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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Noble. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Fig. as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. To throw a boomerang. 2 -. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 2. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. apart. as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. away. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. with the hollow side away from you. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Toronto. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. distant. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Ontario. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 1. The pieces are then dressed round. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2. It is held in this curve until dry. E. A piece of plank 12 in. 1. long will make six boomerangs. --Contributed by J.Fig. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown.

it is not essential to the support of the walls. First. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. forcing it down closely. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. or rather no bottom at all. long. 6 in. A wall. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. blocks . While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. high and 4 or 5 in. but about 12 in. made of 6-in. the block will drop out. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and with a movable bottom. minus the top. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. however. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. dry snow will not pack easily. thick. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. A very light. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. one inside of the circle and the other outside. which makes the building simpler and easier. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack.

a. Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. or an old safe dial will do. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Fig. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. 3 -. which can be made of wood. There is no outward thrust.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. It also keeps them out. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. is 6 or 8 in. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Union.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. above the ground. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. 2. 3. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. wide. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 2. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. 1. Goodbrod. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. long and 1 in. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. D. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 1. C. The piece of wood. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A nail. and the young architect can imitate them. --Contributed by Geo. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. which is about 1 ft. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Ore.

To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. S. one pair of special hinges. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. as the weight always draws them back to place. New York. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Syracuse. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. If ordinary butts are used. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. the box locked . and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Merrill. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. --Contributed by R. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. says the Sphinx. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling.

Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. It remains to bend the flaps. -Contributed by L. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked.and the performer steps out in view. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Alberta Norrell. draw one-half of it. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. If the measuring has been done properly. 1. With the metal shears. Ga. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. proceed as follows: First. one for each corner. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. as shown in Fig. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Augusta. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. To make a design similar to the one shown. allowing each coat time to dry. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Place the piece in a vise. 3. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown in Fig. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. about 1-32 of an inch. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. All . Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 2. as shown. When the sieve is shaken. If they do not. smooth surface. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. on drawing paper. Fig.

A resistance. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. When the current is turned off. if rolled under the shoe sole. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. R. in passing through the lamp. of No. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. After this has dried. --Contributed by R. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. Denver. as shown at AA. causing it to expand. about 6 in. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . in diameter. used for insulation. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Galbreath. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. heats the strip of German-silver wire. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The common cork. 25 German-silver wire. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. is fitted tightly in the third hole. If a touch of color is desired. which is about 6 in. A piece of porcelain tube. B.the edges should be left smooth. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. Colo. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. from the back end. long. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. should be in the line. The current. C. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. To keep the metal from tarnishing. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. In boring through rubber corks. H.

Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. . The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. --Contributed by David Brown. 3. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 2. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Purchase two long book straps. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. leaving a space of 4 in. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fig. Kansas City. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. between them as shown in Fig. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 1. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Mo.

3. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. which is the right weight for family use. 36 in. 1. as . Syracuse. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. one weighing 15 lb. When the aeroplane tips. Y. in diameter. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 1. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Fig. A. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. and tack smoothly. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. These are shown in Fig. N. The string is then tied. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig.. Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. C. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package.An ordinary electric bell. to form a handle. just the right weight for a woman to use. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Pa. and a pocket battery. Fig. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 4. 2. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Morse. and one weighing 25 lb. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Kane. --Contributed by James M. The folds are made over the string.. Doylestown. are mounted on the outside of the box. long. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. Two strips of brass. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together.

yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Y. 3/32 or 1/4 in. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. in diameter. 2. such as brackets. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. bent as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. long. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 1. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. two 1/8 -in. if once used. Day.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The saw. and many fancy knick-knacks. --Contributed by Louis J. machine screws. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Frame Made of a Rod . toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. N. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. AA. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. four washers and four square nuts. Floral Park.

1 part sulphuric acid. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Of the leathers. In the design shown. as well as brass and copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. be covered the same as the back. Rub off the highlights. or silver. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. A. if copper or brass. treat it with color. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. If it colors the metal red. it has the correct strength.. after breaking up. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. use them in place of the outside nuts. of water in which dissolve. Michigan. the most expensive. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. therefore. as well as the depth of etching desired. --Contributed by W. though almost any color may be obtained. allowing each time to dry. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Apply two coats. green and browns are the most popular. using a swab and an old stiff brush. of course. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Scranton. File these edges. 1 part nitric acid. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Silver is the most desirable but.may be made of either brass. copper. Watch Fob For coloring silver. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. of water. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. For etching. An Austrian Top [12] . Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. The buckle is to be purchased. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Detroit. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer.

long. Ypsilanti. 3/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine. wide and 3/4 in.F. 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole. --Contributed by J. 5-1/4 in. is formed on one end. Michigan. allowing only 1-1/4 in. long. starting at the bottom and winding upward. A handle. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A 1/16-in. in diameter. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Parts of the Top To spin the top. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Bore a 3/4-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. pass one end through the 1/16-in. thick. . set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole in this end for the top. Tholl. When the shank is covered. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make.

--A. having no sides. Houghton. . Northville. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Ga. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. tarts or similar pastry.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The baking surface. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. Alberta Norrell. Mich. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Augusta.

Mo. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Centralia. Stringing Wires [13] A. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. glass fruit jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. the same as shown in the illustration. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. then solder cover and socket together. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. says Studio Light. When you desire to work by white light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.

4 Braces. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. square by 62 in.for loading and development. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Vertical pieces. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . Wis. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Janesville. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1-1/4 in. so it can be folded up. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. They are fastened. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 12 in. and not tip over. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in.

H. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. after filling the pail with water. After rounding the ends of the studs. New York. Cincinnati. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. -Contributed by Charles Stem. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Rosenthal. and a loop made in the end. --Contributed by Dr. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. from scrap material. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The whole. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The front can be covered . C. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Phillipsburg.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. O. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. If the loop is tied at the proper place. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.

--Contributed by Gilbert A. By using the following method. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix. sickly one. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. The . The results will be poor. if you try to tone them afterward. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. the color will be an undesirable. principally mayonnaise dressing. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Develop them into strong prints. FIG. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. In my own practice. Baltimore. If the gate is raised slightly. by all rules of the game. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. either for contact printing or enlargements. you are. Wehr. 1 FIG. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Md.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. the mouth of which rests against a. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. and.

A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... Cal. when it starts to bleach. wide and 4 in." Cyanide of potassium ..... L...... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. three times. 1 and again as in Fig.. in size. San Francisco.. etc........ as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away...... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. 16 oz..... but.. 2. With a little practice. as it will appear clean much longer than the white... to make it 5 by 5 in... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. The blotting paper can ... Iodide of potassium .... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. When the desired reduction has taken place. Gray.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone...... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. Place the dry print.. long to admit the angle support.. in this solution. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. A good final washing completes the process.. transfer it to a tray of water. 20 gr.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. where it will continue to bleach.. without previous wetting. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.... --Contributed by T. 2 oz..... It will bleach slowly and evenly. Water . The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. 5 by 15 in. preferably the colored kind. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.

It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Corners complete are shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. having a width of 2-1/4 in. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by L. 20 gauge.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Make a design similar to that shown. 3. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Canada. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.J. the head of which is 2 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. Oshkosh. Monahan. wide below the . Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide. and a length of 5 in.

4. . The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Allow this to dry. then trace the other half in the usual way. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Trace the design on the metal.FIG. freehand. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Apply with a small brush. 1 part sulphuric acid. using turpentine. being held perpendicular to the work. 1. Fig. after folding along the center line. then put on a second coat. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 2. Make one-half of the design. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 part nitric acid. as shown in Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. After this has dried. With files. The metal must be held firmly. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 1 Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Pierce a hole with a small drill. then coloring. but use a swab on a stick. For coloring olive green. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. using a small metal saw. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 3. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Do not put the hands in the solution. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. With the metal shears. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. deep. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. After the sawing. using carbon paper. which gives the outline of the design Fig.

Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. . East Hartford. --Contributed by M. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. on a chopping board. Conn. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. as shown. Syracuse. attach brass handles. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. --Contributed by H. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. M. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. When this is cold. Morse. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. thick. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. it does the work rapidly. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. New York. After the stain has dried. Cal. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Carl Cramer. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by Katharine D. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Burnett. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board.

indicating the depth of the slots. one shaft. --Contributed by W. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. about 3/16 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. . Atwell. Cal. two enameled. some pieces of brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. in width at the shank. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. 4. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. and several 1/8-in. machine screws. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Mrs. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Jaquythe. thick. 53 steel pens. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines.. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. square. H. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. L. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Kissimmee. as shown in Fig. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. A. 1. Richmond. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. or tin. holes. as shown at A. also locate the drill holes. Fig. brass. not over 1/4 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. saucers or pans. Florida.

in diameter and 1/32 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. brass and bolted to the casing. thick. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 5. can be procured. and pins inserted. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. long and 5/16 in. into the hole. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 7. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 3. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. 2.. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. A 3/4-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. machine screws. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Fig. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. hole is drilled to run off the water. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. supply pipe. 2. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. each about 1 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. 6. There should be a space of 1/16 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. hole.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. thick. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. as in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. 3. a square shaft used. Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. wide. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. long by 3/4 in. If the shaft is square. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . hole in the center. as shown in Fig. with a 3/8-in. If metal dishes. machine screws and nuts. with the face of the disk. The shaft hole may also be filed square. with 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. as shown. 1. Bend as shown in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. using two nuts on each screw. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. about 1/32 in.

long. Ill. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. high and 15 in. screws. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. using four to each leg. Cooke. Be sure to have the cover. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. When assembling. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. from the bottom end of the legs. square and 30-1/2 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Smith. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Now you will have the box in two pieces. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. La Salle. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. deep over all. V. Stain the wood before putting in the . or more in diameter. we will call the basket. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Canada. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The lower part. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. 8-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. three of which are in the basket. to make the bottom. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. from the top of the box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by S. Hamilton. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. deep and 1-1/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. With a string or tape measure. --Contributed by F.

Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The side. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen.lining. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Mass. --also the lower edge when necessary. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Cover them with the cretonne. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide and four strips 10 in. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. as shown in the sketch. sewing on the back side. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.2 Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Boston. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. and gather it at that point. The folded part in the center is pasted together. 1. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Md. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Baltimore. you can. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. When making the display. wide. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Sew on to the covered cardboards. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Packard. -Contributed by Stanley H. 2. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Fig.

Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. N. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. L. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. with slight modifications. and. --Contributed by B. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Mo. saving all the solid part. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Cross Timbers. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Orlando Taylor. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. When through using the pad. 3. It is cleanly. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Gloversville. It is not difficult to . Fig. Crockett. Y. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by H.

some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Texas. Mass. After stirring. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. it should be new and sharp. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. After this is done. across the face.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. If a file is used. and scrape out the rough parts. S. or if desired. --Contributed by Edith E. Lowell. Lane. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . and secure it in place with glue or paste. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. El Paso. remove the contents. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful.

Wheeler. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. F. The insects came to the light. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Ill. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Those having houses . it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Marion P. Iowa. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Des Moines. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. He captured several pounds in a few hours.cooking utensil. --Contributed by Geo. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Oak Park. A Postcard Rack [25]. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl. After several hours' drying. Oregon. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. The process works well and needs no watching. Greenleaf. Ill. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.

it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Dobbins. thick. Lay the floor next. Glenbrook. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and both exactly alike. 6 in. by 2 ft. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. boards are preferable.. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Both sides can be put together in this way. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. material. and the second one for the developing bench. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Only three pieces are required. --Contributed by Wm. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. plane and pocket knife. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. will do as well. the best material to use being matched boards. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. one on each side of what will be the . These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. but for cheapness 3/4 in. not even with the boards themselves. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Rosenberg. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Worcester. Conn. --Contributed by Thomas E.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and as they are simple in design. The single boards can then be fixed. 6 in. the bottom being 3/8 in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Mass. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used.

Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 7. 9 by 11 in. brown wrapping paper. In hinging the door. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. hinged to it. the closing side as at B. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. and in the middle an opening. etc. and act as a trap for the light. 6. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and to the outside board of the sides. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. wide. 9). so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The developing bench is 18 in. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. as shown in Figs. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in.doorway.. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. is cut. 11. and should be zinc lined. 6. which is fixed on as shown . of the top of the door for the same reason. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that it will fit inside the sink. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. 2 in section. below which is fixed the sink. and the top as at C in the same drawing. It is shown in detail in Fig. 6 and 9. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. At the top of the doorway. 8. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. by screwing to the floor. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged.. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 5. 10). These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 3 and 4. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

or stirring cocoa or chocolate. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Erie. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. after lining with brown paper. mixing flour and water. four coats at first is not too many. Fig. 16. though this is hardly advisable. 17. which makes it possible to have white light. as shown in the sections. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing.in Fig. In use. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. are fastened in the corners inside. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 18. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. but not the red glass and frame. and a 3/8-in. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Fig. as in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. 13. preferably maple or ash. Karl Hilbrich. 20. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 19. 13. For beating up an egg in a glass. as shown in Fig. Pennsylvania. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. if desired. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 14. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. or red light as at K. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 15. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 2. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. as at M. 6. The handle should be at least 12 in. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. screwing them each way into the boards. A circular piece about 2 in. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 1. as at I. Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. hole bored in the center for a handle. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. --Contributed by W. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. it is better than anything on the market. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. these being shown in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 16. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Fig. and a tank stand on it.

Mitchell. -Contributed by E. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Ark. as shown in the sketch. Smith. Mo. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. --Contributed by L. G. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. L.copper should be. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. about 3/8 in. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. which. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. for a handle. Schweiger. Yonkers. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Kansas City. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. when put together properly is a puzzle. To operate. Eureka Springs. D. New York. --Contributed by Wm.

Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. the rustic work should be varnished. The design shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. as well as improve its appearance. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. for the moment. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 1. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. the box will require a greater height in front. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. holes should be drilled in the bottom. as shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. need them. as shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. 3. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. If the sill is inclined. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. A number of 1/2-in. . which binds them together. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 3. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2. to make it set level. as is usually the case. especially for filling-in purposes.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig.

. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. 2. share the same fate. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. and observe results. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections.. F. When the corn is gone cucumbers. drilled at right angles. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. as shown in Fig. 3. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Each long projection represents a leg. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. 1. But I have solved the difficulty. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. can't use poison. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. etc. being partly eaten into. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 4. too dangerous. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Traps do no good. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. life in the summer time is a vexation. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. it's easy. cabbages. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. They eat all they can and carry away the rest.

Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. long. strips. The solution can be used over and over again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Iowa. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. If. the coil does not heat sufficiently. . to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. About 9-1/2 ft. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. and made up and kept in large bottles. -. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. by trial. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut some of it off and try again. cut in 1/2-in. of No.

of whiting and 1/2 oz. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Syracuse. hot-water pot. coffee pot. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. . When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Texas. Kane. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Fig 2. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. as shown in the sketch. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. C. Knives. Do not wash them. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. forks. Dallas. --Contributed by James M. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. is a good size--in this compound. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. and a strip. to cause the door to swing shut. Y. --Contributed by Katharine D. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. In cleaning silver. D. 1) removed. Doylestown. Stir and mix thoroughly. but with unsatisfactory results. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Morse. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. of gasoline. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Pa. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. it falls to stop G. N. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths.

--Contributed by Oliver S. Harrisburg. negatives. which is. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Theodore L. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Waverly. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Fisher. later fixed and washed as usual.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Sprout. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. of course. . Pa. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. La. Ill. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. New Orleans. but unfixed. using the paper dry.

In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. 1. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Fig. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. then . Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The harmonograph. To obviate this difficulty. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest.

4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A small weight. 1. to prevent any side motion. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak.. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. in diameter. makes respectively 3. Holes up to 3 in. as long as the other. A length of 7 ft. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. with a nail set or punch.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Chicago. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Ingham. G. in the center of the circle to be cut. A weight. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. for instance. or the lines will overlap and blur. one-fourth. as shown in Fig. A small table or platform. exactly one-third. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. R. and unless the shorter pendulum is. is attached as shown at H. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. J. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings.. as shown in the lower part of Fig. provides a means of support for the stylus. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. --Contributed by James T. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A pedestal. is about right for a 10-ft. what is most important. 1. 1-3/4 by 2 in. The length of the short pendulum H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Gaffney. --Contributed by Wm. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Another weight of about 10 lb. Punch a hole. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. K. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. one-fifth. which can be regulated. ceiling. of about 30 or 40 lb. Rosemont. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. etc. such as a shoe buttoner. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. that is. Arizona. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine.

Morey. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. a correspondent of . The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Chicago. The two key cards are made alike. N. Cape May City. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. then 3 as in Fig. -Contributed by W. and 4 as in Fig. 6. Cruger. 2. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.J. distributing them over the whole card. then put 2 at the top. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. and proceed as before. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 4. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 5. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. of course. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 3. Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 1.J. --Contributed by J. Fig. dividing them into quarters.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.H. The capacity of the vise.

into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Cut through the center. Asbestos board is to be preferred. says Popular Electricity. Alberta Norrell. wood-screws. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. After securing the tint desired. After preparing the base and uprights. from the top and bottom. Wind the successive turns of . To assemble. the portion of the base under the coil. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. remove the prints. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. --Contributed by L. drill 15 holes. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. acetic acid and 4 oz. deep. sheet of well made asbestos paper. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. respectively. citrate of iron and ammonia. If constructed of the former. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 22 gauge German-silver wire. 6 gauge wires shown.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. 30 gr. long. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. of the uprights. 1/2 oz. of water. of 18-per-cent No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Ga. 1/4 in. of ferricyanide of potash. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Augusta.

These may be procured from electrical supply houses. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. then fasten the upright in place. Ward. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. N. but these are not necessary. etc. which. --Contributed by Frederick E. as they are usually thrown away when empty. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Labels of some kind are needed. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. rivets. Small knobs may be added if desired. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.. Ampere.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. if one is not a smoker. Y. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. 14 gauge. The case may be made of 1/2-in. cut and dressed 1/2 in. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. square. screws. 16 gauge copper wire. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No.

as shown in the sketch. lead. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. California. Richmond. a piece of solder. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. If the soldering copper is an old one. of glycerine to 16 oz. being careful about the heat. C. E and F. Heat it until hot (not red hot). This is considerable annoyance. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. it must be ground or filed to a point. Jaquythe. S. the pure muriatic acid should be used. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. sandpaper or steel wool. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. B. The material can be of any wood. G. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. and rub the point of the copper on it. then to the joint to be soldered. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. galvanized iron. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. In soldering galvanized iron. Copper. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Larson. Eureka Springs. tinner's acid. --Contributed by W. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. A. D. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab.14 oz. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. --C. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. of water. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Kenosha. . tin. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --Contributed by A. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. especially if a large tub is used. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and one made of poplar finished black. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Wis. zinc. or has become corroded. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. brass. Ark. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. The parts are put together with dowel pins. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all.. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. and labeled "Poison.

Troy. Hankin. in diameter. Take a 3/4-in. such as copper. which gives two bound volumes each year. 7/8 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. a ring may be made from any metal. nut. The disk will come out pan shaped. Fig. I bind my magazines at home evenings. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Apart from this. The punch A. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. and drill out the threads. -Contributed by H. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. W. wide. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Y. in diameter. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. This completes the die. brass and silver. Brass rings can be plated when finished.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. This will leave a clear hole. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . however. The covers of the magazines are removed. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 2. N. 1. C. B. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. round iron. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Place the band. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. with good results. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Fig. thick and 1-1/4 in. D. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted.

The string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared.4. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. threaded double. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. The covering should be cut out 1 in. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. 1. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Place the cardboard covers on the book. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 2. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. . which is fastened the same as the first. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 1 in Fig. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. then back through the notch on the right side. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. on all edges except the back. 5. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. allowing about 2 in. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. and a third piece. and then to string No. using . Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. deep. Coarse white thread. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. as shown in Fig. After drawing the thread tightly. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 2. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. is nailed across the top. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. size 16 or larger. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The covering can be of cloth. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. is used for the sewing material.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. of the ends extending on each side. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1/8 in. 1. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Five cuts. through the notch on the left side of the string No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. C. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Start with the front of the book. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. If started with the January or the July issue.

fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. round iron. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. --Contributed by Clyde E. and. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Divine. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Place the cover on the book in the right position. on which to hook the blade. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Encanto.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Cal. College View. For the blade an old talking-machine . --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Tinplate.

as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. as shown. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and 1/4 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick. Ohio. B. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. C. fuse hole at D. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Summitville. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. -Contributed by Willard J. and file in the teeth. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. bore. Moorhead. thick. Miss. with a steel sleeve. hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. and another piece (B) 6 in..Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. A. long. by 1 in. by 4-1/2 in. at the same end. as it is sometimes called. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. or double extra heavy. E. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Then on the board put . --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. On the upper side.. and a long thread plug. F. Hays. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Make the blade 12 in.

Put sides about 1-1/2 in. 4 jars. about 5 ft. Boyd. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Philadelphia. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. and some No. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. high around this apparatus. of wire to each coil. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. A lid may be added if desired. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Connect up as shown. as from batteries. of rubber-covered wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. --Contributed by Chas. some sheet copper or brass for plates.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. H. the jars need not be very large. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. using about 8 in. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.

or source of current. 1 and so on for No. First sandpaper all the wood. 30 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. by 6 in. long. 4. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. Use no nails. Z. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. long by 22 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. by 5 in. square by 14 ft. is used to reduce friction. For the brass trimmings use No. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. with the cushion about 15 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The stock required for them is oak. two pieces 34 in. 11 in. 2. by 2 in. An iron washer. 4) of 3/4-in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 27 B. At the front 24 or 26 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. long. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. A variation of 1/16 in. & S. on No. by 1 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. See Fig.. In proportioning them the points A. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Use no screws on the running surface. steel rod makes a good steering rod. long. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 15-1/2 in. and for the rear runners: A. as they "snatch" the ice. by 5 in. Fig. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. as they are not substantial enough. then apply a coat of thin enamel. making them clear those in the front runner. 1 is connected to point No. oak boards. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. No. apart.. and plane it on all edges. To wire the apparatus. The connection between point No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. Equip block X with screw eyes. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The top disk in jar No. and bolt through. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 7 in. 2 is lower down than in No. C. For the steel runners use 3/8 in.the way.. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. A 3/4-in. Put arm of switch on point No. The current then will flow through the motor. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks.. direct to wire across jars. however.. 1 on switch. long. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. by 1-1/4 in. B and C. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. . wide and 2 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. The sled completed should be 15 ft. are important. thick. B. sheet brass 1 in. thick. Their size also depends on the voltage. Construct the auto front (Fig. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 3. wide by 3/4 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. by 1-1/4 in. two pieces 14 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 2 and 3. C. 1. by 2 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. two for each jar. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. B. 2. beginning at the rear. gives full current and full speed. 3 and No. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 2 in.. 4 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through.. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. 16-1/2 in. wide. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. above the ground. 5 on switch. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 34 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. and four pieces 14 in. On the door of the auto front put the . 3 in. two pieces 30 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 2. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. wide and 3/4 in.

and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. may be stowed within. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. If desired. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If desired. a number of boys may share in the ownership. cutting it out of sheet brass. overshoes. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. which is somewhat moist. If the expense is greater than one can afford. such as burlap. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. The best way is to get some strong. such as used on automobiles. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. or with these for $25. Fasten a horn. by 30 in. to the wheel. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. parcels. brass plated. fasten a cord through the loop. lunch. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Then get some upholstery buttons. to improve the appearance. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. cheap material. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. by 1/2 in. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. long.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. etc. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. a brake may be added to the sled.

tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . Leland.

In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. will be over the line FG. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Fig. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. FC. The straight-edge. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. A small clearance space. say 1 in. made from 1/16-in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 4). This guide should have a beveled edge. so that the center of the blade. when flat against it. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. sheet metal. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. First take the case of a small gearwheel. some files. Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. With no other tools than a hacksaw. mild steel or iron. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. 2. though more difficult. The first tooth may now be cut. which. 1. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. with twenty-four teeth. CD. the same diameter as the wheel. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. the cut will be central on the line. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . thick. 3. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. London. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. The Model Engineer. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Fig. Draw a circle on paper. by drawing diameters. from F to G. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. E. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. a compass.

Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. hold in one hand. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Make a hole in the other. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 1. or several pieces bound tightly together. 1. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. and the other outlet wire. A bright. as shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 2. R. Then take one outlet wire. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. some wire and some carbons. . each in the center. as shown in Fig. transmitter. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. No shock will be perceptible. ground it with a large piece of zinc. electric lamp. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. B. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. B.

by 1 in.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. 36 wire around it. at each end for terminals. Ashland. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. serves admirably. and will then burn the string C. Wrenn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. A is a wooden block. as shown. If desired. are also needed. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. or more of the latter has been used. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Slattery. and again wind the wire around it. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. and about that size. under the gable. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. --Contributed by Geo. Several battery cells. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. as indicated by E E. Emsworth. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. one at the receiver can hear what is said. They have screw ends. Then set the whole core away to dry. Dry batteries are most convenient. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. One like a loaf of bread. D D are binding posts for electric wires. B. But in this experiment. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. J. Pa. Ohio. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. by 12 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. leaving about 10 in. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . of course. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A.

D. Jr. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. and one single post switch. and the lamps. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. the terminal of the coil. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. C. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Place 16-cp. for the . except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The oven is now ready to be connected. B B. run a No. The coil will commence to become warm. and switch. Fig. E. 2. These should have hollow ends. Ohio. 1. Fig. as shown. in series with bindingpost. The apparatus is now ready for operation. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 12 or No.. while C is open. connecting lamp receptacles. as shown. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. in parallel.wire. B B. First make a support. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. From the other set of binding-posts. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Connect these three to switch. Newark. At one side secure two receptacles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 14 wire. F. D. Turn on switch. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board.

Mine is wound with two layers of No. 6. to prevent it turning on the axle.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. To make one. 1/4 in. A wooden box. and D. drill a hole as shown at H. B. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities.E. where A is the homemade ammeter. 10 turns to each layer. 14 wire. 1. etc. long and make a loop. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. deep. At a point a little above the center. thick. Fig. long. This may be made of wood. 4 in. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. The box is 5-1/2 in. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. long. 5. If for 3-way. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. as shown in the cut. 3 amperes. C. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. until the scale is full. Fig. drill through the entire case and valve. 5. It is 1 in. remove the valve. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. a standard ammeter. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . After assembling the core as shown in Fig. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. although brass is better. This is slipped on the pivot. 2. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. although copper or steel will do. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. D. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 4. E. is then made and provided with a glass front.or 4-way valve or cock. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. high. The pointer or hand. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 14. The core. from the lower end. drill in only to the opening already through. a battery. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 4 amperes. 1/2 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. After drilling. wide and 1-3/4 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Dussault. aluminum being preferable for this purpose.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. D. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. wind with plenty of No. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. Montreal. is made of iron. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 7. inside measurements. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 1. is made of wire. wide and 1/8 in. but if for a 4way. Continue in this way with 2 amperes.. a variable resistance. 3. Fig. --Contributed by J. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Fig. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig.

The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. provided with a rubber stopper. To start the light. and the other connects with the water rheostat. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. as shown. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. A. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. B.performing electrical experiments. F. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. high. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and the arc light. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. in diameter. E. making two holes about 1/4 in. By connecting the motor. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. in thickness . One wire runs to the switch. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. D. This stopper should be pierced. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. which is used for reducing the current. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker.

The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. N. Fig. 2. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. --Contributed by Harold L. 2. 1. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. If the interrupter does not work at first. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Having finished the interrupter. If all adjustments are correct. Fig. B. A. as shown in C. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. where he is placed in an upright open . Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Jones. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 1. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. To insert the lead plate. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. As there shown. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Y. A piece of wood. as shown in B. Carthage. long. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Turn on the current and press the button. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals.

They need to give a fairly strong light. The model. within the limits of an ordinary room. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. to aid the illusion. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. especially the joints and background near A. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The skeleton is made of papier maché.coffin. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. especially L. All . which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. could expect from a skeleton. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. high. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. giving a limp. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. inside dimensions. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. until it is dark there. should be colored a dull black. which can be run by three dry cells. with the exception of the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. light-colored garments. and can be bought at Japanese stores. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. by 7-1/2 in. as the entire interior. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. Its edges should nowhere be visible. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. A. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The lights. dressed in brilliant. If everything is not black. by 7 in. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. should be miniature electric lamps. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The glass should be the clearest possible.. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. A white shroud is thrown over his body. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and wave his arms up and down. from which the gong has been removed. is constructed as shown in the drawings. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. the illusion will be spoiled. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. figures and lights. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. loosejointed effect. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. and must be thoroughly cleansed. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. L and M.

San Jose. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. after which it assumes its normal color. placed about a foot apart. fat spark. as shown in the sketch. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Cal. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. square block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Two finishing nails were driven in. If a gradual transformation is desired. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. W. Fry. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.that is necessary is a two-point switch. --Contributed by Geo. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil.

Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. In Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. -Contributed by Dudley H. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. with two tubes. This is a wide-mouth bottle. In Fig.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. F. If a lighted match . Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. by small pieces of wood. One of these plates is connected to metal top. soldered in the top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. B and C. The plates are separated 6 in. and should be separated about 1/8 in. or a solution of sal soda. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. New York. into the receiver G. Cohen. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. hydrogen gas is generated. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. to make it airtight. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. as shown. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the remaining space will be filled with air. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. 1. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. A (see sketch). which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water.

and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. in diameter and 6 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 36 insulated wire.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. A. or by direct contact with another magnet. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. The distance between the nipple. Fig. London. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. 1-5/16 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. is made by drilling a 1/8in. which forms the vaporizing coil. N. If desired. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. B. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. N. as is shown in the illustration. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. 1/2 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A 1/64-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. which is plugged up at both ends. then a suitable burner is necessary. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. is then coiled around the brass tube. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . of No. Fig. and the ends of the tube. should be only 5/16 of an inch. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A nipple. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. 1. 2 shows the end view. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. by means of the clips. A. copper pipe. A piece of 1/8-in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. long. long. says the Model Engineer. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. from the bottom. P. copper pipe. A. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. C C. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in.

narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. fold and cut it 1 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. with a fine saw. smoothly. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. longer and 1/4 in. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. at the front and back for fly leaves. this makes a much nicer book. trim both ends and the front edge. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. duck or linen. 1. Fig. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. 2). Fig. A disk of thin sheet-iron. leaving the folded edge uncut. cut to the size of the pages. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 3. boards and all. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. 1/4 in. taking care not to bend the iron. but if the paper knife cannot be used. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. larger all around than the book.lamp cord. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Take two strips of stout cloth. Cut four pieces of cardboard. about 8 or 10 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Fig. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. should be cut to the diameter of the can.

The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. in diameter and 30 in. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. as shown. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. 18 in. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. but its diameter is a little smaller.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. This will cause some air to be enclosed. or rather the top now. H. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. deep. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. E. as shown in the sketch. is perforated with a number of holes. Va. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which will just slip inside the little can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. Parker. is soldered onto tank A. without a head. Ont. Noble. A gas cock. Bedford City. and a little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. B. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. is made the same depth as B. Toronto. Another can. --Contributed by Joseph N. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. pasting them down (Fig. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. A. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. C. the joint will be gas tight. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. of tank A is cut a hole. D. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. . A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. is fitted in it and soldered. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. In the bottom. --Contributed by James E. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Another tank. 4).

and the edges should be carefully hemmed. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. shows how the connections are to be made.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. and sewed double to give extra strength. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. 2. basswood or white pine. long. B. The small guards. The bridle knots. by 1/2 in. E. D. If the back armature. as shown at C. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. should be cut a little too long. J. C. B. thus adjusting the . which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The longitudinal corner spines. tacks. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. exactly 12 in. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. A. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Fig. which may be either spruce. with an electric-bell magnet. B. Fig. The wiring diagram. when finished. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. The armature. long. D. are shown in detail at H and J. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. and the four diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying.. fastened in the bottom. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. which moves to either right or left. and about 26 in. A A. If the pushbutton A is closed. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. H is a square knot. The diagonal struts. S. Beverly. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. to prevent splitting. Bott. -Contributed by H. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. making the width. 1. square by 42 in. N. should be 3/8 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. should be 1/4 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in.

A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. for producing electricity direct from heat. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery.lengths of F and G. Stoddard. can be made of a wooden . --Contributed by Edw. shift toward F. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. thus shortening G and lengthening F. to prevent slipping. Harbert. with gratifying results. and. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the batteries do not run down for a long time. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Chicago. D. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Closing either key will operate both sounders. however. Clay Center. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. and if a strong wind is blowing. that refuse to slide easily. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. E. --Contributed by A. A bowline knot should be tied at J. as shown. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind.

Fasten a piece of wood. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. --Contributed by A. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. The wood screw. When the cannon is loaded. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Chicago. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Then. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. spark. or parallel with the compass needle. and also holds the pieces of wood. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires.frame. with a number of nails. placed on top. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. F. which conducts the current into the cannon. E. by means of machine screws or. 16 single-covered wire. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. D. in position. A. A and B. A. E. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. C. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. B. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. to the cannon. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.. and the current may then be detected by means. with a pocket compass. 14 or No.

Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. --Contributed by Joseph B. Ohio. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. . screw is bored in the block. in this position the door is locked. Bend the strips BB (Fig. requiring a strong magnet. H. A and S. Big Rapids. to receive the screw in the center. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Marion. A hole for a 1/2 in. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Chicago. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. 1. A. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. To lock the door. with the long arm at L'. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Mich. A and S. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. L. Fig. where there is a staple. In Fig. square and 3/8 in. press the button. within the reach of the magnet. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Keil. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. To unlock the door. --Contributed by Henry Peck.the current is shut off. but no weights or strings. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. when in position at A'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. now at A' and S'. B. Fig. To reverse.

or for microscopic work. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. long. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. J. if enameled white on the concave side. When the holes are finished and your lines set. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. West Somerville. When ready for use. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. hole. and may be made at very slight expense. pipe with 1-2-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. are enameled a jet black. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. Mass. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. about 18 in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. --Contributed by C. and C is a dumbbell. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. Thread the other end of the pipe. The standard and base. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. gas-pipe. put in the handle. and if desired the handles may . makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and.

Get an iron pail about 1 ft. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. --Contributed by C. across. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Fig. with a cover. M. inside the pail. as shown at A in the sketch. Mass. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. 1. B. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Warren. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. D. Fig. E.be covered with leather. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. which shall project at least 2 in. long and 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Make a cylindrical core of wood.. 8 in. A. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 1. North Easton. high by 1 ft. across.

the firing should be gradual. C. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. diameter. but it will burn a great deal of gas. if you have the materials. C. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. carefully centering it. 1390°-1410°. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. cutting the hole a little smaller. E. pack this space-top. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. It is placed inside the kiln. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. After finishing the core. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. if there is to be any glazing done. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. bottom and sides. which is the hottest part. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and with especial caution the first time. such . shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 25%. say 1/4 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and graphite. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. pipe 2-ft. full length of iron core. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 1). 3) with false top and bottom. of fine wire. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. the point of the blue flame. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. sand. and 3/8 in. as dictated by fancy and expense. as is shown in the sketch. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. When lighted. hard porcelain. in diameter. layer of the clay mixture. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. but will be cheaper in operation. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Line the pail. let this dry thoroughly. W. or make one yourself. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. 1). A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. hotel china. If the cover of the pail has no rim. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust.-G. pipe. wider than the kiln. After removing all the paper. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. C. 2 in. thick. The 2 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. thick. in diameter. 1330°. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. about 1 in.. Cover with paper and shellac as before. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Whatever burner is used. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. long. Fig. and your kiln is ready for business.mixture of clay. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. projecting from each end (Fig. and 3/4 in. Wind about 1/8 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. to hold the clay mixture. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and varnish. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 2. 15%. This done. L. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. strip of sheet iron. 60%... make two wood ends. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.

procure a new deck.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. overlaps and rests on the body.. about 1/16 in. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C. C. A. Then take the black cards. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. as shown in the sketch herewith. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. R. length of . every alternate card being the same color. leaving long terminals. square them up. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. taking care to have the first card red. and divide it into two piles. square them up and place in a vise. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. C. Chicago. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 1. with a plane. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. and so on. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. as in Fig. as in Fig. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Then. all cards facing the same way. . T. diameter. bind tightly with black silk. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. D. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Of course. Washington. Take the red cards. --Contributed by J. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 8 in. 2.53 in. and discharges into the tube. 2. and plane off about 1/16 in. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. B. the next black. red and black. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. 2). The funnel. around the coil. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. You can display either color called for.

The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. The upright pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces. about 20 in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and this is inexpensive to build.C. When the glass is put in the frame a space. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. E. as the difficulties increase with the size. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. 1. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass.. N. 1 gill of litharge. of the frame. Long Branch. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces.J. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. E. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A. B. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. stove bolts. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. thus making all the holes coincide. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. F. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. through the holes already drilled. so that when they are assembled. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. A. The cement. Fig. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. C. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. to form a dovetail joint as shown. The bottom glass should be a good fit. D. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. the first thing to decide on is the size. Let . How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. the same ends will come together again. B. angle iron for the frame. To find the fall of snow. All the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. and then the frame is ready to assemble.

a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Fasten the lever. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. if desired. a centerpiece (A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fig. Aquarium Finished If desired. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. B. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. to the door knob. and.

Fig. 2 at GG. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Buffalo. approximately 1 ft. Cut two of them 4 ft. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. to form the slanting part. and Fig. They are shown in Fig. and another. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. N. --Contributed by Orton E. E. A small piece of spring brass. to keep the frame from spreading. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 1. I referred this question to my husband. B. another. to form the main supports of the frame. Fig. long. long. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. several lengths of scantling 3 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. Cut two pieces 30 in. C. but mark their position on the frame.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. screwed to the door frame. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Two short boards 1 in. Do not fasten these boards now. for the top. as at E. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. 2 is an end view. showing the paddle-wheel in position. which is 15 in. 1. thus doing away with the spring. another. hoping it may solve the same question for them. wide by 1 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. wide . 1 . Fig. To make the frame. White. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 3 shows one of the paddles. soldered to the end of the cylinder. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. long.. Fig. F. from the outside top of the frame. Fig. according to the slant given C. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 6 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. AA. Y. 2 ft. long. D. with a water pressure of 70 lb. 26 in.

Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Make this hole conical. 2) form a substantial base. hole to form the bearings. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. 2) and another 1 in. and drill a 1-in. (I. 2) with a 5/8-in. in diameter.along the edges under the zinc to form . as shown in Fig. Take the side pieces. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. thick. take down the crosspieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. that is. hole through them. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. after which drill a 5/8 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. tapering from 3/16 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole through their sides centrally. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. steel shaft 12 in. Fasten them in their proper position. hole through its center. 4. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Fig. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Now block the wheel. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. thick (HH. remove the cardboard. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Drill 1/8-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. pipe.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. iron 3 by 4 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. to a full 1/2 in. GG. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. When it has cooled. Fig. 1. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and drill a 1/8-in. iron. then drill a 3/16-in.burlap will do -. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. from one end by means of a key. long and filling it with babbitt metal. with the wheel and shaft in place. Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. 24 in. Tack one side on. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. holes. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and a 1/4 -in. These are the paddles. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.

as shown in the sketch at B. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. start the motor. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and the subject may move. says the Photographic Times. If sheet-iron is used. any window will do. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Drill a hole through the zinc. Raise the window shade half way. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and as near to it as possible. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. It is obvious that. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Correct exposure depends. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. of course. as this makes long exposure necessary. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and leave them for an hour or so. . light and the plate. it would be more durable. but as it would have cost several times as much. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. ice-cream freezer. remove any white curtains there may be. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. drill press. Do not stop down the lens. place the outlet over a drain. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. The best plate to use is a very slow one. sewing machine. Darken the rest of the window. Focus the camera carefully. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. but now I put them in the machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. If the bearings are now oiled. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. on the lens. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. or what is called a process plate.a water-tight joint. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.

full of water. A. The core C. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. C. and without fog. until the core slowly rises. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or can be taken from an old magnet. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. without detail in the face. or an empty developer tube. which is made of iron and cork. The current required is very small. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. On completing . The glass tube may be a test tube. 2. a core. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as a slight current will answer. With a piece of black paper. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. 2. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. a glass tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as shown in Fig. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. by twisting. B.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. hard rubber. and a base. or wood. D. the core is drawn down out of sight. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. with binding posts as shown.

water and 3 oz. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. whale oil. and one not easy to explain. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. according to his control of the current. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 lb. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. 1. white lead. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. The colors appear different to different people. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. This is a mysterious looking instrument. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and make a pinhole in the center. 1 pt.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite.

Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. fan-like. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. deuce. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.L. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. when the action ceases. nearly every time. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. As this device is easily upset. In prize games. A. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. especially if the deck is a new one.B. B. Chicago. In making hydrogen. C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. or three spot. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus partly filling bottles A and C. -Contributed by D. before cutting. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. 2 can cut the cards at the ace.

long and 3 in. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. S. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Bently. Fig. Huron. in diameter. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. S. 9 in. as shown in Fig. 3). --Contributed by C.. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 12 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Dak. Form a cone of heavy paper.. 2. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. in length and 3 in. Fig. . Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. (Fig. 4.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 10 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Jr. --Contributed by F. W. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. long. J. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Make a 10-sided stick. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 1. Detroit. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.

is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Cut out paper sections (Fig. allowing 1 in. push back the bolt. E. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. 6. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . on one side and the top. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. --Contributed by Reader. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. but bends toward D. C. will cause an increased movement of C. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. with a pin driven in each end. A piece of tin. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. bend it at right angles throughout its length. making it three-ply thick. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. A second piece of silk thread. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. A. long. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. about the size of a leadpencil. and walk in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. Remove the form. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. it is equally easy to block that trick. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Fortunately. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Denver. Fig. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry.

A. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. while the lower switch. The 2 by 4-in.. S. or left to right. The reverse switch. Fremont Hilscher. Paul. B. and rest on a brick placed under each end. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. long. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. is connected each point to a battery. Minn. S S. W. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. posts. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other.. S. The feet. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. as shown. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The upper switch. B. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. West St. Two wood-base switches.strip. put together as shown in the sketch. will last for several years. are made 2 by 4 in. By this arrangement one. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. R. are 7 ft. 4 ft. --Contributed by J. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. long. Jr.

The base is made of wood. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. is an old bicycle pump. E. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and has two wood blocks. and a cylindrical . and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The valve motion is shown in Figs. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The piston is made of a stove bolt. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. FF. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. which will be described later. and the crank bearing C. and in Fig. In Fig. or anything available. Fig. cut in half. thick. with two washers. 3/8 in. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire.every house. 1. the other parts being used for the bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and valve crank S. pulley wheel. the size of the hole in the bearing B. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The hose E connects to the boiler. The steam chest D. which is made of tin. 2. H and K. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 and 3.

as it is merely a trick of photography. C. San Jose. powder can. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. This engine was built by W. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Cal. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. is cut out of tin. --Contributed by Geo. 4. The boiler. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. G. 3. and saturated with thick oil. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. as shown in Fig. Eustice. can be an old oil can.piece of hard wood. Fig. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. First. at that. of Cuba. J. Fig. G. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Schuh and A. and the desired result is obtained. to receive the connecting rod H. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Fry. . using the positive wire as a pen. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. and a very amusing trick. W. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Wis. or galvanized iron. This is wound with soft string. The valve crank S. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 1.

as shown. B. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. as shown at AA. and pass ropes around . Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. to cross in the center.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 will be seen to rotate. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. When turning. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. and place a bell on the four ends. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. diameter. Cut half circles out of each stave. The smaller wheel. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. C. They may be of any size. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs.

The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. From a piece of thin .Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. long. Louis. This in turn will act on the transmitter. St. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A (a short spool. from the transmitter. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. which allows the use of small sized ropes. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. procure a wooden spool. To make this lensless microscope. as shown in the illustration. Mo. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.M.G. produces a higher magnifying power). such as clothes lines. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. but not on all.. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. W. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. which accounts for the sound. --Contributed by H. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

or 64 times. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. the object should be of a transparent nature. To use this microscope. An innocent-looking drop of water. . C. held at arm's length. 1. 3. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. place a small object on the transparent disk. A. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. otherwise the image will be blurred. C. The pivot. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. D. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible..) But an object 3/4-in. and at the center. D. 2. H. as in all microscopes of any power. which costs little or nothing to make. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. is made of iron. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. if the distance is reduced to one-half. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. if the distance is reduced to one-third. Fig. The spring. darting across the field in every direction. and look through the hole D.. which are pieces of hard wood. i. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. by means of brads. (The area would appear 64 times as large. B. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. B. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. is fastened at each end by pins. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. can be made of brass and the armature. e. the diameter will appear three times as large. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. the diameter will appear twice as large. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. bent as shown. in which hay has been soaking for several days. cut out a small disk. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. E. fastened to a wooden base. Viewed through this microscope. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The lever. and so on. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. reveals hundreds of little infusoria.

wood. and are connected to the contacts. in length and 16 in. AA. coils wound with No. can be made panel as shown. C. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. binding posts: H spring The stop. Cut the top. F. E. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. similar to the one used in the sounder. wide and about 20 in. wide. long. C. 16 in. brass: E. 26 wire: E. D. brass: B. The door. B. DD. B. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. 2. Fig. The back. which are made to receive a pivot. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wood: F. K. soft iron. wood: C.SOUNDER-A. Fig. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. connection of D to nail. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. KEY-A. wide. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. brass. The binding posts. should be about 22 in. or a single piece. FF. wide and set in between sides AA. long and 14-1/2 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide. nail soldered on A. A switch. D. 1. . The base of the key. A. or taken from a small one-point switch. HH. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. wide. fastened near the end. brass or iron soldered to nail. K. between the armature and the magnet. long by 16 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. D. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. 16 in. Each side. thick.

with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. cut in them. material. When the electrical waves strike the needle. as shown. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Garfield. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. 2 and made from 1/4-in. long. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. with 3/4-in.. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. In operation. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. 13-1/2 in. Ill. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Make 12 cleats. as shown in the sketch. AA. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. E.

Y. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. N. A (see sketch). the magnet. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Pushing the wire. The cord is also fastened to a lever. down into the water increases the surface in contact.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. and. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. When the pipe is used. --Contributed by R. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Fairport. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. pulls down the armature. A. Ridgewood. through which a piece of wire is passed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. N. C. and thus decreases the resistance. will give a greater speed. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. when used with a motor. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. F. filled with water. --Contributed by John Koehler. E. A fairly stiff spring. J. Brown. in order to increase the surface. B. A. when the coil is not provided with a regulator.

may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Perry A. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. B. Borden. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. N. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Of course. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Gachville. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. if desired. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. even those who read this description. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.for the secret contact.

Mangold. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. for 6-in. N. in a semicircle 2 in. Connect switch to post B. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. From a piece of brass a switch. as shown in Fig. With about 9 ft. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. deep and 3/4 in. 1. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. --Contributed by H. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. as shown in Fig. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. . 2. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Compton. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. H. Washington. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Dobson. from the bottom. The top board is made 28-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. E. thick and 12-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. C. apart. wide. wide. for 10in. Jr. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. J. long and full 12-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. C. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records and 5-5/8 in.. East Orange. Cal. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. --Contributed by Dr. D. records.whenever the bell rings. wide. A. long and 5 in.

Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. E. A. B. 1. closed. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. Va. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown in Fig. to which is fastened a cord. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Roanoke. When the cord is passed over pulley C.

holes (HH. Fig. thick. E. one in each end. Cut two grooves. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. wide. 1 in. they will let the air through. E. as shown in the illustration. in diameter. 1 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. The crankpin should fit tightly. Bore two 1/4 in. 3. deep. Notice the break (S) in the track. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. D. 5) when they are placed. which should be about 1/2 in. CC. Do not fasten the sides too . Figs. Fig. excepting the crank and tubing. B. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. in diameter. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. thick (A. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Fig. they will bind. 1. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. apart. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. in diameter. deep and 1/2 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. through one of these holes. wide. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. In these grooves place wheels. it too loose. If the wheels fit too tightly. is compressed by wheels. Figs. square and 7/8 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. but a larger one could be built in proportion. In the sides (Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. Now put all these parts together. Put the rubber tube. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. against which the rubber tubing. 3). Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. long.

For ease in handling the pump. though a small iron wheel is better. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. mark again. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. The screen which is shown in Fig. Cut six pieces. because he can . In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. A in Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. 2. In the two cross bars 1 in. from each end. Take the center of the bar. Then turn the crank from left to right. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. long. the other wheel has reached the bottom. from the bottom and 2 in. mark for hole and 3 in. the pump will give a steady stream. from each end. If the motion of the wheels is regular. is all the expense necessary. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from each end. 1. of material. a platform should be added. To use the pump. Two feet of 1/4-in. 2. stands 20 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. --Contributed by Dan H. 1. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. as it gives steadiness to the motion. and mark for a hole. The three legs marked BBB. beyond each of these two. from that mark the next hole. The animal does not fear to enter the box. iron. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Idana. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. and are 30 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. AA. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 1. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Kan. tubing. Fig. costing 10 cents. 1. and 3-1/2 in. Hubbard. 15 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. as shown in Fig. B. AA. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Fig. 1. 17-1/2 in.

It is useful for running induction coils. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. or small electric motors. sulphuric acid. Philadelphia. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. there is too much liquid in the jar. shuts him in. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. stirring constantly. and the solution (Fig. and touches the bait the lid is released and. If the battery has been used before. but if one casts his own zinc. When through using the battery. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. of the top. . 2). some of it should be poured out. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. long having two thumb screws. The battery is now complete. potassium bichromate. The mercury will adhere. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. add slowly. 14 copper wire. dropping. --Contributed by H. The battery is now ready for use. until it is within 3 in. rub the zinc well. When the bichromate has all dissolved. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If it is wet. silvery appearance. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. acid 1 part). This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. of water dissolve 4 oz. giving it a bright. or. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Place the carbon in the jar. Meyer. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. however. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. 1) must be prepared. If the solution touches the zinc. The truncated. C. 4 oz.see through it: when he enters. To cause a flow of electricity. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries.

with slight changes. Madison. pressing the pedal closes the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.. the battery circuit. i. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. the jump-spark coil . one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. If. while the coal door is being opened. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. After putting in the coal. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The price of the coil depends upon its size. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Wis.Fig. e. however. which opens the door.

Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. the full length of the coil. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. as shown in Fig. apart. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. Now for the receiving apparatus. 6. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". in a straight line from top to bottom. in a partial vacuum. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Change the coil described. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. as shown in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 5. diameter. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. W W. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. while a 12-in. and closer for longer distances. made of No. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This coil. coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.7. 7. W W. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 6. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. After winding. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings.described elsewhere in this book. being a 1-in. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. . 7). This will make an excellent receiver. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Fig. which is made of light copper wire. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 7.

to the direction of the current. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.6 stranded. using an electric motor and countershaft. after all. where A is the headstock. For an illustration. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 90°. but it could be run by foot power if desired. A. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. may be easily made at very little expense. in the air. 1 to 4. These circles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. I run my lathe by power. being vertical. Run a wire from the other binding post.The aerial line. as it matches the color well. 90°. Figs. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A large cone pulley would then be required. No. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. and hence the aerial line. being at right angles. 1). A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. only. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. The writer does not claim to be the originator. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. . which will be described later. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. above the ground. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock.

remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. tapered wooden pin. 6 Headstock Details D. but not hot enough to burn it. too. The bearing is then ready to be poured. A. 5. If the bearing has been properly made. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The bolts B (Fig. To make these bearings. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 5. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 4. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Heat the babbitt well. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. After pouring. The headstock. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. deep. on the under side of the bed. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 2 and 3. 4. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and runs in babbitt bearings. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. thick. and Fig. which are let into holes FIG. just touching the shaft. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Fig. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. B. 6. which pass through a piece of wood.

so I had to buy one. lock nut. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. they may be turned up after assembling. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. FIG. The tail stock (Fig. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.other machines. Ill. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. If not perfectly true. Take up about 5 ft.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. N. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. the alarm is easy to fix up. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. If one has a wooden walk. of the walk . A. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. This prevents corrosion. embedded in the wood. Oak Park. Newark. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.J. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. and a 1/2-in. B.

American ash in 1-1/2 pt. hang the articles on the wires. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Finally. add potassium cyanide again. 2). clean the articles thoroughly. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. (A. silver or other metal. save when a weight is on the trap. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. To avoid touching it. Minn. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. S. of water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Connect up an electric bell. to roughen the surface slightly. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Then make the solution . before dipping them in the potash solution. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Minneapolis. --Contributed by R. leaving a clear solution. Jackson. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. so that they will not touch. water. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. to remove all traces of grease. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. and the alarm is complete. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Fig.

A (Fig. Having finished washing the precipitate. This solution. 3) strikes the bent wire L. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. square. when the point of the key touches the tin. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. piece of broomstick. Then. hole in its center. of water. A 1/4 in. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. a hand scratch brush is good. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Can be made of a 2-in. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. German silver. and then treated as copper. if one does not possess a buffing machine. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. but opens the door. with water. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. which is held by catch B. 3) directly over the hole. 10 in. with water. silver can be plated direct. Make a somewhat larger block (E. 18 wire. nickel and such metals. copper. about 25 ft. zinc. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. and the larger part (F. Fig. use 2 volts for large articles. make a key and keyhole. light strokes. saw a piece of wood.up to 2 qt. with the pivot 2 in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. from the lower end. long. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. as shown in Fig. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 1 not only unlocks. In rigging it to a sliding door. Screw the two blocks together. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. 1). 1). The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. The wooden block C. as at F. and 4 volts for very small ones. Fig. The wooden catch. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. If accumulators are used. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. also. pewter. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath.5 to 4 volts. an old electric bell or buzzer. On brass. Fig. With an electric pressure of 3. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. a circuit is completed. 1. If more solution is required. Take quick. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Before silver plating. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. To provide the keyhole. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. shaking. will serve for the key. long. When all this is set up. Where Bunsen cells are used. 1 in. must be about 1 in. of clothesline rope and some No. Repeat six times. I. 3. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. --Model Engineer. Fig. B should be of the same wood. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. which is advised. thick by 3 in. lead. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. which . such metals as iron.

H. East Orange. the illumination in front must be arranged. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. some black cloth. and black art reigns supreme. --Contributed by E. he tosses it into the cave. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. 116 Prospect St. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Fig. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. To prepare such a magic cave. with a switch as in Fig. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). should be cut a hole. in his shirt sleeves. the requisites are a large soap box. and finally lined inside with black cloth. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Fig. The box must be altered first. half way from open end to closed end. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit.. H. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. between the parlor and the room back of it. surrounding a perfectly black space. One thing changes to another and back again. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. although a little more trouble. Klipstein. Heavy metal objects. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. 1. with the lights turned low. heighten the illusion. and a slit. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. . H. spoons and jackknives. Next.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Next. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. sides and end. top. New Jersey. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. One end is removed. to throw the light toward the audience. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. cut in one side. so much the better. which unlocks the door. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. or cave. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. 2. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 2. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Objects appear and disappear. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The magician stands in front of this. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Receiving the bowl again. Fig. and plenty of candles. he points with one finger to the box. 1. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. enlarged. 3. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. some black paint. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and hands its contents round to the audience. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. On either side of the box. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. such as forks. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. In front of you. 0. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The interior must be a dead black. B. He removes the bowl from the black box. shows catch B. Thus. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Fig. is the cut through which the rope runs. a few simple tools. floor. no painting inside is required.

and pours them from the bag into a dish. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. only he. one on each side of the box. the room where the cave is should be dark. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. was identical with this. is on a table) so much the better. into the eyes of him who looks. you must have an assistant. if. and if portieres are impossible. of course. had a big stage. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. in which are oranges and apples. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. The audience room should have only low lights. The exhibitor should be . the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. The illusion. as presented by Hermann. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. of course. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. which can be made to dance either by strings.Finally. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. a screen must be used. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. his confederate behind inserts his hand. which are let down through the slit in the top. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Consequently. and several black drop curtains. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. But illusions suggest themselves.

so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. b2. c2. 1. vice versa. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. 1. making contact with them as shown at y. 2. b3. and c2 to the zinc. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. respectively.. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). held down on disk F by two other terminals. held down by another disk F (Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. Finally. A represents a pine board 4 in. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. square. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. and c1 – electricity. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. or binding posts. Fig. b2. c4. Then. 2. held down on it by two terminals. with three brass strips. f2. by means of two wood screws. On the disk G are two brass strips. FIG. e1 and e2. terminal c3 will show +. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. at L. is shown in the diagram. respectively. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. and c4 + electricity. respectively.a boy who can talk. by 4 in. c1. making contact with them. d. About the center piece H moves a disk. c3. their one end just slips under the strips b1. A. if you turn handle K to the right. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. as shown in Fig. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . terminal c3 will show . The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. 2). and a common screw. b1. or b2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. b3. so arranged that.

when on No. from three batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 1. . from five batteries. Ohio. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. and when on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Tuttle. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Jr. jump spark coil. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. when on No. Newark. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Joerin. 3. 4. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it..in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. and C and C1 are binding posts. and then hold the receiver to your ear. E. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. B is a onepoint switch. when A is on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. you have the current of one battery. from four batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. -Contributed by A. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 5.

and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. over the bent portion of the rule. La. Redmond. Thus. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. E. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. mark. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.. B. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. and supporting the small weight. of Burlington. traveled by the thread. New Orleans. P. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. The device thus arranged. Handy Electric Alarm . An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. When you do not have a graduate at hand. mark. per second. as shown in the sketch. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. is the device of H. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. which may be a button or other small object. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. so one can see the time. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A. rule. Wis.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. per second for each second.

Lane. but may be closed at F any time desired. Then if a mishap comes. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. . will complete the circuit and ring the bell. C. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. --Contributed by Gordon T. Pa. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. S.which has a piece of metal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. --C. which illuminates the face of the clock. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Crafton. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. and with the same result. When the alarm goes off. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. wrapping the wire around the can several times. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. for a wetting is the inevitable result. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Instead. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. B. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. soldered to the alarm winder. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it.

The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. C. Macey. which may. small machinery parts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. AA. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. engines. A. With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Two cleats. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. ornaments of various kinds. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. binding posts. The first thing to make is a molding bench. when it is being prepared. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. whence it is soon tracked into the house. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. as shown in Fig. 1 . If there is no foundry Fig. as shown.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. cannons. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. battery zincs. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. BE. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. and many other interesting and useful articles. --Contributed by A. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. models and miniature objects. L. 1. but it is a mistake to try to do this. and duplicates of all these. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. bearings. New York City.

D. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. E. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. will be required. say 12 in. is nailed to each end of the cope. CC. A wedge-shaped piece. which can be made of a knitted stocking. DD. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. Fig. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. is made of wood. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. as shown. the "cope. H. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips.How to Make a Mold [96] . which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. as shown. by 8 in. An old teaspoon. If the box is not very strong. The cloth bag. which should be nailed in. is about the right mesh. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. CC. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. A A. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. try using sand from other sources. white metal. II . high. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. a little larger than the outside of the flask. and the lower pieces. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. and the "drag." or lower part. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The rammer. and this. and a sieve." or upper half. which can be either aluminum. 1. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. by 6 in. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Fig. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The flask. makes a very good sieve.near at hand. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. previous to sawing. 2. If desired the sieve may be homemade. 1. G. and saw it in half longitudinally. 2 . is filled with coal dust. F. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. J. is shown more clearly in Fig. The dowels. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking.

An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as shown at D. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. in order to remove the lumps. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. and thus judge for himself. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and scatter about 1/16 in. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as shown. where they can watch the molders at work." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. After ramming. as shown at C. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as described. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. The sand is then ready for molding. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. turn the drag other side up. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or "cope. Place another cover board on top. and by grasping with both hands. as shown at E. It is then rammed again as before. and then more sand is added until Fig. and if water is added. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. the surface of the sand at . In finishing the ramming." in position. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or "drag. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B.

to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in diameter. thus making a dirty casting. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Fig. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. to give the air a chance to escape. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. This is done with a spoon. thus holding the crucible securely. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at H. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag." or pouring-hole. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. After drawing the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. it shows that the sand is too wet. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as shown at H. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. made out of steel rod. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. deep. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. III. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. . It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown at J. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. in order to prevent overheating. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. and then pour. Place a brick or other flat. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. is next cut. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown at F.E should be covered with coal-dust. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. as shown in the sketch. as shown at G. after being poured. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The "sprue. wide and about 1/4 in.

Morton. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. white metal and other scrap available. used only for zinc. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. If a good furnace is available. --Contributed by Harold S. Although the effect in the illustration . or from any adjacent pair of cells. may be used in either direction. babbitt. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. battery zincs. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Minneapolis. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. the following device will be found most convenient. Referring to the figure. 15% lead. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. although somewhat expensive. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. and. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In my own case I used four batteries.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. but any reasonable number may be used. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell.

To make it take a sheet-iron band. may be made of hardwood. Chicago. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. If desired. shaft made. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The brass rings also appear distorted. outward. --Contributed by Draughtsman. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Fig. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. backward. Then walk down among the audience. The bearings. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. which will be sufficient to hold it. 2. 3/4 in. B. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. as shown at A. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Make one of these pieces for each arm. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. says a correspondent of the Sphinx.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Put a sharp needle point. B. Then replace the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. connected by cords to the rudder. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown in the illustration. By replacing the oars with paddles. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent.

and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. A. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. If galvanized iron is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. when it will again return to its original state. spoiling its appearance. as shown in Fig. A block of ice. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. should be made of wood. 3. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. or under pressure. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. as shown in Fig. The covers. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. and a weight. In the same way. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. Snow. but when in motion. D. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 2 and 3. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. or the paint will come off. W. C. If babbitt is used. The hubs. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 1.melted babbitt. Fig. It may seem strange that ice . being simply finely divided ice. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 2. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. E.

in. no matter how slow the motion may be. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 1/2 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. --Contributed by Gordon T. by 1/4. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. The rate of flow is often very slow. Lane. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. but. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. which resembles ice in this respect. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. and assume the shape shown at B. P. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but by placing it between books. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. whenever there is any connection made at all. the contact posts being of 1/4 in.should flow like water. square. B. Pa. by 2 in. brass. thus giving a high resistance contact. as shown on page 65. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. or supporting it in some similar way. as per sketch. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening.. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Crafton. Pressing either push button. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. by 5 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice.

Wilkinsburg. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. C. B. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. weight. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. alarm clock. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. J. wooden supports. H. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message.thumb screws. The success depends upon a slow current. and C. the battery. Ward. --Contributed by A. In the wiring diagram.000 ft. The parts are: A. Indianapolis. pulleys. B. as shown. as shown. I. A is the circuit breaker. D. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. draft. furnace. the induction coil. E. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. cord. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. G. F. and five dry batteries. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. K . G. Pa. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. vertical lever. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. about the size used for automobiles. draft chain. horizontal lever.

If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. Artistic Window Boxes The top. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Kalamazoo. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 3. where house plants are kept in the home. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. material framed together as shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Mich. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The frame (Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. such as used for a storm window. 2 are dressed to the right angle. as well as the bottom. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day.

1 cp. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and a suitable source of power. This is more economical than dry cells. Halifax. in this connection.. after a rest. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. so as to increase the current.. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. a cork and a needle. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. It must be remembered. and will give the . Thus. 1 each complete with base. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. as indicated by Fig. in any system of lamps. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. as if drawn upon for its total output. --Contributed by Wm. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. W. can be connected up in series. N. Grant. However. Push the needle into the cork. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. by connecting them in series. e. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. this must be done with very great caution. and cost 27 cents FIG. S. where they are glad to have them taken away. The 1/2-cp. one can regulate the batteries as required. in diameter. is something that will interest the average American boy. 1. but maintain the voltage constant.. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. for some time very satisfactorily. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Canada. i.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. A certain number of these. and the instrument will then be complete. multiples of series of three. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. which sells for 25 cents. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. However. since a battery is the most popular source of power.

it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and diffused light in a room. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and then lead No. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. to secure light by this method. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. However. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. especially those of low internal resistance. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts.proper voltage. for display of show cases. 1-cp. These will give 3 cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. according to the water pressure obtainable. So. or 22 lights. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. 3. by the proper combination of these. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. each. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. lamps. and for Christmas trees. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. FIG. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 2 shows the scheme. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. 11 series. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. generates the power for the lights. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. double insulated wire wherever needed. which is the same as that of one battery. 18 B & S. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. making.. although the first cost is greater. lamp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. lamps. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. Fig. If wound for 10 volts. Chicago. In conclusion. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. as in Fig. where the water pressure is the greatest. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. we simply turn on the water. if wound for 6 volts. and running the series in parallel. . Thus. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. Thus.

and the sides. field of motor. brushes of motor. the letters indicate as follows: FF. AA. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. center points of switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. --Contributed by F. or a tempting bone. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A indicates the ground. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. we were not bothered with them. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. After I connected up my induction coil. switch. thus reversing the machine. Emig. CC. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. . --Contributed by Leonard E. Santa Clara.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. DD. A. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Parker. bars of pole-changing switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. and C. B. or from one pattern. simply change the switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. as shown in the sketch. Cal. are cut just alike. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Ind. BB. Plymouth. To reverse the motor. a bait of meat. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. B. outside points of switch.

Fry. attached to the end of the armature B. If it is not. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. To unlock the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. -Contributed by Claude B. When the circuit is broken a weight. one cell being sufficient. or would remain locked. A. 903 Vine St. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. San Jose. and a table or bench. Melchior. Hutchinson. thus locking the door. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. a piece of string. The experiment works best . a hammer.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. which is in the door.. The button can be hidden. merely push the button E. Cal. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. W. as it is the key to the lock. Minn.

Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the stick falls away. releasing the weight. the current flows with the small arrows.. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. Tie the ends of the string together. Schmidt. . forming a loop. Brockville. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. --Contributed by Geo. which pulls the draft open. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. the key turns. Porto Rico. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. I. 2. Ontario. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Culebra. 3. 1). To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. C. 18 Gorham St. 4). as shown in Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. attached at the other end. A. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in the ceiling and has a window weight. P. run through a pulley. 3. W. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Wis. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands.Contributed by F. Crawford Curry. D. is attached to the draft B of the furnace.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. -. Madison. Canada.

and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. D. thence to a switch. and .. including the mouthpiece. get two pieces of plate glass. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. S. J. or tree. and the other to the battery. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and break the corners off to make them round. N. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Camden. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. or from a bed of flowers. thick. 6 in. Farley. --Contributed by Wm. R. running one direct to the receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. First. The cut shows the arrangement. which fasten to the horn. and then to the receiver. J. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. made with his own hands. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Connect two wires to the transmitter. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. square and 1 in. Jr.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Use a barrel to work on.

and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. and spread on the glass. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. using straight strokes 2 in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. spaces. wetting it to the consistency of cream. then take 2 lb. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Fasten. with 1/4-in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. as in Fig. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. by the side of the lamp. 1. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. L. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Fig. When done the glass should be semitransparent. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. a round 4-in. 2. and is ready for polishing.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. twice the focal length away. 2. Have ready six large dishes. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. When dry. Then warm and press again with the speculum. or it will not polish evenly. with pitch.. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. while walking around the barrel. wide around the convex glass or tool. melt 1 lb. also rotate the glass. In a dark room. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. the coarse grinding must be continued. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. or less. Use a binger to spread it on with. unless a longer focal length is wanted. A. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. so the light . then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. in length. of water. wet till soft like paint. set the speculum against the wall.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and label. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When polishing the speculum. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and a large lamp. and the under glass or tool convex. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. then 8 minutes..

if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. the speculum is ready to be silvered. If not. 100 gr. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. deep. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.100 gr... of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. also how the rays R from a star . stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. Two glass or earthenware dishes. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 4 oz. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Fig. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. then ammonia until bath is clear. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. as in K. The knife should not be more than 6 in. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Place the speculum S. Silver nitrate ……………………………. or hills. face down. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. with distilled water. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Solution D: Sugar loaf . 2. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). and pour the rest into the empty dish.……………………………. Place the speculum. Fig. Now add enough of the solution A. With pitch. 840 gr. Fig. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Nitric acid . until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. that was set aside.. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. long to the back of the speculum. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. 39 gr.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.. Then add solution B.. from the lamp. 25 gr. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. When the focus is found. When dry. Then add 1 oz. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …..……………………………….. if a hill in the center.. touched with rouge. cement a strip of board 8 in. must be procured. longer strokes. The polishing and testing done. fill the dish with distilled water.……………. 2. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. the speculum will show some dark rings. 4 oz. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.

The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. long and cost me just $15. Then I made the one described. cover with paper and cloth. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. telescope can be made at home. stop down well after focusing. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. slightly wider than the lens mount. with an outlay of only a few dollars. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Mellish.John E. using strawboard and black paper. . but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Make the tube I of sheet iron. deg. About 20. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Thus an excellent 6-in. My telescope is 64 in. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. which proves to be easy of execution. The flatter they are the less they will distort. two glass prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.. Place over lens. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. and proceed as for any picture. is a satisfactory angle. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment.

In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The rays of the clear. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. -Contributed by A. but will not preserve its hardening. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. instead of the contrary. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. says the Master Painter. D. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. push the button D. and reflect through the negative. add the plaster gradually to the water. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. or powdered alum. B. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. as shown in Fig. To unlock. The paper is exposed. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. complete the arrangement. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. then add a little sulphate of potash. Ill. Boody. 2. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 1. A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. through the lens of the camera and on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. . Zimmerman. Fig. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it.

Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as in Fig. 2. 2. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. throw . Fasten on the switch lever. 1). Fig. To reverse. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. use a string. as shown in the sketch. 3.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. so that it can rotate about these points. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Then blow through the spool. as at A and B. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. also provide them with a handle. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Connect the wires as shown in Fig.

--Contributed by R. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. --Contributed by Geo. Thomas. In the sketch. Levy. Take out. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and E E. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbon sockets. San Marcos. carbons. -Contributed by Morris L. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Neb. Tex. wash in running water. B. rinse in alcohol. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. . and rub dry with linen cloth. as shown in the sketch. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. A is the electricbell magnet. the armature. Tex. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. San Antonio. D. binding posts. Go McVicker. although this is not necessary. L. North Bend. C C.

--Contributed by Joseph B. 16 magnet wire. wound evenly about this core. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 14 or No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 36 magnet wire. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Bell. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. long or more. By means of two or more layers of No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.

The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. a box like that shown in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. diameter. Beginning half an inch from one end. with room also for a small condenser. but if it is not convenient to do this work. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. which is desirable. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. When cut and laid in one continuous length. in length. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. in diameter. 4. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and the results are often unsatisfactory. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. at a time. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. which is an important factor of the coil. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core.which would be better to buy ready-made. the entire core may be purchased readymade. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. After the core wires are bundled. about 6 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. coil illustrates the general details of the work. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The condenser is next wrapped . 1. wide. In shaping the condenser. and finally the fourth strip of paper. A 7/8-in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. then the strip of tin-foil. as the maker prefers. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or 8 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. making two layers. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. long and 2-5/8 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. This makes a condenser which may be folded. hole is bored in the center of one end. 2 yd. one piece of the paper is laid down. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. No. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. long and 5 in.

one from bell.. 3. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. wide. V-shaped copper strip. spark. ready for assembling. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. G. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. shelf for clock. E. bell. which allows wiring at the back. shows how the connections are made. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. B. go. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. by 12 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. A. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. long and 12 in. battery . and one from battery. The alarm key will turn and drop down. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. flange turned on one side. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. round so that the inside . 4 in. copper lever with 1-in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Fig. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C.) The wiring diagram. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. F. switch. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. forms the other pole or terminal. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. whole length. B. lines H.securely with bands of paper or tape. which is insulated from the first. long to key. C. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. to the door. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. the letters indicate as follows: A. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. open switch C. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. and the other sheet. D.

They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Use a glass or metal shade.diameter is 7 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Line the furnace. . 2 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. but with the circuit. of blue stone. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. of zinc sulphate. and then rivet the seam. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. London. This is for blowing. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. from the bottom. and the battery is ready for use. instead of close to it. The circuit should also have a high resistance. says the Model Engineer. Short-circuit for three hours. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. do not shortcircuit. If desired for use immediately. That is what they are for. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.

porcelain and paper. If any or your audience presume to dispute. This type of battery will give about 0. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. If too low. To operate the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. for some it will turn one way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.9 of a volt. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. 2. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge." which created much merriment. 1.. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. below the bottom of the zinc. or think they can do the same let them try it. thus producing two different vibrations. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and then. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. imparting to them a violet tinge. but the thing would not move at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the second finger along the side. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. square and about 9 in. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and therein is the trick. for others the opposite way. At least it is amusing. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Outside of the scientific side involved. g. affects . the thumb and second finger changing places: e. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Try it and see. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. long. as in the other movement. Ohio. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. herein I describe a much better trick. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. oxygen to ozone.

and. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a means for holding it vertical. To the front board is attached a box. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. insects. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. earth. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. says the Photographic Times. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. if possible. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and one of them is photomicrography. but this is less satisfactory. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. an old tripod screw. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. however. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but not essential. chemicals.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a short-focus lens. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but small flowers.

Divide one-quarter of the circle . 7 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. in diameter. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. which is 15 ft. 113 7 lb. Madison.--Contributed by George C. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 5 in. 268 17 lb. 1. A line. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 8 ft. Ft Lifting Power. 65 4 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 11 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. long and 3 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 905 57 lb. The following table will give the size. or 31 ft. Boston. 6 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. CD. Fig. 12 ft. 9 ft. or 3 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 697 44 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 7-1/2 in. 5 ft. 179 11 lb. 7-1/2 in. AB. balloon. and a line. 381 24 lb. Cap. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. while it is not so with the quill. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. in Cu. Mass.

Repeat this operation four times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. keeping the marked part on the outside. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. using a fine needle and No. This test will show if the bag is airtight. on the curved line from B to C. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The amounts necessary for a 10- . If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. making a double seam as shown in Fig. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 3. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. cutting all four quarters at the same time. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. 4. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. of beeswax and boil well together. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. 2. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Procure 1 gal. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. and so on. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The pattern is now cut. of the very best heavy body. 70 thread. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The cloth segments are sewed together.

place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. until no more dirt is seen. or a fan. with the iron borings. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. ]. or dusting with a dry brush. oil the spindle holes carefully. balloon are 125 lb. ft. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand.Green Iron ammonium citrate . . as shown in Fig. with 3/4in. if it is good it will dry off. of iron. 1 lb. with water 2 in. pipe. A.ft. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. All FIG. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 5 . Water 1 oz. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Fill the other barrel. .The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. About 15 lb. 1 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. using a fine brush. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. After washing a part. but if any grease remains on the hand. to the bag. a clean white rag. of water will make 4 cu. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. When the clock has dried. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. of gas in one hour. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. this should be repeated frequently. should not enter into the water over 8 in. The outlet. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. C. B.. capacity and connect them. of iron borings and 125 lb. it is not fit to use. leaving the hand quite clean. C. A. of sulphuric acid. The 3/4-in. above the level of the water in barrel A. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. In the barrel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. B. which may sound rather absurd. 5. by fixing. A. 150 gr. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Vegetable oils should never be used.

keeping the fingers out of the solution. and keep in the dark until used. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Printing is done in the sun.. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. says the Moving Picture World. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. dry atmosphere will give best results.Water 1 oz. to avoid blackened skin.000 ft. fix in hypo. or battery. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or carbon. toning first if desired. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This aerial collector can be made in . at the time of employment. The negative pole. . of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. of any make. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The miniature 16 cp. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. 20 to 30 minutes. A longer exposure will be necessary. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. The positive pole. Port Melbourne. Dry in the dark. . and a vigorous negative must be used. A cold. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Exposure.

long. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. holes . lead pipe. making a ground with one wire. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance is less. in diameter. If the waves strike across the needle. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. 5 in. when left exposed to the air. both positive and negative. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. as described below. The storage cell. forming a cup of the pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. lay a needle. and have the other connected with another aerial line. If the wave ceases. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. will soon become dry and useless. This will complete the receiving station. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. and as less current will flow the short way. a positive and a negative. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As the telephone offers a high resistance. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon.various ways. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell.

This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and the other to the negative. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. B. does not need to be watertight. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. by soldering the joint. or tube B. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. namely: a square hole. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This box can be square. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . one to the positive.as possible. a round one. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. on each end. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. except for about 1 in. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. D. This support or block. This. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. says the Pathfinder. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. an oblong one and a triangular one. of course. or tube C. Two binding-posts should be attached. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. When mixing the acid and water. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste.

as it is not readily overturned. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 3. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. leaving about 1/16 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. Chicago. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. in place on the wood. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. is built 15 ft. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 2. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. and has plenty of good seating capacity. and match them together. were fitted by this one plug. Only galvanized nails should be used. . back and under. long. 1. as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. This punt.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. A and B. about 20 in. 2. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. C. Ill. all around the edge. The third piece of brass. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. wide. thick cut two pieces alike. deep and 4 ft. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards.

Wash. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. B. is cut 1 in. In Fig. thick and 3-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Tacoma. A. square (Fig 2). Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. A piece of 1/4-in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point.

no more current than a 16-cp. it had to be borne in mind that.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. and to consume. lamp. says the Model Engineer. if possible. Wagner. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. which the writer has made. with the exception of insulated wire. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. no special materials could be obtained. The winding of the armature." has no connection with the outside circuit. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. H. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. without auxiliary phase. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. In designing. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which can be developed in the usual manner. or "rotor. may be of interest to some of our readers. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.

1. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 2. as shown in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and all sparking is avoided. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. Unfortunately. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 5. no steel being obtainable. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. or "stator. B. holes. and filled with rivets.the field-magnet. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. thick." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. After assembling a second time. A. bolts put in and tightened up. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. 3. They are not particularly accurate as it is. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. about 2-1/2 lb. this little machine is not self-starting. were then drilled and 1/4-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. while the beginnings . No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. with the dotted line. C. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. Holes 5-32 in. 4. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. The stator is wound full with No. to be filed out after they are placed together. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. being used. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. also varnished before they were put in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. wrought iron. as shown in Fig. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in.

All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. 2. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and as the motor runs at constant speed. J. and would not easily get out of order. 1. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. 3-Contributed by C. Newark. The rotor is wound with No. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as a means of illustrating songs. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. and as each layer of wire was wound. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. it would be very simple to build.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. N. One is by contact. This type of motor has drawbacks. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. having no commutator or brushes. McKinney. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. film to film. No starting resistance is needed. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. as shown in Fig. E. In making slides by contact. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. if applied immediately. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and all wound in the same direction. as before stated. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and the other by reduction in the camera. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. a regulating resistance is not needed. The lantern slide is a glass plate. If too late for alcohol to be of use. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Jr. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and especially of colored ones. The image should . from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density..

on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. to use a plain fixing bath. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. a little extra work will be necessary. they are much used by travelers. about a minute. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Being unbreakable. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. also. Draw lines with a pencil. C. and then a plain glass. D. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Fig. Select a room with one window. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. 3. if possible. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. 5. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 4. If the exposure has been correct. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. It is best.appear in. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. as shown in Fig. except that the binding is different. 2. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. 1. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. A. B. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. over the mat.

Vt. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. holes bored in the end pieces. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. known as rods and cones. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. as shown at A. Hastings. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. in diameter and 20 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. in diameter and 40 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. or other stout cloth. from the end piece of the chair. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. wide and 50 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 1. Fig. long. as shown at B. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. is to be used for the seat. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 2. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. A piece of canvas. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. as shown in Fig. Corinth. from the center of this dot draw a star. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. 16 in. Fig. from the ends. If the star is in front of the left eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. 1.

and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A disk 1 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. J. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Cal. made from an ordinary sash cord. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. in thickness and 10 in. O'Gara. as shown in Fig. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. as shown in Fig. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A belt. 2.-Contributed by P. Auburn. . They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as well as to operate other household machines. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. 1. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. per square inch. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.

with as fine a thread as possible. says the Scientific American. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and the construction is complete. square for a support. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. wide. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. leaving it shaped like a bench. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. long. then removing the object. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. A simple. thick and 2-1/2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. or inconvenient to measure.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. will be the thickness of the object. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. screwing it through the nut. Cut out a piece from the block combination. 3/4 in. direction. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. divided by the number of threads to the inch. . The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. to the top of the bench. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Bore a 1/4-in. it serves a very useful purpose.

Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Place a 3/4-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. material 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. bolt in each hole.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Santa Maria. Oal. long is used for the center pole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. beyond the end of the wood. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. The wheel should be open . which show up fine at night. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Bore a 3/4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. piece of wood 12 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan.

long. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. wide and 1/8 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. thick. long. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. square and 3 or 4 in. in diameter. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. at the top and 4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. P. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. C. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. A piece of brass 2 in. long. The spool . long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Graham. which should be 1/4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. L. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. A. is soldered. thick. Fort Worth. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. at the bottom. C.-Contributed by A. and on its lower end a socket. Tex. from the ends. long.Side and Top View or have spokes. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. from the top end. H and J. B. O. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. wide and 1/8 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. and the lower part 61/2 in. The coil. 1/2 in. A cross bar. of the ends with boards. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. made of the same material. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. thick is used for the armature. The boards may be nailed or bolted. to be operated by the magnet coil. pieces used for the spokes. The width should be about 5-1/4 in.

This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. D and E. 2 the hat hanging on it. is drilled. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 1. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. that holds the lower carbon. which may be had by using German silver wire. . for insulating the brass ferrule. A. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. or a water rheostat heretofore described. B. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.J. one without either rubber or metal end. The armature.000. 2. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. R. by soldering. At the bottom end of the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. A soft piece of iron. Randolph. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. C.is about 2-1/2 in. Mass. Bradlev.--A. do it without any apparent effort. F. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. S. then with a firm.000 for irrigation work. S. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and in numerous other like instances.E. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. --Contributed by Arthur D. and directly centering the holes H and J. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and place it against a door or window casing. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. long. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.

The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. for adjustment. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. A. mixed with water to form a paste. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. from the core and directly opposite. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter and 1/16 in. long. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. C. S. The core of the coil. 1. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. D. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. about 1 in. for the primary. About 70 turns of No. about 3/16 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. B. and then 1. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. leaving the projections as shown. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. thick. long and 1 in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Fig. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . with a 3/16-in. may be made from a 3/8-in. wide.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Fig. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 2 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. is connected to a flash lamp battery. S. The coil ends are made from cardboard. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The switch. 2. The vibrator B. 1. in diameter.500 turns of No. for the secondary. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. about 1/8 in. The vibrator. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. hole in the center. F. is constructed in the usual manner.

2 to fit the two holes. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. brass plate. as shown. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. board. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The tin is 4 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. . as shown in the sketch. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 16 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The hasp. in an ordinary water glass. 1. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. long and when placed over the board. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. lighted. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. it laps down about 8 in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. with which to operate the dial. which is only 3/8-in. Fig. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. wide.Place a small piece of paper. and then well clinched. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is cut with two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. which seemed to be insufficient. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. between the boards. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. 1. thick on the inside.

a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. clear glass as shown. square and 10-1/2 in. and the back left dark. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. but when the front part is illuminated. one in each division. If the box is made large enough. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. not shiny. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. square and 8-1/2 in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. the glass.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. When the rear part is illuminated. which completely divides the box into two parts. any article placed therein will be reflected in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When making of wood. black color. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for use in window displays. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or in the larger size mentioned. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other.

or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as shown at A in the sketch. . place the goods in one part and the price in the other.. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. When using as a window display. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. as shown in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. into the other. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. alternately. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. wide will be about the right size. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. a tank 2 ft. When there is no electric current available. as it appears. above the top of the tank. long and 1 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

hole. dried and mixed with linseed oil. 1 in. 5 ft. high. as shown. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. but with a length of 12 in. using a 3/4-in. wide. lines gauged on each side of each. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. 2 ft. or ferrous sulphate. is built on the front. under sides together. The 13-in. 6 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. square. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. Three windows are provided. The pieces can then be taken out. Columbus. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. each. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. bore from each end. thick and 3 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. gauge for depth. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. bit. hole bored the full length through the center. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Shape the under sides first. and a door in front. one for each side. long. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and 6 ft. Iron sulphate. with a length of 13 in. A small platform. If a planing mill is near. from the ground. wide. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. then use a red-hot iron to finish. This hole must be continued . radius. and a solution of iron sulphate added. square and 40 in. long. This precipitate is then washed. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. however. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. O. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. is the green vitriol.

Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. A better way. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. For art-glass the metal panels are . apply two coats of wax. three or four may be attached as shown. thick and 3 in. hole in each block. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. If the parts are to be riveted. When this is dry. if shade is purchased. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Electric globes--two. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.through the pieces forming the base. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Saw the two blocks apart. When the filler has hardened. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade.

as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE . such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . the other. the object and the background. The arms holding the glass. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. as shown in the sketch. as in ordinary devices. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Figure 1 shows the side. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. 2 the front view of this stand. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. one way and 1/2 in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.

Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. about 1-1/4 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. outside diameter. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. wide and 6-5/16 in. as shown in the cut. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. wide and 11 in. pointing north and south. If the light becomes dim. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick 5/8-in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. as shown in the sketch. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. uncork and recork again. Put the ring in place on the base. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. as it is very poisonous. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. and swinging freely. An ordinary pocket compass. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. long. channel in the circumference of the ring. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. in diameter. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thus forming a 1/4-in. Before mounting the ring on the base. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. in diameter for a base. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in.

289 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. into these cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. AA. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.600 .500 . black oxide of copper. Place on top the so- . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. from the second to the third.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. are mounted on a base.182 . The results given should be multiplied by 1.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. and mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. 1 oz.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Corresponding mirrors. EE. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.715 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.088 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. CC. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.865 1. of the top. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. above the half can.420 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. B. and north of the Ohio river.

during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . -Contributed by Robert Canfield. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. In Fig. Put the solution in a long. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. 62 gr. little crystals forming in the liquid. When renewing. which otherwise remains clear. alcohol.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. then they will not rust fast. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. says Metal Worker. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Colo. University Park. of pulverized campor. always remove the oil with a siphon. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 31 gr. the wheel will revolve in one direction. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. slender bottle. This device makes an attractive advertising sign.

A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. If two of them are floating on the same solution. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Lloyd Enos. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If zinc and copper are used. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. floating on a solution. This is used in place of the spoon. Attach to the wires. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. about 1-1/4 in. A paper-fastener box. --Contributed by C.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Solder in the side of the box . they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. on the under side of the cork. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box.

3 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 in. stained and varnished. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Put ends. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. of wire on each end extending from the coil. C. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. . If the hose is not a tight fit. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Wind evenly about 2 oz. The base. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. wide and 2-1/2 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. can be made of oak.in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. G--No. D. On one side bend the wire around the tube B.1-in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. 10 wire about 10 in. B. The standard. A circular piece of cardboard. C. away. thick. A. as shown in Fig. Take a small piece of soft iron. 1-1/4 in.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. and then solder on the cover. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. D. H. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The spring should be about 1 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Rhamstine. brass tubing. 14 wire will do. B. E. F.not shorter than 18 in. long that has about 1/4-in. long. one on each side of the board. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. of No. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. or made with a little black paint. The bottom of the box. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. D. A. 1. long. to it. is made from a piece of No. 1/2.Contributed by J. Thos. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. glass tubing . long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Use a board 1/2. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. E. Bore holes for binding-posts. piece of 1/4-in.in. C. and on the other around the glass tube. hole.

making a support as shown in Fig. E. When the glass becomes soft. long. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. The iron plunger. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. as shown in Fig. from the right hand. D. Smith.of the coil.--Contributed by Edward M. of No. 3 in. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.--Contributed by R. Cuba. of mercury will be sufficient. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 1.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. long. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long. two pieces 2 ft. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. of 8-oz. Teasdale. in diameter. 3-in. is drawn nearer to the coil. 5. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. four hinges. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. . about 1 in. 2. Wis. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long are used for the legs. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. N. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. J. canvas. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Milwaukee. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Y. long.

The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . although nearly any size could be made in the same way. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The tube now must be filled completely. Measure 8 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Take 1/2 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of vacuum at the top. expelling all the air. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. 2. small aperture in the long tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 5. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.. Toronto. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Can.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 4. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. holding in the left hand.. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. leaving 8 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. thus leaving a. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. --Contributed by David A. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. 3. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Break off the piece of glass. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 6. Keys. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. long. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Fig.

3. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 7. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. as in Fig. wood screws. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 9 in. long. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. A crosspiece 3/4-in. joint be accurately put together. long. material 2 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 1 in. thick. with each projection 3-in. wide and 5 ft. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. in diameter. The large pulley is about 14 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. as shown in Fig. 3 in. long. 5. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 3 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. thick.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. from the end of same. thick. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. wide and 5 ft. 1. These are bent and nailed. 6. as shown in Fig. This forms a slot. Fig. FIG. 4. long. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. thick. wide and 3 in. wide and 12 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Four blocks 1/4 in.6 -. 1 in. thick. 4 in. and 1/4 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 2. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. and the single projection 3/4 in.

and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. --Contributed by C. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. above the runner level. by 1-in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. attach runners and use it on the ice. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. says Photography. . Welsh. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Water 1 oz. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Kan. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. R. first removing the crank. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The runners can be made from 1/4-in.

Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 1. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. of water. and very much cheaper. Newton. Leominster. . then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. This is done with a camel's hair brush.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. from an ordinary clamp skate. Mass. Printing is carried rather far. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. also. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 1 oz. --Contributed by Wallace C. 3. The print is washed. as shown in Fig. 2. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Treasdale. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part.

Fig. --Contributed by H. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. which represents the back side of the door. 1. as shown in the sketch. hole. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. about 10 in. and to the bottom. A. square piece. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and bend them as shown in the sketch. with about 1/8-in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. high. The swing door B. 2. causing the door to swing back and up. from one end. Church. Then. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1-1/2 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 1 ft. fasten a 2-in. Fig. Place a 10-in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. extending the width of the box.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Va. F. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. 1. high for rabbits. and 3 ft. Alexandria. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. wide. The thread is broken off at the . The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. wide and 4 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. too. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Take two glass tubes. say. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. long.

wide. plates. camera and wish to use some 4. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. automobiles. Paste a piece of strong black paper. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. .proper place to make a small hole. 1. say 8 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. D. wide. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. as shown in Fig. in size. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 2. in size. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. black surfaced if possible..by 5-in. says Camera Craft. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. wide and 5 in. inside of the opening. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. -Contributed by William M. 3. being 1/8 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. B. 1 in.by 7-in. 10 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. horses and dogs. shorter. long. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. to be used as a driving pulley. Fig. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. but cut it 1/4 in. long. This opening. high and 12 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. A and B. Crilly. Chicago. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Jr. Fig. C. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Cut an opening in the other piece. shorter at each end. Out two rectangular holes. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. trolley cars. and go in the holder in the same way.

and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. wide will be required." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. A cell of this kind can easily be made. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.. long and 6 in. The needle will then point north and south. if it has previously been magnetized. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. making a . and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. into which the dog is harnessed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. in diameter.

1/4 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. long which are copper plated. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. plaster of paris. under the spool in the paraffin. of the plate at one end.in. B is a base of 1 in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. only the joints. This makes the wire smooth. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. says Electrician and Mechanic. one that will hold about 1 qt. . and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. in diameter and 6 in. zinc oxide. when the paraffin is melted. of the top. and a notch between the base and the pan. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. filter. sal ammoniac. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. short time. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. for a connection. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Place the pan on the stove. F is a spool. beeswax melted together. in which P is the pan. Do not paint any surface. fodder. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.watertight receptacle. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. 1 lb. 3/4 lb. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. pull out the wire as needed. of water. with narrow flanges. of rosin and 2 oz. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. pine. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Form a 1/2-in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. leaving about 1/2-in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. fuel and packing purposes. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. A is a block of l-in. Pack the paste in.

but the thing would not move at all.. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and then. thus producing two different vibrations. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. g. grip the stick firmly in one hand. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and one friend tells me that they were . --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley." which created much merriment. by the Hindoos in India. for some it will turn one way. At least it is amusing. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. and he finally. let them try it. as in the other movement. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. while for others it will not revolve at all. 2. from vexation. Try it and see. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. long. for others the opposite way. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. or think they can do the same. If any of your audience presume to dispute.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Enlarge the hole slightly. Toledo. Ohio. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and therein is the trick.

The experiments were as follows: 1. 5. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the pressure was upon an edge. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. by means of a center punch. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 4. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. gave the best results. To operate. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. p. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand.100 r. the rotation may be obtained.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 3. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. and I think the results may be of interest. 7. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. m. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. rotation was obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 2. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 6. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. no rotation resulted. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. secondly. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Thus a circular or . this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.

A wire is tied around the can.D. at first. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Sloan. Ph. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. --Contributed by G. and the height of the fall about 6 in. is driven violently away.. forming a handle for carrying. Washington. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Minn. and the resultant "basket splash. it will be clockwise. Lloyd. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. unwetted by the liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward)." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. . the upper portion is. a piece of wire and a candle. --Contributed by M. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. if the pressure is from the left. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. D. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A. as shown. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Duluth. C.. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. G. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. or greasy.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Each wheel is 1/4 in. axle. as shown. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. in diameter. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. with a 1/16-in. as shown in Fig. flange and a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. thick and 1 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. about 2-5/8 in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. 1. long.

A trolley. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. each in its proper place. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 3. 4. 6. as shown in Fig. The first piece. which must be 110 volt alternating current. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. bent as shown. The current. The motor is now bolted. put together complete. wide and 16 in. is made from brass. These ends are fastened together. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. or main part of the frame. Fuller. 3/4 in. with cardboard 3 in. Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. wood.50. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. If the ends are to be soldered. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Texas. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. San Antonio. Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. and the locomotive is ready for running. 2. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 5. 1 from 1/4-in. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 3. holes 1 in. are shown in Fig.brass. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. as shown in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. bottom side up. The parts. of No. This will save buying a track. 2. long. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. lamp in series with the coil.

Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. The quarter will not go all the way down. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 3. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Fig 1. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. the length of a paper clip. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. O. then continue to tighten much more. 2. and as this end .slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. and holes drilled in them. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Cincinnati. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. 1. When cold treat the other end in the same way. but do not heat the center.

When the cutter A. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. 2 and 1 respectively. and adjusted . A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. A pair of centers are fitted. In the sketch. When the trick is to be performed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. or apparent security of the knot. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. has finished a cut for a tooth. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck.

This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. 1. lady's belt bag. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (3. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Bott. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. note book. 2. at the same time striking light. blotter back. Second row: -Two book marks. In this manner gears 3 in. watch fob ready for fastenings. --Contributed by Samuel C. coin purse. (1. if four parts are to be alike. holding it in place with the left hand. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. and a nut pick. such as brass or marble. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. book mark.to run true. (5. long. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. gentleman's card case or bill book. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Bunker. trace the outline. above the surface. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. tea cosey. twisted around itself and soldered.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. or one-half of the design. draw center lines across the required space. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. --Contributed by Howard S. if but two parts. Fold over along these center lines. (6. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Brooklyn. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Make free-hand one quarter of the design. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. When connecting to batteries. tea cosey. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Fig. N. swing lathe. (2. The frame holding the mandrel.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. lady's card case. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. (4. Y.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. An ordinary machine will do. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Place the paper design on the leather and. about 1-1/2 in.) Make on paper the design wanted.

and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. from Key West. A. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. If the needle is not horizontal. The electrodes are made . and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Florida. into which fit a small piece of tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a distance of 900 miles.. B. where it condenses. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and push it through a cork.C. D. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and bore a hole through the center. Thrust a pin. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.

thick. wide and 3 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. or flying-machine.in. take the glider to the top of a hill. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. use 10-ft. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. thick. several strips 1/2 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. lumber cannot be procured. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. slacken speed and settle. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 1. Washington. 16 piano wire. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 1-1/4 in. 1. wide and 20 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1-1/2 in. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long for the body of the operator. long. 3/4 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. long. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. C. 2 in. 1/2. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1. The operator can then land safely and . and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. To make a glide. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Four long beams 3/4 in. both laterally and longitudinally. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. thick. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 4 ft. 2. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. long. wide and 4 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. long. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 3. thick. as shown in Fig. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. as shown in Fig. using a high resistance receiver. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. apart and extend 1 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 4 ft long. lengths and splice them. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. square and 8 ft long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. Connect as shown in the illustration. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. wide and 3 ft. Powell. and also to keep it steady in its flight. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. free from knots. --Contributed by Edwin L. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. which is tacked to the front edge. All wiring is done with No. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. by 3/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. thick. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. D. If 20-ft. 2. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away.

Great care should be . Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet. Of course. but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. 1. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 2. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb.exercised in making landings. Bellingham. --Contributed by L. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. as shown in Fig. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. half man and half horse. Olson. When heated a little. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. a creature of Greek mythology. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. which causes the dip in the line. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. M.

Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. a piece of brass or steel wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. 14 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. at the other. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. will complete the material list. outside the box. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. this will cost about 15 cents. making it 2-1/2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. square. about the size of door screen wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. of small rubber tubing. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. long. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. long and about 3/8 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The light from the .

Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. . Hunting.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. as shown in the sketch. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. If done properly the card will flyaway. Dayton. 2. as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. O. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. while others will fail time after time. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. 1.

four of them turning around the fifth or central figure ." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. place the other two. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. hold the lump over the flame. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. then put it on the hatpin head. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. closing both hands quickly. This game is played by five persons. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. When the desired shape has been obtained. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Cool in water and dry. If a certain color is to be more prominent. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. as described. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as shown. as before.

distribute electric charges . A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. these sectors. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. or more in width. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

C C. to which insulating handles . and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. the side pieces being 24 in. long and the standards 3 in. long. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. wide at one end. 2. 1 in. or teeth. 3. Two pieces of 1-in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. in diameter. 3/4 in. The drive wheels. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 4. as shown in Fig. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and pins inserted and soldered. 1-1/2 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The fork part is 6 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. in diameter. brass tubing and the discharging rods. wide. in diameter and 15 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. at the other. 3. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 1. Two solid glass rods. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The plates are trued up. long and the shank 4 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. GG. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. in diameter. These pins. material 7 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. D. Fig.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The plates. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. after they are mounted. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter. and of a uniform thickness. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. and 4 in. RR. free from wrinkles. Fig. in diameter. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. turned wood pieces. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. as shown in Fig. The two pieces. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. are made from 7/8-in. EE. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The collectors are made. from about 1/4-in. are made from solid. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in.

ball and the other one 3/4 in. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Lloyd Enos. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. long. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. D. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .are attached. and the work was done by themselves. one having a 2-in. 12 ft. --Contributed by C. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. in diameter. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Colo. which are bent as shown. Colorado City. wide and 22 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods.. KK.

Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. deep. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. bit. pens . Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.is a good one. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. and bore a hole 1/2 in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. yet such a thing can be done. using a 1-in. The key will drop from the string. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. string together. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. as at A.

Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. file. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. unless it would be the metal shears. 9.. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. very rapid progress can be made. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in.and pencils. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 7. stamp the background promiscuously. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. sharp division between background and design. or cigar ashes. 5. about 3/4-in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. two spikes. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 3. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. above the metal. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. This is to make a clean. The second oblong was 3/4 in. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. also trace the decorative design. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 6. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. and the third one 1/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. 23 gauge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 2. Inside this oblong. Proceed as follows: 1. Raise the ends. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 8. etc. Having determined the size of the tray. 4. inside the second on all. They are easily made. etc. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Draw one-half the design free hand. slim screw. using a nail filed to chisel edge. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. flat and round-nosed pliers. then the other side. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. When the stamping is completed. Use .. inside the first on all. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and the effect will be most pleasing. third fingers. 7. and fourth fingers. In the first numbering.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The eyes. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 10. second fingers. 6. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. first fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 8. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9.

. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. as high as you want to go. the product of 12 times 12. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or numbers above 10. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. 11. 400. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 25 times 25. 600. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. above 20 times 20. and the six lower fingers as six tens. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. Still.. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. etc. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Put your thumbs together. there are no fingers above. etc. which would be 70. first fingers. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or the product of 6 times 6. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. renumber your fingers. which would be 16. if we wish. 12. Two times one are two.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which tens are added. etc. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or 60. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. viz. or 80.. At a glance you see four tens or 40. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. thumbs. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. In the second numbering. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. . Let us multiply 12 by 12. or the product of 8 times 9. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. above 15 times 15 it is 200. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing.

etc. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. The inversion and reversion did not take place. It takes place also. beginning the thumbs with 16. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. thirties. 7. in the case of a nearsighted person. the revolution seems to reverse. being 80). as one might suppose. 2. the lump sum to add. and so on. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 21. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. not rotation. whether the one described in second or third numbering. and. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value which the upper fingers have. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. For example. when he removes his spectacles. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Take For example 18 times 18. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. And the lump sum to add. first fingers 22. adding 400 instead of 100. thumbs. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. For figures ending in 6. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. any two figures between 45 and 55. forties. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the inversion takes place against his will. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 75 and 85. at the will of the observer. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. or what. lastly. further. 3. or from above or from below. 8. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. about a vertical axis. first finger 17. twenties.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. however. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. .. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric.

Looking at it in semidarkness. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. tee. A flat slide valve was used. as . and putting a cork on the point. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The ports were not easy to make. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the other appearance asserts itself. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. when he knows which direction is right. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. sometimes the point towards him. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette.

long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. it is easily built. Ill. Springfield.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. deep. H. in diameter. Kutscher. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. and make in one end a hollow. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. across the head. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. pipe. if continued too long without proper treatment. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. The steam chest is round. secure a piece of No. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. If nothing better is at hand. such as is shown in the illustration. across and 1/2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. . Beating copper tends to harden it and. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. bottom side up. Next take a block of wood. inexpensive. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. as in a vise. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. about 2 in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Fasten the block solidly. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. apart.. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. pipe 10 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. While this engine does not give much power. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. The tools are simple and can be made easily. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings.

To produce color effects on copper. as it softens the metal. O. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Vinegar. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Hay. C. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. S. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. and. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper.will cause the metal to break. the other to the left. --Contributed by W. especially when the object is near to the observer. To overcome this hardness. This process is called annealing. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Camden. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border.

As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. disappears fully. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. with the stereograph. The red portions of the picture are not seen. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. But they seem black. orange. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. because. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The further apart the pictures are. from the stereograph. although they pass through the screen. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. not two mounted side by side. In order to make them appear before the card. the one for the left eye being blue. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. diameter. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. because of the rays coming from them. would serve the same purpose. and then with the left eye through the blue glass.stereoscope. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. however. it. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and lies to the right on the picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. in the proper choice of colors. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. . So with the stereograph. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. that for the right. and without any picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. It is just as though they were not there. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. only the orange rays may pass through. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. they must be a very trifle apart. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. while both eyes together see a white background. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. as for instance red and green.

This should only be bored about half way through the block. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. thick. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Cal. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. in diameter. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. wide and 1 in. in the shape of a crank. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. or the middle of the bottle. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Place a NO. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A No. long and a hole drilled in each end. 1/4 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. wireless. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The weight of the air in round . The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. San Francisco. etc. 12 gauge wire.

so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. wide and 4 in. The 4 in.6) 1 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. long. pine 3 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. high. But if a standard barometer is not available. and a slow fall. 30 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. In general. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. internal diameter and about 34 in. the contrary. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. or. long.. high. square. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. 34 ft. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. if you choose. a bottle 1 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. .numbers is 15 lb. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. square. inside diameter and 2 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. if accurately constructed. long. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. but before attempting to put in the mercury. the instrument. a glass tube 1/8 in. Before fastening the scale. wide and 40 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. thick. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. high. will calibrate itself.

Mark out seven 1-in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 3. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. the size of the outside of the bottle. Number the pieces 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 1. 6 and 7. a cover from a baking powder can will do. long. which is slipped quickly over the end. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 5. thick.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Procure a metal can cover. and place them as shown in Fig.

6. 1. To make such a tent. 3. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. shaped like Fig. Move 4-Jump No. 2 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This can be done on a checker board. 7. 7's place. as shown in Fig. 3 into No. Move 2-Jump No. 5 over No. Move 10-Move No. N. 2. 6. procure unbleached tent duck. 7 over No. 3 to the center. Move 3-Move No. 6 in. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Woolson. 6 to No. each 10 ft. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years.J. Move 9-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. l over No. long and 2 ft. L. Move 15-Move No. 6 into No. 1 to No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2 . which is the very best material for the purpose. 3. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. using checkers for men. Cape May Point. 1 into No. Move 6-Move No. 5's place. 5's place. Move 5-Jump No. 3. in diameter. 7 over No. Move 13-Move No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 8-Jump No. 2's place. Move ll-Jump No. 2's place. Move 12-Jump No. 2. Make 22 sections. Move 7-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time.-Contributed by W. 5 over No. 5. 1. 2 over No. 3 over No.

The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. 3 in. Tress. 9 by 12 in. Fig. wide by 12 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. will do. about 9 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. Emsworth. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. made in two sections. to a smooth board of soft wood. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. diameter.J. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 2. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 6-in. round galvanized iron. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Fig. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. In raising the tent. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. added. Nail a thin sheet of brass. leaving the rest for an opening. Punch holes in the brass in . in diameter. 5) stuck in the ground. as in Fig.. 2 in. wide at the bottom. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Use blocks. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. After transferring the design to the brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. long and 4 in. from the top. high. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Pa. These are ventilators. fill with canvas edging. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 5. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. --Contributed by G. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.in. long. As shown in the sketch. 6. wide at the bottom.

When all the holes are punched. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. bend into shape. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. cut out the brass on the outside lines. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. but before punching the holes. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. apart. The pattern is traced as before. excepting the 1/4-in. . It will not. When the edges are brought together by bending. around the outside of the pattern. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. Chicago. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. Corr.

pipe is used for the hub. A 6-in. Que. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. allowing 2 ft. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Badger. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. better still. --Contributed by H. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Stevens. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. partially filled with cream. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Mayger. G. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in.. If a wheel is selected. --Contributed by Geo. These pipes are . The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe. between which is placed the fruit jar. E. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. A cast-iron ring. Oregon. or center on which the frame swings.however. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. or less. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Dunham.

Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.

The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and dropped on the table. 3. 1. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. as shown in Fig. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and the guide withdrawn. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. which was placed in an upright position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The performer. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. while doing this. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened.

or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. White. Mo. Louis. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Colo. F. in a half circle. and second. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. first. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. St. 1. The box can be made of selected oak or . it requires no expensive condensing lens. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Harkins. in diameter on another piece of tin. Denver. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. -Contributed by C. D. --Contributed by H. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. 2. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover.

Two or three holes about 1 in. long. from each end of the outside of the box. and. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig.mahogany. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. high and must . A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. 3-1/2 in. high and 11 in. focal length. An open space 4 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. but not tight. This will be 3/4 in. fit into the runners. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. and 2 in. AA. long. The door covering this hole in the back. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. from each end. wide by 5 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide. 2. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 1. wide and 6-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 5-1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light.

or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. calling this February. June and November. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. and so on. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. provided it is airtight.. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. as it requires an airtight case. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. the article may be propped up . --Contributed by Chas. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. West Toledo. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. April. This process is rather a difficult one. calling that knuckle January. Ohio. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then the second knuckle will be March." etc. Bradley. 1. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. C. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. and extending the whole height of the lantern.

The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. N. the lid or cover closed. one of lead and one of aluminum. 1. giving it an occasional stir. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. 2. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. and the lead 24 sq. The top of a table will do. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. but waxed. Crawford. H. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. in. or suspended by a string. In both Fig. in. Y. fruit jars are required. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. 1 and 2. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. In each place two electrodes. taking care to have all the edges closed. Pour in a little turpentine. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction.with small sticks. running small motors and lighting small lamps. --Contributed by J. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. and set aside for half a day. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Schenectady. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. .

A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in.. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. O. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. He. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. After a few seconds' time. You have an understanding with some one in the company. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. you remove the glass. as you have held it all the time. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. as well as others. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. he throws the other. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Cleveland. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. This trick is very simple. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. which you warm with your hands.

take the handiest one. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Victor. in diameter in the center. Crocker. J. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but by being careful at shores. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. put it under the glass. .-Contributed by E. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. but in making one. Colo. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Pull the ends quickly. if any snags are encountered. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Be sure that this is the right one. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. on a table. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. near a partition or curtain.

11 yd. Both ends are mortised. one 6 in. square by 16 ft. by 16 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 piece. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. wide unbleached muslin. 1 in. by 15 ft. by 16 ft. 2 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. from the stern. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. and is removed after the ribs are in place. screws and cleats. 3 in. apart. wide and 12 ft. 2 gunwales. at the ends. drilled and fastened with screws.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. long. 2 and braced with an iron band. and the other 12 in. Fig. 7 ft. and. 1 in. 1 piece. 14 rib bands. long. 1/8 in. 3 and 4. of rope. by 2 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. 9 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 8 in. wide and 12 ft. for cockpit frame. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. thick and 3/4 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 12 in. 50 ft. by 8 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. clear pine. are as follows: 1 keelson. long. wide 12-oz. by 2 in. 1 in. for center deck braces. from the bow and the large one. 4 outwales. selected pine. as illustrated in the engraving. 1. of 1-1/2-yd. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. wide.. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. is 14 ft.. for the bow. of 1-yd. ducking. 8 yd. 3 in. by 10 ft. The keelson. 1 mast. and fastened with screws. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1/4 in. 1 in. Paint. for the stern piece. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. from each end to 1 in.

4 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. This block. doubled. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick and 1/2 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 6 and 7. These are put in 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. and fastened to them with bolts. thick. A block of pine. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 6. The deck is not so hard to do. The 11-yd. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. wide and 24 in. wide. 6 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long. wide and 14 in. a piece 1/4 in. long. 5. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. A 6-in. from the bow. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. length of canvas is cut in the center. Figs. 1/4 in. The trimming is wood. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. A piece of oak. 3-1/2 ft. thick 1-1/2 in. long is well soaked in water. Before making the deck. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Fig. wood screws. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. in diameter through the block. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 7 and 8. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wide and 3 ft. Fig. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. . with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. wide. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. thick. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Braces. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A seam should be made along the center piece. thick and 12 in. 9. long. apart. gunwales and keelson. 1 in. screws. also. is cut to fit under the top boards. is a cube having sides 6 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. corner braces. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. They are 1 in. 1 in.

Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. at the other. Wilmette. in diameter and 10 ft. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. E. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. is 6 in. each 1 in. The sail is a triangle. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. long. thick by 2 in. wide at one end and 12 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Fig. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. 11. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Ill. 10 with a movable handle. The house will accommodate 20 families. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. are used for the boom and gaff. wide. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. long. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. . Tronnes. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A strip 1 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. apart in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. 12. The keel. The mast has two side and one front stay. --Contributed by O.

long. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. E. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. wide. square. 2-1/2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. wide and 2 ft. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Ill. wide. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Tronnes. and the other 18 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. wide and 30 in. 4. flat headed screws. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 1. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 3. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. and 3 ft. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Fig. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. long. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 5. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 1 yd. flat on one side. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long and five 1/2-in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 2 in. Cut the maple. Take this and fold it over . as shown in Fig. Wilmette. thick. five 1/2-in. one 11-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. thick. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Bevel both sides of the pieces. with the ends and the other side rounding. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. flat-headed screws. --Contributed by O. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2. thick. about 5/16 in.into two 14-in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.

pieces 2-5/8 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. leaving a small opening at one corner. thick. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 1. About 1/2 in.once. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 3-1/4 in. Mo. the mechanical parts can be put together. long. F. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. about 3/8 in. of each end unwound for connections. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 3 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. thick and 3 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. thick. as well as the edges around the opening. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 3/8 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. C. long. Another piece. and make a turn in each end of the wires. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. The bag is then turned inside out. long. are rounded. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. wide and 3 ft. Wind three layers of about No. C. Cut another piece of board. wide and 4-1/2 in. is set. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. If carefully and neatly made. long. A. forming an eye for a screw. square. --Contributed by W. Glue a three cornered piece. Figs. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. long. this square box is well sandpapered. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 2 and 3. the top and bottom. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 5 from 1/16-in. B. St. Fig. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. After the glue. 6-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. square. and the four outside edges. 1-1/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. but can be governed by circumstances. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. When the glue is set. The front. D. E. then centered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. wide . and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide and 5 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. A. Louis. Bliss. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron.

Fig. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 4 is not movable. from the spindle. thick. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The resistance is now adjusted to show . wide and 9 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. C. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. that has the end turned with a shoulder. long. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. long. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. 4. L. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. wide and 2-1/2 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. and fasten in place. These wires should be about 1 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. hole is fastened to the pointer. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. in diameter. I. Chapman. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. 1/16 in. The stronger the current. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. board. W. the part carrying the pointer moves away. When the current flows through the coil. Yorkshire. Richmond Hill. showing a greater defection of the pointer. from one end. and the farther apart they will be forced.A. F. Place the tin. 5. 1/4 in.S. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. bored in the back. A pointer 12 in. and as the part Fig. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 5-1/2 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Like poles repel each other. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. G. The end of the polar axis B. R. Another strip of tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. long. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The base is a board 5 in.R. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 4. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left.and 2-5/8 in. Austwick Hall. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. so it will just clear the tin. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. the same size as the first. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . Fig. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The instrument is now ready for calibrating.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 1881. M. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. and vice . or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 10 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. at 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 30 min. say Venus at the date of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. shows mean siderial. A. The following formula will show how this may be found. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.

Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. New Haven. Hall. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.m. . The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Conn. if one of these cannot be had. owing to the low internal resistance. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.f. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or. --Contributed by Robert W.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.

arsenic to every 20 lb. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. and heap the glowing coals on top. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. long. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. fresh grass. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. especially for cooking fish. cover up with the same. Wet paper will answer. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . put the fish among the ashes. 1-3/4 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. as shown in the accompanying picture. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. thick. The boring bar. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. When the follower is screwed down. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. of alum and 4 oz.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Fig. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. 3/8 in. leaves or bark. Then. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.

These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. when they were turned in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe. and threaded on both ends.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. thick. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . fastened with a pin. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.

This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. long. 5. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. wide. a jump spark would be much better. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. It . The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. was then finished on an emery wheel. however. 4. and which gave such satisfactory results. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 30 in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. labor and time. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. the float is too high. as the one illustrated herewith. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. square iron. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A 1-in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Clermont.valve stems. bent in the shape of a U. The rough frame. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Fig. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. thick and 3 in. 2. but never one which required so little material. 3. Iowa. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit.

in the ground with 8 ft. being held in position by spikes as shown. strong clear material only should be employed. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. long. square. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. from all over the neighborhood. extending above. A malleable iron bolt. long. --Contributed by C. square and 5 ft. 12 ft. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. with no trees or buildings in the way. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. completes the merry-go-round. square and 2 ft. The seats are regular swing boards. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. A 3/4 -in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. 3/4 in. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. long is the pivot. set 3 ft. If it is to be used for adults. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. As there is no bracing. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. Nieman. in fact. It looks like a toy. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Use a heavy washer at the head. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. so it must be strong enough. rope is not too heavy. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The illustration largely explains itself. hole bored in the post. and a little junk. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. no matter what your age or size may be." little and big. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. in diameter and 15 in. from the center. for the "motive power" to grasp. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. This makes an easy adjustment. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. timber. W. butting against short stakes. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. The crosspiece is 2 in.

therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. light and strong. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. 1. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. Having placed the backbone in position. 4. These ends are placed about 14 in. A reel is next made. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The bow is now bent.2 emery. and sent to earth. one for the backbone and one for the bow. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 2. square. Both have large reels full of . a wreck. if nothing better is at hand. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 1/4 by 3/32 in. away. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. To wind the string upon the reel. The backbone is flat. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. then it is securely fastened. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.the fingers. long. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. as shown in Fig. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. and 18 in.

string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. N. If the second kite is close enough. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Bunker. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Y. Brooklyn. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.-Contributed by S. or glass-covered string. common packing thread. Newburyport. often several hundred yards of it. he pays out a large amount of string. Mass. The handle end is held down with a staple. C. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. First. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Moody. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. the balance.

2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle .Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Hastings. then a dust protector. If the table is round. such as mill men use. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. --Contributed by Earl R. must be attached to a 3-ft. square (Fig. then draw the string up tight. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. length of 2-in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Vt. Corinth. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. each the size of half the table top. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. lengths (Fig. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. cutting the circular piece into quarters. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.

G to H. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.-Contributed by H.9-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. trace the design carefully on the leather. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.. Use a smooth. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Wharton.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. 16-1/4 in. from C to D.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.. and E to G. 17-1/2 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Moisten the . Oakland. from E to F. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 6-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. E. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 2-1/4 in. hard pencil. Calif. which spoils the leather effect. . Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.

A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. apart. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. H-B. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. To complete the bag. is taken off at a time. place both together and with a leather punch. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. G-J. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and lace through the holes. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. if not more than 1 in. wide. with the rounded sides of the tools. about 1/8 in. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Cut it the same size as the bag. I made this motor . get something with which to make a lining. Now cut narrow thongs. and E-G. also lines A-G.

Shannon. . It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Pasadena. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. iron. in length. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. long. B. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. each being a half circle. D. of No. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base.M. Calif. 2. 24 gauge magnet wire. 1. 1. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones.

or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. are the best kind to make.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The gores for a 6-ft. near the center. from the bottom end. balloon should be about 8 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . high. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. pasted in alternately. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and the gores cut from these.

After washing. leaving the solution on over night. --Contributed by R. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 5. Staunton. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 4. The boat soon attains considerable speed.widest point. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. As the boat is driven forward by this force. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. in diameter. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. saturating it thoroughly. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. 1. leaving a long wake behind. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. 2. somewhat larger in size. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The steam. These are to hold the wick ball. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. In starting the balloon on its flight. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. coming through the small pipe A. as shown in Fig. E. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . having the ends bent into hooks as shown. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 3. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. In removing grease from wood. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. using about 1/2-in. Fig. lap on the edges. If the gores have been put together right. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. as shown in Fig. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. B. A. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water.

one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. long. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. in bowling form. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. as is shown in Fig. Second. 1. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. high and 8 in. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. wide by 6 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. long and each provided with a handle. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. if you have several copies of the photograph. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. There are three ways of doing this: First. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. In using either of the two methods described. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. apart on these lines. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The blocks are about 6 in.

The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Hellwig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching.Fig. --Contributed by John A. being careful not to dent the metal. Y. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Fig. N. Albany. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. 2. Rinse the plate in cold water. thick.

leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. which is 4 in. and. and not produce the right sound. long for the base. A. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Paine. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 2 the front view. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. B. A. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. wide and of any desired height. These corner irons are also screwed to. In Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. CC. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A circular piece of wood. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. wide and 8 in. in diameter. Va. are screwed to the circular piece. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. S. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Corner irons. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. 5 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. through which passes the set screw S. Richmond. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or .upon any particular object. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. --Contributed by R. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 1 Fig. 6 in. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. With this device. Break off the frame. with a set screw. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. thick. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. and Fig.

R.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. in diameter of some 1-in. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Ill. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. it can be mounted on the inside of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. I made a wheel 26 in. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. . If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. pine boards. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. as only the can is visible. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. This will make a very compact electric horn. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Lake Preston. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. -1. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. S. La Salle. This horn. thus producing sound waves. D. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block.

they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. thick and 12 in. the same thickness as the coins. B. --Contributed by James R. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The drawers can be taken out and turned over. --Contributed by C. square. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. O. Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Purdy. 1.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. 2. The frame is made of a heavy card. Ghent. Feet may be added to the base if desired. If there is a large collection of coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 1. Kane. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. A. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Doylestown.

Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. into which to place the screws . If desired. A lead pencil. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. border all around. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Noble. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and then glued together as indicated. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. a hammer or mallet. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Milwaukee.E. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A rivet punch is desirable. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. thick. though not absolutely necessary. --Contributed by August T. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. they become uninteresting. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in.J. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. several large nails. Cal. One Cloud. Smith. --Contributed by J. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Toronto. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Neyer. Wis. Canada.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. cut and grooved. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The material required is a sheet of No. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. plus a 3/8-in. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. melted and applied with a brush. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. --Contributed by R. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. It will hold 4 oz. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. for after the slides have been shown a few times. of developer. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.

Take the nail. draw one part. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. never upon the metal directly. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Remove the screws. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. like the one shown. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. and file it to a chisel edge. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. both outline and decoration. using 1/2-in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. There are several ways of working up the design. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. screws placed about 1 in.

wall. About 1/2 yd. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long. being ball bearing. 2. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. square and 11 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. using a 1/2in. l-1/8 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. for the lower rails. two lengths. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 3. long. . long. 1. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. for the top. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. The pedal. each 1 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. of 11-in. square and 181/2 in. square. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. as shown in Fig. and two lengths. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. in the other. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. Provide four lengths for the legs. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. up from the lower end. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. 3/4 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Do not bend it over or flatten it. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Rivet the band to the holder. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top.

Quackenbush.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. New York City. F. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. having quite a length of threads. --Contributed by John Shahan. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by W. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Ala. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.

and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The desired emblem. long. from one end. Mich. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. each 1-1/4 in. initial. using class. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and two holes in the other. stitched on both edges for appearance. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Ironwood. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. long. from the end. and the other 2-3/4 in. long. wide and 4-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Luther.. D. --Contributed by C. making a lap of about 1 in. college or lodge colors. one about 1 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. wide and 8-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. in depth. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. the end of the other piece is folded over. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. something that is carbonated. Purchase a 1/2-in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture.

then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. A piece of lead. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . or more in height. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Schatz. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Ind. in diameter and 2 in. --Contributed by John H. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. or a pasteboard box. Punch two holes A. 1/4 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Indianapolis. from the center and opposite each other. about 2 in. Fig. as shown at B. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 1. This method allows a wide range of designs. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 2. if desired by the operator. in the cover and the bottom. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. and the cork will be driven out. as shown in the sketch.

A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 5. on both top and bottom. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. as shown in Fig. or marble will serve. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. it winds up the rubber band. allowing the two ends to be free. When the can is rolled away from you. Columbus. O.Rolling Can Toy lead. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. are turned up as in Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. A piece of thick glass. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. putting in the design. 1. 4. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. and the ends of the bands looped over them. metal. Fig. . The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it.

I secured a board 3/4 in. or more thick on each side. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. face up. A pencil may be used the first time over. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The edges should be about 1/8 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. After this has been done. wide and 20 in. 3 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Next place the leather on the glass. mark over the design. long and bored a 1/2-in. 1 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. deep in its face. from each end. thick. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. If it is desired to "line" the inside. hole through it. New York City. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. thicker than the pinion. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and.

The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 piece for clamp. Brooklyn. 1 top board. thick top board. 3 by 3 by 20 in.in the board into the bench top. 2 side rails. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 crosspieces. much of the hard labor will be saved. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 piece. 1 screw block. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Cut the 2-in. 2 end rails. 4 guides. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Y. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 by 2 by 18 in. in diameter. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 piece for clamp. New York. --Contributed by A. Now fit up the two clamps. M. pieces for the vise slides. Syracuse. lag screws as shown. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. N. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 top board. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1. 1 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1 by 9 by 80 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Fig. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Rice. Make the lower frame first. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 back board. 2 by 12 by 77 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 2.

3 and 6 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 jack plane or smoother. it can be easily found when wanted. in diameter. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 claw hammer. 24 in. 1 pair dividers. 1 pocket level. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. Only the long run.screws. The amateur workman. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pair pliers. 1 set chisels. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 marking gauge. rule. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 nail set. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 2 screwdrivers.. 1 wood scraper. as well as the pattern maker. 1 brace and set of bits. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 countersink.. 1 compass saw. They can be purchased at a hardware store. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 24 in. . except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 monkey wrench. 1 cross cut saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 set gimlets.. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 rip saw. 1 2-ft. The bench is now complete.

How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Doylestown. Fig. The calf skin. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Kane.1. Fig. 1. 1 oilstone. 3. try square. becomes like A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. will be easier to work. being softer. 1. No.1 6-in. after constant use. Pa. the projecting point A. but will not make . To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 2. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. ---Contributed by James M.

Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Two pieces will be required of this size. If calf skin is to be used. when dry. and the length 6-5/8 in. After the outlines are traced. First draw the design on paper. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. New York City. .as rigid a case as the cow skin. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. cover it completely with water enamel and. then prepare the leather. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. water or heat will not affect. Turn the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. secure a piece of modeling calf. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. which steam. The form can be made of a stick of wood. -Contributed by Julia A. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. such as copper or brass. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. White. the same method of treatment is used. will do just as well. but a V-shaped nut pick. Having prepared the two sides. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. lay the design on the face. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. If cow hide is preferred.

will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Jaquythe. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. C. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Portland. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. as shown in the sketch.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. . --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by Chester L. Cobb. Maine. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by W. Herrman. Cal. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Richmond. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. A.

--Contributed by Wm. Middletown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Mass. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A thick piece of tin. Roberts. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. --Contributed by Geo. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Cambridge. B. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. . for instance. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. an inverted stewpan.. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Conn. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. was marked out as shown. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Wright. This was very difficult.

and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Bone. Chicago. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. If any traces of the grease are left. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. When dry. Ind. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. such as chair seats. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. then immerse the print in it and squeegee.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. L. Illinois. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. as shown. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. If the article is highly polished. pulverized and applied. There was no quicklime to be had. but only an odor which soon vanished. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. of boiling water. --Contributed by Paul Keller. well calcined and powdered. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. and the grease will disappear. on a clear piece of glass. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. and quite new. which has been tried out several times with success. used as part of furniture. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. The next morning there was no trace of oil.. --Contributed by C. but not running over. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. F. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. so some bones were quickly calcined. Herbert. . Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Indianapolis. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. A beautifully bound book. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. face down. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass.

It is constructed of a good quality of pine. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. The pieces marked S are single. 2 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Tarrytown. New York. high and are bolted to a block of wood. If properly adjusted. the pieces . A. --Contributed by Geo. says Scientific American.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. thick. wide and 12 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. deep and 5 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Howe. 6 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. long. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. set and thumbscrews..

many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . no doubt. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The seat is a board. A sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. If the letters are all cut the same height. they will look remarkably uniform. says Camera Craft.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. E. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. to the underside of which is a block. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. albums and the like. for sending to friends. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.

Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. mount them on short pieces of corks. using care to get it in the right position. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The puzzle is to get . So arranged. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So made. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. In cutting out an 0. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. after. pasting the prints on some thin card. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. photographing them down to the desired size. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. for example.

when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Cape May Point. says the American Thresherman.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.-Contributed by I. snow or anything to hide it. so they will lie horizontal. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. hung on pivots. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A hole 6 or 7 in. G. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. N. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. long that will just fit are set in. Old-Time Magic . A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Bayley. He smells the bait. with the longest end outside. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. of its top.J. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.

then expose again. E.faced up. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Szerlip. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pawtucket. N. Brooklyn. Idaho. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Pocatello. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Parker. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Rhode Island. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. then spread the string.

3 Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The handle is next made. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. or green oil paint. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. When the whole is quite dry. wide and 2 in. if any. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. narrower. wipe the blade . using a straightedge and a pencil. 1. The blade should be about 27 in. whether he requires a single sword only.Genuine antique swords and armor. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. says the English Mechanic. dark red. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. in width. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. they will look very much like the genuine article. end of the blade. in building up his work from the illustrations. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. Glue the other side of the blade.. and if carefully made. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. 4 on the blade. thick. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade.. long. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. 1 Fig. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. full size. or a complete suit of armor. near the point end. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. 2 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The pieces. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old.

2. square and of any length desired. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. 1. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. about 1-1/2 in. The length of the handle. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. as it is . The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. in diameter. should be about 9 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1. in the widest part at the lower end. thick and 5 in. and 3 in. Fig. 3. 3. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick.with light strokes up and down several times. follow the directions as for Fig. long. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the other is flat or half-round. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Both edges of the blade are sharp.. take two pieces of wood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. preferably of contrasting colors. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 1/8 in. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In making. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. of course. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. using a soft and dry piece of cloth.. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. the other two are identical. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. This sword is about 68 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 2. 4. 1. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. In making this scimitar. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. In the finished piece. the illustration. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. shows only two sides. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 1.

being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. and. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. On each edge of the board. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Morse. N. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. at the lower end. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. or an insecure fastening. each about 1 ft. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. It is made of a plank. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. 2 in. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. however. --Contributed by John Blake. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Franklin. as there was some at hand. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Syracuse. Both can be made easily. Mass. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. and if so. in an attempt to remove it. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. as shown in the sketch. Y. square. A cold . Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. long. as can the pitch bed or block. A piece of mild steel. piping and jackets by hard water. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Doctors probed for the button without success. The thinness of the plank.

To put it in another way. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. secure a piece of brass of about No.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. tallow. on the pitch. To remedy this. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. design down. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. When the desired form has been obtained. a file to reduce the ends to shape. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 18 gauge. plaster of Paris. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 5 lb. using a small metal saw. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them . When this has been done. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.

smooth. The smaller is placed within the larger. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. 1 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. using powdered pumice with lye. Clean the metal thoroughly. lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. . Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 1 ft. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cutter. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 30 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. or fraction of a horsepower. one 18 in. This in turn divided by 33. in the center. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Before giving the description. it may be well to know what horsepower means. make an unusual show window attraction. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight.000 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. space between the vessels with water. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. and hang a bird swing.000 lb. 3. in one second. but not to stop it. living together in what seems like one receptacle. in one minute or 550 lb. per minute. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in diameter (Fig. 2). per second. to keep it from floating.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. in diameter (Fig. That is lifting 33. --Contributed by Harold H. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. or 550 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Fig. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. and still revolve. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. 1) and the other 12 in. over the smaller vessel. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. A. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Fill the 3-in.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. or on a pedestal. Mass. 1 Fig. The effect is surprising. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. by L. N. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Campbell. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. 2 Fig.18 in. Diameter 12 in. Somerville. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . --Contributed. Y.3 Fig. Szerlip. F. Diameter Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed by J. Brooklyn.

then by drawing a straightedge over it. which may be of wood or tin. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. using any of the common metal polishes. as a rule. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. and the clay . From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. the same as removing writing from a slate. often render it useless after a few months service. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. which. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. In riveting. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. away from the edge. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. keeping the center high. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Rivet the cup to the base. with the pliers. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated.copper of No. with other defects. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Polish both of these pieces. unsatisfactory. and then. Do not be content merely to bend them over. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This compound is impervious to water. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. and cut out the shape with the shears. is. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing.

3/4 in. Mich. A. -Contributed by Thos. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. the device will work for an indefinite time. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. . in diameter and 5 in. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Scotland. Northville. --Contributed by John T. --Contributed by A. 2. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. It is made of a glass tube.can be pressed back and leveled. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Dunlop. DeLoof. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Houghton. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 1. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The siphon is made of glass tubes. long. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Grand Rapids. Shettleston. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. as shown in Fig.

long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. As the handle is to .FIG. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. 1. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. stilettos and battle-axes. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. This sword is 4 ft. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.1 FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. in width and 2 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. London.

small rope and round-headed nails. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. the upper part iron or steel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A German stiletto. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. sometimes called cuirass breakers. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 7. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. in length. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The lower half of the handle is of wood. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. 8. one about 1/2 in. This sword is about 4 ft. string. Both handle and axe are of steel. long. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. sharp edges on both sides. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. When the whole is quite dry. narrower. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. is shown in Fig. in width. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. glue and put it in place. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The crossbar and blade are steel. Three large. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. long with a dark handle of wood. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. 4. paint it a dark brown or black. This axe is made similar to the one . The sword shown in Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. 9. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. very broad. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. wood with a keyhole saw. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. with both edges sharp. In Fig. In Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. then glued on the blade as shown. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. with both edges of the blade sharp. This stiletto has a wood handle. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. in length. firmly glued on. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 20 spike. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. When dry.represent copper. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. These must be cut from pieces of wood. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The handle is of wood. 11 were used. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The ball is made as described in Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. studded with brass or steel nails. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. which is about 2-1/2 ft. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 3 is shown a claymore. 6. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 5. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball.

Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord.described in Fig. 2. . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Chicago. will pull where other belts slip. When wrapped all the way around. together as shown in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. so the contents cannot be seen. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. high. --Contributed by E. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. W. such as braided fishline. 10. This will make a very good flexible belt. the ends are tied and cut off. Old-Time Magic . Davis.

in a few seconds' time. Bridgeton.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. held in the right hand. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Macdonald. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. or using small wedges of wood. some of the liquid. 1 and put together as in Fig. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. There will be no change in color. filled with water. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. 2. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Oakland. To make the flowers grow in an instant. --Contributed by A. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The dotted lines in Fig. N. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. four glass tumblers. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand.J. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Calif. causing the flowers to grow. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. S. Before the performance. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. with the circle centrally located. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. These wires are put in the jar. an acid. apparently. about one-third the way down from the top.

because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. not only because of the fact just mentioned. 2 for height. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. and kept ready for use at any time. unless some special device is used. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Richmond. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. This outlines the desired opening. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. When many slides are to be masked. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. Cal. A. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Jaquythe. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. --Contributed by W. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. practical and costs nothing. If the size wanted is No. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. 4 for width and No. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge.

Draw a design. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. which is dangerous. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. the margin and the entire back of the metal. paint the design. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. This done. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. may be changed. a little less acid than water. using the carbon paper. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and do not inhale the fumes. The decoration. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. the paper is folded along the center line. too. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. or. but they can be easily revived. or a pair of old tongs. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. When etched to the desired depth. Secure a sheet of No. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. is about right for the No. and the extreme length 7 in. possibly. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. about half and half. not the water into the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. With a stick. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth.

about 8 in. about 3 ft. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 5. high. 5. J is another wire attached in the same way. Nail a board.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. about 2-1/2 in. A. 0 indicates the batteries. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 2. 3. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as shown in Fig. attached to a post at each end. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. so that when it is pressed down. 3/8 in. thick. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. 1. as shown in the illustration. the bell will ring. and about 2-1/2 ft. 4. it will touch post F. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. The connections are simple: I. 24 parts water. . through it. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. and bore two holes. wide. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. When the button S is pressed. as at H. Fig. as in Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. repeat as many times as is necessary. or more wide. Cut out a piece of tin. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. about 1 in. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Fig. Then get two posts. to the table. Fig. 2. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long and 1 ft. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Paint the table any color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. with the wires underneath. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. C and D. wide and of the same length as the table. 2. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired.

but they are somewhat difficult to make. The entire weapon. A wood peg about 2 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. 1. 2. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the wood peg inserted in one of them. These rings can be carved out. is to appear as steel. The imitation articles are made of wood.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circle is marked out with a compass. This weapon is about 22 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. long. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. such as .. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. After the glue is dry. thick. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. handle and all. says the English Mechanic.Imitation Arms and Armor . A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. long serves as the dowel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set.

If such a tool is not at hand. as described in Fig. studded with large brass or steel nails. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The spikes are cut out of wood. The axe is shown in steel. also. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. etc. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The entire handle should be made of one piece. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. All of these axes are about the same length. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. leaves. long. 6. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up.ornamental scrolls. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 2. as shown. the hammer and spike. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. covered with red velvet. used at the end of the fifteenth century. or the amateur cannot use it well. 5. This weapon is about 22 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The lower half of the handle is wood. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. is shown in Fig. . the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle is of wood. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. flowers. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. as before mentioned. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 8. The handle is of steel imitation. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 3. Its length is about 3 ft.

Each person plays until three outs have been made. The knife falling on its side (Fig. Chicago. 3. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. and so on for nine innings. 6. 5. . The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 2. as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 1. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. then the other plays. Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. calls for a home run. a three-base hit. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 7) calls for one out. 4). The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.

How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. This he does. while the committee is tying him up. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of water for an hour or two. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. 3. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Somerville. one of them burning . 1. If it is spotted at all. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. of the rope and holds it. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Campbell. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. with the rope laced in the cloth. Mass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. F. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. as shown in Fig. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Old-Time Magic . 2. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. hypo to 1 pt. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale.

you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Lebanon. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of turpentine. of water and 1 oz. Ky. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Thome. 4 oz. Drill Gauge screw. 4 oz. Evans. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. B. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. --Contributed by C.Contributed by Andrew G. bolt. of sugar. with which he is going to light the other candle. New York City. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of plumbago. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. He then walks over to the other candle.. --Contributed by L. Brown. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. showing that there is nothing between them. Ky. invisible to them (the audience). A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The magician walks over to the burning candle. thus causing it to light. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. shades the light for a few seconds. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Louisville. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. 3/4 in. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. and. the other without a light. . but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. etc. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe.brightly. thick. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions.

N. Y. H. thick. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. To make the porous cell. Pulteney. but is not so good. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. diameter. or blotting paper. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. In making up the solution. steady current. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Do not add water to the acid. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. long. which will give a strong. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . long with an internal diameter of 2 in. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. into a tube of several thicknesses. 5 in. about 5 in. Its current strength is about one volt. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. for the material. Two liquids are necessary for the cell.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. --Contributed by C. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Denniston.

To insure this. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. but somewhat lighter. One hole was bored as well as possible. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. steel. while the other end is attached by two screws. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. one drawing them together. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame.station. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. carrying the hour circle at one end. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.) may be obtained. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel. Finally. long with a bearing at each end. The . The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. As to thickness. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. a positive adjustment was provided. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. After much experimentation with bearings. the other holding them apart. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument.

adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. If the result is more than 24 hours. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. To find a star in the heavens. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Instead. When properly set it will describe a great circle. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Point it approximately to the north star. 45 min. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness.. It is. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Set the declination circle to its reading. is provided with this adjustment. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. subtract 24. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate." When this is done. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The pole is 1 deg. save the one in the pipe. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. need not be changed. To locate a known star on the map. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. apart. and 15 min. are tightened. All set screws. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. once carefully made. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. and if it is not again directed to the same point. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . All these adjustments.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer.. turn the pointer to the star. Cassiopiae. in each direction from two points 180 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Each shaft. excepting those on the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Declination is read directly." Only a rough setting is necessary. when the pointer should again cut at the same place.

benzole. is the real cannon ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. as shown in the sketch. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. long. If this will be too transparent. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Ohio. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. add a little more benzole. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. -Contributed by Ray E. which is the one examined. Plain City. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. is folded several times. Strosnider. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. taking care not to add too much. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. cannon balls. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. then add 1 2-3 dr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. the others . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. In reality the first ball. 3 or 4 in. New Orleans.. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of ether.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. La. The dance will begin. a great effect will be produced.

drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. San Francisco. Fig. Wis. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. small brooches. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by J. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Mass. Cal.. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. F. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . In boxes having a sliding cover. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. without taking up any great amount of space. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Somerville. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. etc. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 2. taps. Milwaukee. as shown in the illustration.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. 1). Return the card to the pack. Campbell. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated.

as shown in the illustration. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. from the bottom of the box. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. round pieces 2-1/4 in. slides and extra brushes. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This box has done good service. Hartford. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. . I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Beller. thus giving ample store room for colors. Connecticut. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. prints. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook.

Darke.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. -Contributed by C. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. 2). a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. or placed against a wall. FIG. West Lynn. 1).I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Mass. tacking the gauze well at the corners. holes in the bottom of one. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. costing 5 cents. When the ends are turned under. Fill the upper tub. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. will answer the purpose. with well packed horse manure. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. about threefourths full. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. O. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.

If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. cutting the cane between the holes. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. M. Eifel. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. if this is not available. --Contributed by L. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If plugs are found in any of the holes. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. they should be knocked out. and each bundle contains . If the following directions are carried out. Chicago.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. when they are raised from the pan. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane.

put about 3 or 4 in. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. and. it should be held by a plug. 1.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. then across and down. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as it must be removed again. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. after having been pulled tight. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. a square pointed wedge. as shown in Fig. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. No plugs . and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In addition to the cane. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.

the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. D. 5 in. called the gnomon.= 4. It consists of a flat circular table. as shown in Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 40°. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 3. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. If you have a table of natural functions. as the height of the line BC for lat. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Michigan. 1. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. and for lat. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. trim off the surplus rosin. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. W. as for example. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. All added to the lesser or 40°. is the base (5 in. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. Fig. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 41°-30'. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. using the same holes as for the first layer. 1.15+.075 in. Patrick. 42° is 4.2+. 41 °-30'. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 5. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. -Contributed by E.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . From table No. This will make three layers. If handled with a little care. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 1 lat.5 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. and the one we shall describe in this article.2 in. Fig. but the most common. for 2°. Their difference is . lat. The style or gnomon. is the horizontal dial. 1. Detroit. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.42 in. After completing the second layer. There are several different designs of sundials. R.075 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. stretch the third one.15 in. as shown in Fig. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. When cool. or the style. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. we have 4. it is 4. Even with this lubrication. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.3 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. No weaving has been done up to this time. --Contributed by M. the next smallest. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 3. During the weaving. the height of the line BC. the height of which is taken from table No. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. and for 1° it would be . The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 4. in this case) times the .

68 5-30 6-30 5.06 2.93 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .82 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.41 38° 3.87 1.29 4-30 7-30 3.40 1.97 5 7 4. Draw the line AD. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.40 34° 3.33 .82 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.55 4. To layout the hour circle.85 35 . 1.26 4.27 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. gives the 6 o'clock points.19 1.30 2.28 . which will represent the base in length and thickness.76 1.32 6. Its thickness.39 .59 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.94 1.46 3. or if of stone.66 48° 5. For latitudes not given.66 latitude. .81 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.18 28° 2.96 32° 3.57 3.83 27° 2.82 2.79 4.37 5. 2 for given latitudes.12 52° 6.03 3.49 30 . long. according to the size of the dial.16 1.77 2.66 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.42 1.14 5.30 1. Table NO. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.37 54° 6.42 45 .91 58° 8.16 40 . and for this size dial (10 in.33 42° 4.56 .49 3.99 2. 2.44 44° 4. and perpendicular to the base or style.tangent of the degree of latitude. 2.07 4.85 1.88 36° 3. or more. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.55 46° 5. circle Sundial.42 .10 6. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. Fig. if of metal.55 30° 2.00 40° 4. with a radius of 5 in.55 5.46 .57 1. Draw two semi-circles.20 60° 8.93 6. and intersecting the semicircles. base. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.11 3.50 26° 2.63 56° 7.89 50° 5.38 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.64 4 8 3.87 4. an inch or two.23 6.02 1. using the points A and C as centers.

14 1.49 5. 3. The + means that the clock is faster..19 2.46 4.77 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.21 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.72 5. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. adding to each piece interest and value. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. after allowing for the declination.from Sundial lime.71 2.79 6. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. 900 Chicago. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. each article can be labelled with the name.82 3.87 6. 3.46 5.52 Table No.24 5.98 4.06 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.30 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.add those marked + subtract those Marked .93 6. Iowa.50 . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.10 4.49 3.89 3. An ordinary compass. Sun time to local mean time. then the watch is slower. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. E. --Contributed by J. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .68 3. says the English Mechanic. Sioux City. This correction can be added to the values in table No. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.60 4.57 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.means that the dial is faster than the sun.37 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.53 1. 2 and Dec. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. will enable one to set the dial.63 1. June 15. Each weapon is cut from wood.12 5. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.54 60 . if west. and the . As they are the genuine reproductions.50 55 . Mitchell.08 1. it will be faster. London.34 5. 25. and for the difference between standard and local time.01 1. April 16. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Sept. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.

The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Partisan. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. .swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. the length of which is about 5 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. When putting on the tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. 3. 1.. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.

press it well into the carved depressions. The spear is steel. The length of this bar is about 5 in. 5. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. long. in diameter.which is square. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The extreme length is 9 ft. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long with a round staff or handle. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This weapon is about 6 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. the holes being about 1/4 in. long with a round wooden handle. sharp on the outer edges. 8. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The edges are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. long. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 6 ft. . sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. A gisarm or glaive. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. used about the seventeenth century. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. about 4 in. which are a part of the axe. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. 7.. It is about 6 ft. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side.

An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Substances such as straw. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. In Figs. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 4. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 1. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Ohio. Loudonville. 5. as shown in Fig. H. or in holes punched in a leather strap. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This is important to secure neatness. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Cut all the cords the same length. the most durable being bamboo. apart. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Workman. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. The twisted cross cords should . Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. the cross cords. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 2 and 3. B. They can be made of various materials. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.-Contributed by R. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. are put in place.

bamboo or rolled paper. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. -Contributed by Geo. of the bottom. Harrer. Lockport. 3 in. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. as shown at B. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. A slit was cut in the bottom. To remedy this. La. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The first design shown is for using bamboo. New York. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness.be of such material. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. This was turned over the top of the other can. New Orleans. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. in which was placed a piece of glass. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. M. below the top to within 1/4 in. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. shaped as shown at C. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. wide. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy.

This plank. Maywood. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Cal. --Contributed by Chas. This should be done gradually. Shay. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. --Contributed by W. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Y. the brass is loosened from the block. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Ill. giving the appearance of hammered brass. It would be well to polish the brass at first. do not throw away the gloves. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. After this is finished. Schaffner. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Pasadena. Newburgh. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. about 1/16 in. turned over but not fastened. Sanford. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. and two along the side for attaching the staff. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. H. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Joseph H. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. wide. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. is shown in the accompanying sketch. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled.tape from sticking to the carpet. N.

Jaquythe. --E. K. bent as shown. Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Marshall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. Ill. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. in diameter. Unlike most clocks. A. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. the pendulum swings . Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond.

6 in. high. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. are secured in the base bar. the center one being 2-3/4 in. on the board B. high. Fasten another board. Two uprights. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. wide that is perfectly flat. says the Scientific American. away. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Chicago. B. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Metzech. thick. The construction is very simple. in diameter. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips.. about 6 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. long and at each side of this. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. is an electromagnet. A. such as this one. In using this method. bar. Secure a board.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. only have the opposite side up. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. 3/4 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. C. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. by 1-5/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. about 12 in. . high and 1/4 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. 7-1/2 in. to the first one with screws or glue. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. bearing on the latter. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Now place the board to be joined. --Contributed by V. 5/16 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip.

. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. is fastened in the hole A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. or more. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Vanderslice. square. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. long. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Pa. wide and 5 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. The trigger. plates should be made 8 in. Phoenixville. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. wide and 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. by driving a pin through the wood. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The assembled parts are shown in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. 3. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 4. Fig. square inside. as shown at A. 1. 2. from one end.

2 parts of whiting.A. -Contributed by J. which allows 1/4 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. rubbing varnish and turpentine. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. as shown in the illustration. Ohio. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler. one-half the length of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Fostoria.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Simonis. square. if only two bands are put in the . 3 parts of stiff keg lead. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. by weight. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.

keeps the strong light out when sketching. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. London. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. as shown in Fig. Grand Rapids. A mirror. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. A double convex lens. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. -Contributed by Abner B. which may be either of ground or plain glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. long. deep. It must be kept moist and well . The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. No. 8 in. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. wide and about 1 ft. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. In use. and the picture can be drawn as described. Shaw. 1. place tracing paper on its surface. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Mass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. in the opposite end of the box. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. G. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig.lower strings. is necessary. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. says the English Mechanic. If a plain glass is used. --Contributed by Thos. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. DeLoof. preferably copper. A piece of metal. and it may be made as a model or full sized. II. Michigan. In constructing helmets. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Dartmouth. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal.

or some thin glue. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This being done. with a keyhole saw. 4 is the side outline of the helmet.kneaded. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . a few clay-modeling tools. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. the clay model oiled. All being ready. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 3. brown. 1. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. take. on which to place the clay. 2. After the clay model is finished. as in bas-relief. joined closely together. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. will be necessary. 1. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as shown in Fig. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. Scraps of thin. shown in Fig. The clay. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and continue until the clay is completely covered.

peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. Before taking it off the model. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. They are all covered with tinfoil. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. owing to the clay being oiled. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. In Fig. 1. a few lines running down. a crest on top. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. then another coating of glue. the piecing could not be detected. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. When perfectly dry. The center of the ear guards are perforated. --Contributed by Paul Keller. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 5. with the exception of the vizor. In Fig. The whole helmet. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The band is decorated with brass studs. Indiana. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 9.as possible. one for each side. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This contrivance should be made of wood. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. which should be no difficult matter. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. should be modeled and made in one piece. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. When the helmet is off the model. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. square in shape. and so on. will make it look neat. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. as shown: in the design. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. as seen in the other part of the sketch. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. or. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Indianapolis. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 7. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and the ear guards in two pieces. the skullcap. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . When dry.

AA. 4. AA. Fig. FF. 4. Fig. long. The holes B and C are about 3 in. thick sheet asbestos. the holes leading to the switch. 4. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. German-silver wire is better. or. screws. above the collar. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. about 1/4 in. 1. and. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 4. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. with slits cut for the wires. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 2. GG. Fig. if the measurements are correct. 4. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The plate. 3 in. to receive screws for holding it to the base. E and F. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. about 1 lb. of mineral wool. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. are allowed to project about 1 in. AA. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. of No. 4. when they are placed in opposite positions. If a neat appearance is desired. 22 gauge resistance wire. is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 1 in. 4 lb. should extend about 1/4 in. about 80 ft. long. high. Fig. thick. the fuse block. of fire clay. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. as shown in Fig. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron. 1. 3. and C. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 4. 1. long. wide and 15 in. in diameter and 9 in. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. and two large 3in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. The mineral wool. 1. Fig. The reverse side of the base. for connections.same size. one glass tube. as it stands a higher temperature. This will allow the plate. If asbestos is used. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. 1. JJ. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. until it is within 1 in. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. one fuse block. if this cannot be obtained. one oblong piece of wood. of the top. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. The two holes. one small switch. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. also the switch B and the fuse block C. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 2. each 4-1/2 in. 12 in.

shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. apart. 4. It should not be left heated in this condition. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Fig. --Contributed by W. When this is done. This completes the stove. when cool. Cnonyn. 2. As these connections cannot be soldered. A. Richmond. It should not be set on end. If it is not thoroughly dry. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. While the clay is damp. steam will form when the current is applied. KK. When the tile is in place. This point marks the proper length to cut it. when heated. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. using care not to get it too wet. Cal. and pressed into it. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. so that the circuit will not become broken. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Next. Can. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. If this is the case. Cover over about 1 in. Catherines. A file can be used to remove any rough places. as the turns of the wires. causing a short circuit. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. then. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. The clay. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . --Contributed by R. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. deep. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Jaquythe. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. more wire should be added. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. H. will slip and come in contact with each other. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. above the rim. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. it leaves a gate for the metal. II. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Cut a 1/2-in. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Fig. allowing a space between each turn. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. St.

The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. --Contributed by Andrew G. the air can enter from both top and bottom." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Ky. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. says the Photographic Times. the pie will be damaged. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. but 12 by 24 in. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. constructed of 3/4-in. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. and the frame set near a window. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. square material in any size. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. and the prints will dry rapidly. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Thorne. Then clip a little off the . Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. is large enough. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Louisville.

Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. in diameter. The upright B. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1/2 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. long. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Herron. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. as shown. high. open out. Fig. 1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. thick. 2-1/2 in. each 1 in. 1. 1. allowing each end to project for connections. 1 and 3. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. causing a break in the current. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. wide. which are fastened to the base. Two supports. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. W. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. for the crank. Figs. thereby saving time and washing. 14 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. which gives the shaft a half turn. The driving arm D. The connecting rod E. 1. long. Fig. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. in diameter and about 4 in. wide and 7 in. A 1/8-in. long. Le Mars. thick and 3 in. long. each 1/2 in. An offset is bent in the center. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 3. thick and 3 in. As the shaft revolves. 1.Paper Funnel point. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. Fig. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. wide and 3 in. 4 in. The board can be raised to place . at GG. 2. high. -Contributed by S. slip on two cardboard washers. Iowa.

and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. In designing the roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. One or more pots may be used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Place the pot. Dorchester. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Stecher. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by William F. 3 in. in height. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. on a board. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Mass. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. bottom side up. .

preferably. windows. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.. ordinary glue. as shown in Fig. without any corresponding benefit. paraffin and paint or varnish. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. odd corners. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The materials required are rope or. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Wind the . If the meter is warmed 10 deg. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. adopt the method described.. The bottom part of the sketch. and give it time to dry. Fig. 1. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. grills and gratings for doors. that it is heated. etc. when combined. if it is other than straight lines. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. 1. F. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. in diameter. F. shelves. will produce the pattern desired.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.Fig. Y. Fig. cut and glue them together. M. 2. Harrer. six designs are shown. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . N. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. says the English Mechanic. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. but no farther.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. chips of iron rust.. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. which was used in front of a horse's head. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. London. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. As the . The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. This piece of horse armor. etc. will be retained by the cotton. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. 1.

and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 4. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 2. but the back is not necessary. as shown in the sketch. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. and will require less clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as the surface will hold the clay. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. and therefore it is not described. then another coat of glue. 2. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. and the clay model oiled. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. All being ready. with the exception of the thumb shield. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. In Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The armor is now removed from the model. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This being done. which can be made in any size. This can be made in one piece.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. An arrangement is shown in Fig. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This triangularshaped support. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. which is separate. 6 and 7. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. but for . after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. except the thumb and fingers. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. the same as in Fig. 8. the rougher the better. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet.

When locating the place for the screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. --Contributed by John G. Goshen. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. If it does not hold a charge. the top of the rod. fastened to the rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. 1/2 in. Buxton. are better shown in Fig. La Rue. Calif. --Contributed by Ralph L. two for the jaws and one a wedge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 9. N. . but 3-1/2 in. running down the plate. wide and 1/2 in. cut into the shape shown in Fig. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. will be about right. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. the two pieces of foil will draw together. and the instrument is ready for use. are glued to it. Y. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. 2. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. two in each jaw. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. the foils will not move. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. in depth. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. A piece of board. each about 1/4 in. Redondo Beach. Fasten a polished brass ball to. long.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model.

used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. about 15 in. as indicated in the . the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. M. When a fish is hooked. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. enameled or otherwise decorated.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. as this will cut under the water without splashing. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as shown in the illustration. 2-1/2 in. Texas. pine board. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. from the smaller end. is made of a 1/4-in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. silvered. The can may be bronzed. --Contributed by Mrs. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. At a point 6 in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Bryan. long. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. hole bored through it. Corsicana.

wide by 6 in. and trace upon it the design and outline. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. thick. then with a nail. will do as well as the more expensive woods. or even pine. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. using powdered pumice and lye. Next prepare the metal holder. such as basswood or pine was used. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. If soft wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Having completed the drawing. using a piece of carbon paper. When it has dried over night. take a piece of thin wood. put a coat or two of wax and polish . long over all. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Any kind of wood will do." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Polish the metal. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. punch the holes. A good size is 5 in. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Basswood or butternut. as shown. 22 is plenty heavy enough.

This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. A. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. 2 in. 1/2 in. can be made on the same standards. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. wide and 5 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Cal. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. long. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. thick. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. . of pure olive oil. long. the whole being finished in linseed oil. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. If one has some insight in carving. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. each 1 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Two wire nails. is used for the base of this instrument. are used for the cores of the magnets. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Richmond. It is useful for photographers. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. If carving is contemplated.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Lynas. 25 gauge. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. --Contributed by W. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. the paper covering put on. . as shown by the dotted lines. London. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. About 1 in. says the English Mechanic. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of tin. H. similar to that used in electric bells. 1. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. cut in the shape of the letter T. 3. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. at A. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. in the shape shown in the sketch. leaving about 1/4 in. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. about No. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. All of the parts for the armor have been described. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. then covered with red. A rubber band. except that for the legs. as shown in Fig. when the key is pushed down. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs.

In one end of the piece. can be made in a few minutes' time. 1 and drill a 1/4in. flat headed carriage bolt. Fig. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. By moving the position of the bolt from. apart. Instead of using brass headed nails. Cut them to a length or 40 in. The two pieces are bolted together. Secure two strips of wood. holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. 2. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. not too tight. at each end. A 1/4-in. in the other end. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. completes the equipment. long. apart. Take the piece shown in Fig. These can be purchased at a stationery store. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. hole in the center. So set up. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 1 in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. says Camera Craft.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and eight small holes. one to another .. about 1 in. drill six 1/4-in. for the sake of lightness. 3 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Silver paper will do very well. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor.

of the larger holes in the strip. 1. 2. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. lay Cover B and the one under D. C over D and B. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. for instance. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. as in portraiture and the like. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. D over A and C. 4. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and lay it over the one to the right. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. 2. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. the one marked A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. taking the same start as for the square fob. of the ends remain unwoven. but instead of reversing . Start with one end. in Fig. long. A is the first string and B is the second. Then take B and lay it over A. A round fob is made in a similar way. as shown in Fig. Fig. and the one beneath C. In this sketch. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Then draw all four ends up snugly. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel.

The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. long. the design of which is shown herewith. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 5. --Contributed by John P. as in making the square fob. Ohio. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side. is to be made of leather. as B. A loop. especially if silk strings are used. as at A in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Monroeville. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 1-1/2 in. over the one to its right. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. The round fob is shown in Fig. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. always lap one string. 3.

Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. door facing or door panel. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. beeswax or paraffin.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. filling them with wax. using the reverse side. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. -Contributed by A. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Any smooth piece of steel. Houghton. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Mich. When the supply of wax is exhausted. such as a nut pick. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. pressing it against the wood. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. it can be easily renewed. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. A. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. . Northville. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper.

This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. remaining above the surface of the board. apart and driven in only part way. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. N. and after wetting. Ill. says Photographic Times. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Y. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and about 12 in. although tin ones can be used with good success. leaving about 1/4 in. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. --Contributed by O. Thompson. long. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. D. place it face down in the dish. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. those on matte paper will work best. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. . The tacks should be about 1 in. thick. Fold together on lines C. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. E and F. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Enough plaster should. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. if blueprints are used.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. it is best to leave a plain white margin. J. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Petersburg. Select the print you wish to mount. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. New York.

but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. as shown in the right of the sketch. Lower into the test tube a wire. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. bell flowers. as shown at the left in the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. violets. without mixing the solutions.. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. One of the . roses. will be rendered perfectly white.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. etc. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.

The location of these parts is shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. --Contributed by L. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. long and made of wood. or delicate tints of the egg. When soldering these parts together. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 2. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. to keep the core from coming off in turning. as shown. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. but which will not wobble loose. Shabino. 1-7/8 in.. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The tin horn can be easily made. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. A rod that will fit the brass tube. 1. L. The sound box. Fig. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. South Dakota. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. should be soldered to the box. long. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. is about 2-1/2 in. The first point should be ground blunt. thick. as shown in the sketch. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. and at the larger end. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 3. The diaphragm. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. about 1/8s in. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. turned a little tapering. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Millstown. not too tightly. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. made of heavy tin. shading. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat.

E.Contributed by E. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . while playing in the yard close to a grain house. says the Iowa Homestead. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Ill. mice in the bottom. Colo. Victor. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Chicago. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. wondering what it was. Jr. and. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Gold. put a board on top.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground.

To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Pereira. Ottawa.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Can. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Buffalo. N. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. . Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts.

A. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This cart has no axle. a piece of tin. Cal. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. above the end of the dasher. longer than the length of the can. and at one end of the stick fasten. by means of a flatheaded tack. Mich. Put a small nail 2 in. Richmond. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. cut round. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by W. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. --Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. through which several holes have been punched. as shown. Grand Rapids. De Loof.

At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Pa. screwed it on the inside of a store box. wide. 2 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 2. as shown. apart. 1 ft. The baseboard and top are separable. board.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Notches 1/8 in. 2. I reversed a door gong. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide and as long as the box. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. 1/4 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Doylestown. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. New Orleans. deep and 3 in. wide and 3 ft. Fig. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. thick. 1. 1-1/2 in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. were below the level of the bullseye. --Contributed by James M. Kane. A wedge-shaped piece of . notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The candles. of course.1. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 2. wide and 1/8 in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. La.

Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Ia. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Worcester. For the handle. The block can also be used as a paperweight. the blade is put back into the groove . and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Wood. Cover the block with rubber. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. scissors. When not in use. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. it can be removed without marring the casing. wide rubber bands or felt. stone or wood. the reason being that if both were solid. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. A. Needles. Mass. as shown in Fig.Book Back Holders metal. 3. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.. 1. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. After the glue has dried. --Contributed by G. dressing one surface of each piece. the shelf could not be put on the window. wide into each side of the casing. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. West Union. will. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. After completing the handle. to prevent its scratching the desk top. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. This device is very convenient for invalids. can be picked up without any trouble. by cutting away the ends. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. when placed as in Fig. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Hutchins. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 1. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Mass. square and 4 in. . If desired. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 1 in. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. -Contributed by W. long. A notch is cut in one side.and sharpened to a cutting edge. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Pa. Erie. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Jacobs. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. S. --Contributed by Maud McKee. 2. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Ohio. Cleveland. thus carrying the car up the incline. Malden. A. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. --Contributed by H.

Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. will be needed.J. Prepare a design for the front. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Cape May Point. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. . It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. The letters can be put on afterward. N. One sheet of metal. 6 by 9-1/2 in. This will insure having all parts alike..The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. a board on which to work it. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. and an awl and hammer.

Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. says Master Painter. paste the paper design right on the metal. One coat will do. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. On the back. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. placed on a table. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 2 parts white vitriol. So impressive are the results. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. which is desirable. in the waste metal. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The stick may be placed by the side of. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. turpentine. If any polishing is required. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 3/4 part. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid." In all appearance. The music will not sound natural. Remove the metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. a violin. . as shown. behind or through the center of a table leg. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 1 part. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. but weird and distant. if desired. that can be worked in your own parlor. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. varnish. mandolin or guitar. or. flat brush. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. to right angles. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. 1/4 part. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. applied by means of a brush. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine.Fasten the metal to the board. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand.

is bent square so as to form two uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. long and measuring 26 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. it might be difficult. London. square bar iron. each 6 in. across the top. . long and spread about 8 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. are shaped as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Two pairs of feet. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. and is easy to construct. wide. each 28 in. apart. round-head machine screws. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. 3. The longest piece. without them. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. 2. With proper tools this is easy. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. says Work. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size.

lead. While the piece of lead D. A. is held by the brads. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. 7. B. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The brads are then removed. Place the corner piece of glass. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. on it as shown. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. After the glass is cut. The design is formed in the lead.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. or. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 5. Fig. and the base border. as shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. cut a long piece of lead. 5. C. The glass. D. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 6. 4. After the joints are soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. better still. the latter being tapped to . the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. Fig. in the grooves of the borders.

A and B. as shown in Fig. long. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. bolt. N. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown.. This ring can be made of 1-in. holes through their centers. J. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. 8. rounded at the top as shown. Two styles of hand holds are shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. This . and two wood blocks. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. in diameter and 1/4 in. plates. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. not less than 4 in. Bore a 5/8-in. Dreier. Camden. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The center pin is 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. then drill a 3/4-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. rocker bolt. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. bolt. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. square and of the length given in the drawing. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Make three washers 3-in. plank about 12 ft. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. in diameter and about 9 in. Secure a post. Jr. long. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. H. --Contributed by W. Fasten the plates to the block B.the base of the clip. wood screws in each washer. then flatten its end on the under side. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. one on each side and central with the hole. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. long.

will make an excellent cover for a pot. The four 7-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. long. 4 pieces. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. by 6-1/2 ft. 50 ft. long. screws. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. and some one can swing an axe. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. bit. horse and rings. To substitute small. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2-1/2 in. 1 by 7 in. 4 in. 3 in. 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 1-1/4in. because it will not stand the weather. maple. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long. New Orleans. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. long. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. La. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 3/4 by 3 in. by 2 ft. by 3 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. in diameter and 7 in. bolts and rope. 4 pieces. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. square by 5 ft. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. boards along the side of each from end to end. 2 by 4 in. 4 filler pieces. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 16 screws. If trees are convenient. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1. straight-grained hickory. long and 1 piece. hickory. square by 9-1/2 ft. 1/2 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. of 1/4-in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. chestnut or ash. 9 in. shanks. from one edge. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces.

so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. from the end. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. apart.. so the 1/2-in. at each end. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. piece of wood. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. boards coincide. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. deep and remove all loose dirt.bored. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Bore a 9/16-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. 2. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. each 3 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. 8 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter.. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft.

. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. W. When the interest of the crowd. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and then passes in a curve across the base. He stretched the thread between two buildings. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. in an endless belt. passing through a screweye at either end. and materially heightened the illusion. If the tumbler is rotated.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. And all he used was a black thread. . not even the tumbler. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. was at its height. just visible against the dark evening sky. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. not much to look at in daytime. which at once gathered. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. it is taken to the edge of the foot. about 100 ft. but most deceptive at dusk. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. it follows the edge for about 1 in. and ascends the stem. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. disappearing only to reappear again. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. the effect is very striking. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement." which skimmed along the distant horizon. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. apart. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim.

long. Bevel the ends of . 4 in. square and 6 ft. 4 bolts. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 3 in. large spikes. long. 2 cross braces. 2 side braces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. wide and 1 in. 8 bolts. Fig. by 2 ft. 4 wood screws. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 in. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. The cork will come out easily. from either side of the center. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 7 in. 1. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 6 in. so the point will be on top. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. by 10 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 in. 2 base pieces.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. by 7 ft. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. 8 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. square and 51/2 ft. preferably cedar. La. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long and 1 doz. 8 in. A wire about No. 2 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. New Orleans. 2 by 4 in. deep. and turned in a spiral D. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. beginning at a point 9 in. To make the apparatus.

It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Two endpieces must be made. etc. The wood so treated will last for years. These will allow the ladle to be turned. . is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and countersinking the heads. Jaquythe. leaving the strainer always in position. save the bars. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. A large sized ladle. except the bars. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. so the bolts in both will not meet. screws. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. equipped with a strainer. of 7 ft. using four of the 7-in bolts. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration.the knee braces. which face each other. Richmond. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. but even unpainted they are very durable. After the trenches are dug.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. A. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. --Contributed by W. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. jellies. If using mill-cut lumber. as shown in the diagram. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Cal. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. additional long. ( To be Continued. leave it undressed. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.

thus holding the pail as shown. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. which seems impossible. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it is necessary to place a stick. partly a barrier for jumps. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. milling machine. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. Oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. drill press or planer. In order to accomplish this experiment. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. of sufficient 1ength. A.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe.

beginning 1-1/2 in. from each end. 2 adjusting pieces. 1 cross brace. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. These are placed 18 in. is a good length. 4-1/2 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. long. 4 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. Procure from a saw mill. and free from knots. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in... 4 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 1 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. but 5 ft. bolts. in diameter--the larger the better. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 2 by 4 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. piece of 2 by 4-in. bolts. bolt. bolts. apart in a central position on the horse. projections and splinters. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. ten 1/2-in. 4 in. apart. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. by 3 ft. 2 bases. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. by 3 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 3 in. Hand holds must be provided next. 2 by 4 in. long. The round part of this log must be planed. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. by 3 ft. To construct. square by 5 ft. These are well nailed in place.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long. in the ground. wood yard or from the woods. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 2 by 4 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. two 1/2-in. long. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 7 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in.

Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. over and around. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. it is caused by an overloaded shell. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. snow. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but nevertheless. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Richmond.horse top. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. it is caused by some obstruction. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Also. Cal. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. no one is responsible but himself. then bending to the shape desired. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Such a hand sled can be made in a . the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. A.--Contributed by W. etc. Jaquythe. such as a dent. water. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. pipe and fittings. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces.

Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. which. will give the length. Vener. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. in width and 1/32 in. 1. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Ontario.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. These. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. France. then run a string over each part. when complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Mass. when straightened out. Noble. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The end elevation. W. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Joerin. Paris. Toronto. are all the tools necessary. thick. . at E and F. --Contributed by Arthur E. --Contributed by J. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Boston. 2. --Contributed by James E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water.

AA and BB. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. It is best to use soft water. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. nor that which is partly oxidized. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 4. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 3. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. . This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. and the latter will take on a bright luster. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown.

2. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. as shown in Fig. The materials used are: backbone. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. . class ice-yacht. 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Broad lines can be made. 4. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or various rulings may be made. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 3. or unequal widths as in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 8 and 9.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 1).

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. about 30 in. bent and drilled as shown. a larger size of pipe should be used. 1. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. but if it is made much longer. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1-Details of Lathe sort. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron.Fig. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. pins to keep them from turning. a tee and a forging. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. It can be made longer or shorter. The point should extend about 11/2 in. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pipe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The headstock is made of two tees. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. Both the lower . The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. out from the collar. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. long.

Indiana. and will answer for a great variety of work. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by M. 2. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Held. --Contributed by W. Musgrove.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. M. 2. Cal. To do this. . a corresponding line made on this. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. but also their insulating properties. a straight line should be scratched Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. It is about 1 in. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 1. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. UpDeGraff. 3/4 or 1 in. 2. Boissevain. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. or a key can be used as well. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. W. Fruitvale. as shown in Fig. thick as desired. Laporte. Man. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig.

bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ft. --Contributed by E. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Smith. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. To obviate this. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Ark.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. as shown. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. J. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Cline. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. In use.

The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. and when once in true up to its size. the drill does not need the tool.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. centering is just one operation too many. New Orleans. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. White. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. La. face off the end of the piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. After being entered. which should be backed out of contact. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. on starting the lathe. --Contributed by Walter W. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. if this method is followed: First. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Colo. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. take . Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Denver.

the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. In doing this. unknown to the spectators. The handkerchief rod. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and can be varied to suit the performer. The glass tube B. by applying caustic soda or . all the better. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a bout 1/2 in. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. shorter t h a n the wand. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is put into the paper tube A. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. says the Sphinx. the cap is placed over the paper tube. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and this given to someone to hold. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. After the wand is removed. after being shown empty. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. vanishing wand.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. shown at C. as shown in D. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. a long piece of glass tubing.

Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1/4 in. 1. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. End. Glue strips of soft wood. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. As the cement softens. cut to any shape desired. 3/16. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. across the front and back to strengthen them. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 End. with the back side rounding. long. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. The brace at D is 1 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Cut a piece of hard wood. 2 Sides. square and 1-7/8 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 Bottom. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. and glue it to the neck at F. can be made by the home mechanic. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. With care and patience. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. This dimension and those for the frets . making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Glue the neck to the box. thick. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. as shown by K. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The sides. preferably hard maple. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material.potash around the edges of the letters. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry.

H. E. Carbondale. wide and 11-1/2 ft. When it is completed you will have a canoe. or backbone. Frary. toward each end.Pa. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Stoddard. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. long is used for a keel. in diameter. -Contributed by J. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. 3/16 in. Six holes. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. and beveled . thick and about 1 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 1) on which to stretch the paper. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but it is not. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. --Contributed by Chas. A board 1 in. O. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.should be made accurately. Norwalk. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.

so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 4. Fig. C. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. will answer nearly as well. Shape these as shown by A. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. thick. probably. 3). 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 2. a. and notched at the end to receive them (B. C. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. in such cases. 4). as before described. and are not fastened. 3). buy some split cane or rattan. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. and so. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. The ribs. but twigs of some other trees. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. slender switches of osier willow. Fig. 3/8 in. Any tough. which are easily made of long. Fig. Fig. as they are apt to do. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. and the smaller ends to the gunwales.) in notches. as shown in Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 1. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 13 in. or similar material. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. long. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Fig. . Fig. long are required. apart. b. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. in thickness and should be cut. some tight strips of ash. For the gunwales (a.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. In drying. B. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. with long stout screws. Osiers probably make the best ribs. wide by 26 in. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. The cross-boards (B. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 2). Green wood is preferable. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. such as hazel or birch. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3. Fig. b. two strips of wood (b. the loose strips of ash (b. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. These are better. 1 and 2. are next put in. b. thick. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable.. two twigs may be used to make one rib. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. by means of a string or wire. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. such as is used for making chairbottoms. 2). 3. as shown in Fig. but before doing this. or other place. Fig. when made of green elm.

trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. It should be drawn tight along the edges. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. and light oars. but neither stiff nor very thick. If the paper be 1 yd. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. however. Then take some of the split rattan and. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. and as soon as that has soaked in. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Being made in long rolls. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. The paper is then trimmed. and very tough. wide. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and steady in the water. When the paper is dry. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. B. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. When thoroughly dry. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. apply a second coat of the same varnish. tacking it to the bottom-board. You may put in . Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. of very strong wrapping-paper. preferably iron. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. It should be smooth on the surface. and held in place by means of small clamps. If not. after wetting it. 5). Fig. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. but with less turpentine.

1. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. fore and aft. they will support very heavy weights. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Drive the lower nail first. We procured a box and made a frame. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Fig. 1 and the end in . allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. 2. Fig. 5). and make a movable seat (A. and if driven as shown in the cut. to fit it easily. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.

5. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Pittsburg. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the glass. Pa. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. being softer where the flame has been applied. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 4. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. This is an easy . Close the other end with the same operation. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. this makes the tube airtight. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A good way to handle this work.Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and the result is. This way has its drawbacks. 3. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed.

trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. rivet punch. flat and round-nosed pliers. Oswald. After the bulb is formed. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . with a piece of carbon paper. three. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. four. thin screw. Seventh. -Contributed by A. Give the metal a circular motion. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. extra metal all around. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. fifth. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. second. fourth. above the metal. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The candle holders may have two. also trace the decorative design. Sixth. very rapid progress can be made. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Work from the center along concentric rings outward.way to make a thermometer tube. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. or six arms. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. then reverse. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. metal shears. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. file. 23 gauge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. third.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Small copper rivets are used. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. and holder. drip cup.

and water 24 parts. N. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. glycerine 4 parts. is a broomstick. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and add the gelatine. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. thus it was utilized. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. except they had wheels instead of runners. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. J. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. deep. of glycerine to about 200 deg. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. the stick at the bottom of the sail. I steer with the front wheel. Shiloh. A saw. The gaff. winding the ends where they came together with wire. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Fifty. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and other things as they were needed. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Mother let me have a sheet. smooth it down and then remove as before. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. using a steel pen. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Soak 1 oz. Twenty cents was all I spent. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. all the rest I found. and in a week . and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. sugar 1 part. F. on a water bath. and brace and bit were the tools used. when it will be ready for use. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Heat 6-1/2 oz. The boom. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and it will be ready for future use. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. they were like an ice boat with a sail. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. alcohol 2 parts. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. hammer.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. Fig. 8 in. The board is centered both ways. and a projecting lens 2 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 1/2 to 3/4 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. DD. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. and. slide to about 6 ft. and 14 in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wide and 15 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. thick. at a point 1 in.. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. describe a 9-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. long. The slide support. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. If a small saw is used. G. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. This ring is made up from two rings. A table. but if such a box is not found. and the work carefully done. 1. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and the lens slide. E. as desired. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. provided the material is of metal. wide. or glue. 3. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. or a lens of 12-in. focus enlarging a 3-in. wire brads. H. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. high. above the center. are . A and B. well seasoned pine. about 2 ft. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. at a distance of 24 ft. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.

light burning oil. St. E. Small strips of tin. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the strips II serving as guides. B. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Minn. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. the water at once extinguishes the flame. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ.constructed to slip easily on the table. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. of safe. A sheet . Paul. To reach the water. placed on the water. should the glass happen to upset. but not long enough. and when the right position is found for each. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.-Contributed by G. P. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The arrangement is quite safe as. apply two coats of shellac varnish. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.

1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig. from a tent company. 1. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3 in. If one of these clips is not at hand. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. --Contributed by J. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. by 12 ft. 4. 12 ft. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.. 9 in. N. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 2. Y. 3. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . form a piece of wire in the same shape. Crawford. I ordered a canvas bag. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Schenectady. Fig.H. to cover the mattresses. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.

3/4 in. 3/4 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. D. drill two 3/16 in. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. White. as shown in Fig. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. to the coil of small wire for volts. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. --Contributed by Walter W. 1.each edge. Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. insulating them from the case with cardboard. A rubber band. 1/2 in. first mark the binding-post A. Warren. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. An arc is cut in the paper. thick. Colo. apart. 1/2 in. 1. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. Teasdale. To calibrate the instrument. long and 3/16 in. 2. 2. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. long. so as to form two oblong boxes. Denver. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. --Contributed by Edward M. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. open on the edges. and insert two binding-posts. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fig. in the center coil. wide. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Pa. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 2. Attach a piece of steel rod. C. Do not use too strong a rubber. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. V. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. holes in the edge. to keep it from unwinding. for amperes and the other post. Fasten the wire with gummed label. through which the indicator works. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial.

A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in. with the large hole up. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. Dayton. as shown. --Contributed by M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Place this can on one end of the trough. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Hunting. Wood Burning [331] .

then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

N. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Auburn. 1. many puzzling effects may be obtained. wide and 4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Whitehouse. but not very thick.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by Fred W. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Place the small bottle in as before. long.Y. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thick. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 2. 3/4 in. This will make a very pretty ornament. Ala. Upper Troy. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. If the cork is adjusted properly. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . provided the bottle is wide. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. as shown in the sketch.

were constructed of 1-in. which was 6 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. to the shaft. 2 ft. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Fig. Milter. wide. 1. --Contributed by D. as shown in Fig. thick. G. iron rod. 1 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. which extended to the ground. long. high without the upper half. or ordinary telephone transmitters. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The wire L was put . in diameter and 1 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. The 21/2-in. even in a light breeze. 1. A staple. pulley F. was 1/4in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. W. which gave considerable power for its size. On a 1000-ft. 1. B. Its smaller parts. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. such as blades and pulleys. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Fig. 2. K. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. was keyed to shaft C. I. If a transmitter is used. 3. pulley. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. thick and 3 in. line. 1. thick. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The shaft C. sugar pine on account of its softness. The bearing blocks were 3 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. Fig. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 4. Fig. by the method shown in Fig.

through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and 3 in. for instance. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. If you have no bell. Fig. 1. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Fig. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. washers were placed under pulley F. Fig. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. This completes the receiver or sounder. so that the 1/4-in. The bed plate D. hole was bored for it. There a 1/4-in. The smaller one. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. cut out another piece of tin (X. in the center of the board P. Fig. 0. 6. 3 in. 1. apart in the tower. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. was 2 ft. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 1. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long and bend it as . A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. top down also. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 1) 4 in. a 1/2-in. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 5. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. and was cut the shape shown. G. with brass headed furniture tacks. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. when the windmill needed oiling. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 25 ft. long. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The other lid. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. in diameter. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. To lessen the friction here. through the latter. long and bend it as shown at A. long. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 1. H. as. across the thin edge of a board. Fig. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. was tacked. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. pine 18 by 12 in. R. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long and 1/2 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. This board was 12 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 2. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. strips. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. To make the key. The power was put to various uses. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. wide and 1 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 6. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. with all parts in place.

McConnell. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The rear barrels are. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. By adjusting the coils. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Thus a center drive is made. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. When tired of this instrument. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. as indicated. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. -Contributed by John R. 2. 1. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. causing a buzzing sound. using cleats to hold the board frame. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. as shown at Water. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Before tacking it to the board.shown. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Now. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Going back to Fig. and. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. although it can be made with but two. at the front. like many another device boys make. fitted with paddles as at M. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. leaving the other wire as it is.

thin sheet brass for the cylinder. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. There is no danger. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. or even a little houseboat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. copper piping and brass tubing for base. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. To propel it. feet on the pedals. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 1. 3. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. can be built. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. there will not be much friction. The speed is slow at first. which will give any amount of pleasure. as shown in Fig.

and so creating a false circuit. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 1. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 2. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Place one brass ring in cylinder. A. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 2. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 1. Then melt out the rosin or lead. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 1. C. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig. Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Turn a small circle of wood. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig.of pleasure for a little work. D. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. 2. B. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Shape small blocks of boxwood.

When alarm goes off. thick. S. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. To throw on light throw levers to the left. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. brass rod.. Chatland. copper tubing. key of alarm clock. wire from light to switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. bracket. The parts indicated are as follows: A. brass strip. some glue will secure them. D. near the bed. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. bell. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. if too small. --Contributed by Geo. long. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. wire from batteries to switch. 5-1/4 by 10 in. 4-1/2 in. T. J. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. G. E.india rubber tubing. Throw lever off from the right to center. such as is used for cycle valves. Brinkerhoff. Utah. shelf. or 1/4in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. switch. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. after setting alarm. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 4 in. Swissvale. and pulled tight. which stops bell ringing. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. --Contributed by C. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . wire from bell to switch. C. Pa. long. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. Ogden. In placing clock on shelf. dry batteries. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. contact post. while lying in bed. To operate this. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. 3/8 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. C. X. by having the switch on the baseboard. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. I. B. set alarm key as shown in diagram. wide and 1/16 in. after two turns have been made on the key. F. H.

Lanesboro. wide. being careful not to get the sand in it. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. about 6 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Fig. This is to form the fuse hole. Having finished this. as at A. --Contributed by Chas.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. which can be made of an old can. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Make the spindle as in Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. beyond the end of the spindle. as in Fig. S. in diameter. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Fig. long. 2. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. All that is required is a tin covering. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. a bed warmer. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. from one end. for instance. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 1. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. in diameter. Fig. about 3-1/2 in. 1/4 in. Make a shoulder. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as at B. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as at A. Chapman. as . letting it extend 3/4 in. 3. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 4 in. 1. 2. Minn. A flannel bag. will do the heating. making it as true and smooth as possible.

will be sufficient to make the trigger. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. but if this wood cannot be procured. Joerin. 1 in. deep. 3/8 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. spring and arrows. wide and 3 ft. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. wide and 6 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. 6 in. long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick. or hickory. wide and 3/8 in. A piece of tin. ash. 1. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 5/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of oak. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. 11/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur E.

throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Wilmette. Trownes. wide at each end. Such a temporary safe light may be . 6. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 8. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The bow is not fastened in the stock. in diameter. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. To shoot the crossbow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. A spring. having the latter swing quite freely. thick. 9. and one for the trigger 12 in. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. from the end of the stock. 3. from the opposite end. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. or through the necessity of. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 4. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The trigger. --Contributed by O. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. place the arrow in the groove. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. When the trigger is pulled. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 2. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Fig. The stick for the bow. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 7. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Fig. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. which is 1/4 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. E. it lifts the spring up. better still. as shown in Fig. To throw the arrow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Ill.

apart. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. from the ground. respectively. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Moreover. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. since the flame of the candle is above A. it is the easiest camp to make. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. C. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. the bark lean-to is a . An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. This lamp is safe. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The cut should be about 5 ft. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. make the frame of the wigwam. Remove one end. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. is used as a door. Remove the bottom of the box. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. and nail it in position as shown at A. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. from the ground. By chopping the trunk almost through. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. says Photo Era. making lighting and trimming convenient. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The hinged cover E. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. and replace as shown at B. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft.

nails are necessary to hold it in place. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. thick. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. wide. Where bark is used. are a convenient size for camp construction. Tongs are very useful in camp. and when the camp is pitched. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. wide and 6 ft. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and split the tops with an ax. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. For a permanent camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. For a foot in the middle of the stick. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. deep and covered with blankets. spruce. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. long. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. will dry flat. In the early summer. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. long and 1-1/2 in. 6 ft. a 2-in. piled 2 or 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. . The bark is easily pried off with an ax.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and cedar. A piece of elm or hickory. selecting a site for a camp. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 3 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Sheets of bark. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs.

hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

wide. and provide a cover or door. deep and 4 in. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. changing the water both morning and night. Doylestown. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.. the interior can. Fig. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. about 4 in. I drove a small cork. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. to another . 1. B. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. A. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. B. Kane. --Contributed by James M. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Pa. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube.

fused into one side. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The diagram. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 4 and 5). and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. shows how the connections to the supply current are made.glass tube. The current is thus compelled. which project inside and outside of the tube. C. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 2. until. E. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. if necessary. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. limit. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. such as ether. a liquid. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. This makes . and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. for instance. 3. to pass through an increasing resistance. for instance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Fig. 2.

by turning the lathe with the hand. Before removing the field from the lathe. but merely discolored. larger than the dimensions given. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Fig. cannot be used so often. when several pieces are placed together. therefore. Fig. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. or even 1/16 in. 1. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. hole is . After the template is marked out. bent at right angles as shown. A. drill the four rivet holes. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. 3-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch. 3-3/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. clamp the template. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. 4-1/2 in. which will make it uniform in size.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3. When the frame is finished so far. thick. they will make a frame 3/4 in. on a lathe. making it 1/16 in. two holes. in diameter. and for the outside of the frame. brass or iron. If the thickness is sufficient. A 5/8in. set at 1/8 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. thick. screws. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Michigan. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. tap. These holes are for the bearing studs. thicker. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. between centers. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. brass. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. to allow for finishing. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. or pattern. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. which may be of any thickness so that. The bearing studs are now made. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. in diameter. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. After cleaning them with the solution. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 2. mark off a space. Alpena. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. is composed of wrought sheet iron. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in.

is turned up from machine steel. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. 4. solder them to the supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Fig. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and build up the solder well. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. brass rod is inserted. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. or otherwise finished. soldered into place. When the bearings are located. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The shaft of the armature.

The pins are made of brass. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. holes through them for rivets. 6. thick. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. When this is accomplished.. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. thick. 3/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. wide. sheet fiber. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 6. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 3. 5. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. hole and tap it for a pin. Find the centers of each segment at one end. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. by 1-1/2 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 9. or segments. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. deep and 7/16 in. 1-1/8 in. wide. and then they are soaked in warm water. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick and 1/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. Procure 12 strips of mica. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Armature-Ring Core. 8. threaded. as shown m Fig. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown in Fig. thick are cut like the pattern. 1/8 in. 3. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 7. as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. brass rod. then drill a 1/8-in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Rivet them together. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. When annealed. in diameter and fit in a brass spider.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and held with a setscrew. Make the core 3/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. washers. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. After they . 3/4 in. thick. as shown in Fig. being formed for the ends. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. inside diameter. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. as shown in Fig.

of the end to protrude. sheet fiber. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. of No. and wind on four layers. The source of current is connected to the terminals. thick. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. sheet fiber. yet it shows a series of . after the motor is on the stand. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. they are glued to the core insulation. shown at A. When the glue is set. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 1.have dried. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. the two ends of the wire. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. of the wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. shown at B. In starting to wind. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. wide and 1 in. 5. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. being required. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 6 in. which will take 50 ft. The winding is started at A. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Fig. long. by bending the end around one of the projections. are soldered together. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. To connect the wires. Fig. 1. or side. The two ends are joined at B. until the 12 slots are filled. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Run one end of the field wire. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. 8 in. All connections should be securely soldered. about 100 ft. This winding is for a series motor. The field is wound with No. After one coil. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass.

If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. still more simply. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. A 1/2-in. which serves as the ground wire.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. as in the case of a spiral. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. and one. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Nine wires run from the timer. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. or. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. one from each of the eight contacts. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. is fastened to the metallic body. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line.

Without this attachment. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer.The Wind Vane. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. It should be . If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus giving 16 different directions. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. long. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 45 deg. board. 6 in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. circle. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Covering these is a thin. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. of the dial.

A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. will be sufficient. if not too high. is most satisfactory. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Buffalo. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. however. 14 by 18 in. long to give the best results. Before tacking the fourth side. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. -Contributed by James L. and securely nail on the top of the box. called a chip carving knife. thus making a universal joint. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. will be enough for the two sides. will answer the purpose just as well. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. To make it. high. making it heavy or light. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. and about 6 in. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. also a piece of new carpet. though a special knife. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Y. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Place the leather on some level. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. or. To work these outlines. Blackmer. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. . nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. according to who is going to use it. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Cut 3-in. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. N. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long.about 6 ft.

A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

will do if a good stout needle is used. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Syracuse. temporary lameness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and tie them together securely at the bottom. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. of water. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. If a fire breaks out. Y. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Morse. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. a needle and some feathers. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. --Contributed by Katharine D. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. of common salt and 10 lb. rather than the smooth side. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. square and tying a piece of . With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. B. N. as in cases of a sprained ankle. away from it. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. or a hip that has been wrenched. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use.

This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. as shown. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. --Contributed by J. G. The diaphragm C. This not only keeps the rats out. setting traps. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. the corners being wired. There is a 1-in.string to each corner. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. and a coil of wire. wound on the head end. wide and 1/16 in. F. thus helping the rats to enter. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Hellwig. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. cut to the length of the spool. 1/8 in. but not sharp. Y. One end is removed entirely. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. letting it go at arm's length. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The body of the receiver. Ashland. B. Gordon Dempsey. deep. A small wooden or fiber end. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. etc. is cut on the wood. The end is filed to an edge. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. .. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. --Contributed by John A. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm.J. and the receiver is ready for use. N. long. E. A. Paterson. long. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. N. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Albany. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. made up of four layers of No. and tacked it to the boards. commonly called tintype tin. laying poisoned meat and meal. board all around the bottom on the inside. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The coil is 1 in. which is the essential part of the instrument. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The strings should be about 15 in. Wis. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. high.

To clean small articles. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. wide. begin with the smallest scrolls. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. to . bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a piece of string or. A single line will be sufficient. better still. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. a piece of small wire. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The vase is to have three supports. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. and bend each strip in shape. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. gold. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.

Trace also the line around the purse. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together.which the supports are fastened with rivets. through which to slip the fly AGH. from C to D. Press or model down the leather all around the design. 6-3/8 in.. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. using a duller point of the tool. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. sharp pencil. and does not require coloring. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from the lines EF on the piece. After taking off the pattern. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 3-1/2 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. thus raising it. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. wide when stitching up the purse. Fold the leather on the line EF. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool.. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. from E to F. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. 3-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. 4-1/4 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. About 1 in. Work down the outside line of the design. .

the "open" side. deep. being cast in wooden molds. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. with the open side down. Make the lug 1/4 in. 1 was cut. with the largest side down. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. First. with a compass saw. by 12 ft. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1. It is neat and efficient. Fit this to the two . b. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. leaving the lug a. and cut out a wheel. When it is finished. and the projections B. and which will be very interesting. all the way around. long.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Then nail the wheel down firmly. as well as useful. and tack the other piece slightly. with pins or small nails. Now take another piece of wood. around the wheel. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and a model for speed and power. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. square. 2. deep. This also should be slightly beveled. Cut off six pieces 12 in. following the dotted lines. and.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. It can be made without the use of a lathe. as shown in Fig. then nail it. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 1/2 in. thick. 3.

4. After it is finished. square pieces of wood. deep. hole bored through its center. holes through it.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and lay it away to dry. Now put mold No. slightly beveled. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Take the mold apart. in the center of it. and bore six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. bolts. and clean all the shavings out of it. then bolt it together. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. hole 1/4 in. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the . 1. Now take another of the 12-in.

This is mold No. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Pour metal into mold No. lay it on a level place. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. This is for a shaft. drill in it. where the casting did not fill out. instead of the right-handed piece. and connect to the boiler. the other right-handed. one in the lug. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. put the top of the brace through this hole. wide and 16 in. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 4. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and run in babbitt metal again. long. as shown in illustration. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. fasten a 3/8-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. take an ordinary brace.2. d. so that it will turn easily. until it is full. holes at d. After it is fitted in. b. and the exhaust hole in projection b. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Now take mold No. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. over the defective part. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and bore three 1/4-in. place the entire machine in a vise. This is the same as Fig. see that the bolts are all tight. 6. and lay it away to dry. and the other in the base. and drill them in the same manner. true it up with a square. place it under the drill. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. 5. Using the Brace . and drill it entirely through.2. from the one end. as shown by the black dots in Fig. screw down. one in the projections. Then bolt the castings together.black dots in Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in.1. 1. Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and 3/8-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. holes. long. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Put this together in mold No. B. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and two 1/4-in. Let it stand for half an hour. only the one is left-handed. in diameter must now be obtained. and pour babbitt metal into it. 6.1. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.

Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. long. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. At each end of the 6ft. one 6 ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and. Plan of Ice Boat . If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. piece and at right angles to it. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. with a boss and a set screw. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. while it is running at full speed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. will do good service. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and the other 8 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.

projecting as in Fig. 1. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in the top before the skate is put on. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. and about 8 in. bolt the 8-ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Fig. 8 a reef point knot. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. The tiller. in diameter. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. at the butt and 1 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. boards to make the platform. Make your runners as long as possible. distant. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. plank nail 8-in. To the under side of the 8-ft. so much the better will be your boat. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. as the runners were fastened. at the end. 1. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. in diameter in the center. in front of the rudder block. long. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. leaving 1 ft. The spar should be 9 ft. long. Run the seam on a mach