shroud is thrown over his body. They need to give a fairly strong light. with the exception of the glass. especially the joints and background near A. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage.. If everything is not black. light-colored garments. which can be run by three dry cells. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. should be miniature electric lamps. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. Its edges should nowhere be visible. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. giving a limp. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and must be thoroughly cleansed. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. and wave his arms up and down. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The lights. The glass should be the clearest possible. by 7 in. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. high. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. as the entire interior. A.coffin. should be colored a dull black. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The model. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. All . The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror.

as shown in the sketch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. after which it assumes its normal color. San Jose. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. W. placed about a foot apart. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. If a gradual transformation is desired.that is necessary is a two-point switch. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. square block. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. fat spark. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Cal. Fry. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . --Contributed by Geo. a double-pointed rheostat could be used.

by small pieces of wood. into the receiver G. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. A (see sketch).Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. -Contributed by Dudley H. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The plates are separated 6 in. to make it airtight. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. as shown. If a lighted match . 1. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. and should be separated about 1/8 in. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. with two tubes. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. One of these plates is connected to metal top. or a solution of sal soda. F. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the remaining space will be filled with air. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. In Fig. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. This is a wide-mouth bottle. In Fig. hydrogen gas is generated. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. B and C. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. Cohen. soldered in the top.

hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. copper pipe. as is shown in the illustration. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The distance between the nipple. N. and the ends of the tube. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. which is plugged up at both ends. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. N. says the Model Engineer. should be only 5/16 of an inch. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. 36 insulated wire. which forms the vaporizing coil. A. 1. Fig. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. in diameter and 6 in. P. London. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A 1/64-in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A nipple. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A piece of 1/8-in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A. long. If desired. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. C C. either by passing a current of electricity around it. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A. of No. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. One row is drilled to come directly on top. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. copper pipe. from the bottom. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. B. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1/2 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. by means of the clips. long. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . then a suitable burner is necessary. 1-5/16 in. Fig. 2 shows the end view.

The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Turn the book over and paste the other side. Fig. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. longer and 1/4 in. 3. cut to the size of the pages. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. trim both ends and the front edge. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. duck or linen. Fig. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 1. at the front and back for fly leaves. A disk of thin sheet-iron. taking care not to bend the iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 1/4 in. larger all around than the book. Fig. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). should be cut to the diameter of the can. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. this makes a much nicer book. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. about 8 or 10 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. 2). Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. with a fine saw. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord.lamp cord. fold and cut it 1 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. smoothly. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. boards and all. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. leaving the folded edge uncut. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring.

as shown in the sketch. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. --Contributed by Joseph N. is made the same depth as B. D. A gas cock. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. This will cause some air to be enclosed. as shown. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. 18 in. 4). of tank A is cut a hole. E. is turned on it. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Another can. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. B. In the bottom. in diameter and 30 in. without a head. but its diameter is a little smaller. is perforated with a number of holes. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. --Contributed by James E. pasting them down (Fig. Another tank. Toronto. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. which will just slip inside the little can. or rather the top now.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is soldered onto tank A. A. and a little can. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is fitted in it and soldered. Ont. Noble. C. Parker. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. the joint will be gas tight. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. deep. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Bedford City. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Va. H. .

and the four diagonal struts. should be cut a little too long. Fig. which may be either spruce. fastened in the bottom. long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. H is a square knot. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. N. B. The wiring diagram. as shown at C. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. to prevent splitting. D. should be 1/4 in. when finished. basswood or white pine. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. shows how the connections are to be made. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. with an electric-bell magnet. Bott. C. If the back armature. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. should be 3/8 in. are shown in detail at H and J. S. 2. A A. tacks. The bridle knots. -Contributed by H. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. Fig. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The longitudinal corner spines.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. 1. The diagonal struts. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The small guards. making the width. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. The armature. A. B. thus adjusting the . Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. J. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. and sewed double to give extra strength. long. and about 26 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. D. by 1/2 in. E. which moves to either right or left. B. Beverly. If the pushbutton A is closed. exactly 12 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2.. square by 42 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in.

--Contributed by Edw. shift toward F. can be made of a wooden . however. as shown. for producing electricity direct from heat. E. that refuse to slide easily. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Chicago. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Kan. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle.lengths of F and G. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. A bowline knot should be tied at J. the batteries do not run down for a long time. --Contributed by A. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Stoddard. thus shortening G and lengthening F. D. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Clay Center. Harbert. and. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. to prevent slipping. with gratifying results. Closing either key will operate both sounders. If the kite is used in a light wind. and if a strong wind is blowing.

which conducts the current into the cannon. C. in position. C. 14 or No. or parallel with the compass needle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . Turn the spool in a north and south direction. A. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. E. A. --Contributed by A. 16 single-covered wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Fasten a piece of wood. and also holds the pieces of wood. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. with a number of nails. A and B.. Then. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. Chicago. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. spark. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No.frame. by means of machine screws or. C. F. B. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. and the current may then be detected by means. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. D. placed on top. E. When the cannon is loaded. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. The wood screw. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire.

remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. where there is a staple. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. but no weights or strings. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. 1. Bend the strips BB (Fig. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. square and 3/8 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. within the reach of the magnet. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.the current is shut off. 1. --Contributed by Joseph B. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. A and S. . The fulcrum of the lever is at C. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. A. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Mich. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Marion. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. screw is bored in the block. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. when in position at A'. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. Chicago. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Keil. Big Rapids. Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. with the long arm at L'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A hole for a 1/2 in. Fig. to receive the screw in the center. A and S. press the button. H. To unlock the door. Ohio. B. To lock the door. To reverse. in this position the door is locked. now at A' and S'. L.

and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. pipe with 1-2-in. hole. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Thread the other end of the pipe. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. are enameled a jet black. put in the handle. and C is a dumbbell. and if desired the handles may . --Contributed by C. When the holes are finished and your lines set. West Somerville. gas-pipe. The standard and base. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. long. and may be made at very slight expense. Mass. Rand.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. When ready for use. if enameled white on the concave side. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. J. or for microscopic work. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list.

Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. long and 8 in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. across. Fig. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Warren. high by 1 ft. --Contributed by C. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. Mass. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. with a cover. 1. which shall project at least 2 in. B. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. M. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 8 in. inside the pail. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. North Easton. A. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. as shown at A in the sketch. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. D.be covered with leather. E.. Fig.

long. to hold the clay mixture. thick. the point of the blue flame. as is shown in the sketch. Whatever burner is used.mixture of clay. and 3/4 in. 1). take out the plugs in the top and bottom. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. in diameter. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. and graphite. Wind about 1/8 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 1330°. and on it set the paper wrapped core. hard porcelain. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 60%. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. let this dry thoroughly. bottom and sides. 1390°-1410°. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. in diameter. Cover with paper and shellac as before. 2. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. L. C. about 1 in. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 2 in. After removing all the paper. After finishing the core. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and 3/8 in. of fine wire. hotel china. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in.. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. if you have the materials. or make one yourself. but will be cheaper in operation. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. W. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. layer of the clay mixture. sand. carefully centering it. the firing should be gradual. It is placed inside the kiln. C. The 2 in.. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 25%. C. such . Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. pipe. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. When lighted. projecting from each end (Fig. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. full length of iron core. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. pipe 2-ft. 3) with false top and bottom. and your kiln is ready for business. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. This done. which is the hottest part. cutting the hole a little smaller. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. Line the pail.-G. and cut it 3-1/2 in.. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Fig. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. diameter. if there is to be any glazing done. 1). say 1/4 in. pack this space-top. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. and with especial caution the first time. Set aside for a few days until well dried. as dictated by fancy and expense. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. make two wood ends. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. and varnish. E. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. If the cover of the pail has no rim. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. 15%. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. strip of sheet iron. thick. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. wider than the kiln. passing wire nails through and clinching them. Fit all the parts together snugly.

the next black. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. 2). The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. taking care to have the first card red. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. 2. every alternate card being the same color. and discharges into the tube. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. --Contributed by J. 8 in. all cards facing the same way. and plane off about 1/16 in. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Of course. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. square them up and place in a vise. leaving long terminals. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Next restore all the cards to one pack. around the coil. and divide it into two piles. . Chicago. and so on. C. D. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. A. procure a new deck. Then take the black cards.53 in. diameter. 1. You can display either color called for. Washington. square them up. with a plane. 2. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. as shown in the sketch herewith. The funnel. red and black. C. R. length of . about 1/16 in. as in Fig. overlaps and rests on the body. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. B. Take the red cards. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. as in Fig. bind tightly with black silk. Then. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. T..

and this is inexpensive to build. E. and then the frame is ready to assemble. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. about 20 in. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. to form a dovetail joint as shown. B. of the frame. Fig. The upright pieces. stove bolts. stove bolts.C. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. through the holes already drilled. C. angle iron for the frame. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass.. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. B. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. the first thing to decide on is the size. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. F. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. All the horizontal pieces. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. To find the fall of snow. The cement. A. 1. When the glass is put in the frame a space. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. D. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so that when they are assembled. thus making all the holes coincide. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Let . It should be placed in an exposed location. N. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. 1 gill of litharge.J. A. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. the same ends will come together again. 1 gill of fine white sand. Long Branch. as the difficulties increase with the size. E. Drill all the horizontal pieces. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement.

having a swinging connection at C.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. A. Fig. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and. Aquarium Finished If desired. D. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Fasten the lever. a centerpiece (A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. to the door knob. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. on the door by means of a metal plate. if desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. B.

2 ft. 26 in. Y. A small piece of spring brass. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long. Do not fasten these boards now. to form the main supports of the frame. Fig. Cut two pieces 30 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two of them 4 ft. which is 15 in. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Two short boards 1 in. to form the slanting part. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. but mark their position on the frame. Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. F. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. will open the door about 1/2 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 2 at GG. long. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Buffalo. another. D. N.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. as at E.. PAUL S. I referred this question to my husband. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. another. screwed to the door frame. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 1 . Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. They are shown in Fig. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. from the outside top of the frame. to keep the frame from spreading. soldered to the end of the cylinder. B. thus doing away with the spring. White. approximately 1 ft. with a water pressure of 70 lb. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Fig. E. --Contributed by Orton E. long. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. and another. 1. 1. for the top. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. AA. showing the paddle-wheel in position. wide by 1 in. and Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Fig. long. C. 6 in. wide . To make the frame. according to the slant given C. 2 is an end view.

and a 1/4 -in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and drill a 1/8-in. and drill a 1-in. Now block the wheel. thick (HH. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. remove the cardboard. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Tack one side on. hole through them. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 2) form a substantial base.burlap will do -. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. then drill a 3/16-in. holes. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. pipe. from one end by means of a key. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Fig. iron 3 by 4 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole through its center. tapering from 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. 2) and another 1 in. thick. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. with the wheel and shaft in place.along the edges under the zinc to form . hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. steel shaft 12 in. hole to form the bearings. Fasten them in their proper position. GG. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 1. 4. take down the crosspieces. to a full 1/2 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. by 1-1/2 in. When it has cooled. after which drill a 5/8 in. that is. long and filling it with babbitt metal. 24 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. These are the paddles. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. iron. in diameter. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Make this hole conical. (I. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole through their sides centrally. Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. Take the side pieces. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Drill 1/8-in.

and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. shutting out all light from above and the sides. sewing machine. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. light and the plate. of course. Focus the camera carefully. and leave them for an hour or so. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. as shown in the sketch at B. drill press. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. . and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. It is obvious that. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. any window will do. start the motor. says the Photographic Times. If the bearings are now oiled. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. remove any white curtains there may be. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. but now I put them in the machine. ice-cream freezer. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and as near to it as possible. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. it would be more durable.a water-tight joint. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Drill a hole through the zinc. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Do not stop down the lens. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. on the lens. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. as this makes long exposure necessary. Raise the window shade half way. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and the subject may move. or what is called a process plate.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. but as it would have cost several times as much. place the outlet over a drain. Darken the rest of the window. If sheet-iron is used. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Correct exposure depends. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.

If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. which is made of iron and cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. and without fog. or an empty developer tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. by twisting. the core is drawn down out of sight. On completing . The core C. C. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. a core. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The glass tube may be a test tube. without detail in the face. a glass tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. hard rubber. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as a slight current will answer. with binding posts as shown. as shown in Fig. an empty pill bottle may be used. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. and a base. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The current required is very small. With a piece of black paper. until the core slowly rises. A. 2. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. or wood. D. B. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. or can be taken from an old magnet. full of water. 2.

1. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. 1 lb. and are changed by reversing the rotation. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and one not easy to explain. 1 pt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. finest graphite. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. The colors appear different to different people. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. white lead. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. according to his control of the current. water and 3 oz. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This is a mysterious looking instrument. is Benham's color top. whale oil.

fan-like. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. when the action ceases. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. before cutting. especially if the deck is a new one. thus partly filling bottles A and C. deuce. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. In making hydrogen. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. -Contributed by D. A. As this device is easily upset.B. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. Chicago. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. or three spot. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.. B.L. nearly every time. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. In prize games. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . C. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.

S. S. long and 3 in. Jr. 3). Detail of Phonograph Horn . Make a 10-sided stick. . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. W. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Bently. J. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper. in diameter.. 2. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 10 in. (Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. long. --Contributed by C. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. as shown in Fig. Detroit. --Contributed by F. Fig. 9 in. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 1. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Huron. 12 in.. in length and 3 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Dak. 4. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. that will fit loosely in the tube A.

6. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. it is equally easy to block that trick. push back the bolt. Fortunately. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. A second piece of silk thread. bend it at right angles throughout its length. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. making it three-ply thick. allowing 1 in. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. will cause an increased movement of C. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. about the size of a leadpencil. Denver. Fig. E. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. but bends toward D. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. with a pin driven in each end. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Remove the form. on one side and the top. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Cut out paper sections (Fig. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the .The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. A. long. C. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. and walk in. A piece of tin. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course.

long. B. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. --Contributed by J. W. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Minn. put together as shown in the sketch. 4 ft. Paul. The upper switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. S. while the lower switch. S.strip. West St.. By this arrangement one. Fremont Hilscher. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. S S. or left to right. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Two wood-base switches. are made 2 by 4 in. The reverse switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. is connected each point to a battery. as shown. A. will last for several years. posts. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The feet. The 2 by 4-in. Jr. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are 7 ft. B. R.. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. long. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.

E. The steam chest D. FF. and the crank bearing C. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and in Fig. thick. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. cut in half. and valve crank S. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. which is made of tin. either an old sewing-machine wheel. with two washers. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and the bearing B is fastened by staples.every house. and a cylindrical . thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. is an old bicycle pump. which will be described later. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Fig. In Fig. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The hose E connects to the boiler. H and K. pulley wheel. 2. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The base is made of wood. or anything available. and has two wood blocks. 1. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Fig. 3/8 in.

is cut out of tin. 4. as shown in Fig. 3. and the desired result is obtained. or galvanized iron. of Cuba. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Wis. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. San Jose. The valve crank S. Fig. --Contributed by Geo. to receive the connecting rod H. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. J. using the positive wire as a pen. and saturated with thick oil. as it is merely a trick of photography. Eustice. Fry. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. C. G. This is wound with soft string. at that. 1.piece of hard wood. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This engine was built by W. The boiler. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. . This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Schuh and A. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Cal. W. Fig. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. powder can. First. and a very amusing trick. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. can be an old oil can. G. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man.

B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. When turning. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 1 by covering up Figs. and pass ropes around . Cut half circles out of each stave. C. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. as shown at AA. The smaller wheel. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. to cross in the center. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and place a bell on the four ends. diameter. They may be of any size. Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and Fig. Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 1 will be seen to rotate. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. as shown. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction.

and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. Louis. From a piece of thin . The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. such as clothes lines. which accounts for the sound. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. as shown in the illustration. This in turn will act on the transmitter. To make this lensless microscope. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but not on all. long. W. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.G.. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. St. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. procure a wooden spool.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Mo. from the transmitter. A (a short spool.M. --Contributed by H. produces a higher magnifying power). When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.

The lever. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in.) But an object 3/4-in. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. 2. as in all microscopes of any power. cut out a small disk. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. i. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. To use this microscope. bent as shown. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. Viewed through this microscope. by means of brads. H. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. E. D. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. in which hay has been soaking for several days. and so on. which are pieces of hard wood. Fig. and look through the hole D. and at the center. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. the diameter will appear three times as large. . darting across the field in every direction. or 64 times. The spring. The pivot. can be made of brass and the armature. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. fastened to a wooden base. which costs little or nothing to make. B. 1. if the distance is reduced to one-half. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. the object should be of a transparent nature. An innocent-looking drop of water. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. is made of iron. place a small object on the transparent disk. C. held at arm's length. D. A. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. (The area would appear 64 times as large.. e. is fastened at each end by pins. C. the diameter will appear twice as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. B. if the distance is reduced to one-third. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. 3. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after..

brass or iron soldered to nail. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 26 wire: E. fastened near the end. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 2. Fig. Fig. wide. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. long. KEY-A. nail soldered on A. wood. D. AA. C. thick. HH. The door. . between the armature and the magnet. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wide and about 20 in. The back. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wide and set in between sides AA. B. can be made panel as shown. The binding posts. F. C. FF. soft iron. which are made to receive a pivot. Cut the top. Each side. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. long by 16 in. coils wound with No. connection of D to nail. A. brass: E. A switch. is cut from a board about 36 in. 16 in. The base of the key. binding posts: H spring The stop. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. 1. D. DD. in length and 16 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. K. D. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. should be about 22 in.SOUNDER-A. wide. wood: F. wide. or a single piece. long and 14-1/2 in. B. brass. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. brass: B. E. or taken from a small one-point switch. K. wood: C. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. and are connected to the contacts.

long. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. When the electrical waves strike the needle. with 3/4-in. as shown.. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Garfield. 2 and made from 1/4-in. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Ill. cut in them. In operation. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. material. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. AA. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . as shown in the sketch. brads. 13-1/2 in. Make 12 cleats. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.

which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. N. Fairport. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. filled with water. through which a piece of wire is passed. will give a greater speed. A. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. J. when the coil is not provided with a regulator.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. The cord is also fastened to a lever. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. down into the water increases the surface in contact. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. and. A. Ridgewood. when used with a motor. When the pipe is used. B. A fairly stiff spring. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. and thus decreases the resistance. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Y. F. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. C. in order to increase the surface. A (see sketch). How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. pulls down the armature. --Contributed by John Koehler. Brown. the magnet. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. Pushing the wire. E. --Contributed by R.

Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Gachville. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. --Contributed by Perry A. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Borden. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. B. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. N. even those who read this description.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. if desired. Of course. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.

for 10in. long and 5 in. wide. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. A. Compton. Jr. wide. 2. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. records. J. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Mangold. . Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. wide. deep and 3/4 in. H. 1. C. wide. apart. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in.. With about 9 ft. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Connect switch to post B. for 6-in. thick and 12-in. --Contributed by H. From a piece of brass a switch. Dobson. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. records and 5-5/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. East Orange. in a semicircle 2 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Washington. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. The top board is made 28-in. Cal. long and full 12-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. E. as shown in Fig. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. as shown in Fig. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. N. C. from the bottom. D. --Contributed by Dr.

1.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Va. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Roanoke. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown in Fig. E. A. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. closed. When the cord is passed over pulley C. B. which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . as shown by the dotted lines.

Cut two grooves.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. In the sides (Fig. CC. Figs. apart. which should be about 1/2 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Fig. 1. long. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. in diameter. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. thick (A. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 1 in. In these grooves place wheels. in diameter. Figs. it too loose. E. thick. Now put all these parts together. excepting the crank and tubing. Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. 4 shows the wheel-holder. they will bind. 3. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. through one of these holes. 1 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. they will let the air through. in diameter. 5) when they are placed. Bore two 1/4 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. deep. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. is compressed by wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. deep and 1/2 in. The crankpin should fit tightly. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Put the rubber tube. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 3). E. D. as shown in the illustration. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. against which the rubber tubing. Notice the break (S) in the track. one in each end. holes (HH. square and 7/8 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. Do not fasten the sides too . Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. wide. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. B. Fig. wide. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in.

the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. 1. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. B. iron. the other wheel has reached the bottom. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Fig. and 3-1/2 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. though a small iron wheel is better. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Take the center of the bar. AA. For ease in handling the pump. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. as shown in Fig. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. Cut six pieces. from that mark the next hole. 15 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. A in Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. In the two cross bars 1 in. mark for hole and 3 in. is all the expense necessary. of material. 1. mark again. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. and are 30 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from each end. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Fig. Two feet of 1/4-in. To use the pump. long. beyond each of these two. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The three legs marked BBB. 1. because he can . creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Idana. 17-1/2 in. Fig. 2. the pump will give a steady stream. Kan. stands 20 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. tubing. costing 10 cents. 1. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from each end.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. AA. and mark for a hole. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Hubbard. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Then turn the crank from left to right. 1. 2. a platform should be added. --Contributed by Dan H. from each end.

Next procure what is known as a wire connector. of water dissolve 4 oz. When the bichromate has all dissolved. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. or small electric motors. and the solution (Fig. rub the zinc well. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. and touches the bait the lid is released and. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. It is useful for running induction coils. long having two thumb screws. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. shuts him in. The battery is now ready for use. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. however. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used.see through it: when he enters. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. giving it a bright. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. C. 4 oz. of the top. dropping. stirring constantly. 2). 1) must be prepared. If it is wet. When through using the battery. 14 copper wire. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. some of it should be poured out. Meyer. sulphuric acid. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. until it is within 3 in. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The mercury will adhere. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. . Place the carbon in the jar. Philadelphia. or. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. If the battery has been used before. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. add slowly. The truncated. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If the solution touches the zinc. silvery appearance. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. acid 1 part). potassium bichromate. The battery is now complete. --Contributed by H. there is too much liquid in the jar. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. but if one casts his own zinc.

the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. e. with slight changes. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Madison. however. pressing the pedal closes the door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.Fig.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. If. Wis. The price of the coil depends upon its size. i. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. After putting in the coal. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. which opens the door..

Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. which is made of light copper wire. . 5. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. coil. Fig. in a partial vacuum. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. After winding. while a 12-in. made of No. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. This will make an excellent receiver. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. in a straight line from top to bottom. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth.7.described elsewhere in this book. diameter. Now for the receiving apparatus. apart. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and closer for longer distances. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 7). Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. the full length of the coil. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. as shown in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. W W. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. being a 1-in. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 6. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. This coil. 6. 7. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 7. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. W W.

90°. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. to the direction of the current. I run my lathe by power. where A is the headstock. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. may be easily made at very little expense. A large cone pulley would then be required. and for best results should extend up 50 ft.The aerial line. above the ground. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.6 stranded. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. as it matches the color well. No. The writer does not claim to be the originator. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. which will be described later. . These circles. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. being vertical. being at right angles. using an electric motor and countershaft. For an illustration. and hence the aerial line. at any point to any metal which is grounded. in the air. 1 to 4. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 90°. Run a wire from the other binding post. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. but it could be run by foot power if desired. A. after all. 1). How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. only. but simply illustrates the above to show that. Figs. are analogous to the flow of induction.

The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. 4. After pouring. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. just touching the shaft. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . tapered wooden pin. on the under side of the bed. thick. B. and Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. 6. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The headstock. 6 Headstock Details D. A. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 5. Heat the babbitt well. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. one of which is shown in Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Fig. The bearing is then ready to be poured. which are let into holes FIG. deep. To make these bearings. pitch and 1/8 in. If the bearing has been properly made. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. too. Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. and runs in babbitt bearings. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. but not hot enough to burn it. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 5. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 2 and 3. 4.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs.

Oak Park. they may be turned up after assembling. If one has a wooden walk. Take up about 5 ft. the alarm is easy to fix up. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. and a 1/2-in. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. This prevents corrosion. Newark.J. of the walk . except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. embedded in the wood. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.other machines. If not perfectly true. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. FIG. N. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. A. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. lock nut. The tail stock (Fig. so I had to buy one. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Ill. B. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical.

and the alarm is complete. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Minneapolis. Fig. Then make the solution . save when a weight is on the trap. leaving a clear solution. Jackson. To avoid touching it. of water. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. Minn. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Finally.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. 2). as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. add potassium cyanide again. hang the articles on the wires. to remove all traces of grease. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. so that they will not touch. to roughen the surface slightly. S. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. water. --Contributed by R. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. silver or other metal. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Connect up an electric bell. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. (A. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. American ash in 1-1/2 pt.

be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. To provide the keyhole. as at F. an old electric bell or buzzer. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. about 25 ft. German silver. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. also. make a key and keyhole. A (Fig. Fig. On brass. 1). If more solution is required. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. which . 3) directly over the hole. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 3) strikes the bent wire L. zinc. When all this is set up. pewter. 1 in. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. If accumulators are used. hole in its center. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Can be made of a 2-in. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The wooden catch. and the larger part (F.up to 2 qt. as shown in Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. 18 wire. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. I. and 4 volts for very small ones. B should be of the same wood. Fig. will serve for the key. The wooden block C. Take quick. Where Bunsen cells are used. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. use 2 volts for large articles. light strokes. silver can be plated direct. with water. In rigging it to a sliding door. such metals as iron. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. lead. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. This solution. With an electric pressure of 3. 1 not only unlocks. but opens the door. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. copper. Before silver plating. with the pivot 2 in. must be about 1 in. piece of broomstick. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Then. of water. A 1/4 in. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 1). and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Screw the two blocks together. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Fig. with water. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. of clothesline rope and some No. --Model Engineer.5 to 4 volts. which is held by catch B. which is advised. a hand scratch brush is good. a circuit is completed. 3. shaking. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Repeat six times. long. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. from the lower end. thick by 3 in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Having finished washing the precipitate. Fig. saw a piece of wood. nickel and such metals. 1. and then treated as copper. when the point of the key touches the tin. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. long. square. 10 in.

or cave. and finally lined inside with black cloth. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. to throw the light toward the audience. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. One thing changes to another and back again. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Fig. so much the better. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. New Jersey. the illumination in front must be arranged. H. the requisites are a large soap box. 116 Prospect St. some black cloth. although a little more trouble. He removes the bowl from the black box. Next. sides and end. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night.. heighten the illusion. between the parlor and the room back of it. in his shirt sleeves. H. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. some black paint. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 3. the box should be painted black both inside and out. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. East Orange. 1. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. In front of you. cut in one side. half way from open end to closed end. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. such as forks. is the cut through which the rope runs. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The interior must be a dead black. top. which unlocks the door. one-third of the length from the remaining end. On either side of the box. B. floor. and a slit. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. and black art reigns supreme.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. --Contributed by E. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and hands its contents round to the audience. no painting inside is required. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. The magician stands in front of this. he points with one finger to the box. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. he tosses it into the cave. 2. should be cut a hole. a few simple tools. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. The box must be altered first. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Next. To prepare such a magic cave. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Receiving the bowl again. shows catch B. Fig. 0. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. with the lights turned low. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. One end is removed. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Heavy metal objects. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Fig. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). . Objects appear and disappear. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Klipstein. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. H. surrounding a perfectly black space. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. with a switch as in Fig. Fig. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. 1. enlarged. and plenty of candles. Thus. spoons and jackknives. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. 2.

as presented by Hermann. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and if portieres are impossible.Finally. But illusions suggest themselves. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. you must have an assistant. The exhibitor should be . attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. of course. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. a screen must be used. of course. The audience room should have only low lights. is on a table) so much the better. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. had a big stage. was identical with this. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. one on each side of the box. the room where the cave is should be dark. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. into the eyes of him who looks. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. in which are oranges and apples. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which can be made to dance either by strings. which are let down through the slit in the top. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. Consequently. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. only he. if. and several black drop curtains. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The illusion. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. his confederate behind inserts his hand. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus.

c3. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. respectively. as shown in Fig. with three brass strips. and c4 + electricity. held down on it by two terminals. A represents a pine board 4 in. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. A. terminal c3 will show +. c2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. Finally. b3. On the disk G are two brass strips. b3. their one end just slips under the strips b1. at L. making contact with them. b2. FIG. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c4. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. f2. is shown in the diagram. e1 and e2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. held down by another disk F (Fig. or binding posts. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. About the center piece H moves a disk. b2. 2. b1. Fig. respectively. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. and c1 – electricity. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. making contact with them as shown at y. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. or b2. 1. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. respectively. and a common screw. 1. Then. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. 2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. by means of two wood screws. by 4 in. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. so arranged that. c1. if you turn handle K to the right. terminal c3 will show . held down on disk F by two other terminals. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. and c2 to the zinc. 2). vice versa. square. d. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. when handle K is turned to one side.. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes .a boy who can talk.

. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. when A is on No. 1. jump spark coil. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. and C and C1 are binding posts. B is a onepoint switch. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. -Contributed by A. from three batteries. Ohio. thus making the message audible in the receiver. from five batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Joerin. Jr. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it.. from four batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 4. When switch B is closed and A is on No. you have the current of one battery. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). E. Tuttle. and when on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene F. when on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 3. 5.

The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Thus. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. traveled by the thread. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. mark. Redmond.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. as shown in the sketch. A. La. B. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. of Burlington. which may be a button or other small object. per second. Wis. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. P. A. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. rule. is the device of H.. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. mark. and placed on the windowsill of the car. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. so one can see the time. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. per second for each second. over the bent portion of the rule. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and supporting the small weight. The device thus arranged. New Orleans. E. Handy Electric Alarm .

I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can.which has a piece of metal. . Crafton. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. for a wetting is the inevitable result. When the alarm goes off. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. but may be closed at F any time desired. Instead. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. wrapping the wire around the can several times. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. C. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Pa. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. --C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. and with the same result. Lane. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. --Contributed by Gordon T. Then if a mishap comes. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. S. soldered to the alarm winder. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. B. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. which illuminates the face of the clock.

as shown in Fig. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. 1. Two cleats. engines. but it is a mistake to try to do this. cannons. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. The first thing to make is a molding bench. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. which may. bearings. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. If there is no foundry Fig. L.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Macey. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. and many other interesting and useful articles. battery zincs. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. models and miniature objects. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. binding posts. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. ornaments of various kinds. and duplicates of all these. when it is being prepared. It is possible to make molds without a bench. BE.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. whence it is soon tracked into the house. small machinery parts. AA. A. With the easily made devices about to be described. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. C. 1 . This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. --Contributed by A. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. New York City. as shown.

as shown. The flask. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described." or upper half. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. J. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and the "drag. A wedge-shaped piece. F. and the lower pieces. The dowels. D. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. DD. If desired the sieve may be homemade. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The cloth bag. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. try using sand from other sources. is made of wood. CC. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. is shown more clearly in Fig. is nailed to each end of the cope. A A. An old teaspoon. makes a very good sieve. will be required. by 8 in. II . 1. Fig. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding." or lower part. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. Fig. the "cope. high. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. CC. but this operation will be described more fully later on. and this. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. 2 . Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. It is made of wood and is in two halves. which can be either aluminum. G. which should be nailed in.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. If the box is not very strong. white metal. a little larger than the outside of the flask.near at hand. is about the right mesh. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. as shown. which can be made of a knitted stocking. is filled with coal dust. 1. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient.How to Make a Mold [96] . zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. 2. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. say 12 in. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. E. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. H. and a sieve. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. previous to sawing. and saw it in half longitudinally. The rammer. by 6 in.

and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. After ramming. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. the surface of the sand at . either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and by grasping with both hands. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. in order to remove the lumps. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and scatter about 1/16 in. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at E. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown at C. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. In finishing the ramming. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture." in position. and if water is added. as described. or "cope. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as shown at D. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown. and thus judge for himself. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. where they can watch the molders at work. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. or "drag. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. Place another cover board on top. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. turn the drag other side up.

Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. The "sprue. to give the air a chance to escape. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and then pour. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. After drawing the pattern. This is done with a spoon. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. III." or pouring-hole. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. deep. thus making a dirty casting. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. as shown at G. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand.E should be covered with coal-dust. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. thus holding the crucible securely. is next cut. as shown at F. made out of steel rod. Fig. as shown at J. as shown in the sketch. Place a brick or other flat. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. place the cope back on the drag. . Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. it shows that the sand is too wet. wide and about 1/4 in. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. after being poured.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. in order to prevent overheating. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. as shown at H. in diameter.

Although the effect in the illustration . as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. used only for zinc. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Referring to the figure. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and. may be used in either direction. is very desirable. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but any reasonable number may be used. Morton. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. battery zincs. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In my own case I used four batteries. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. the following device will be found most convenient. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. although somewhat expensive. 15% lead. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. If a good furnace is available. Minneapolis. babbitt. --Contributed by Harold S. white metal and other scrap available.

Put a sharp needle point. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. If desired. The brass rings also appear distorted. 2. Then walk down among the audience. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. The bearings. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Chicago. which will be sufficient to hold it. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Then replace the table. 3/4 in. shaft made. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . and the oarsman is obliged to travel.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. may be made of hardwood. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. as shown at A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. Fig. To make it take a sheet-iron band. outward. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. B. connected by cords to the rudder. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. B. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. backward. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. By replacing the oars with paddles. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. A.

or the paint will come off. spoiling its appearance. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. E. 1. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. as shown in Fig. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through.melted babbitt. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. should be made of wood. 3. Snow. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. but when in motion. If galvanized iron is used. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. A block of ice. 2 and 3. C. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. The hubs. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. and a weight. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. or under pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. W. as shown in Fig. Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. when it will again return to its original state. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. In the same way. It may seem strange that ice . 1. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. D. A. If babbitt is used. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 2. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The covers.

in. P. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. brass. and assume the shape shown at B. The rate of flow is often very slow. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Crafton. --Contributed by Gordon T. Pa. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 5 in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. Pressing either push button. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. but by placing it between books.. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. sometimes only one or two feet a day. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. as shown on page 65. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but. which resembles ice in this respect. by 1/4. by 2 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. B. Lane. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. no matter how slow the motion may be. whenever there is any connection made at all. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. as per sketch. by 1/2 in. or supporting it in some similar way. square.should flow like water. thus giving a high resistance contact. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped .

alarm clock. Indianapolis. vertical lever. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message.thumb screws. and C. the induction coil. I. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. B. In the wiring diagram. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The parts are: A. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. G. C. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. as shown. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Pa. draft chain. the battery. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. cord. D. The success depends upon a slow current. --Contributed by A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. weight. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. Wilkinsburg. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. A is the circuit breaker. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. K . draft. and five dry batteries. furnace. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. H. wooden supports. pulleys. B.000 ft. J. F. Ward. about the size used for automobiles. horizontal lever. E. G. as shown. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.

will fit nicely in them. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Kalamazoo. Mich. The frame (Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. such as used for a storm window. as well as the bottom. which will provide a fine place for the plants. where house plants are kept in the home.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. material framed together as shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 2 are dressed to the right angle. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 3. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in.

Thus.. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as if drawn upon for its total output. after a rest. This is more economical than dry cells. Push the needle into the cork. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it.. in diameter. i. Halifax.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. in any system of lamps. and a suitable source of power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. e. is something that will interest the average American boy. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. W. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. 1. in this connection. and cost 27 cents FIG. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. 1 cp. as indicated by Fig. Grant. can be connected up in series. which sells for 25 cents. --Contributed by Wm. However. multiples of series of three.. where they are glad to have them taken away. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. for some time very satisfactorily. A certain number of these. but maintain the voltage constant. N. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. this must be done with very great caution. The 1/2-cp. It must be remembered. and will give the . Canada. one can regulate the batteries as required. and the instrument will then be complete. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. 1 each complete with base. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. by connecting them in series. so as to increase the current. a cork and a needle. However. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. S.

and running the series in parallel. FIG. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and diffused light in a room. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. 18 B & S. double insulated wire wherever needed. If wound for 10 volts. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. lamps. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. where the water pressure is the greatest. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Thus. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known.. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. lamp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. which is the same as that of one battery. if wound for 6 volts. especially those of low internal resistance. we simply turn on the water. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. making. or 22 lights. 11 series. However. according to the water pressure obtainable. 3. although the first cost is greater. as in Fig. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. lamps. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. Chicago. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. In conclusion. to secure light by this method. 1-cp. by the proper combination of these. generates the power for the lights. 2 shows the scheme. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and then lead No. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and for Christmas trees. So. each.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. These will give 3 cp.proper voltage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Fig. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. for display of show cases. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. . while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Thus.

and the sides. A indicates the ground. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. or from one pattern. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. are cut just alike. After I connected up my induction coil. bars of pole-changing switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Plymouth. Emig. or a tempting bone. switch. B. Parker. A. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. outside points of switch. and C. as shown in the sketch. thus reversing the machine. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. simply change the switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. B. the letters indicate as follows: FF. BB. field of motor. brushes of motor. a bait of meat. --Contributed by Leonard E. Santa Clara. . CC. Cal. To reverse the motor. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. AA. center points of switch. we were not bothered with them. --Contributed by F. DD. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves.

Minn. or would remain locked. The experiment works best . All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. thus locking the door. If it is not. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Cal. To unlock the door. a hammer. merely push the button E.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. one cell being sufficient. which is in the door. The button can be hidden. as it is the key to the lock. 903 Vine St. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. W. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. San Jose. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Fry. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. a piece of string. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B.. Melchior. -Contributed by Claude B. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. and a table or bench. Hutchinson. A.

On another block of wood fasten two wires. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Crawford Curry. Ontario. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. which pulls the draft open. releasing the weight. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 1). 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square.Contributed by F. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Tie the ends of the string together. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Canada. Schmidt. . the current flows with the small arrows. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. -. as shown in Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. D. P. 2. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. the stick falls away. Porto Rico. run through a pulley. I. A.. Wis.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. the key turns. Madison. Brockville. Culebra. forming a loop. 3. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 3. attached at the other end. C. 18 Gorham St. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. where it will remain suspended as shown. W. --Contributed by Geo. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 4). Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig.

R. S. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Use a barrel to work on. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. or tree. or from a bed of flowers. square and 1 in. Camden.. and the other to the battery. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. which fasten to the horn. Farley. --Contributed by Wm. including the mouthpiece. made with his own hands. First. and break the corners off to make them round. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. thence to a switch. Connect two wires to the transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and then to the receiver. and . thick. D. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. J. N. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. running one direct to the receiver. J. 6 in. Jr. get two pieces of plate glass.

by the side of the lamp. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. wet till soft like paint.. and is ready for polishing.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. and the under glass or tool convex. with 1/4-in. also rotate the glass. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. or less. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Use a binger to spread it on with. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and a large lamp. twice the focal length away. Fig. so the light . being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled.. then take 2 lb. Fasten. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. while walking around the barrel. When polishing the speculum. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. using straight strokes 2 in. set the speculum against the wall. Fig. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. A. wide around the convex glass or tool. L. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. a round 4-in. In a dark room. unless a longer focal length is wanted. then 8 minutes. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. 2. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. in length. the coarse grinding must be continued. as in Fig. 1. of water. When dry. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. or it will not polish evenly. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. and label. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. 2. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. wetting it to the consistency of cream. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. and spread on the glass. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. When done the glass should be semitransparent. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. with pitch. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Have ready six large dishes. melt 1 lb. spaces. Then warm and press again with the speculum. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds.

if a hill in the center. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Then add 1 oz. With pitch. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. longer strokes. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 4 oz.………………………………. The polishing and testing done... must be procured. 840 gr. as in K. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….……………. fill the dish with distilled water. the speculum will show some dark rings. Place the speculum. from the lamp. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 39 gr.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. 25 gr. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 4 oz. Now add enough of the solution A. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. When dry. that was set aside. touched with rouge. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. with distilled water.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. and pour the rest into the empty dish. deep. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 2.. The knife should not be more than 6 in. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.100 gr. Then add solution B. also how the rays R from a star . If not. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Nitric acid . 100 gr. face down.. 2. or hills. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. then ammonia until bath is clear. cement a strip of board 8 in. Fig.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Fig. Place the speculum S. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.……………………………. long to the back of the speculum. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. When the focus is found. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Fig.. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. the speculum is ready to be silvered.

Mellish. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. which proves to be easy of execution. is a satisfactory angle. deg. Then I made the one described. telescope can be made at home. My telescope is 64 in. and proceed as for any picture. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Thus an excellent 6-in. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Place over lens. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. cover with paper and cloth. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. About 20. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. slightly wider than the lens mount. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.John E. stop down well after focusing.. Make the tube I of sheet iron. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. using strawboard and black paper. long and cost me just $15. . two glass prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.

as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. D. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Boody. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. through the lens of the camera and on the board. -Contributed by A. complete the arrangement. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Ill. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. add the plaster gradually to the water. says the Master Painter. 2. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The rays of the clear.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. instead of the contrary. The paper is exposed. . push the button D. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. B. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. 1. then add a little sulphate of potash. and reflect through the negative. but will not preserve its hardening. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. To unlock. or powdered alum. Fig. Zimmerman. as shown in Fig.

also provide them with a handle. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fasten on the switch lever. as shown in the sketch. so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. 2. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. throw . as at A and B. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Then blow through the spool. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as in Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 1). To reverse. 3. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner.

as shown in the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. and E E. Go McVicker. San Marcos. although this is not necessary. Thomas. binding posts. Push one end of the tire into the hole. B. Levy. L. C C. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbon sockets. --Contributed by R. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Tex. A is the electricbell magnet.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. In the sketch. carbons. Take out. Neb. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. . Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by Geo. Tex. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth. wash in running water. -Contributed by Morris L. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. D. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. rinse in alcohol. the armature. San Antonio. North Bend. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap.

and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Bell. 16 magnet wire. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 36 magnet wire. long or more. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. --Contributed by Joseph B. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. wound evenly about this core. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. 14 or No. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. By means of two or more layers of No. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .

This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. long and 5 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. long and 2-5/8 in. as the maker prefers. in length. A 7/8-in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. In shaping the condenser. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. at a time. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. diameter. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. a box like that shown in Fig. one piece of the paper is laid down. 1. wide. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 2 yd. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. and finally the fourth strip of paper. but if it is not convenient to do this work. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. about 6 in. 4. making two layers. coil illustrates the general details of the work. then the strip of tin-foil. as shown in Fig. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned.which would be better to buy ready-made. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. and the results are often unsatisfactory. in diameter. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. After the core wires are bundled. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The condenser is next wrapped . The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Beginning half an inch from one end. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. or 8 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. hole is bored in the center of one end. This makes a condenser which may be folded. which is an important factor of the coil. The following method of completing a 1-in. which is desirable. No. with room also for a small condenser. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter.

securely with bands of paper or tape. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Fig. and the other sheet. E. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring.) The wiring diagram. long to key. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. and one from battery. forms the other pole or terminal. battery . For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. 3. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. one from bell.. copper lever with 1-in. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. long and 12 in. ready for assembling. round so that the inside . flange turned on one side. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. which allows wiring at the back. which is insulated from the first. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. C. G. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. lines H. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. B. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. go. D. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. shelf for clock. wide. F. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. V-shaped copper strip. shows how the connections are made. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. bell. whole length. spark. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. to the door. A. B. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. by 12 in. open switch C. I. 4 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. switch. the letters indicate as follows: A.

Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing.diameter is 7 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. . says the Model Engineer. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This is for blowing. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but with the circuit. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Use a glass or metal shade. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. If desired for use immediately. from the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. and then rivet the seam. That is what they are for. of zinc sulphate. do not shortcircuit. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. 2 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Line the furnace. and the battery is ready for use. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade.. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Short-circuit for three hours. of blue stone. London.

Make a hole through the center or this one arm. 1. imparting to them a violet tinge. porcelain and paper. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. for some it will turn one way. 2. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. To operate the trick. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Enlarge the hole slightly. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. If any or your audience presume to dispute. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. oxygen to ozone. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. the second finger along the side. Ohio. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. or think they can do the same let them try it. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. If too low. and therein is the trick. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. below the bottom of the zinc. This type of battery will give about 0. for others the opposite way. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Outside of the scientific side involved. g. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. changes white phosphorus to yellow." which created much merriment. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. long. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. herein I describe a much better trick. affects . Try it and see.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in.9 of a volt. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. square and about 9 in. and then. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. as in the other movement. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. while for others it will not revolve at all. but the thing would not move at all. thus producing two different vibrations. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo.. At least it is amusing. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.

To the front board is attached a box. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. if possible. earth. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but not essential. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. says the Photographic Times. a short-focus lens. a means for holding it vertical. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. however. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. insects. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. chemicals. but this is less satisfactory. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. and one of them is photomicrography. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but small flowers. an old tripod screw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home.

long and 3 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. If the balloon is 10 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 381 24 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 11 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Cap. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 268 17 lb. which is 15 ft. 697 44 lb. 12 ft. 5 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 113 7 lb. A line. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 905 57 lb. CD. 8 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 1. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. Madison. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 7-1/2 in. The following table will give the size. 6 ft. 9 ft. in Cu. wide from which to cut a pattern. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. balloon. 65 4 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 7 ft. Ft Lifting Power.--Contributed by George C. 5 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Boston. 179 11 lb. while it is not so with the quill. Mass. or 3 ft. Fig. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. AB. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. and a line. or 31 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning.

This test will show if the bag is airtight. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. using a fine needle and No. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. keeping the marked part on the outside. of beeswax and boil well together. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 3. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The pattern is now cut. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 4. and so on. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. of the very best heavy body. 2. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The cloth segments are sewed together. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Repeat this operation four times. on the curved line from B to C. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 70 thread. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The amounts necessary for a 10- . making a double seam as shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Procure 1 gal. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide.

The outlet. this should be repeated frequently. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. leaving the hand quite clean. by fixing. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. C. Water 1 oz. until no more dirt is seen. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. or a fan. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. oil the spindle holes carefully. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. if it is good it will dry off. 150 gr. Vegetable oils should never be used.ft. capacity and connect them. All FIG. 5 . which may sound rather absurd. A. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly.Green Iron ammonium citrate . place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. with water 2 in. B. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. above the level of the water in barrel A. Fill the other barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. ft. A. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. using a fine brush. pipe. 5. A. a clean white rag. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. or dusting with a dry brush. After washing a part. B. it is not fit to use. C. 1 lb. .. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. of sulphuric acid. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. should not enter into the water over 8 in. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. B. with 3/4in. 1 lb. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. ]. to the bag. but if any grease remains on the hand. balloon are 125 lb. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. of water will make 4 cu. of iron borings and 125 lb. . as shown in Fig. When the clock has dried. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. The 3/4-in. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. In the barrel. with the iron borings. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of iron. of gas in one hour. About 15 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action.

fix in hypo. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. A cold. The miniature 16 cp. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. dry atmosphere will give best results. at the time of employment. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. .Water 1 oz. and a vigorous negative must be used. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. The positive pole. Exposure. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.000 ft. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A longer exposure will be necessary. or battery. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. or zinc. says the Moving Picture World. toning first if desired. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Printing is done in the sun. Dry the plates in the dark. and keep in the dark until used. The negative pole. or carbon. Port Melbourne. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This aerial collector can be made in . of any make. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. 20 to 30 minutes. Dry in the dark. to avoid blackened skin..

the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. The storage cell. making a ground with one wire. both positive and negative. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. This will complete the receiving station. lay a needle. in diameter. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. as described below. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. forming a cup of the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. the resistance is less. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. a positive and a negative. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty.various ways. long. 5 in. holes . If the waves strike across the needle. As the telephone offers a high resistance. If the wave ceases. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and have the other connected with another aerial line. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. when left exposed to the air. lead pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end.

except for about 1 in. This. namely: a square hole. one to the positive. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. D. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. or tube B. by soldering the joint. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . does not need to be watertight. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. B. of course. Two binding-posts should be attached. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. When mixing the acid and water. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. says the Pathfinder.as possible. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. a round one. This support or block. on each end. or tube C. an oblong one and a triangular one. and the other to the negative. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. This box can be square. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The other plate is connected to the zinc. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell.

is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. long. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. wide. as shown in Fig. and match them together. 2. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. about 20 in. deep and 4 ft. This punt. all around the edge. A and B. Only galvanized nails should be used. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. were fitted by this one plug. 2. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The third piece of brass. wide. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. . The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 1. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. in place on the wood. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. leaving about 1/16 in. back and under. as shown in Fig. C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. Ill. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. is built 15 ft. Chicago. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. 1. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. thick cut two pieces alike. 3. as it is not readily overturned.

Tacoma. A piece of 1/4-in. square (Fig 2). The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. is cut 1 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. thick and 3-1/2 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Wash. A. B. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. In Fig.

It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. it had to be borne in mind that. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. with the exception of insulated wire. without auxiliary phase. Wagner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. no more current than a 16-cp.--Contributed by Charles H.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. if possible. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which can be developed in the usual manner. lamp. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. may be of interest to some of our readers. or "rotor." has no connection with the outside circuit. The winding of the armature. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. In designing. no special materials could be obtained. says the Model Engineer. and to consume. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which the writer has made. H. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate.

with the dotted line. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. C. 5. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. Unfortunately. and all sparking is avoided. while the beginnings . The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. being used. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. bolts put in and tightened up. They are not particularly accurate as it is. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 1. and filled with rivets." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. also varnished before they were put in. 2. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. or "stator. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. about 2-1/2 lb. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. as shown in Fig. 3. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in.the field-magnet. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. B. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. to be filed out after they are placed together. The stator is wound full with No. wrought iron. holes. 4. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. After assembling a second time. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. Holes 5-32 in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. this little machine is not self-starting. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. as shown in Fig. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. no steel being obtainable. A. were then drilled and 1/4-in. thick.

The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. it would be very simple to build. McKinney. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. as before stated. and would not easily get out of order. One is by contact. J. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. having no commutator or brushes. This type of motor has drawbacks. The image should . Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides.. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. and as each layer of wire was wound. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. if applied immediately. film to film. Newark. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. In making slides by contact. 2. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Jr. and as the motor runs at constant speed. and especially of colored ones. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. E.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. If too late for alcohol to be of use. as shown in Fig. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 1. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and the other by reduction in the camera. N. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. as a means of illustrating songs. and all wound in the same direction. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The rotor is wound with No. 3-Contributed by C. a regulating resistance is not needed. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. No starting resistance is needed. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig.

These can be purchased from any photo material store. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 5. 2. It is best. 3. as shown in Fig. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Select a room with one window. Draw lines with a pencil. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. if possible. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. A. a little extra work will be necessary. 4. also. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. D. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and then a plain glass. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. except that the binding is different. over the mat. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. If the exposure has been correct. Being unbreakable. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. C. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. about a minute. B. 1. as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. to use a plain fixing bath. they are much used by travelers. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. and development should be over in three or four minutes. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig.appear in.

and two pieces 1-1/4 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. as shown at B. or other stout cloth. 2. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Corinth. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. long. as shown at A. If the star is in front of the left eye. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. long. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. in diameter and 20 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. These longer pieces can be made square. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Hastings. A piece of canvas. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Vt. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. known as rods and cones. from the ends. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the center of this dot draw a star. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 16 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. while the dot will be in front of the other. Fig. is to be used for the seat. as shown in Fig. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. wide and 50 in. 1. Fig. in diameter and 40 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. long. from the end piece of the chair. holes bored in the end pieces. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown.

Cal. as well as to operate other household machines. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. 2. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. Auburn. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. O'Gara. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. J. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as shown in Fig. per square inch. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. 1. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A belt. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. . They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. in thickness and 10 in. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A disk 1 in. made from an ordinary sash cord. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft.

and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. says the Scientific American. and the construction is complete. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. 3/4 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. leaving it shaped like a bench. Put the bolt in the hole. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. or inconvenient to measure. Bore a 1/4-in. . The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. A simple. fairly accurate. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Cut out a piece from the block combination. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. with as fine a thread as possible. thick and 2-1/2 in. screwing it through the nut. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. square for a support. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. divided by the number of threads to the inch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The part of a rotation of the bolt. wide. will be the thickness of the object. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. direction. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. long. then removing the object. to the top of the bench. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. it serves a very useful purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base.

yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Oal. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Santa Maria. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. long is used for the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. globe that has been thrown away as useless. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. material 12 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. piece of wood 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. bolt in each hole. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. The wheel should be open . Place a 3/4-in. long. which show up fine at night. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. beyond the end of the wood. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Bore a 3/4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.

and the lower part 61/2 in. A. at the bottom. of the ends with boards. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. and on its lower end a socket. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft.Side and Top View or have spokes. The coil. to be operated by the magnet coil. B. Tex. which should be 1/4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. at the top and 4 in. L. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. long. is soldered. thick is used for the armature. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. pieces used for the spokes. made of the same material. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. in diameter. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. A cross bar. H and J. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. O. P. long. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. from the top end. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. long. thick. 1/2 in.-Contributed by A. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Fort Worth. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. from the ends. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The spool . Graham. square and 3 or 4 in. thick. wide and 1/8 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. wide and 1/8 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. long. C. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole.

The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. R. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and directly centering the holes H and J. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. S. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. --Contributed by Arthur D.J. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. 1. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. F. This tie can be used on grain sacks.--A. S. This is a very neat trick if performed right. When you slide the pencil along the casing.E. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. do it without any apparent effort. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. by soldering. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. C. 2 the hat hanging on it. Mass. . Bradlev. D and E.000. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. that holds the lower carbon. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. for insulating the brass ferrule. then with a firm. B. A. is drilled. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. 2.is about 2-1/2 in. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. one without either rubber or metal end. long.000 for irrigation work. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. A soft piece of iron. Randolph. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. and place it against a door or window casing. The armature. or a water rheostat heretofore described. At the bottom end of the frame. and in numerous other like instances. which may be had by using German silver wire.

The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. long and 1 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. for the primary. B. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The switch. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. Fig. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. C. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. S. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The core of the coil. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. wide. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. from the core and directly opposite. 2. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . in diameter and 1/16 in. about 3/16 in. mixed with water to form a paste. D. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. hole in the center. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. A. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The vibrator. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. F. and then 1. 1. in diameter. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. may be made from a 3/8-in. about 1/8 in. for adjustment. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. leaving the projections as shown. with a 3/16-in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. is connected to a flash lamp battery. about 1 in. is constructed in the usual manner.500 turns of No. for the secondary. long. in diameter and 2 in. 1. The vibrator B. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. Fig. S. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. in diameter. About 70 turns of No. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. thick. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.

An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The tin is 4 in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The lock. thick on the inside. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. and then well clinched. lighted. it laps down about 8 in. in an ordinary water glass. board. The knob on the dial extends out too far. with which to operate the dial. which is cut with two holes. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. as shown. Fig. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. 1. which seemed to be insufficient. . The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. was to be secured by only three brass screws. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. 16 in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. long and when placed over the board. and the same distance inside of the new board. The three screws were then put in the hasp. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. brass plate. which is only 3/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 1. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. wide. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. 2 to fit the two holes. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The hasp.Place a small piece of paper. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. as shown in the sketch. between the boards. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker.

When the rear part is illuminated. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. black color.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article placed therein will be reflected in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. or in the larger size mentioned. square and 10-1/2 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. which completely divides the box into two parts. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When making of wood. and the back left dark. not shiny. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. If the box is made large enough. but when the front part is illuminated. one in each division. the glass. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. clear glass as shown. high for use in window displays. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. square and 8-1/2 in.

This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. into the other. as shown at A in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. above the top of the tank. a tank 2 ft. . as it appears. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. alternately. long and 1 ft. wide will be about the right size. When using as a window display. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. When there is no electric current available. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. square. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. A small platform. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. Three windows are provided. high. long. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. is the green vitriol. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. O. The 13-in. radius. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and a solution of iron sulphate added. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. The pieces can then be taken out. bore from each end. and 6 ft. under sides together. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Columbus. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. bit. but with a length of 12 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. If a planing mill is near. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. hole bored the full length through the center. 5 ft. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. gauge for depth. lines gauged on each side of each. as shown. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. however. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. hole. is built on the front. long. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. each. Iron sulphate. one for each side. Shape the under sides first. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. 1 in. square and 40 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and a door in front. from the ground. This precipitate is then washed. wide. or ferrous sulphate. wide. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. 6 in. using a 3/4-in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. with a length of 13 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. 2 ft. This hole must be continued .

The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. square and drawing a diagonal on each." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Saw the two blocks apart. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. When this is dry. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. For art-glass the metal panels are . Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. if shade is purchased. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout.through the pieces forming the base. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. When the filler has hardened. If the parts are to be riveted. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. three or four may be attached as shown. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Directions will be found on the filler cans. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. hole in each block. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The sketch shows one method of attaching. apply two coats of wax. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. Electric globes--two. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. A better way.

as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .

The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Figure 1 shows the side. and Fig. as shown in the sketch. the other. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. as in ordinary devices. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The arms holding the glass. the object and the background. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. one way and 1/2 in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. 2 the front view of this stand. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.

long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. as shown in the cut. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. uncork and recork again. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. in diameter for a base. in diameter. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. long. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. channel in the circumference of the ring. thick 5/8-in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. pointing north and south. and swinging freely. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as shown in the sketch. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Put the ring in place on the base. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. outside diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. about 1-1/4 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. wide and 11 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. An ordinary pocket compass. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as it is very poisonous. and an inside diameter of 9 in. If the light becomes dim. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months.

the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. black oxide of copper. B. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. 1 oz. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. of the top.865 1. The results given should be multiplied by 1. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place on top the so- .182 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. and north of the Ohio river.420 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. above the half can. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Corresponding mirrors. in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. are mounted on a base.600 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. CC. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.088 . and mirrors. EE. AA. from the second to the third.715 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.500 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.289 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. into these cylinders.

slender bottle. always remove the oil with a siphon. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 31 gr. In Fig. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. When renewing. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . says Metal Worker. alcohol. little crystals forming in the liquid. Colo. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. then they will not rust fast. Put the solution in a long. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the wheel will revolve in one direction. University Park. of pulverized campor. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. 62 gr. which otherwise remains clear. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.

Solder in the side of the box . on the under side of the cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. A paper-fastener box. floating on a solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. If zinc and carbon are used. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. about 1-1/4 in. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. --Contributed by C. will allow the magnet to point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. Lloyd Enos. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.

long that has about 1/4-in. E. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. E. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.1-in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in.not shorter than 18 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. brass tubing.in. The spring should be about 1 in. of No.in. thick. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. is made from a piece of No. can be made of oak. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . one on each side of the board. 3 in. G--No. The standard. A. Thos. . D. Bore holes for binding-posts. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. A circular piece of cardboard. 14 wire will do. B. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. glass tubing . H. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. wide and 2-1/2 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. B. and on the other around the glass tube. long. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. wide and 6 in. 1. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. A. hole. 1/2. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. and then solder on the cover. of wire on each end extending from the coil. If the hose is not a tight fit. Put ends. 10 wire about 10 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. C. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. or made with a little black paint. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. C. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. as shown in Fig. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Rhamstine. long. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Take a small piece of soft iron. to it. C. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Use a board 1/2.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. away. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. D. The base. The bottom of the box. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. D. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. piece of 1/4-in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.Contributed by J. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Wind evenly about 2 oz. F. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. 1-1/4 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. stained and varnished.

The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. The iron plunger. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of mercury will be sufficient. long. Smith. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. Cuba. N. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. from the right hand. canvas. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 3-in. 1. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 5. About 1-1/2 lb. Milwaukee. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. When the glass becomes soft. of No. four hinges. two pieces 2 ft. about 1 in. long. 3 in. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. D.of the coil. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 3. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. . 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Wis. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Y.--Contributed by Edward M. Teasdale. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.--Contributed by R. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. J. of 8-oz. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. in diameter. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. E. long are used for the legs. 2.

3. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. --Contributed by David A. 4. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Keys. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 6. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. although nearly any size could be made in the same way.. The tube now must be filled completely. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. 5. of vacuum at the top. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. expelling all the air. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. holding in the left hand. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig.. leaving 8 in. Toronto. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Can. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. thus leaving a. Break off the piece of glass. small aperture in the long tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Take 1/2 in. Measure 8 in. long. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 2. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.

wide and 3 in. joint be accurately put together. A crosspiece 3/4-in. with each projection 3-in. Fig. material 2 in. 3. as shown in Fig. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. wide and 12 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda.6 -. but yellow pine is the best. 1 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 1 in. 3 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 2. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. from the end of same. in diameter. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. wide and 5 ft. These are bent and nailed. thick. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. long. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. and 1/4 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. as in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. 6. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Four blocks 1/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 4 in. 3 in. thick. 9 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. cut in the shape shown in Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. 4. wood screws. 5. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. FIG. long. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 1. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. thick. 7. long.

leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Manhattan. --Contributed by C. first removing the crank. R. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Water 1 oz.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. above the runner level. Kan. . Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. by 1-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. says Photography. attach runners and use it on the ice. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim.

1 oz. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. and very much cheaper. also. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Mass. 2.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The print is washed. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. --Contributed by Edward M. . Newton. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. as shown in Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Treasdale. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. Printing is carried rather far. of water. 3. --Contributed by Wallace C. Leominster. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 1.

1. Take two glass tubes.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. causing the door to swing back and up. F. Alexandria. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Church. and bend them as shown in the sketch. square piece. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. about 10 in. as shown in the sketch. long. too. and 3 ft. --Contributed by H. wide and 4 in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The thread is broken off at the . extending the width of the box. 2. high. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Place a 10-in. A. Fig. Va. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. wide. with about 1/8-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The swing door B. from one end. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. 1-1/2 ft. which represents the back side of the door. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. fasten a 2-in. hole. 1 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. say. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. 1. and to the bottom. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. high for rabbits. Fig. Then.

A and B. Chicago. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. shorter. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. wide and 5 in. C. to be used as a driving pulley. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 10 in. 2. in size. plates. Out two rectangular holes. horses and dogs. high and 12 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. This opening. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. -Contributed by William M. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. automobiles. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. long. camera and wish to use some 4. inside of the opening. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. wide. . Fig. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. D. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 1 in. says Camera Craft.. trolley cars. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Fig. in size. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. B. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Jr. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. being 1/8 in. say 8 in.by 7-in. long. from the edge on each side of these openings. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. black surfaced if possible. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. 3. but cut it 1/4 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. and go in the holder in the same way. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Paste a piece of strong black paper. shorter at each end.proper place to make a small hole. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.by 5-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. wide. as shown in Fig. 1. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Crilly.

The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.in. if it has previously been magnetized. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. long and 6 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. in diameter. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. making a . into which the dog is harnessed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. A cell of this kind can easily be made.. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. wide will be required. The needle will then point north and south. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.

short time. Place the pan on the stove. only the joints. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. says Electrician and Mechanic. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. sal ammoniac. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. of rosin and 2 oz.watertight receptacle. 3/4 lb. 1 lb. . making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. fuel and packing purposes. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. A is a block of l-in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. fodder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Pack the paste in. of the plate at one end. under the spool in the paraffin. long which are copper plated. 1/4 lb. in diameter and 6 in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. beeswax melted together. and a notch between the base and the pan. pine. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Form a 1/2-in. zinc oxide. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. pull out the wire as needed. when the paraffin is melted. for a connection. in which P is the pan. of the top.in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. filter. of water. with narrow flanges. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. B is a base of 1 in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. plaster of paris. one that will hold about 1 qt. Do not paint any surface. F is a spool. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. This makes the wire smooth. leaving about 1/2-in.

--Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. or think they can do the same. for others the opposite way. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Enlarge the hole slightly. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. by the Hindoos in India. long. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. g. and one friend tells me that they were . By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. as in the other movement. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and then. let them try it. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. square and about 9 in. for some it will turn one way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. grip the stick firmly in one hand. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Toledo. from vexation. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Ohio. thus producing two different vibrations. and he finally.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body." which created much merriment. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Make a hole through the center of this one arm.. Try it and see. At least it is amusing. 2. and therein is the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. but the thing would not move at all. while for others it will not revolve at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.

It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. and. Thus a circular or . A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. the rotation may be obtained. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and I think the results may be of interest. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 5. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. To operate. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. A square stick with notches on edge is best. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. p. by means of a center punch. 6. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. gave the best results. 3. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The experiments were as follows: 1.100 r. 2. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. If the pressure was upon an edge. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 4. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Speeds between 700 and 1. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. 7. m. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. rotation was obtained. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. secondly. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. no rotation resulted. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin.

Sloan. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. as shown. the upper portion is. if the pressure is from the left. . Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. so far as can be seen from the photographs.. D. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward)." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Minn. the liquid is forced away from the sphere.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. forming a handle for carrying.. and the resultant "basket splash. Duluth. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. at first. and the height of the fall about 6 in. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action.D. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Washington. --Contributed by G. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. C. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away. A wire is tied around the can. A. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. or greasy. G. unwetted by the liquid. it will be clockwise. --Contributed by M. a piece of wire and a candle. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Ph. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

" The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. about 2-5/8 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. as shown. long. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. 1. axle. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . flange and a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. hole drilled in the center. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. in diameter. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop.

is made from a piece of clock spring. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The parts. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1.50. as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 3. bent as shown. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. San Antonio. or main part of the frame. This will save buying a track. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 4. 2. 5. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. --Contributed by Maurice E. lamp in series with the coil. The current. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 2. is made from brass. Fuller. each in its proper place. of No. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. as shown in Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. which must be 110 volt alternating current. A trolley. are shown in Fig. 6. with cardboard 3 in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 3/4 in. holes 1 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 1 from 1/4-in. bottom side up. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. These ends are fastened together. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together.brass. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The motor is now bolted. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Texas. wide and 16 in. 3. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. put together complete. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. long. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The first piece. wood. If the ends are to be soldered. Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. and the locomotive is ready for running.

slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. but do not heat the center. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. 2. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Cincinnati. O. 1. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. When cold treat the other end in the same way. The quarter will not go all the way down. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. and as this end . 3. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. then continue to tighten much more. Fig 1. as shown in Fig. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. the length of a paper clip. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. and holes drilled in them. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened.

a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In the sketch. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or should the lathe head be raised. A pair of centers are fitted. and adjusted . A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the cutter A. When the trick is to be performed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. has finished a cut for a tooth. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie.

) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. N.to run true. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. above the surface. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. 1. tea cosey. --Contributed by Samuel C.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. coin purse. watch fob ready for fastenings. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Y. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). dividing it into as many parts as desired. if but two parts. holding it in place with the left hand. trace the outline. long. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (4. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. note book. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. lady's belt bag. tea cosey. about 1-1/2 in. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. When connecting to batteries. In this manner gears 3 in. blotter back. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. --Contributed by Howard S. An ordinary machine will do. lady's card case. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (2. and a nut pick. twisted around itself and soldered. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the paper design on the leather and. 2. draw center lines across the required space. The frame holding the mandrel. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Brooklyn. Bott. gentleman's card case or bill book. if four parts are to be alike.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (1. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Fold over along these center lines. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. such as brass or marble. book mark. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (3. Bunker. at the same time striking light. or one-half of the design. swing lathe. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) Make on paper the design wanted. (5. (6. Fig. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.

Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and push it through a cork. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. a distance of 900 miles. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. D.. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Florida.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. into which fit a small piece of tube. C. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Thrust a pin. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. A.C. from Key West. B. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and bore a hole through the center. where it condenses. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.

in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. thick. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. by 3/4 in. which is tacked to the front edge. 1/2. 2 in. 3. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. wide and 4 ft. Powell. several strips 1/2 in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. slacken speed and settle. thick. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. thick. free from knots. take the glider to the top of a hill. Four long beams 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 1. 1. thick. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 1-1/4 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. Washington. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 16 piano wire. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. or flying-machine. C. 1. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin L. square and 8 ft long. long. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. To make a glide. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. wide and 20 ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 3/4 in. lengths and splice them. D. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. If 20-ft. use 10-ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. using a high resistance receiver.in. wide and 3 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. wide and 4 ft. The operator can then land safely and . In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. lumber cannot be procured. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 2. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. long. All wiring is done with No. long for the body of the operator. long. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 3 ft. long. apart and extend 1 ft. thick. wide and 4 ft long. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. 2. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. 12 uprights 1/2 in.

The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.gently on his feet. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. Great care should be . the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Glides are always made against the wind. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

exercised in making landings. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 1. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. M. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. half man and half horse. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. When heated a little. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. which causes the dip in the line. 2. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. as shown in Fig. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Bellingham. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. a creature of Greek mythology. --Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Olson.

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. of small rubber tubing. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The light from the . will complete the material list. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. about the size of door screen wire. making it 2-1/2 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. long. long and about 3/8 in. 14 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. outside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. square. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. at the other. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous.

It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. .flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in the sketch. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. If done properly the card will flyaway. while others will fail time after time. Hunting.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 2. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. 1. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. M. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in Fig. O. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Dayton. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.

and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Cool in water and dry. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . then put it on the hatpin head. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. hold the lump over the flame. as before. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as shown. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. This game is played by five persons. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. as described. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When the desired shape has been obtained. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters.

This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. these sectors. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. distribute electric charges . How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. or more in width. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.

The fork part is 6 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. or teeth. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 3. in diameter and 15 in. GG. 4. C C. are made from solid. 1. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. are made from 7/8-in. to which insulating handles . Fig. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. at the other. The two pieces. The plates are trued up. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. free from wrinkles. The drive wheels. and 4 in. from about 1/4-in. The collectors are made. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. material 7 in. D. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. long. 3/4 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. RR. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. 2. Fig. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 3. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. turned wood pieces. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. long. wide at one end. in diameter. and of a uniform thickness. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. after they are mounted. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. as shown in Fig. and the outer end 11/2 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long and the standards 3 in. and pins inserted and soldered. brass tubing and the discharging rods. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 1 in. Two pieces of 1-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. These pins. Two solid glass rods. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 1-1/2 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. the side pieces being 24 in. The plates. in diameter. long and the shank 4 in. as shown in Fig. wide.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. in diameter. in diameter. EE.

Colo. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. in diameter.are attached. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Lloyd Enos. and the work was done by themselves. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. KK. one having a 2-in. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. --Contributed by C. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . long. wide and 22 ft. D. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. which are bent as shown. Colorado City. 12 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods.

They can be used to keep pins and needles. bit. using a 1-in. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. The key will drop from the string. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. deep. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. string together. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. and bore a hole 1/2 in.is a good one. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. yet such a thing can be done. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. pens . Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. as at A.

With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off.. using a nail filed to chisel edge. sharp division between background and design. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Inside this oblong. Proceed as follows: 1. unless it would be the metal shears. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. flat and round-nosed pliers.. Use . 5. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. also trace the decorative design. they make attractive little pieces to have about. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. This is to make a clean. file. slim screw. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. then the other side. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. two spikes. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in.and pencils. extra metal on each of the four sides. Having determined the size of the tray. above the metal. or cigar ashes. 8. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. etc. Draw one-half the design free hand. inside the first on all. above the work and striking it with the hammer. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 6. 4. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 9. 3. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 7. inside the second on all. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. about 3/4-in. etc. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 23 gauge. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. very rapid progress can be made. 2. They are easily made. and the third one 1/4 in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. When the stamping is completed. Raise the ends. stamp the background promiscuously. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle.

Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The eyes. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 6. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 10. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. first fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 7. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. In the first numbering. 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. and the effect will be most pleasing. 8. Bradley All machinists use mathematics.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. second fingers. third fingers. and fourth fingers. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are .

etc. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. there are no fingers above. which tens are added. which would be 16. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100.. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. but being simple it saves time and trouble.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. and the six lower fingers as six tens. if we wish. or the product of 6 times 6. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. first fingers. 25 times 25. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. which would be 70. the product of 12 times 12.. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. . Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. etc. Two times one are two. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or the product of 8 times 9. or 60. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. renumber your fingers. or 80. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. 2 times 2 equals 4. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. Still. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Put your thumbs together. Let us multiply 12 by 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. or numbers above 10. 600. viz.. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. In the second numbering. 11. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. as high as you want to go. thumbs. 400. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. above 20 times 20. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At a glance you see four tens or 40. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.

the lump sum to add. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. forties. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. being 80). Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. at the will of the observer. first fingers 22. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. etc. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge.. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. And the lump sum to add. first finger 17. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. Take For example 18 times 18. however. the inversion takes place against his will. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. adding 400 instead of 100. and. It takes place also. The inversion and reversion did not take place. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. about a vertical axis.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. any two figures between 45 and 55. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. not rotation. beginning the thumbs with 16. thirties. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the value which the upper fingers have. For figures ending in 6. whether the one described in second or third numbering. For example. or from above or from below. thumbs. in the case of a nearsighted person. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. and so on. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. 21. which is the half-way point between the two fives. . as one might suppose. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. or what. 75 and 85. twenties. Proceed as in the second lumbering. lastly. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 8. when he removes his spectacles. 7. 2. the revolution seems to reverse. 3. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. further. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers being 20.

holding it firmly in a horizontal position. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The ports were not easy to make. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point. as . sometimes the point towards him. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the other appearance asserts itself. A flat slide valve was used. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. when he knows which direction is right. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin.

Beating copper tends to harden it and. The eccentric is constructed of washers. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Kutscher. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. apart. inexpensive. such as is shown in the illustration. pipe 10 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Ill. secure a piece of No. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. it is easily built. H. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. across the head. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. . and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. While this engine does not give much power. and make in one end a hollow. saw off a section of a broom handle. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. about 2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. bottom side up. pipe. Fasten the block solidly. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. in diameter. as in a vise. across and 1/2 in. deep. Next take a block of wood. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Springfield. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. if continued too long without proper treatment.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The steam chest is round. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. If nothing better is at hand. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. -Contributed by W. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle.

will cause the metal to break. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. This process is called annealing. and. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. the other to the left. Vinegar. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. To produce color effects on copper. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Hay. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Camden. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . O. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. C. --Contributed by W. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. S. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To overcome this hardness. as it softens the metal. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat.

and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. because. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. because of the rays coming from them. the left eye sees through a blue screen. In order to make them appear before the card. from the stereograph. as for instance red and green. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The further apart the pictures are. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. in the proper choice of colors. with the stereograph. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. not two mounted side by side. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. the one for the left eye being blue. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. diameter. So with the stereograph. It is just as though they were not there. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The red portions of the picture are not seen. however. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. only the orange rays may pass through. that for the right. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. although they pass through the screen. it. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye.stereoscope. orange. . while both eyes together see a white background. But they seem black. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. and without any picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. disappears fully. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. and lies to the right on the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. would serve the same purpose. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. they must be a very trifle apart.

Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. 12 gauge wire. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 1/4 in. thick. etc. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. wide and 1 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. or the middle of the bottle. wireless. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Place a NO. A No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The weight of the air in round . Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. in the shape of a crank. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. in diameter. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. San Francisco. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Cal. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.

The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. internal diameter and about 34 in. long. square. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. long. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. high. and a slow fall. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. the instrument. a glass tube 1/8 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. the contrary.numbers is 15 lb. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. wide and 40 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. pine 3 in.. In general. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. if you choose. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. will calibrate itself. wide and 4 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. inside diameter and 2 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. 34 ft. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. or. thick. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. Before fastening the scale. 30 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The 4 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. But if a standard barometer is not available. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. a bottle 1 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. square. high. or a column of mercury (density 13. Only redistilled mercury should be used. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. if accurately constructed. .6) 1 in. long.

5. and place them as shown in Fig. Mark out seven 1-in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. 3. 6 and 7. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. wide and 10 in. 2. Procure a metal can cover. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. which is slipped quickly over the end. 1. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Number the pieces 1. the size of the outside of the bottle.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. long.

N. Move 10-Move No. using checkers for men.J. 5's place. 6 over No. 5 over No. Move 9-Jump No. 3. Woolson. Move 2-Jump No. 1 to No. shaped like Fig. 2's place. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 5's place. l over No. 3 over No. 6 in. 3. 3 to the center. 6 to No. 2. 2's place. 2 over No. each 10 ft. long and 2 ft. 1 into No. Move 5-Jump No. 6 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 14-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. L. 5 over No. as shown in Fig. Cape May Point. 2 . 6. procure unbleached tent duck. Make 22 sections. 1. 2 over No. 7. in diameter. 5. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. which is the very best material for the purpose. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 4-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7's place. 7 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 8-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. 6. Move 13-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3 into No. Move 3-Move No. 7 over No. 3. Move 6-Move No. Move 12-Jump No. To make such a tent. Move ll-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. 2.-Contributed by W. Move 15-Move No. 1.

as in Fig. In raising the tent. Have the tent pole 3 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Pa. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide by 12 in. Fig. long and 4 in.in. Tress. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. about 9 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. leaving the rest for an opening. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 6. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. After transferring the design to the brass. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. fill with canvas edging. round galvanized iron. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. 3 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. made in two sections. These are ventilators. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. wide at the bottom. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. --Contributed by G. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Use blocks. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Punch holes in the brass in . 2 in. 5) stuck in the ground. 5. Emsworth.J. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. As shown in the sketch. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine.. 6-in. high. diameter. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. added. will do. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide at the bottom. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. long. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 2. 9 by 12 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. Fig. from the top. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. in diameter.

but before punching the holes. apart. bend into shape.the spaces around the outlined figures. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The pattern is traced as before. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. . then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. Chicago. When the edges are brought together by bending. When all the holes are punched. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Corr. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. cut out the brass on the outside lines. It will not. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern.

or less. or center on which the frame swings. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Dunham. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by Geo. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe. A cast-iron ring. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. These pipes are . grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. or. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. partially filled with cream. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. G. Oregon. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle.however. If a wheel is selected. pipe is used for the hub. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Stevens. better still. allowing 2 ft. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A 6-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. between which is placed the fruit jar. Que.. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Badger. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Mayger. E.

Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe clamps. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. An extra wheel 18 in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in.

the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. 3.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. while doing this. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which was placed in an upright position. 1. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. as shown in Fig. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and dropped on the table. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The performer. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and the guide withdrawn. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box.

--Contributed by H. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 1. it requires no expensive condensing lens. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. and second. in diameter on another piece of tin. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. St. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. F. The box can be made of selected oak or . thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Mo. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Harkins. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. first. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. D. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Louis. -Contributed by C. Colo. Denver.

Two strips of wood 1/2 in. from each end. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide by 5 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two or three holes about 1 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide and 5 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. 1. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. focal length. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. and 2 in. 5-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight.mahogany. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 2. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. but not tight. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. high and must . The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. and. high and 11 in. long. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. An open space 4 in. If a camera lens is used. AA. fit into the runners.

West Toledo. Bradley. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens.. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. --Contributed by Chas. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. and so on. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. June and November. C. as it requires an airtight case. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then the second knuckle will be March. Ohio. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. This process is rather a difficult one.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. calling this February. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. April. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling that knuckle January. 1. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions." etc.

N. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. taking care to have all the edges closed. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and set aside for half a day. one of lead and one of aluminum. in. the lid or cover closed. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Y.with small sticks. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1 and 2. Schenectady. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. In each place two electrodes. and the lead 24 sq. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The top of a table will do. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 1. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. but waxed. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. or suspended by a string. H. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Crawford. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. . running small motors and lighting small lamps. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Pour in a little turpentine. in. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. 2. In both Fig. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. --Contributed by J. fruit jars are required. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. giving it an occasional stir. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished.

as you have held it all the time. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. he throws the other. O. This trick is very simple. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. You have an understanding with some one in the company. which you warm with your hands. He. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. you remove the glass. Cleveland. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.. as well as others. After a few seconds' time.

and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Colo. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. J. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Crocker. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Victor. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.-Contributed by E. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. near a partition or curtain. on a table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Be sure that this is the right one. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. in diameter in the center. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. . When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. put it under the glass. but in making one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Pull the ends quickly. but by being careful at shores. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. if any snags are encountered. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.take the handiest one.

by 10 ft. 1/8 in. from each end to 1 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. and the other 12 in. 1 mast. 1 in. by 16 ft. long. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 8 yd. long. 1/4 in. from the bow and the large one. 2 in. and fastened with screws. Both ends are mortised. 3 in. by 16 ft. 50 ft. one 6 in. 1. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 4 outwales. of 1-yd. Paint. for cockpit frame. the smaller is placed 3 ft. and. as illustrated in the engraving. 3 and 4. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. at the ends. 14 rib bands. 11 yd. wide and 12 ft. Fig. 1 piece. by 15 ft. for the bow. 2 gunwales. by 2 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. 1 piece. long. for center deck braces. 8 in.. from the stern. 3 in. by 2 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces.. wide unbleached muslin. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. long. for the stern piece. by 8 in. ducking. drilled and fastened with screws. 9 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . apart. wide.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. screws and cleats. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. The keelson. square by 16 ft. clear pine. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. wide and 12 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. is 14 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 7 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 in. 1 in. thick and 3/4 in. selected pine. of rope. 1 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. of 1-1/2-yd. by 12 in. wide 12-oz.

1/4 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. wood screws. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 4 in. thick 1-1/2 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 1 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. Before making the deck. corner braces. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide. long. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. doubled. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 5. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The block is fastened to the keelson. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. . A 6-in. wide. apart. They are 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The 11-yd. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick and 1/2 in. 7 and 8. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. This block. A block of pine. 9. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. screws. 3-1/2 ft. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fig. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Fig. 1 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. long is well soaked in water. thick. 6 and 7. a piece 1/4 in. wide and 24 in. also. gunwales and keelson. Figs. thick. These are put in 6 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The trimming is wood. and fastened to them with bolts. Braces. long. length of canvas is cut in the center. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A seam should be made along the center piece. A piece of oak. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. long. is cut to fit under the top boards. wide and 3 ft. from the bow. wide and 14 in. 6 in. thick and 12 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 6. in diameter through the block. The deck is not so hard to do. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in.

Tronnes. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. A strip 1 in. wide. The mast has two side and one front stay. Wilmette. is 6 in. 10 with a movable handle. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. --Contributed by O. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 12. thick by 2 in. The keel. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. at the other. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The house will accommodate 20 families. 11. . each 1 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. E. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Fig. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. wide at one end and 12 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. are used for the boom and gaff. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Ill. The sail is a triangle.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. long. apart in the muslin. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. in diameter and 10 ft.

long. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide. flat-headed screws. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. about 5/16 in. wide and 30 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick.into two 14-in. 5. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. 2. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. one 11-1/2 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. wide. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 4. Wilmette. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Bevel both sides of the pieces. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Tronnes. Ill. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. and 3 ft. 2-1/2 in. long. wide and 2 ft. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. E. flat headed screws. 3. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long and five 1/2-in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Take this and fold it over . Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. as shown in Fig. square. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 1 yd. Cut the maple. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. flat on one side. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. and the other 18 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. thick. thick. 1. long. --Contributed by O. 2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Fig. five 1/2-in.

3 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. and take care that the pieces are all square. The bag is then turned inside out. C. 3/8 in. Fig. the mechanical parts can be put together. the top and bottom. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. 6-1/2 in. The front. of each end unwound for connections. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. are rounded. wide and 4-1/2 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. 5 from 1/16-in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. and the four outside edges. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Make a double stitch all around the edge. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 3-1/4 in. forming an eye for a screw. this square box is well sandpapered. Glue a three cornered piece. C. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 2 and 3. about 3/8 in. Mo. long.once. D. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide . which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. wide and 3 ft. A. wide and 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. About 1/2 in. E. B. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. as well as the edges around the opening. wide and 5 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. square. long. After the glue. thick. 1. Louis. When the glue is set. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. is set. Cut another piece of board. thick. A. Bliss. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. square. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. The sides are 3-1/4 in. thick and 3 in. Another piece. but can be governed by circumstances. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. F. If carefully and neatly made. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. soaked with water and blown up. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. --Contributed by W. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Wind three layers of about No. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. long. Figs. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. St. 1-1/4 in. then centered. long.

The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. When the current flows through the coil. W. Fig. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. from one end. F. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. Another strip of tin.and 2-5/8 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. 5-1/2 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. A pointer 12 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. bored in the back. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. I. so it will just clear the tin. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. and the farther apart they will be forced. Place the tin.S. Richmond Hill. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips.A. Austwick Hall. and fasten in place. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. 4. 1/4 in. the same size as the first. 4 is not movable. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. 4. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The resistance is now adjusted to show . L. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place.R. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The base is a board 5 in. G. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. thick. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. R. and as the part Fig. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. These wires should be about 1 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. in diameter. 5. C. wide and 2-1/2 in. The end of the polar axis B. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. board. The stronger the current. Yorkshire. Like poles repel each other. Chapman. long. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Fig. 1/16 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. long. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. wide and 9 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. hole is fastened to the pointer. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. from the spindle. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. that has the end turned with a shoulder. the part carrying the pointer moves away.

all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. say Venus at the date of observation. at 9 hr. A.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 1881. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 30 min. 10 min. M. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. shows mean siderial. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. The following formula will show how this may be found. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. thus: 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock.

and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. New Haven. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Conn. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Hall. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. owing to the low internal resistance. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.f. or. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. if one of these cannot be had. --Contributed by Robert W. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.m. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. . Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.

and heap the glowing coals on top. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. leaves or bark. Then. 1. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. especially for cooking fish. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. The boring bar. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. thick. inside diameter and about 5 in. When the follower is screwed down. cover up with the same. fresh grass. put the fish among the ashes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. long. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1-3/4 in. of alum and 4 oz. Wet paper will answer. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Fig. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. arsenic to every 20 lb. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. as shown in the accompanying picture. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 3/8 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole .

pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. when they were turned in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . fastened with a pin. and threaded on both ends. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. about 1/2 in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Clermont. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. Fig. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 30 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. the float is too high. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. A 1-in. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 2. thick and 3 in. square iron. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. but never one which required so little material. Fig. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 5. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Iowa. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. and which gave such satisfactory results. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. If the valve keeps dripping. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. This plate also supports the rocker arms. wide. labor and time. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The rough frame. long. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. It . The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. then it should be ground to a fit. a jump spark would be much better. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. bent in the shape of a U.valve stems. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 4. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. however. as the one illustrated herewith. Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. 3. --Contributed by Peter Johnson.

On this depends the safety of the contrivance. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. This makes an easy adjustment. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. 12 ft. being held in position by spikes as shown. long. completes the merry-go-round. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. A 3/4 -in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. in fact. As there is no bracing. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. with no trees or buildings in the way. The seats are regular swing boards. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. square. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. from all over the neighborhood. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. long is the pivot. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. If it is to be used for adults. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. long. W. rope is not too heavy. Nieman. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. for the "motive power" to grasp. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. no matter what your age or size may be. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit." little and big. and. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. timber. The crosspiece is 2 in. in diameter and 15 in. strong clear material only should be employed. Use a heavy washer at the head. in the ground with 8 ft. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. butting against short stakes. square and 2 ft. square and 5 ft. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. 3/4 in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. --Contributed by C. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . strengthened by a piece 4 in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The illustration largely explains itself. long. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. set 3 ft. hole bored in the post. It looks like a toy. from the center. and a little junk. A malleable iron bolt.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. extending above. so it must be strong enough. and long enough to keep firmly in the post.

light and strong. away. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Both have large reels full of . These ends are placed about 14 in. long. as shown in Fig. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. a wreck. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The backbone is flat. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. 2. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. if nothing better is at hand. and 18 in.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 4. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 1. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. A reel is next made. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.the fingers. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. and sent to earth. To wind the string upon the reel. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. then it is securely fastened. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The bow is now bent. 1/4 by 3/32 in. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly.2 emery. square. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Having placed the backbone in position.

then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Newburyport. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. or glass-covered string. Y. Brooklyn. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . he pays out a large amount of string. First. Bunker. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Mass.string. N. the balance. If the second kite is close enough. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. often several hundred yards of it. C. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The handle end is held down with a staple. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Moody. --Contributed' by Harry S. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. common packing thread. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.-Contributed by S. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.

Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Corinth. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. lengths (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. --Contributed by Earl R. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. such as mill men use. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. cutting the circular piece into quarters. must be attached to a 3-ft. then draw the string up tight. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. If the table is round. each the size of half the table top. square (Fig. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Hastings. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. length of 2-in. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Vt. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . then a dust protector. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought.

and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace the design carefully on the leather. Calif.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. E. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. G to H. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. which spoils the leather effect. Use a smooth. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 17-1/2 in. Oakland. 6-1/4 in. from C to D. 2-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Wharton. Moisten the . A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. and E to G. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. . This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away... hard pencil.9-1/4 in. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.-Contributed by H. from E to F. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 16-1/4 in.

G-J. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. I made this motor . and E-G. apart. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Now cut narrow thongs. and corresponding lines on the other side. H-B. place both together and with a leather punch. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. is taken off at a time. wide. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. with the rounded sides of the tools. also lines A-G. about 1/8 in. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. get something with which to make a lining. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Trace the openings for the handles. if not more than 1 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. To complete the bag.

The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. in length. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. long. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 24 gauge magnet wire. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 2. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Pasadena. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 1.M. 2-1/4 in. of No. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. --Contributed by J. Shannon. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Calif. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. iron. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. each being a half circle. 1. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. D. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. . Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.

1. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. high. The gores for a 6-ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. from the bottom end. are the best kind to make. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. and the gores cut from these. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. pasted in alternately. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . near the center. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft.

as shown in Fig. Staunton. 5. A. coming through the small pipe A. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon.widest point. B. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Fig. leaving a long wake behind. somewhat larger in size. 4. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. After washing. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. If the gores have been put together right. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. 1. In removing grease from wood. after which the paint will adhere permanently. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. in diameter. The steam. leaving the solution on over night. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. so it will hang as shown in Fig. using about 1/2-in. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. lap on the edges. saturating it thoroughly. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. In starting the balloon on its flight. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. 2. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. These are to hold the wick ball. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. 3. The boat soon attains considerable speed. --Contributed by R. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . E.

This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Third. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. long and each provided with a handle. wide by 6 in. as is shown in Fig. In using either of the two methods described. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. high and 8 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . 1. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The blocks are about 6 in. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. apart on these lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long. in bowling form. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface.

2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Y. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. thick. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2. N. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Albany. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. being careful not to dent the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. --Contributed by John A.

Break off the frame. S. and Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Richmond. B. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. with a set screw. A. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. A circular piece of wood. in diameter. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . long for the base. A. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and not produce the right sound. and. 2 the front view. wide and of any desired height. Paine.upon any particular object. --Contributed by R. Corner irons. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. through which passes the set screw S. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. wide and 8 in. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. In Fig. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. are screwed to the circular piece. 5 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Va. 1 Fig. which is 4 in. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. CC. 6 in. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. With this device. These corner irons are also screwed to. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. thick.

. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. pine boards. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. thus producing sound waves. I made a wheel 26 in. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. This will make a very compact electric horn. Lake Preston. Kidder. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. as only the can is visible.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Ill. La Salle. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. -1. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. This horn. R. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. in diameter of some 1-in. S. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. D.

The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. If the collection consists of only a few coins. A. O. Fig. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . B. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. 1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. thick and 12 in. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. --Contributed by James R. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 1. If there is a large collection of coins. square. The frame is made of a heavy card. Purdy. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Ghent. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. 2. Doylestown. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. --Contributed by C. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Kane. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the same thickness as the coins.

Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. --Contributed by J. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. border all around. plus a 3/8-in. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. melted and applied with a brush. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. though not absolutely necessary. and then glued together as indicated. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Toronto. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. It will hold 4 oz. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Milwaukee. If desired. Noble. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Smith. Neyer. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. thick. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. several large nails. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Cal. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. One Cloud.E. cut and grooved. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Wis. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by R. A rivet punch is desirable.J. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. a hammer or mallet. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. --Contributed by August T. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The material required is a sheet of No. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. A lead pencil. Canada. they become uninteresting.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. of developer. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.

Take the nail. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. using 1/2-in. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. and file it to a chisel edge. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. draw one part. like the one shown. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. There are several ways of working up the design. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. screws placed about 1 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. never upon the metal directly. Remove the screws. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. both outline and decoration. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block.

in one piece and 9-5/8 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. square and 181/2 in. being ball bearing. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. of 11-in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. for the top. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. in the other. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. long. Rivet the band to the holder. Do not bend it over or flatten it. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. two lengths. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. square. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. square and 11 in.wall. 1. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 3. . About 1/2 yd. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. for the lower rails. Provide four lengths for the legs. long. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. long. using a 1/2in. up from the lower end. The pedal. and two lengths. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. l-1/8 in. each 1 in. 2. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness.

The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by John Shahan. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. --Contributed by W. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. New York City. Ala. having quite a length of threads. Attalla. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. F.

Mich. long. something that is carbonated. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. wide and 4-1/4 in. Luther. long. each 1-1/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Assemble as shown in the sketch. in depth. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and two holes in the other. and 3/8 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. --Contributed by C. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Ironwood. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. one about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. college or lodge colors. The desired emblem. long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and the other 2-3/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. from the end. Two pieces of felt. from one end. initial. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Purchase a 1/2-in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. using class. making a lap of about 1 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. D.

Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. which can be procured from a plumber. Schatz. A piece of lead. Indianapolis. --Contributed by John H. 1/4 in. Ind. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. and the cork will be driven out. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Fig. in diameter and 2 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. or more in height. in the cover and the bottom. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 1. or a pasteboard box. as shown in the sketch. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. 2. This method allows a wide range of designs. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. about 2 in. if desired by the operator. as shown at B. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . from the center and opposite each other. Punch two holes A.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. which can be made at home with ordinary tools.

There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. O. allowing the two ends to be free. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.Rolling Can Toy lead. When the can is rolled away from you. and the ends of the bands looped over them. Columbus. 5. as shown in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. are turned up as in Fig. A piece of thick glass. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. . How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. metal. putting in the design. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 3. 1. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. on both top and bottom. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 4. Fig. The pieces of tin between the holes A. it winds up the rubber band. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. or marble will serve.

Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. 3 in. After this has been done. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. thicker than the pinion. A pencil may be used the first time over. mark over the design. Next place the leather on the glass. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. long and bored a 1/2-in. and. hole through it. I secured a board 3/4 in. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . wide and 20 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. New York City. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. 1 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. thick. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. from each end. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. deep in its face. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. face up.

1 back board. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Cut the 2-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1. Rice. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. --Contributed by A. 1 top board. 4 guides. lag screws as shown. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 screw block. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 3 by 3 by 36. N. Syracuse. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Brooklyn. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Y. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 piece for clamp. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. in diameter. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 2 side rails. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Fig. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 2 end rails. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 piece. Make the lower frame first. much of the hard labor will be saved. pieces for the vise slides. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 by 12 by 77 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. M. 2 crosspieces. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. thick top board.in the board into the bench top. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 piece for clamp. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. New York.

They can be purchased at a hardware store. in diameter. as well as the pattern maker. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair dividers. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 24 in. 1 claw hammer. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 monkey wrench. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pocket level. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. The amateur workman. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 pair pliers. 3 and 6 in. 1 compass saw. 1 wood scraper..screws. 1 nail set. it can be easily found when wanted. Only the long run. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 cross cut saw. 1 rip saw. rule. 1 2-ft. 1 countersink. 1 set gimlets. 1 marking gauge. 1 set chisels. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.. . 1 bench plane or jointer. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The bench is now complete. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in.

1. No. ---Contributed by James M.1 6-in. 1. being softer. 1. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. becomes like A. after constant use. 2. try square. The calf skin. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. the projecting point A. 1 oilstone. 3. but will not make . Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will sink into the handle as shown at D. will be easier to work. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Pa. Kane. Fig.

and the length 6-5/8 in. If cow hide is preferred. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. If calf skin is to be used. . It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. water or heat will not affect. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. cover it completely with water enamel and. Turn the leather. New York City. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. which steam. secure a piece of modeling calf. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two pieces will be required of this size. will do just as well. After the outlines are traced. when dry. the same method of treatment is used. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. White. lay the design on the face. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. First draw the design on paper.as rigid a case as the cow skin. such as copper or brass. then prepare the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. Having prepared the two sides. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. The form can be made of a stick of wood. -Contributed by Julia A. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface.

Maine. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. and an adjustable friction-held loop. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Herrman. Cal. . will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Portland. Cobb. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. as shown in the sketch. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. A. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chas. Richmond. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by Chester L. C. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. New York City. --Contributed by W. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Jaquythe.

To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. . The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Wright. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. for instance. an inverted stewpan. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Wm. Middletown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Cambridge. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.. B. was marked out as shown. Conn. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. --Contributed by Geo. This was very difficult. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Mass. Roberts. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. A thick piece of tin.

No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. There was no quicklime to be had. but not running over.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Illinois. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Chicago. well calcined and powdered. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Indianapolis. as shown. and quite new. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. apply powdered calcined magnesia. If the article is highly polished. A beautifully bound book. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. so some bones were quickly calcined. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. The next morning there was no trace of oil. pulverized and applied. on a clear piece of glass. which has been tried out several times with success. If any traces of the grease are left. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. --Contributed by C. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Bone.. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. L. such as chair seats. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. . the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but only an odor which soon vanished. Herbert. When dry. Ind. of boiling water. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. F. face down. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. used as part of furniture. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. --Contributed by Paul Keller. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. and the grease will disappear. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane.

New York. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. says Scientific American. wide and 12 in. long. 6 in.. set and thumbscrews. high and are bolted to a block of wood. Howe. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Tarrytown. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. If properly adjusted. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 2 in. deep and 5 in. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. A. the pieces . soft steel with the opening 6 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. thick.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Their size depends on the plate used. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. they will look remarkably uniform. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. no doubt. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. If the letters are all cut the same height. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. albums and the like. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The seat is a board. A sharp knife. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. to the underside of which is a block. for sending to friends. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. E.

In cutting out an 0. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. for example. So made. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The puzzle is to get . and. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. So arranged. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. mount them on short pieces of corks. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. using care to get it in the right position. photographing them down to the desired size. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. after. pasting the prints on some thin card. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters.

Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Bayley. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in. with the longest end outside. so they will lie horizontal. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. long that will just fit are set in. of its top. says the American Thresherman. hung on pivots. squeezes along past the center of the tube.-Contributed by I. He smells the bait. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Cape May Point. Old-Time Magic . G. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.J. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. snow or anything to hide it. N.

Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. then expose again. Pocatello. --Contributed by L. N. --Contributed by Charles Graham. --Contributed by L. E. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Y.faced up. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Parker. Szerlip. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then spread the string. Pawtucket. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Rhode Island. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Idaho. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Brooklyn. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together.

Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. wipe the blade . The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. wide and 2 in. 2 Fig. if any. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. 3 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. near the point end. full size. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. in width. thick. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. in building up his work from the illustrations. whether he requires a single sword only. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The pieces. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade.. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. says the English Mechanic. using a straightedge and a pencil. or green oil paint. long. When the whole is quite dry. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. or a complete suit of armor. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. dark red.Genuine antique swords and armor. Glue the other side of the blade. 1 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in.. 1. and if carefully made. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. end of the blade. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 4 on the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. The handle is next made. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. narrower.

2. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. about 1-1/2 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. Fig. long. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. and 3 in.. 1. The length of the handle. the illustration.. the other two are identical. the other is flat or halfround. 1. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 4. in the widest part at the lower end. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. In the finished piece. Both edges of the blade are sharp.with light strokes up and down several times. the other is flat or half-round. 3. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 3. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. should be about 9 in. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. of course. allowing for a good hold with both hands. In making this scimitar. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. thick and 5 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 1/8 in. 1. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 2. follow the directions as for Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. as it is . In making. take two pieces of wood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. not for use only in cases of tableaux. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. shows only two sides. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. in diameter. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. square and of any length desired.

causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The thinness of the plank. each about 1 ft. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. about 3/8 in. Franklin. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. at the lower end. however. and if so. in an attempt to remove it. square. Morse. A cold . N. or an insecure fastening. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Syracuse. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. as shown in the sketch. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. 2 in. Mass. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. as there was some at hand. Both can be made easily. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. as can the pitch bed or block. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. and. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. long. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. On each edge of the board. A piece of mild steel. piping and jackets by hard water. --Contributed by Katharine D. Y. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. --Contributed by John Blake. Doctors probed for the button without success. It is made of a plank. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff.

. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. When this has been done. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. on the pitch. Trim up the edges and file them . A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. tallow. using a small metal saw. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length.. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. secure a piece of brass of about No. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. When the desired form has been obtained. design down. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 5 lb. To put it in another way. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. To remedy this. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 18 gauge. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 5 lb. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. plaster of Paris.

Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. lb. 1 ft. over the smaller vessel. and hang a bird swing. Cutter. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. space between the vessels with water. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. per second. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. but not to stop it. The smaller is placed within the larger. and still revolve. or 550 ft.smooth. 1 ft. 30 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. in the center. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 1) and the other 12 in. using powdered pumice with lye. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. make an unusual show window attraction. 2). Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. . Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in one second.000 ft. or fraction of a horsepower.000 lb. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in diameter (Fig. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Clean the metal thoroughly. A. per minute. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. That is lifting 33. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. it may be well to know what horsepower means. lb. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 3. --Contributed by Harold H. in one minute or 550 lb. one 18 in. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Fig. to keep it from floating. Before giving the description. in diameter (Fig. living together in what seems like one receptacle. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. This in turn divided by 33. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Fill the 3-in. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.

Y. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed. or on a pedestal. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Diameter Fig. Mass. Campbell. Szerlip. Brooklyn. by L. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. The effect is surprising. Somerville. N. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. 2 Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . F.18 in. Diameter 12 in. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J.

A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. unsatisfactory. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. which may be of wood or tin. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. often render it useless after a few months service. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and cut out the shape with the shears. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. which. In riveting. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the clay . This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. then by drawing a straightedge over it. as a rule. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. using any of the common metal polishes. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. after which it is ready for use. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Polish both of these pieces. with the pliers. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. away from the edge. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator.copper of No. keeping the center high. This compound is impervious to water. the same as removing writing from a slate. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. with other defects. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and then. is. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Rivet the cup to the base. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. to keep the metal from tarnishing.

. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Dunlop. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. A. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. -Contributed by Thos. the device will work for an indefinite time. long. DeLoof. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Northville. Shettleston. 3/4 in. 2. Mich. Mich. Houghton. It is made of a glass tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. in diameter and 5 in. Scotland. --Contributed by John T. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. --Contributed by A.can be pressed back and leveled. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Grand Rapids. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air.

says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. London.FIG. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.1 FIG. 1. in width and 2 in. As the handle is to . Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. put up as ornaments. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. This sword is 4 ft. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The crossbar and blade are steel. The ball is made as described in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade.represent copper. This sword is about 4 ft. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. with both edges sharp. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. studded with brass or steel nails. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. These must be cut from pieces of wood. This stiletto has a wood handle. string. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. narrower. When dry. The sword shown in Fig. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 11 were used. the upper part iron or steel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 8. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Three large. wood with a keyhole saw. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. 4. with wire or string' bound handle. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. is shown in Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. This weapon is also about 1 ft. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. When the whole is quite dry. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 7. in length. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 20 spike. The handle is of wood. 6. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Cut two strips of tinfoil. This axe is made similar to the one . one about 1/2 in. small rope and round-headed nails. long with a dark handle of wood. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. sharp edges on both sides. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. the axe is of steel. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. paint it a dark brown or black. This weapon is about 1 ft. the same as used on the end of the handle. When the glue is thoroughly dry. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 5. then glued on the blade as shown. In Fig. in length. in width. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. very broad. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 9. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. A German stiletto. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. glue and put it in place. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. long. Both handle and axe are of steel. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. firmly glued on. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade.

10. such as braided fishline. Davis. Chicago. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. .The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Old-Time Magic . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord.described in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. the ends are tied and cut off. together as shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. 2. so the contents cannot be seen. This will make a very good flexible belt. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. high. When wrapped all the way around. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. W. --Contributed by E.

an acid. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. 2. Before the performance. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. in a few seconds' time. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. some of the liquid. Macdonald. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. causing the flowers to grow. As zinc is much lighter than iron. --Contributed by A. 1 and put together as in Fig. filled with water. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Calif.J. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The dotted lines in Fig. four glass tumblers. These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. with the circle centrally located. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . or using small wedges of wood. about one-third the way down from the top. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. To make the flowers grow in an instant. apparently. There will be no change in color. S. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Bridgeton. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. N. held in the right hand. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Oakland.

It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. which are numbered for convenience in working. practical and costs nothing. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. not only because of the fact just mentioned. 2 for height. Jaquythe. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . unless some special device is used. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. --Contributed by W. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. and kept ready for use at any time. This outlines the desired opening. When many slides are to be masked. A. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Cal. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. 4 for width and No. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. If the size wanted is No. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Richmond. says a correspondent of Photo Era. and equally worthy of individual treatment.

Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The decoration. paint the design. about half and half. When etched to the desired depth. not the water into the acid. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This done. is about right for the No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Draw a design. and the extreme length 7 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. the paper is folded along the center line. possibly. With a stick. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. but they can be easily revived. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. or. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. or a pair of old tongs. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. 16 gauge. The one shown is merely suggestive. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. too. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. which is dangerous. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. using the carbon paper. the margin and the entire back of the metal. a little less acid than water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. and do not inhale the fumes. Secure a sheet of No. may be changed. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish.

2. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Fig. as shown in the illustration. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. as shown in Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. high. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. When the button S is pressed. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Cut out a piece of tin. long. and about 2-1/2 ft. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. through it.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 2. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 3. 4. as at H. about 2-1/2 in. 5. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 3/8 in. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. as in Fig. it will touch post F. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. in diameter and 1/4 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. so that when it is pressed down. The connections are simple: I. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Fig. 24 parts water. the bell will ring. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 0 indicates the batteries. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long and 1 ft. with the wires underneath. C and D. to the table. 2. Then get two posts. about 3 ft. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. It may be either nailed or screwed down. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. wide and of the same length as the table. thick. . A. 5. wide. Nail a board. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 1 in. or more wide. about 8 in. and bore two holes. 1. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. repeat as many times as is necessary. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. attached to a post at each end. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Paint the table any color desired.

A wood peg about 2 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. long. 2. long serves as the dowel. The circle is marked out with a compass. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool.Imitation Arms and Armor . such as .. This weapon is about 22 in. The entire weapon. is to appear as steel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. but they are somewhat difficult to make. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. handle and all. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. These rings can be carved out. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The imitation articles are made of wood. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. says the English Mechanic. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. 1. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. After the glue is dry. thick.

3. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. flowers. Its length is about 3 ft. or the amateur cannot use it well. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of steel imitation. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 2. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. with a sharp carving tool. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. as shown. If such a tool is not at hand. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. as before mentioned. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. 6. All of these axes are about the same length. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The axe is shown in steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the hammer and spike. also. etc. long. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. studded with large brass or steel nails. as described in Fig. . The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 5. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. This weapon is about 22 in. The spikes are cut out of wood.ornamental scrolls. covered with red velvet. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. is shown in Fig. 8. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. leaves. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. used at the end of the fifteenth century. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the base having a brad to stick into the ball.

Chicago. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. as in Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. the knife resting on its back.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 6. 1. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 3. . as shown in Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 5. calls for a home run. a three-base hit. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 2. Each person plays until three outs have been made. Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). 7) calls for one out. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and so on for nine innings. then the other plays.

as shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic .A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. 3. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 1. This he does. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.-Contributed by J. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Somerville. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. hypo to 1 pt. F. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. one of them burning . the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Campbell. while the committee is tying him up. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of water for an hour or two. with the rope laced in the cloth. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. of the rope and holds it. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Mass. 2. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz.

A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Drill Gauge screw. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. showing that there is nothing between them. of turpentine. etc. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. shades the light for a few seconds. Ky..Contributed by Andrew G. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. The magician walks over to the burning candle. and. bolt. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. He then walks over to the other candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. --Contributed by L. of plumbago. Lebanon. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. 4 oz. invisible to them (the audience). the other without a light. of water and 1 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Thome. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. . Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. 4 oz.brightly. Ky. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Evans. New York City. Louisville. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. 3/4 in. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Brown. B. thick. of sugar. with which he is going to light the other candle. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thus causing it to light. --Contributed by C. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.

long with an internal diameter of 2 in. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. In making up the solution. Y. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. thick. about 5 in. H. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . add the acid to the water with constant stirring. or blotting paper. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. which will give a strong. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. diameter. Its current strength is about one volt. To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. long. Do not add water to the acid. Denniston. Pulteney. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. but is not so good. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. steady current. 5 in. --Contributed by C. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. for the material. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. into a tube of several thicknesses. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. N. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc.

Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. while the other end is attached by two screws. After much experimentation with bearings. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. long with a bearing at each end. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. a positive adjustment was provided. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. One hole was bored as well as possible. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. but somewhat lighter. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. the other holding them apart. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. To insure this. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.) may be obtained. one drawing them together. carrying the hour circle at one end.station. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. Finally. As to thickness. The . steel.

All these adjustments. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Cassiopiae. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Set the declination circle to its reading. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used." When this is done. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . in each direction from two points 180 deg." Only a rough setting is necessary. To locate a known star on the map. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. All set screws. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. excepting those on the declination axis. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. It is. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. apart. once carefully made. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Point it approximately to the north star. The aperture should be 1/4 in. save the one in the pipe. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The pole is 1 deg. turn the pointer to the star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. and if it is not again directed to the same point. To find a star in the heavens. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and 15 min. Each shaft. need not be changed. When properly set it will describe a great circle. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. If the result is more than 24 hours. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. subtract 24. Declination is read directly. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. is provided with this adjustment. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Instead.. are tightened. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. 45 min. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye.

If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. long.. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. -Contributed by Ray E. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. The ball is found to be the genuine article. cannon balls. If this will be too transparent. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. as shown in the sketch. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. which is the one examined. In reality the first ball. of ether. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. a great effect will be produced. The dance will begin. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. La. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. is folded several times. Strosnider. the others . add a little more benzole. New Orleans. Ohio. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. 3 or 4 in. Plain City. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. then add 1 2-3 dr. taking care not to add too much. is the real cannon ball. benzole.

--Contributed by J. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. 2. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Cal. Fig. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Somerville. 1). A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. F. taps. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. without taking up any great amount of space. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Milwaukee. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. etc. Return the card to the pack. small brooches. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. as shown in the illustration. San Francisco.. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. In boxes having a sliding cover. Mass. Wis. Campbell. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.

slides and extra brushes. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. from the bottom of the box.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Beller. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. thus giving ample store room for colors. This box has done good service. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. as shown in the illustration. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. . I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Connecticut. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. prints. Hartford. round pieces 2-1/4 in.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. tacking the gauze well at the corners. costing 5 cents. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. about threefourths full. Mass. -Contributed by C. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Fill the upper tub. with well packed horse manure. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. . When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. holes in the bottom of one. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. or placed against a wall. Darke. will answer the purpose.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. FIG. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. 2). West Lynn. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. 1). When the ends are turned under.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. O. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.

they should be knocked out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. M. oil or other fluid. Chicago. --Contributed by L. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. If the following directions are carried out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and each bundle contains . cutting the cane between the holes. Eifel. when they are raised from the pan. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. if this is not available.

Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. In addition to the cane. and. held there by inserting another plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. a square pointed wedge. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. after having been pulled tight. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. as shown in Fig. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. as it must be removed again. then across and down. No plugs . it should be held by a plug. 1. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. put about 3 or 4 in. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn.

placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. Their difference is . 1. There are several different designs of sundials. 41°-30'. stretch the third one. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. as for example. and for 1° it would be . Even with this lubrication. 1 lat. From table No. The chemicals will not affect the rosin.= 4. 1. R. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . It consists of a flat circular table.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. the next smallest.075 in. 5 in. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. When cool. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. Detroit. 42° is 4. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. trim off the surplus rosin. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. If handled with a little care. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. This will make three layers. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 3. 3. or the style. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. as shown in Fig. and for lat.15+. it is 4. Patrick. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. D. -Contributed by E. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. the height of which is taken from table No. W. the height of the line BC. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. is the horizontal dial. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.075 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. All added to the lesser or 40°. The style or gnomon. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. in this case) times the . After completing the second layer. 1. --Contributed by M.2+. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 41 °-30'. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. lat. Fig. using the same holes as for the first layer. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. called the gnomon. but the most common. as the height of the line BC for lat. If you have a table of natural functions. as shown in Fig. is the base (5 in. 4. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Fig.5 in.2 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Michigan. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.3 in. 5. and the one we shall describe in this article. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. for 2°.42 in. No weaving has been done up to this time. During the weaving. as it always equals the latitude of the place. we have 4. 40°. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.15 in.

82 5.06 2. 1.93 2. For latitudes not given. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. long. Draw two semi-circles.99 2.57 1.20 60° 8.07 4.42 1.28 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD. .87 4.82 3.40 1.16 40 .41 38° 3.37 5.97 5 7 4.68 5-30 6-30 5.14 5. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. with a radius of 5 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.30 1.88 36° 3.16 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .91 58° 8. or more. and perpendicular to the base or style.46 . gives the 6 o'clock points.55 30° 2.76 1.94 1. Draw the line AD.66 1.23 6. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.19 1. and intersecting the semicircles.44 44° 4. base.87 1. according to the size of the dial.18 28° 2.96 32° 3.85 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 4.50 26° 2.49 3. 2.02 1.00 40° 4. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.66 48° 5.32 6. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.77 2. To layout the hour circle.59 2.63 56° 7. Table NO.93 6. if of metal. Its thickness.42 .27 2. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.10 6.81 4.33 42° 4.64 4 8 3.38 . which will represent the base in length and thickness.85 35 . 2.66 latitude. or if of stone.89 50° 5.37 54° 6.33 .57 3.29 4-30 7-30 3. 2 for given latitudes.26 4.55 46° 5.55 5.12 52° 6. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. using the points A and C as centers. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.11 3. and for this size dial (10 in.79 4. circle Sundial.46 3. Fig. an inch or two. Chords in inches for a 10 in.82 2.39 .83 27° 2.56 .42 45 .03 3.30 2.40 34° 3.49 30 . The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.

10 4.79 6. --Contributed by J.19 2. adding to each piece interest and value. 3. and the . Each weapon is cut from wood. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. This correction can be added to the values in table No. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.from Sundial lime. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Sioux City.57 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.12 5. 2 and Dec.82 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. and for the difference between standard and local time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.08 1.46 4. June 15. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.54 60 .52 Table No. says the English Mechanic.21 2.87 6.. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .63 1.14 1.68 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. As they are the genuine reproductions. E.60 4.77 3. London.24 5.01 1.37 2. if west. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.49 5. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. An ordinary compass. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The + means that the clock is faster. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. will enable one to set the dial.93 6. after allowing for the declination. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.46 5. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.89 3.34 5. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.49 3. 3. Mitchell.72 5. it will be faster.50 55 . Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.53 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. 25.50 .add those marked + subtract those Marked . Iowa.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Sept.30 2. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. each article can be labelled with the name. 900 Chicago. Sun time to local mean time.06 2.71 2.98 4. April 16. then the watch is slower.

After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. When putting on the tinfoil.. the length of which is about 5 ft. . The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Partisan. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 1. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. 3. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.

Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. about 4 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. is shown in Fig. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. which are a part of the axe. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 7. A gisarm or glaive. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. . The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails.. long. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. the holes being about 1/4 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. long with a round wooden handle. long. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The edges are sharp. sharp on the outer edges. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 5. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 8. long with a round staff or handle. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. It is about 6 ft. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. press it well into the carved depressions. This weapon is about 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft.which is square. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. in diameter. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. used about the seventeenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 6 ft. The spear is steel. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in.

Cut all the cords the same length. are put in place. They can be made of various materials. 2 and 3.-Contributed by R. as shown in Fig. or in holes punched in a leather strap. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. B. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. used for spacing and binding the whole together. H. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. Ohio. 5. This is important to secure neatness. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. In Figs. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. the cross cords. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. The twisted cross cords should . Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Workman. 1.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. are less durable and will quickly show wear. the most durable being bamboo. 4. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. apart. Loudonville. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood.

Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Harrer. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. shaped as shown at C. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. To remedy this. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. -Contributed by Geo. for a length extending from a point 2 in.be of such material. as shown at B. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. wide. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. M. Lockport. in which was placed a piece of glass. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. below the top to within 1/4 in. This was turned over the top of the other can. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. 3 in. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . of the bottom. La. New York. A slit was cut in the bottom. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. bamboo or rolled paper. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. New Orleans. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Four V-shaped notches were cut. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle.

the brass is loosened from the block. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Newburgh. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This plank. --Contributed by Chas. N. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. After this is finished. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. H. Ill. Shay. --Contributed by W. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. --Contributed by Joseph H. giving the appearance of hammered brass. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Cal. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine.tape from sticking to the carpet. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. about 1/16 in. Schaffner. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. and two along the side for attaching the staff. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Pasadena. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. wide. Maywood. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. do not throw away the gloves. This should be done gradually. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. turned over but not fastened. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Sanford. Y. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. is shown in the accompanying sketch.

Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. in diameter. -Contributed by W. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond. bent as shown. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. A. --E. K. Jaquythe. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Oak Park. Cal. Unlike most clocks. Ill. the pendulum swings .

such as this one. --Contributed by V. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. C. In using this method. away. wide that is perfectly flat. Metzech. about 6 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. long and at each side of this. A. the center one being 2-3/4 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. to the first one with screws or glue. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. 7-1/2 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and the other two 2-5/8 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. 5/16 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. high and 1/4 in. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Secure a board.. B. high. 3/4 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Now place the board to be joined. Fasten another board. are secured in the base bar. bearing on the latter. wide. only have the opposite side up. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. is an electromagnet. about 12 in. Two uprights. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. says the Scientific American. Chicago. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. thick. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. 6 in. bar. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The construction is very simple. on the board B. high. . in diameter. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. by 1-5/16 in.

square inside. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. long. plates should be made 8 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. by driving a pin through the wood. 4. Phoenixville. as shown at A. 3. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Fig. wide and 5 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. . A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Pa. 1. from one end. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The trigger. 1. or more. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. is fastened in the hole A. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. square. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. wide and 1 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Vanderslice. 2. 1.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Ohio. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Fostoria. square. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. by weight.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. -Contributed by J. rubbing varnish and turpentine. which allows 1/4 in. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Simonis. one-half the length of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the .A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 5 parts of black filler.

long. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Mass. is necessary. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. wide and about 1 ft. deep. G. DeLoof. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. A piece of metal. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Shaw. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons.lower strings. --Contributed by Thos. preferably copper. and the picture can be drawn as described. is set at an angle of 45 deg. In constructing helmets. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. keeps the strong light out when sketching. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. as shown in Fig. place tracing paper on its surface. Dartmouth. No. 1. London. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. It must be kept moist and well . There is no limit to the size of the helmet. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. and it may be made as a model or full sized. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. in the opposite end of the box. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If a plain glass is used. II. 8 in. -Contributed by Abner B. Michigan. A mirror. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. A double convex lens. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. In use. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Grand Rapids. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. says the English Mechanic. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black.

and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. brown. 3. on which to place the clay. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as shown in Fig. shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. take. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 1. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 1. The clay. will be necessary. All being ready. with a keyhole saw. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. 2. a few clay-modeling tools. and the deft use of the fingers. as in bas-relief. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig.kneaded. After the clay model is finished. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. Scraps of thin. the clay model oiled. or some thin glue. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. This being done. and left over night to soak. joined closely together. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns.

and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. 1. They are all covered with tinfoil. a few lines running down. In Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . should be modeled and made in one piece.as possible. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. owing to the clay being oiled. When the helmet is off the model. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. one for each side. This contrivance should be made of wood. the piecing could not be detected. and the ear guards in two pieces. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The whole helmet. as seen in the other part of the sketch. then another coating of glue. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Before taking it off the model. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Indiana. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. Indianapolis. or. which should be no difficult matter. the skullcap. When dry. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. When perfectly dry. and so on. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 7. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. as shown: in the design. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 5. The band is decorated with brass studs. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. with the exception of the vizor. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. a crest on top. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. In Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. square in shape. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. 9. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The center of the ear guards are perforated. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. will make it look neat.

3. JJ. The reverse side of the base. 1. 4. as shown in Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. each 4-1/2 in. 4. screws. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. A round collar of galvanized iron. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 1. 1. 4. high. This will allow the plate. Fig. Fig. E and F. as it stands a higher temperature. one fuse block. of fire clay. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 1. of mineral wool. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. If asbestos is used. or. and C. also the switch B and the fuse block C. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. with slits cut for the wires. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. about 1/4 in. is shown in Fig. of the top. one glass tube. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. 1. The holes B and C are about 3 in. GG. 1. This will make an open space between the plates. one oblong piece of wood. as shown in Fig. 3 in. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 4. is then packed down inside the collar. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. above the collar. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 12 in. one small switch. about 1 lb. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 4 lb. long. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. in diameter and 9 in. long. FF. 4. Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. of No. should extend about 1/4 in. 2. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. until it is within 1 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 22 gauge resistance wire. the fuse block. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. German-silver wire is better. wide and 15 in. Fig.same size. as shown in Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. 1 in. Fig. The plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. if this cannot be obtained. AA. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. long. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. thick sheet asbestos. and two large 3in. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. about 80 ft. AA. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 2. AA. The mineral wool. 2. if the measurements are correct. The two holes. and. thick. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. for connections.

A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. A. KK. above the rim. Cal. II. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. then. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. St. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Can.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. --Contributed by R. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. It should not be set on end. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. This completes the stove. steam will form when the current is applied. 2. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Fig. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Cover over about 1 in. Cnonyn. using care not to get it too wet. While the clay is damp. causing a short circuit. 4. As these connections cannot be soldered. The clay. Richmond. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . deep. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. It should not be left heated in this condition. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. more wire should be added. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. will slip and come in contact with each other. so that the circuit will not become broken. H. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. When this is done. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. This point marks the proper length to cut it. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. If it is not thoroughly dry. apart. Catherines. When the tile is in place. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. and pressed into it. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. If this is the case. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. as the turns of the wires. allowing a space between each turn. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. it leaves a gate for the metal. Cut a 1/2-in. when cool. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Next. A file can be used to remove any rough places. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. when heated. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Fig.

as shown. --Contributed by Andrew G. Louisville. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the frame set near a window. but 12 by 24 in. square material in any size. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Then clip a little off the . The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the pie will be damaged.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Thorne. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Ky. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. says the Photographic Times. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. and the prints will dry rapidly. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. is large enough. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them.

each 1 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The board can be raised to place . long. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. high. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 22 gauge magnet wire. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. long. Le Mars. 3. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. high. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. thick and 3 in. Fig. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. wide and 7 in. Iowa. which are fastened to the base. at GG. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The connections are made as shown in Fig. A 1/8-in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Fig. thick and 3 in. 2-1/2 in. thick. wide and 3 in. 1 and 3. 1. thereby saving time and washing. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1/2 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The upright B. 4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. for the crank. long. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 2. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. long. in diameter and about 4 in. The connecting rod E.Paper Funnel point. open out. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The driving arm D. 1. slip on two cardboard washers. 1. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1/2 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Two supports. high. 14 in. wide. in diameter. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Herron. W. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Figs. As the shaft revolves. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. as shown. -Contributed by S. An offset is bent in the center. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. causing a break in the current. each 1/2 in.

or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. In designing the roost. --Contributed by William F. bottom side up. One or more pots may be used. 3 in. . and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Mass. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. as shown in the sketch. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Stecher. in height. Dorchester. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Place the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. on a board.

. paraffin and paint or varnish. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The bottom part of the sketch. grills and gratings for doors. if it is other than straight lines. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. without any corresponding benefit. etc. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Wind the . using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Fig.. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. 1. that it is heated. will produce the pattern desired. in diameter. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. odd corners. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. ordinary glue. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. F. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. preferably.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. 1. as shown in Fig. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. windows. shelves. and give it time to dry. The materials required are rope or. when combined. adopt the method described. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Y. -Contributed by Geo. 2. Fig.Fig. Harrer. N. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. six designs are shown. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .

etc. when it will be observed that any organic matter. 1... etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. chips of iron rust. As the . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. which was used in front of a horse's head. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. but no farther. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. will be retained by the cotton. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. London.. This piece of horse armor. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. says the English Mechanic. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

It is not necessary to have smooth boards. All being ready. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as shown in the sketch. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. and will require less clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and therefore it is not described. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This triangularshaped support. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. 4. the same as in Fig. 6 and 7. This being done. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. as the surface will hold the clay. the rougher the better. then another coat of glue. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The armor is now removed from the model. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. This can be made in one piece. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 2. with the exception of the thumb shield. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. except the thumb and fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 2. but the back is not necessary. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. and the clay model oiled. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 8. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. which is separate. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. In Fig. which can be made in any size. but for .

Y. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. the foils will not move. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. 9. are better shown in Fig. If it does not hold a charge. The two pieces of foil. and the instrument is ready for use. wide and 1/2 in. 1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. La Rue. --Contributed by John G. are glued to it. two for the jaws and one a wedge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. N. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. . and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. When locating the place for the screw eyes. the two pieces of foil will draw together. fastened to the rod. 2. --Contributed by Ralph L. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. but 3-1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. the top of the rod. Goshen. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Buxton. running down the plate. long. in depth. Calif. Redondo Beach. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. will be about right. A piece of board. two in each jaw. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model.

as shown in the illustration. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. is made of a 1/4-in. as indicated in the . Bryan. pine board. When a fish is hooked. hole bored through it. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. 2-1/2 in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. The can may be bronzed. Texas. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. about 15 in. silvered. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. At a point 6 in. long. Corsicana. --Contributed by Mrs. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. from the smaller end. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. M. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.

This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. as shown.Match Holder accompanying sketch. using a piece of carbon paper. wide by 6 in. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. or even pine. punch the holes. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. When it has dried over night." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Basswood or butternut. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. A good size is 5 in. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Any kind of wood will do. Having completed the drawing. such as basswood or pine was used. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If soft wood. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Next prepare the metal holder. and trace upon it the design and outline. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. will do as well as the more expensive woods. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. thick. Polish the metal. using powdered pumice and lye. long over all. then with a nail. take a piece of thin wood.

with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Richmond. can be made on the same standards. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. If one has some insight in carving. long. thick. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. is used for the base of this instrument. each 1 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. are used for the cores of the magnets. of pure olive oil. A. . 1/2 in. long. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Two wire nails. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Jaquythe. If carving is contemplated. Cal. It is useful for photographers. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the whole being finished in linseed oil. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. --Contributed by W. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. wide and 5 in.

is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. about No. except that for the legs. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. leaving about 1/4 in. All of the parts for the armor have been described. cloth or baize to represent the legs. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. then covered with red. A rubber band. . the paper covering put on. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. 3. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. at A. --Contributed by W. says the English Mechanic. Lynas. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. in the shape shown in the sketch. similar to that used in electric bells. acts as a spring to keep the key open. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. as shown in Fig. 1. About 1 in. as shown by the dotted lines. when the key is pushed down. A piece of tin. 25 gauge. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. London. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. H. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils.

for the sake of lightness. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. in the other end. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. 2. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Instead of using brass headed nails. In one end of the piece. flat headed carriage bolt. apart. Secure two strips of wood. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. at each end. So set up. Fig. Silver paper will do very well. make the same series of eight small holes and. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. about 1 in. one to another . These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 3 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. holes. 1 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. The two pieces are bolted together. says Camera Craft.. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. By moving the position of the bolt from. apart. hole in the center. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. completes the equipment. and eight small holes. drill six 1/4-in. Take the piece shown in Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. long. A 1/4-in. not too tight.

leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. as in portraiture and the like. C over D and B. A is the first string and B is the second. 1. and lay it over the one to the right. taking the same start as for the square fob. for instance. 4. 2. 2. Then draw all four ends up snugly. lay Cover B and the one under D. A round fob is made in a similar way. doubled and run through the web of A. as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. long. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. and the one beneath C. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. D over A and C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. Fig. In this sketch. Start with one end. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. but instead of reversing . the one marked A. in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. 2. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger.

always lap one string. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. 5. especially if silk strings are used. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Rupp. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is left out at the center before starting on one side. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as at A in Fig. --Contributed by John P. 3. as in making the square fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. A loop. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. 1-1/2 in. as B. Ohio. The round fob is shown in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Monroeville. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. long. over the one to its right. the design of which is shown herewith. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. is to be made of leather.

using the reverse side. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Northville. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. door facing or door panel. filling them with wax. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. it can be easily renewed. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Mich. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. . A. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. beeswax or paraffin. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. pressing it against the wood. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Any smooth piece of steel. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Houghton. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin.

Platinum or blueprint papers work well. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. but any kind that will not stick may be used. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. The tacks should be about 1 in. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. --Contributed by O. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. those on matte paper will work best. and after wetting. says Photographic Times. thick. E and F. long. apart and driven in only part way. D. if blueprints are used. Fold together on lines C. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. J. . and about 12 in. Ill. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. place it face down in the dish. Thompson. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. New York. leaving about 1/4 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Enough plaster should. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. remaining above the surface of the board. although tin ones can be used with good success. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Select the print you wish to mount.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. N. Petersburg. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Y.

etc. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. roses. One of the . as shown in the right of the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water.. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. without mixing the solutions. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. as shown at the left in the sketch. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. filling the same about onehalf full. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. violets. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Lower into the test tube a wire. bell flowers.

take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. not too tightly. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. should be soldered to the box. A rod that will fit the brass tube. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Shabino. South Dakota. thick. 3.. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The tin horn can be easily made. 1-7/8 in. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 1. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The diaphragm. long. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. but which will not wobble loose. Fig. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The sound box. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. is about 2-1/2 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. or delicate tints of the egg. made of heavy tin. When soldering these parts together. 2. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. to keep the core from coming off in turning. as shown. as shown in the sketch. The first point should be ground blunt. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. turned a little tapering. shading. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Millstown. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. long and made of wood. L. and at the larger end. about 1/8s in. --Contributed by L.

and. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr. Chicago.Contributed by E. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. E. Colo. Gold. wondering what it was. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. mice in the bottom. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. put a board on top. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Ill.

and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. . Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Pereira. Y. Buffalo. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Can. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. --Contributed by Lyndwode. N.

through which several holes have been punched. as it can be made quickly in any size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. and at one end of the stick fasten. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. longer than the length of the can. by means of a flatheaded tack. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. --Contributed by W. De Loof. Grand Rapids. Put a small nail 2 in. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Jaquythe. cut round. a piece of tin. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. A. --Contributed by Thos. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Cal. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. This cart has no axle. Richmond. Mich. above the end of the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle.

cut in the center of the rounding edge. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches.1. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 2. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The candles. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. wide and as long as the box. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. of course. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Fig. as shown. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Pa. New Orleans. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Notches 1/8 in. wide and 1/8 in. apart. board. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. long. deep and 3 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. --Contributed by James M. 1 ft. were below the level of the bullseye. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 1. wide. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1/4 in. Doylestown. 2 in. The baseboard and top are separable. 2. wide and 3 ft. Kane. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. I reversed a door gong. thick. La. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.

--Contributed by Nellie Conlon. as shown in Fig. to prevent its scratching the desk top. by cutting away the ends. Worcester. scissors. When not in use. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. when placed as in Fig. The block can also be used as a paperweight. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. 1. wide rubber bands or felt. the blade is put back into the groove . Cover the block with rubber. will. 3. stone or wood. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form.. dressing one surface of each piece. the reason being that if both were solid. Wood. After completing the handle. it can be removed without marring the casing. etc. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. After the glue has dried. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together.Book Back Holders metal. --Contributed by G. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. the shelf could not be put on the window. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Mass. A. This device is very convenient for invalids. For the handle. wide into each side of the casing. Ia. take two pieces of hard wood. Needles. West Union. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. can be picked up without any trouble.

--Contributed by Maud McKee. Pa. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Ohio. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Cleveland. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. 1. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. S. . --Contributed by H. 2. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A notch is cut in one side. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Erie. If desired. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. A. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Mass. Malden. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. -Contributed by W. long. Jacobs. Hutchins. thus carrying the car up the incline. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 1 in. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it.

. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and an awl and hammer.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. The letters can be put on afterward. will be needed. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. a board on which to work it. One sheet of metal. . N. Prepare a design for the front. 6 by 9-1/2 in. If one such as is shown is to be used. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. This will insure having all parts alike.J. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point.

The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 3/4 part. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. paste the paper design right on the metal. which is desirable. 2 parts white vitriol. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. as shown. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. applied by means of a brush. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. One coat will do. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing." In all appearance. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. only the marginal line is to be pierced. to right angles. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. behind or through the center of a table leg. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. placed on a table. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. but weird and distant. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. turpentine. 1/4 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. On the back. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. mandolin or guitar. if desired. 1 part. varnish. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. or. The stick may be placed by the side of. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick.Fasten the metal to the board. flat brush. . together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. a violin. in the waste metal. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. So impressive are the results. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. says Master Painter. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Remove the metal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The music will not sound natural. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. If any polishing is required.

after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. it might be difficult.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. With proper tools this is easy. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The longest piece. square bar iron. is bent square so as to form two uprights. each 6 in. each 28 in. London. apart. says Work. without them. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. round-head machine screws. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long and measuring 26 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. are shaped as shown in Fig. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long. long and spread about 8 in. and is easy to construct. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. wide. across the top. . thick by 1/2 in. 3. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Two pairs of feet. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size.

D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. is held by the brads.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. A. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The design is formed in the lead. and the base border. on it as shown. The glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. as shown in Fig. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. C. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. in the grooves of the borders. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. lead. After the glass is cut. using rosin as a flux. 7. While the piece of lead D. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. better still. cut a long piece of lead. 5. 6. Place the corner piece of glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. B. After the joints are soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the latter being tapped to . 4. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The brads are then removed. or.

as shown in Fig. This ring can be made of 1-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. N.the base of the clip. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. --Contributed by W. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Bore a 5/8-in.. holes through their centers. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. then drill a 3/4-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Secure a post. This . Concrete is much better if it can be secured. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. rocker bolt. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Two styles of hand holds are shown. bolt. 8. plank about 12 ft. plates. Camden. one on each side and central with the hole. H. square and of the length given in the drawing. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Make three washers 3-in. Bore a 3/4-in. bolt. long. and two wood blocks. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The center pin is 3/4-in. rounded at the top as shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. in diameter and about 9 in. long. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. A and B. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. J. then flatten its end on the under side. Dreier. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. not less than 4 in. wood screws in each washer. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Jr.

straight-grained hickory. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. can make a first class gymnasium. from one edge. 1. long. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. bolts and rope. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 16 screws. 9 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. by 3 ft. by 6-1/2 ft. bit. La. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 4 in. screws. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. because it will not stand the weather.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 4 in. The four 7-in. and some one can swing an axe. Draw a line on the four 7-in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. shanks. square by 5 ft. by 2 ft. in diameter and 7 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. If trees are convenient. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. chestnut or ash. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 3/4 by 3 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1 by 7 in. New Orleans. 1-1/4in. 4 pieces. hickory. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. apart for a distance of 3 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 4 pieces. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. horse and rings. long. 2 by 4 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. maple. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. long. 7 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 2-1/2 in. of 1/4-in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 3 in. long and 1 piece. 1/2 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 50 ft. 4 filler pieces. To substitute small.

8 in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. at each end. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly... The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. 2. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. apart. so the 1/2-in.bored. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. piece of wood. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. boards coincide. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. deep and remove all loose dirt. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Bore a 9/16-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. apart. from the end. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. each 3 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather.

the effect is very striking. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. was at its height. and ascends the stem.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and then passes in a curve across the base. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. it follows the edge for about 1 in. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and materially heightened the illusion. but most deceptive at dusk. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. not even the tumbler. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. When the interest of the crowd. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. passing through a screweye at either end. about 100 ft. just visible against the dark evening sky.. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. And all he used was a black thread. which at once gathered. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. in an endless belt. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. If the tumbler is rotated. it is taken to the edge of the foot. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. W. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. not much to look at in daytime. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. ." which skimmed along the distant horizon. apart. disappearing only to reappear again. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.

2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 knee braces. 2 cross braces. long. 8 bolts. long and 1 doz. 2 base pieces. long. 2 side braces. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. deep. so the point will be on top. La. 8 in. 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. To make the apparatus. 2 by 3 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. square and 51/2 ft. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. by 3 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 6 in. long. 1. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 by 4 in. square and 6 ft. 7 in. 2 in. 8 in. by 10 ft. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. by 7 ft. Bevel the ends of . large spikes. 2 by 4 in. long. 4 bolts. from either side of the center. long. long. beginning at a point 9 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. preferably cedar.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 wood screws. A wire about No. by 2 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Fig. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. wide and 1 in. and turned in a spiral D. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The cork will come out easily. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. New Orleans.

. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. and countersinking the heads. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. etc. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. ( To be Continued. --Contributed by W. The wood so treated will last for years. If using mill-cut lumber. additional long. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. equipped with a strainer. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. A. of 7 ft. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. These will allow the ladle to be turned.the knee braces. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. except the bars. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Jaquythe. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. as shown in the diagram. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. leave it undressed. which face each other. A large sized ladle. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Cal. using four of the 7-in bolts. . Richmond. Two endpieces must be made. jellies. but even unpainted they are very durable. save the bars. so the bolts in both will not meet. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. screws. leaving the strainer always in position. After the trenches are dug.

An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. milling machine. partly a barrier for jumps. of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. drill press or planer.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Oil. . In order to accomplish this experiment. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. or various cutting compounds of oil. thus holding the pail as shown. A. which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail.

Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 2 bases. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Hand holds must be provided next. square by 5-1/2 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. square by 5 ft. apart. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. in the ground. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 1 cross brace. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. bolts. bolts. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. but 5 ft. wood yard or from the woods. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. long. by 3 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 3 in. 1 in. in diameter--the larger the better. bolts. 7 in. 4 in. 4 in. is a good length. These are placed 18 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. bolt. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. ten 1/2-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The material required is as follows: Two posts. These are well nailed in place. long. long. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. by 3 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds.. by 3 ft. from each end.. 4 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 4-1/2 in. To construct. Procure from a saw mill. 2 adjusting pieces. and free from knots. projections and splinters. 2 by 4 in. The round part of this log must be planed. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. apart in a central position on the horse. 4 knee braces. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in.

then bending to the shape desired. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Jaquythe. water. Also. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. such as a dent. over and around. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. pipe and fittings. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Cal. Richmond. A. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. but nevertheless. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape.horse top. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Such a hand sled can be made in a . it is caused by an overloaded shell. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by some obstruction. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. etc. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. no one is responsible but himself. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. snow.

The end elevation. Ontario. --Contributed by Arthur E. Paris. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Joerin. Mass. at E and F. . This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. when straightened out. These. is much better than a wood sled. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. will give the length. when complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. France. are all the tools necessary. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Boston. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Noble. which. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. then run a string over each part. Vener. in width and 1/32 in. 1/4 or 3/16 in.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 2. thick. --Contributed by J. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. W. 1.

The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 4. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. nor that which is partly oxidized. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. are nailed. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The method shown in Figs. . It is best to use soft water. 3. AA and BB. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig.

3. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Broad lines can be made. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 8 and 9. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 1). 2. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 2. The materials used are: backbone. class ice-yacht. . or various rulings may be made. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. or unequal widths as in Fig. as shown in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 4. as shown in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The point should extend about 11/2 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The headstock is made of two tees. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. Both the lower . All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. a tee and a forging. bent and drilled as shown. pipe. It can be made longer or shorter. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1. about 30 in.Fig. pins to keep them from turning. long. but if it is made much longer. 1-Details of Lathe sort. out from the collar. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe.

--Contributed by W. Laporte. thick as desired. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. or a key can be used as well. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Indiana.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. --Contributed by W. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. Fruitvale. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Held. Boissevain. Cal. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. --Contributed by M. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. M. To do this. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. . Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. else taper turning will result. and will answer for a great variety of work. Musgrove. 2. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. W. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. but also their insulating properties. 2. 1. a corresponding line made on this. Man. It is about 1 in. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. UpDeGraff. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient.

the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. --Contributed by E. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. as shown.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. In use. J. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Ark. To obviate this. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. long. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Cline. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.

Denver. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Colo. on starting the lathe. New Orleans. the drill does not need the tool.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. --Contributed by Walter W. White. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. and when once in true up to its size. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. face off the end of the piece. if this method is followed: First. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. This prevents the drill from wobbling. centering is just one operation too many. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. La. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. After being entered. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. take .

Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. unknown to the spectators. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and can be varied to suit the performer. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. vanishing wand. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. The glass tube B. by applying caustic soda or . If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. After the wand is removed. In doing this. The handkerchief rod. a bout 1/2 in. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. the cap is placed over the paper tube. all the better. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. shown at C. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. shorter t h a n the wand. as shown in D. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. says the Sphinx. is put into the paper tube A. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover.

The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. long. thick. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. This dimension and those for the frets . A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 End. 1/4 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. As the cement softens. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. can be made by the home mechanic. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Glue the neck to the box. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. as shown by K. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and glue it to the neck at F. cut to any shape desired. The sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1 Neck. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. with the back side rounding. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Glue strips of soft wood.potash around the edges of the letters. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. With care and patience. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 Bottom. 1. 3/16. Cut a piece of hard wood. 2 Sides. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. End. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. by 14 by 17 in.

Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. or backbone. in diameter. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. long is used for a keel. Stoddard. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. --Contributed by Chas. Carbondale. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. H. Norwalk. thick and about 1 ft. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol.should be made accurately. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins.Pa. Frary. A board 1 in. O. When it is completed you will have a canoe. but it is not. -Contributed by J. 3/16 in. Six holes. toward each end. E. and beveled . This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. 1) on which to stretch the paper.

procure at a carriage factory. as shown in Fig. long. Fig. or similar material. 4. b. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. C. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. and. two strips of wood (b. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. In drying. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 1 and 2. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. The cross-boards (B.) in notches. as they are apt to do. when made of green elm. probably. For the gunwales (a. 3). 3. or other place. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. long are required. Fig. Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms. b. 4). Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. by means of a string or wire. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. wide by 26 in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3/8 in. are next put in. Fig. with long stout screws. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 3. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. buy some split cane or rattan. B. twigs 5 or 6 ft. as shown in Fig. thick. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. in thickness and should be cut. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. will answer nearly as well. These are better. . Shape these as shown by A. thick. some tight strips of ash. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 2). It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 2). so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. and are not fastened. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B. as before described. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. in such cases. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. and so. C. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. The ribs.. Green wood is preferable. which are easily made of long. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 1. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. but before doing this. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. apart. a. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 13 in. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. b. Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. slender switches of osier willow. 3). the loose strips of ash (b. 2. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. such as hazel or birch. Any tough.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A.

if it has been properly constructed of good material. Fig. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and as soon as that has soaked in. apply a second coat of the same varnish. and steady in the water. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. B. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. 5). When the paper is dry. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and very tough. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. and held in place by means of small clamps. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. but neither stiff nor very thick. of very strong wrapping-paper. Being made in long rolls. You may put in . It should be smooth on the surface. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. If not.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. It should be drawn tight along the edges. however. after wetting it. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. but with less turpentine. If the paper be 1 yd. preferably iron. When thoroughly dry. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then take some of the split rattan and. wide. and light oars. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. The paper is then trimmed.

and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Drive the lower nail first. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 2. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. We procured a box and made a frame. to fit it easily. 5.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 1 and the end in . then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. fore and aft. and make a movable seat (A. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. 1. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.

--Contributed by Albert Niemann. 3. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the result is. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. being softer where the flame has been applied. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Pittsburg. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A good way to handle this work. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 4. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Pa. This way has its drawbacks. Close the other end with the same operation. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long.Fig. This is an easy . The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. 5. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. this makes the tube airtight. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat.

the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. rivet punch. very rapid progress can be made. flat and round-nosed pliers. 23 gauge. After the bulb is formed. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. above the work and striking it with the hammer. three. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Give the metal a circular motion. also trace the decorative design. second. fourth. extra metal all around. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. fifth. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. metal shears. Seventh. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. file. with a piece of carbon paper. four. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. third. then reverse. -Contributed by A. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes.way to make a thermometer tube. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. thin screw. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. above the metal. The candle holders may have two. Sixth. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. or six arms. Oswald. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall.

drip cup. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. and holder. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Metal polish of any kind will do. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Having pierced the bracket. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.

The boom. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Heat 6-1/2 oz. winding the ends where they came together with wire. the stick at the bottom of the sail. F. sugar 1 part. Shiloh. A saw. I steer with the front wheel. thus it was utilized. hammer. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. except they had wheels instead of runners. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. J.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and water 24 parts. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and in a week . N. smooth it down and then remove as before. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. alcohol 2 parts. using a steel pen. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. is a broomstick. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. they were like an ice boat with a sail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. on a water bath. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. if it has not absorbed too much ink. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. when it will be ready for use. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. The gaff. glycerine 4 parts. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. deep. and add the gelatine. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Soak 1 oz. Fifty. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Mother let me have a sheet. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. all the rest I found. Twenty cents was all I spent. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and brace and bit were the tools used. and other things as they were needed. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. and it will be ready for future use. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

but if such a box is not found. Fig. high. well seasoned pine. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. thick. at a point 1 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. and the work carefully done. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. at a distance of 24 ft. or a lens of 12-in. wide. DD. and 14 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. focus enlarging a 3-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. as desired. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. wire brads. A and B. are . battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. 1. and the lens slide. The slide support. provided the material is of metal. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. slide to about 6 ft. wide and 15 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. and. or glue. A table. describe a 9-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. above the center. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. This ring is made up from two rings. 8 in. G. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. H. The board is centered both ways.. E. 3. long. If a small saw is used. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. about 2 ft. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard.

Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. P. the water at once extinguishes the flame. JJ. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.constructed to slip easily on the table. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. of safe. A sheet . All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. placed on the water. St. the strips II serving as guides. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Minn. E. but not long enough. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. apply two coats of shellac varnish. To reach the water. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Small strips of tin. The arrangement is quite safe as. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr.-Contributed by G. B. Paul. light burning oil. should the glass happen to upset.

Fig. 3. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Crawford. by 12 ft. 1. to cover the mattresses.H. from a tent company. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3 in. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . --Contributed by J. 2. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 3. N. If one of these clips is not at hand. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Schenectady. 9 in. then the corners on one end are doubled over. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 12 ft. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Y. Fig. I ordered a canvas bag. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig.

Fold two strips of light cardboard. apart. 1/2 in. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 3 to swing freely on the tack. drill two 3/16 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Do not use too strong a rubber. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fig. Pa. A Film Washing Trough [331] . so as to form two oblong boxes. D. A rubber band. wide. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. 1. thick. Colo. 1/2 in. first mark the binding-post A. through which the indicator works. for amperes and the other post. 2. holes in the edge. 3/4 in. to keep it from unwinding. Attach a piece of steel rod. C. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 2. V. long and 3/16 in. open on the edges. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. An arc is cut in the paper. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. insulating them from the case with cardboard. To calibrate the instrument. Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 1. Denver. White. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. and insert two binding-posts. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 2. Teasdale.each edge. in the center coil. Warren. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. long. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. --Contributed by Walter W.

Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Wood Burning [331] . apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. M. Place this can on one end of the trough. O. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Dayton. Hunting. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. as shown. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. with the large hole up.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a 1/4-in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by M.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place.

but not very thick.Y. 2. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thick. If the cork is adjusted properly. Upper Troy. 1.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. as shown in the sketch. long. --Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. --Contributed by Fred W. Place the small bottle in as before. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Whitehouse. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. many puzzling effects may be obtained. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. 3/4 in. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. N. Auburn. This will make a very pretty ornament. provided the bottle is wide. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. If the small bottle used is opaque. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. wide and 4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom.

J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. --Contributed by D. G. were constructed of 1-in. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. was 1/4in. to the shaft. which extended to the ground. Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. On a 1000-ft. iron rod. B. W. If a transmitter is used. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. pulley F. pulley. 4. high without the upper half. was keyed to shaft C. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Fig. K. thick and 3 in. 2 ft. even in a light breeze. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. I.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which was 6 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick. 1. The 21/2-in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. thick. Both bearings were made in this manner. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. long. in diameter and 1 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. line. The shaft C. as shown in Fig. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. wide. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. Its smaller parts. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. by the method shown in Fig. Fig. 2. sugar pine on account of its softness. The wire L was put . which was nailed to the face plate. A staple. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. such as blades and pulleys. Milter. 3. Fig.

with brass headed furniture tacks. 1. This completes the receiver or sounder. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Fig. This board was 12 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The bed plate D. Fig. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. 25 ft. long and bend it as shown at A. washers were placed under pulley F. hole for the shaft G was in the center. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 0. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Fig. If you have no bell. wide and 1 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. for instance. R. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole was bored for it. G. The other lid. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. apart in the tower. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. There a 1/4-in. as. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. long. long and bend it as . 2. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. a 1/2-in. 1. long and 1/2 in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Fig. across the thin edge of a board. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. long. To make the key. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. with all parts in place. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 3 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The power was put to various uses. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. through the latter. 1) 4 in. Fig. strips. when the windmill needed oiling. To lessen the friction here. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. cut out another piece of tin (X. and was cut the shape shown. The smaller one. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. was tacked. top down also. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 6. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. was 2 ft. 5. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. H. long and 3 in. pine 18 by 12 in. 1. in the center of the board P. in diameter.

1. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. -Contributed by John R. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. Going back to Fig. McConnell. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. as shown at Water. When tired of this instrument. Before tacking it to the board. fitted with paddles as at M. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. although it can be made with but two. after the manner of bicycle wheels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Now. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. causing a buzzing sound. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle.shown. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. and. using cleats to hold the board frame. as indicated. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. at the front. Thus a center drive is made. By adjusting the coils. like many another device boys make. The rear barrels are. 2. nor can they be made perfectly airtight.

How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 3. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. feet on the pedals. there will not be much friction. If the journals thus made are well oiled. copper piping and brass tubing for base. 1. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. as shown in Fig. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. To propel it. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. or even a little houseboat. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. There is no danger. which will give any amount of pleasure. The speed is slow at first. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount .

so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. A. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. D. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Shape small blocks of boxwood. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. or it may be put to other uses if desired.of pleasure for a little work. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 1. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 2. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Fig. B. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. 2. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. C. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. and so creating a false circuit. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. Turn a small circle of wood. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Fig. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose.

Pa. To operate this. J. near the bed. S. brass rod. G. C. while lying in bed. --Contributed by Geo. 4-1/2 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. bell. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. 3/8 in. When alarm goes off. T. Ogden. some glue will secure them. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. after two turns have been made on the key. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Swissvale. To get the cylinder into its carriage. wire from batteries to switch. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. X. dry batteries. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . To throw on light throw levers to the left. --Contributed by C. F. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. long. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. shelf. B. copper tubing. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. Brinkerhoff. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. and pulled tight. C.india rubber tubing. 5-1/4 by 10 in. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. brass strip. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. which stops bell ringing. Utah. Throw lever off from the right to center. such as is used for cycle valves. E. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. contact post. wide and 1/16 in. wire from bell to switch. after setting alarm.. switch. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. D. wire from light to switch. long. thick. if too small. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Chatland. or 1/4in. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. bracket. set alarm key as shown in diagram. I. 4 in. key of alarm clock. H. In placing clock on shelf. by having the switch on the baseboard.

as in Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. as at A. 3. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. will do the heating. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 1/4 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. S. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as . scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as at B. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. wide. for instance. which can be made of an old can. Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 2. 1. Chapman. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Make a shoulder. a bed warmer. Make the spindle as in Fig. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. being careful not to get the sand in it. in diameter. about 6 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. making it as true and smooth as possible. about 3-1/2 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 2. A flannel bag. place stick and all in a pail of sand. long. letting it extend 3/4 in. 1. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Minn. as at A. from one end. 4 in. Fig. This is to form the fuse hole. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. in diameter. Having finished this. --Contributed by Chas. Lanesboro.

deep. this is to keep the edges from splitting. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 6 in. 1. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and 6 ft. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 1 in. long. 3/8 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. A piece of oak. or hickory. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. spring and arrows. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 5/8 in. thick. wide and 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. Joerin. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 3 ft. long. long. good straight-grained pine will do. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. ash. The illustration shows how this is done. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 11/2 in. thick. A piece of tin.

having the latter swing quite freely. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. E. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 7. or through the necessity of. better still. To throw the arrow.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. wide at each end. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. thick. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. as shown in Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. from the opposite end. To shoot the crossbow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Ill. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. --Contributed by O. place the arrow in the groove. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 8. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 9. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. in diameter. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The bow is not fastened in the stock. from the end of the stock. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Wilmette. it lifts the spring up. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. 6. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Fig. When the trigger is pulled. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The stick for the bow. and one for the trigger 12 in. Trownes. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The trigger. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. 2. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. A spring. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Such a temporary safe light may be . which is 1/4 in. 4. Fig.

apart. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. make the frame of the wigwam. Moreover. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. respectively. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. making lighting and trimming convenient. C. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. it is the easiest camp to make. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. This lamp is safe. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. the bark lean-to is a . from the ground. is used as a door. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Remove one end. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. By chopping the trunk almost through. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The cut should be about 5 ft. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Remove the bottom of the box. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. says Photo Era. since the flame of the candle is above A. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The hinged cover E. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. and replace as shown at B. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and nail it in position as shown at A. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better.

If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. will dry flat. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. piled 2 or 3 ft. wide. wide and 6 ft. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Sheets of bark. deep and covered with blankets. and split the tops with an ax. thick. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long. a 2-in. . so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and when the camp is pitched. selecting a site for a camp. spruce. In the early summer. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Where bark is used. nails are necessary to hold it in place. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Tongs are very useful in camp. long and 1-1/2 in. For a permanent camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. are a convenient size for camp construction. make the best kind of a camp bed. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. 3 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A piece of elm or hickory. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. long and 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. and cedar. For a foot in the middle of the stick. 6 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock.

hinges. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

wide. the interior can.. deep and 4 in. Doylestown. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Kane. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. about 4 in. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. I drove a small cork. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. and provide a cover or door. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Fig. A. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. changing the water both morning and night. Pa. 1. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. --Contributed by James M. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. to another . At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. B. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. B.

which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. to pass through an increasing resistance.glass tube. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. This makes . and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. 3. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 2. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. E. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. such as ether. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. fused into one side. until. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The diagram. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. The current is thus compelled. C. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. Fig. limit. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. a liquid. 4 and 5). for instance. which project inside and outside of the tube. if necessary. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered.

Alpena. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. assemble and rivet them solidly. thicker. Fig. --Contributed by Frank Jermin.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. as shown in Fig. If the thickness is sufficient. 2. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. 3. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. or even 1/16 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. on a lathe. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. which will make it uniform in size. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. thick. set at 1/8 in. brass or iron. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. mark off a space. screws. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. bent at right angles as shown. to allow for finishing. by turning the lathe with the hand. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. is composed of wrought sheet iron. tap. 3-3/8 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. clamp the template. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. but merely discolored. These holes are for the bearing studs. drill the four rivet holes. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. hole is . Then the field can be finished to these marks. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. in diameter. thick. in diameter. larger than the dimensions given. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 1. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Fig. A 5/8in. Before removing the field from the lathe. brass. Michigan. When the frame is finished so far. 3-3/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. two holes. 4-1/2 in. therefore. making it 1/16 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. when several pieces are placed together. which may be of any thickness so that. between centers. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. The bearing studs are now made. cannot be used so often. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. as shown in the left-hand sketch. they will make a frame 3/4 in. After cleaning them with the solution. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. A. or pattern. and for the outside of the frame. After the template is marked out.

brass rod is inserted. 4.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. solder them to the supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and build up the solder well. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. The shaft of the armature. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. is turned up from machine steel. or otherwise finished. into which a piece of 5/8-in. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. When the bearings are located. file them out to make the proper adjustment.

3. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Armature-Ring Core. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 7. 5. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 3. as shown in Fig. When annealed. threaded. to allow for finishing to size. or segments. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. by 1-1/2 in. thick. being formed for the ends. When this is accomplished. Find the centers of each segment at one end. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 1/8 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. thick. 8. 6. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. and then they are soaked in warm water. washers. Make the core 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. inside diameter. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Procure 12 strips of mica. wide. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. as shown in Fig. as shown m Fig. 6. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Rivet them together. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. deep and 7/16 in. thick are cut like the pattern. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 1-1/8 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 9. After the pieces are cut out. then drill a 1/8-in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 3/4 in. and held with a setscrew. as shown in Fig. thick. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. holes through them for rivets. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. brass rod. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The pins are made of brass. 3/4 in. thick and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. hole and tap it for a pin. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. wide. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. After they . rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. sheet fiber.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron..

After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. In starting to wind. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The winding is started at A. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. being required. until the 12 slots are filled. To connect the wires. of No. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Run one end of the field wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 5. sheet fiber. The two ends are joined at B. the two ends of the wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. and bring the end of the wire out at B. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. thick. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. shown at B. of the wire. Fig. 1. The source of current is connected to the terminals. shown at A. After one coil. about 100 ft. of the end to protrude. yet it shows a series of . 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. which will take 50 ft.have dried. they are glued to the core insulation. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. or side. This winding is for a series motor. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. and wind on four layers. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. wide and 1 in. are soldered together. long. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The field is wound with No. When the glue is set. 6 in. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Fig. after the motor is on the stand. 8 in. 1. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. by bending the end around one of the projections. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. sheet fiber. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. All connections should be securely soldered.

as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. A 1/2-in. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . or. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. and one. which serves as the ground wire. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Nine wires run from the timer. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. still more simply. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. is fastened to the metallic body. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. one from each of the eight contacts. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started.

of the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in.The Wind Vane. Without this attachment. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. It should be . Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 6 in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. circle. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. thus giving 16 different directions. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. board. Covering these is a thin. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. long. 45 deg. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill.

Fill the box with any handy ballast. To work these outlines. or. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. according to who is going to use it. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Y. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. will be enough for the two sides. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. To make it. thus making a universal joint. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. also a piece of new carpet. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover.about 6 ft. Buffalo. and securely nail on the top of the box. if not too high." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. long to give the best results. -Contributed by James L. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. will answer the purpose just as well. Before tacking the fourth side. N. making it heavy or light. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. will be sufficient. is most satisfactory. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. and about 6 in. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Blackmer. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. high. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Place the leather on some level. however. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. though a special knife. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. . called a chip carving knife. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. 14 by 18 in. Cut 3-in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. away from it. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of common salt and 10 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. square and tying a piece of . temporary lameness. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. B. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. rather than the smooth side. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap.will do if a good stout needle is used. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Morse. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. or a hip that has been wrenched. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. and tie them together securely at the bottom. of water. Y. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Syracuse. a needle and some feathers. If a fire breaks out. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. as in cases of a sprained ankle. N.

Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Hellwig. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. N. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. made up of four layers of No. but not sharp. thus helping the rats to enter. board all around the bottom on the inside. deep.J. setting traps.. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. . When the distance to produce the right sound is found. B. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. --Contributed by J. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The end is filed to an edge. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. and a coil of wire. The coil is 1 in. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. 1/8 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. F. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The strings should be about 15 in. laying poisoned meat and meal. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. There is a 1-in. Gordon Dempsey. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The diaphragm C. A. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. and the receiver is ready for use. Ashland. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Albany. cut to the length of the spool. G. commonly called tintype tin. wound on the head end. wide and 1/16 in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin.string to each corner. high. Paterson. N. The body of the receiver. One end is removed entirely. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Wis. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. which is the essential part of the instrument. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. long. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. and tacked it to the boards. E. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. This not only keeps the rats out. Y. is cut on the wood. --Contributed by John A. etc. as shown. A small wooden or fiber end. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. the corners being wired. long. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in.

gold. begin with the smallest scrolls. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and bend each strip in shape. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. wide. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. a piece of small wire. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. to . better still. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. To clean small articles. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Take a piece of string or.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water.

Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. 6-3/8 in. as shown in the sketch. 4-1/4 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. About 1 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from the lines EF on the piece. wide when stitching up the purse. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Work down the outside line of the design. thus raising it. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from E to F. sharp pencil. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Press or model down the leather all around the design. After taking off the pattern. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.which the supports are fastened with rivets. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. 3-1/2 in. using a duller point of the tool. through which to slip the fly AGH. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. 3-1/4 in. and does not require coloring. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. . Fold the leather on the line EF..000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Trace also the line around the purse. from C to D.. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.

Then nail the wheel down firmly. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. then nail it. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 2. and which will be very interesting. with the open side down. with a compass saw. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. around the wheel. and the projections B. square. following the dotted lines. b. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. with the largest side down. It is neat and efficient. thick. When it is finished. This also should be slightly beveled. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 1 was cut. and a model for speed and power. and tack the other piece slightly. 1/2 in. leaving the lug a. It can be made without the use of a lathe. all the way around. Make the lug 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Cut off six pieces 12 in. being cast in wooden molds. with pins or small nails. 3. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Fit this to the two . (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. as well as useful. as shown in Fig. First. deep. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. long. the "open" side. deep. by 12 ft. 1.

hole entirely through at the same place. slightly beveled. and clean all the shavings out of it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. bolts. 4. Now take another of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. holes through it. Now put mold No. After it is finished.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. 1. in the center of it. and boring a 3/8-in. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole bored through its center. then bolt it together. as shown by the . and bore six 1/4-in. and lay it away to dry. deep.pieces just finished. hole 1/4 in.

place it under the drill. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 1. and run in babbitt metal again. and lay it away to dry. one in the lug. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. wide and 16 in. and the other in the base. This is mold No. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. long. place the entire machine in a vise.1. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. 6. instead of the right-handed piece. 6. Let it stand for half an hour. Then bolt the castings together. fasten a 3/8-in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in.1. This is the same as Fig. until it is full. and drill them in the same manner. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and bore three 1/4-in. d. see that the bolts are all tight. holes at d. true it up with a square. b. and pour babbitt metal into it. so that it will turn easily. and two 1/4-in. Put this together in mold No. the other right-handed. and 3/8-in. lay it on a level place. Pour metal into mold No. only the one is left-handed. and drill it entirely through. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. take an ordinary brace. where the casting did not fill out. in diameter must now be obtained. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. holes. and pouring metal in to fill it up. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Fig. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. from the one end. 5. screw down. Now take mold No.black dots in Fig. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. long.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. drill in it. over the defective part.2. as shown in illustration. 4. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. After it is fitted in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Now cut out one of the 12-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. This is for a shaft. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and connect to the boiler. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. put the top of the brace through this hole. Using the Brace . as shown by the black dots in Fig.2. one in the projections.

and if instructions have been carefully followed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.. while it is running at full speed. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and the other 8 ft. with a boss and a set screw. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Then take a knife or a chisel. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. At each end of the 6ft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. will do good service. long. Plan of Ice Boat . How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. one 6 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and. piece and at right angles to it.

at the top. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in the top before the skate is put on. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. so much the better will be your boat. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. where they often did considerable damage. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. boards to make the platform. The spar should be 9 ft. distant. long. should be of hardwood. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. long. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. in front of the rudder block. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. plank. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. leaving 1 ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This fits in the square hole. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Fig. 3. O