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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. long will make six boomerangs. apart.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. grasp it and hold the same as a club. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Fig. as shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. with the hollow side away from you. 1. A piece of plank 12 in. 1.Fig. E. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. It is held in this curve until dry. The pieces are then dressed round. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 2 -. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Noble. Ontario. wide and 2 ft. 1. --Contributed by J. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. distant. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. as shown in Fig. 2. To throw a boomerang. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Toronto. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. away. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. After the piece is thoroughly dried out.

A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. however. thick. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. dry snow will not pack easily. one inside of the circle and the other outside. long. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and it may be necessary to use a little water. forcing it down closely. A wall. 6 in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. minus the top. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. high and 4 or 5 in. and with a movable bottom. blocks . made of 6-in. If the snow is of the right consistency. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. it is not essential to the support of the walls. but about 12 in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. First. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. or rather no bottom at all. the block will drop out. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward.

If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It also keeps them out. which can be made of wood. a. long and 1 in. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 3 -. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Union. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Ore. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. or an old safe dial will do. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 1. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. D. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. C. 2. which is about 1 ft. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. above the ground. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. --Contributed by Geo. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 2. 1. Fig. The piece of wood. A nail. Fig. Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. is 6 or 8 in. 3. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. and the young architect can imitate them. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. wide. There is no outward thrust. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Goodbrod.

If ordinary butts are used. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key.When taking hot dishes from the stove. as the weight always draws them back to place. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one pair of special hinges. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. --Contributed by R. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. New York. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Merrill. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. the box locked . S. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. about 1-32 of an inch. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Fig. 2. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Alberta Norrell. All . on drawing paper. Ga. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. When the sieve is shaken. as shown. one for each corner. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Place the piece in a vise. as shown in Fig. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. If the measuring has been done properly. 1. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. -Contributed by L. To make a design similar to the one shown. draw one-half of it. allowing each coat time to dry.and the performer steps out in view. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. 3. If they do not. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Augusta. as shown in Fig. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. It remains to bend the flaps. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. With the metal shears. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. smooth surface. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. proceed as follows: First. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down.

Colo.the edges should be left smooth. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. which is about 6 in. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. from the back end. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. about 6 in. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The common cork. of No. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. and in the positions shown in the sketch. in passing through the lamp. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The current. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . 25 gauge German-silver wire. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. To keep the metal from tarnishing. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. H. heats the strip of German-silver wire. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. After this has dried. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. long. 25 German-silver wire. used for insulation. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. C. should be in the line. A resistance. R. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Galbreath. if rolled under the shoe sole. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. In boring through rubber corks. A piece of porcelain tube. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. as shown at AA. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. --Contributed by R. When the current is turned off. causing it to expand. in diameter. If a touch of color is desired. B. Denver.

3. Fig. Mo. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.bottom ring. 1. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. with thin strips of wood. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. 2. as shown in Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. leaving a space of 4 in. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. . Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. between them as shown in Fig. Purchase two long book straps. Kansas City.

just the right weight for a woman to use. 36 in. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 3. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and a pocket battery. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Two strips of brass. and one weighing 25 lb. Pa. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Fig. 1. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. which is the right weight for family use. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Fig. and tack smoothly. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. having a gong 2-1/2 in. long. --Contributed by James M. Syracuse. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. N. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package.An ordinary electric bell. 1. When the aeroplane tips.. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. These are shown in Fig. in diameter. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Y. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Fig. 2. The string is then tied. Morse. A. 1. one weighing 15 lb. C. as . to form a handle. The folds are made over the string. --Contributed by Katharine D. are mounted on the outside of the box. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Kane. 4. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Doylestown.. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood.

is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. bent as shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. --Contributed by Louis J. two 1/8 -in. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Floral Park. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. four washers and four square nuts. 2. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. Y. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Frame Made of a Rod . bookracks and shelves can be made with one. The saw. 1. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Day. AA. long.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. in diameter. machine screws. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. such as brackets. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. N.

Scranton. of course. therefore. treat it with color. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. --Contributed by W.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Silver is the most desirable but. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. green and browns are the most popular. For etching. using a swab and an old stiff brush. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. as well as brass and copper. Watch Fob For coloring silver. copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. though almost any color may be obtained. 1 part nitric acid. allowing each time to dry. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. of water in which dissolve. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. File these edges. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Of the leathers. as well as the depth of etching desired. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Drying will cause this to change to purple. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. An Austrian Top [12] . Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. after breaking up. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. if copper or brass. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. A. use them in place of the outside nuts. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-.. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. If it colors the metal red. Apply two coats. The buckle is to be purchased. Detroit. Rub off the highlights. of water.may be made of either brass. or silver. In the design shown. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. 1 part sulphuric acid. the most expensive. it has the correct strength. be covered the same as the back. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Michigan. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.

pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. is formed on one end. long. hole. allowing only 1-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. long.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. 3/4 in. Michigan. --Contributed by J. Ypsilanti.F. Tholl. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. thick. . Bore a 3/4-in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 1-1/4 in. in diameter. hole in this end for the top. Parts of the Top To spin the top. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. The handle is a piece of pine. 5-1/4 in. A handle. starting at the bottom and winding upward. A 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. wide and 3/4 in.

Houghton. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Augusta. Mich. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. tarts or similar pastry. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. --A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Northville.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. --Contributed by Miss L. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Ga. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. The baking surface. Alberta Norrell. having no sides. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. For black leathers. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork.

obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . then solder cover and socket together. the same as shown in the illustration. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Centralia. Stringing Wires [13] A. Mo. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. two turns will remove the jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. When you desire to work by white light. glass fruit jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. says Studio Light.

square by 12 in. 16 Horizontal bars. They are fastened. as shown in the cross-section sketch. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Vertical pieces. 1-1/4 in. . When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Janesville. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Wis. 4 Braces. so it can be folded up. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. and not tip over. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue.

I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. New York. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. H. If the loop is tied at the proper place. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. from scrap material. O. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The whole. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Cincinnati. and a loop made in the end. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. after filling the pail with water. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. After rounding the ends of the studs. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Phillipsburg. The front can be covered . Rosenthal. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. C.

entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. and. Wehr. the color will be an undesirable. if you try to tone them afterward. thoroughly fix. The . doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. FIG. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. In my own practice. Md. the mouth of which rests against a. either for contact printing or enlargements. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. By using the following method. sickly one. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. 1 FIG. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. principally mayonnaise dressing. The results will be poor. Develop them into strong prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. If the gate is raised slightly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. by all rules of the game. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. you are. Baltimore.

.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig......... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper...... three times..... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. It will bleach slowly and evenly. --Contributed by T.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. L. etc. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison..... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. to make it 5 by 5 in.. Place the dry print.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.... 2.. long to admit the angle support... 2 oz.. A good final washing completes the process. when it starts to bleach. wide and 4 in...... where it will continue to bleach. 5 by 15 in.. Iodide of potassium . transfer it to a tray of water. 16 oz..... in this solution. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. The blotting paper can ..... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes." Cyanide of potassium . but... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished..... Gray. 1 and again as in Fig. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. With a little practice... Cal. San Francisco... in size. without previous wetting. preferably the colored kind. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. When the desired reduction has taken place.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... Water . The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. 20 gr.

The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and a length of 5 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. 20 gauge. wide. the head of which is 2 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners.J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin. 3. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. the shaft 1 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Monahan. Oshkosh. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide below the . Make a design similar to that shown. Canada. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by L.

After this has dried. . The metal must be held firmly. 1 Fig. For coloring olive green. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Make one-half of the design. With the metal shears. deep. being held perpendicular to the work. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. freehand. after folding along the center line.FIG. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. using turpentine. but use a swab on a stick. then coloring. Do not put the hands in the solution. Trace the design on the metal. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 part nitric acid. With files. Allow this to dry. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using a small metal saw. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 3. as shown in Fig. Apply with a small brush. Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then trace the other half in the usual way. then put on a second coat. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 4. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. After the sawing. 2. using carbon paper. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 1. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum.

This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. on a chopping board. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Richmond. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. When this is cold. Morse. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. attach brass handles. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. East Hartford. . Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Carl Cramer. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. After the stain has dried. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by H. Burnett. --Contributed by M.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Conn. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Cal. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. as shown. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Ii is an ordinary staple. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. then stain it a mahogany color. it does the work rapidly. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. thick. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. New York. M.

two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. brass. in width at the shank. Richmond. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. 1. not over 1/4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. one shaft. 53 steel pens. thick. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Mrs. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H.. and several 1/8-in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. H. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Cal. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Fig. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. also locate the drill holes. WARNECKE Procure some brass. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Atwell. about 3/16 in. Jaquythe. indicating the depth of the slots. holes. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. machine screws. saucers or pans. some pieces of brass. as shown at A. as shown in Fig. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. thick and 4 in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. or tin. 1/4 in. A. two enameled. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Kissimmee. square. Florida. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. L. . 4.

1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. thick. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. using two nuts on each screw. each about 1 in. into the hole. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. hole. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. with the face of the disk. wide. brass and bolted to the casing. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. If the shaft is square. hole in the center. supply pipe. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. 2. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. hole is drilled to run off the water. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 3. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 6.. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. as shown. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. machine screws and nuts. 3. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 1. lead should be run into the segments. and the ends filed round for the bearings. a square shaft used. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. thick. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. 7. about 1/32 in. long by 3/4 in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. long and 5/16 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. A 3/4-in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. as shown in Fig. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. 2. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. with 1/8-in. Bend as shown in Fig. with a 3/8-in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. and pins inserted. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . If metal dishes. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. machine screws. 5. can be procured. as in Fig.

A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Hamilton.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. 8-1/2 in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The lower part. Stain the wood before putting in the . from the bottom end of the legs. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. long. using four to each leg. square and 30-1/2 in. three of which are in the basket. or more in diameter. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. high and 15 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Ill. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. we will call the basket. When assembling. Cooke. With a string or tape measure. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. make these seams come between the two back legs. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Be sure to have the cover. from the top of the box. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. V. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. --Contributed by F. Fasten with 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. to make the bottom. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. --Contributed by S. screws. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Canada. Smith. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. deep over all. La Salle.

you can. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The side. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. as shown in the sketch. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Baltimore. 2. -Contributed by Stanley H. 1. Mass. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. If all the parts are well sandpapered. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Packard. Cover them with the cretonne. and gather it at that point. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . --also the lower edge when necessary. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. wide.lining. Md. Boston. wide and four strips 10 in. When making the display. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. sewing on the back side.

3. with slight modifications. and. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. saving all the solid part. It is cleanly. Y. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Fig. --Contributed by B. Gloversville. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Mo. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. L. Orlando Taylor. N. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Cross Timbers. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Crockett. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. When through using the pad. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by H.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and scrape out the rough parts. S. Lane. El Paso. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mass. remove the contents. it should be new and sharp. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. across the face. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Both of these methods are wasteful. After stirring. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Lowell. -Contributed by C. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. or if desired. If a file is used. are shown in the diagram. Texas. After this is done. --Contributed by Edith E.

--Contributed by Geo. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Those having houses . Ill. circled over the funnel and disappeared. After several hours' drying. Wheeler. --Contributed by Marion P. Oak Park. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Des Moines. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. He captured several pounds in a few hours. A Postcard Rack [25]. Iowa. Turl. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. F. Canton.cooking utensil. The process works well and needs no watching. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Ill. As these were single-faced disk records. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Oregon. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth.

screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. material. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. not even with the boards themselves. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Wm. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Glenbrook. and as they are simple in design. Dobbins. Both sides can be put together in this way. 6 in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. thick.. --Contributed by Thomas E. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The single boards can then be fixed. Mass. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Lay the floor next. Only three pieces are required. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and the second one for the developing bench. by 2 ft. boards are preferable. plane and pocket knife. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. the best material to use being matched boards. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. the bottom being 3/8 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. will do as well. and both exactly alike.. one on each side of what will be the . Conn. 6 in. Worcester. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Rosenberg. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light.

and should be zinc lined. so that the water will drain off into the sink. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 6. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. as shown in Figs. 9). Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. 8. by screwing to the floor. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 5. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. At the top of the doorway. 6 and 9. which is fixed on as shown . hinged to it. 6. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The developing bench is 18 in. 11. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and in the middle an opening. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 9 by 11 in. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. the closing side as at B. The roof boards may next be put on. below which is fixed the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 10). The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy.doorway. and act as a trap for the light. A shelf for bottles and another for plates... so that it will fit inside the sink. etc. In hinging the door. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. brown wrapping paper. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. is cut. 2 in section. 3 and 4. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 7. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. It is shown in detail in Fig. Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. of the top of the door for the same reason. wide..

Details of the Dark Rook .

13.in Fig. preferably maple or ash. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. For beating up an egg in a glass. after lining with brown paper. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 19. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. 17. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 13. are fastened in the corners inside. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. though this is hardly advisable. screwing them each way into the boards. 16. Fig. if desired. Fig. 16. Pennsylvania. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. In use. 14. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. or red light as at K. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. but not the red glass and frame. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 18. as at I. as shown in the sections. 15. which makes it possible to have white light. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. mixing flour and water. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. these being shown in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A circular piece about 2 in. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Fig. as in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 20. 2. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. as at M. Erie. and a tank stand on it. --Contributed by W. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. 6. as shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. The handle should be at least 12 in. four coats at first is not too many. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Karl Hilbrich. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 1. and a 3/8-in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor.

about 3/8 in. Smith. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. To operate. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. G. when put together properly is a puzzle. Yonkers. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. long. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. --Contributed by L. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Mitchell. as shown in the sketch. Mo. New York. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. D. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. for a handle. L. --Contributed by Wm.copper should be. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. which. Schweiger. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. -Contributed by E. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Ark. Kansas City.

The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 3. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as shown in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. . The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. the rustic work should be varnished. 2. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 3. 1. The design shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. need them. which binds them together. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. for the moment. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Each cork is cut as in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. Having completed the bare box. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. After the box is trimmed. the box will require a greater height in front. The corks in use are shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. to make it set level. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as well as improve its appearance. as is usually the case.

Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. share the same fate.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 4. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. 3. and observe results. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Traps do no good. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.. life in the summer time is a vexation. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Each long projection represents a leg. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. as shown in Fig. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. etc. 2. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. it's easy. can't use poison. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. . drilled at right angles. F. 1. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. too dangerous. being partly eaten into. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. When the corn is gone cucumbers. But I have solved the difficulty. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. cabbages. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections.

This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. About 9-1/2 ft. . The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The solution can be used over and over again. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. strips. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. the coil does not heat sufficiently. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. by trial. of No. Iowa. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. cut in 1/2-in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. and made up and kept in large bottles. cut some of it off and try again.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. long. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. If. -. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.

Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Knives. as shown in the sketch. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Stir and mix thoroughly. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. of gasoline. hot-water pot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. forks. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. is a good size--in this compound. Morse. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. N. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. --Contributed by James M. but with unsatisfactory results. D. it falls to stop G. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. --Contributed by Katharine D. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. to cause the door to swing shut. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Fig 2. coffee pot. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Texas. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Kane. Dallas. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Pa. 1) removed. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. C. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Syracuse. and a strip. Do not wash them. Doylestown. . of oleic acid with 1 gal. In cleaning silver. Y. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow.

The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Theodore L.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Pa. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. New Orleans. which is. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. --Contributed by Oliver S. Fisher. Sprout. negatives. but unfixed. Ill. later fixed and washed as usual. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. . La. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. using the paper dry. Waverly. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Harrisburg.

1. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. then . metal. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. In this uncertainty lies the charm. a harmonograph is a good prescription.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Fig. To obviate this difficulty. The harmonograph. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident.

Another weight of about 10 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. A small table or platform. J. ceiling. in diameter. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. in the center of the circle to be cut. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. as long as the other. Punch a hole.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Arizona. Holes up to 3 in. A small weight. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. R. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. of about 30 or 40 lb. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. 1. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. that is. Gaffney. A length of 7 ft. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. with a nail set or punch. 1. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . or the lines will overlap and blur. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak.. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. as shown in Fig. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by Wm.. makes respectively 3. one-fifth. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. what is most important. Ingham. A weight. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. and unless the shorter pendulum is. exactly one-third. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. K. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. The length of the short pendulum H. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. one-fourth. --Contributed by James T. is attached as shown at H. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. to prevent any side motion. etc. Chicago. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Rosemont. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. which can be regulated. G. such as a shoe buttoner. A pedestal. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. for instance.

The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Fig. --Contributed by J.J. 4. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. then put 2 at the top. one for the sender and one for the receiver. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The capacity of the vise. a correspondent of . and proceed as before. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Cruger. and 4 as in Fig. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. of course. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Chicago. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 2. distributing them over the whole card. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 1.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.H. -Contributed by W. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Cape May City. Morey. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig. 5. N. The two key cards are made alike. 3. dividing them into quarters. then 3 as in Fig. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 6.

6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. drill 15 holes. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. After preparing the base and uprights. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. of the uprights. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. wood-screws. remove the prints. --Contributed by L.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Augusta. 1/4 in. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. If constructed of the former. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 1/2 oz. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. long. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. of 18-per-cent No. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of water. says Popular Electricity. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of ferricyanide of potash. acetic acid and 4 oz. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. 30 gr. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. the portion of the base under the coil. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Alberta Norrell. respectively. from the top and bottom. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Ga. 6 gauge wires shown. After securing the tint desired. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. To assemble. Cut through the center. Wind the successive turns of . deep. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Asbestos board is to be preferred.

. 14 gauge. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. but these are not necessary. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Labels of some kind are needed. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. rivets.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. then fasten the upright in place. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. screws. square. as they are usually thrown away when empty. etc. Ampere. 16 gauge copper wire. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. --Contributed by Frederick E. cut and dressed 1/2 in. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. The case may be made of 1/2-in. which. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Small knobs may be added if desired. if one is not a smoker. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Y. Ward. N. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.

This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. S. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. of water. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Larson. If the soldering copper is an old one. Wis. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and labeled "Poison. brass. and one made of poplar finished black. Kenosha. The parts are put together with dowel pins. of glycerine to 16 oz. --Contributed by W. This is considerable annoyance. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Ark. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Eureka Springs. The material can be of any wood. zinc. Richmond. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. A. a piece of solder. C. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. In soldering galvanized iron. D. or has become corroded. --C. sandpaper or steel wool. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve.. Heat it until hot (not red hot). turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. then to the joint to be soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. being careful about the heat. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Copper. G. tinner's acid. it must be ground or filed to a point. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. California. the pure muriatic acid should be used. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. tin.14 oz. --Contributed by A. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. galvanized iron. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. . lead. E and F. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. B. Jaquythe. and rub the point of the copper on it. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. as shown in the sketch. especially if a large tub is used.

Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Apart from this. I bind my magazines at home evenings. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Y. Place the band. This completes the die. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. in diameter. in diameter. brass and silver. such as copper. Fig. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Brass rings can be plated when finished. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. -Contributed by H. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. round iron. D. and drill out the threads. Take a 3/4-in. 7/8 in. a ring may be made from any metal. The punch A. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. with good results. Hankin. wide. 1. The disk will come out pan shaped. C. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. nut. W. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . B. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. N. Troy. however. This will leave a clear hole. The covers of the magazines are removed. 2. which gives two bound volumes each year. Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. thick and 1-1/4 in.

deep. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. and a third piece. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. C. and place them against the strings in the frame. then back through the notch on the right side. size 16 or larger. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The covering should be cut out 1 in. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 5. 1. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 1. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. 2. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. allowing about 2 in. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The sections are then prepared for sewing. using . The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Start with the front of the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. through the notch on the left side of the string No. is used for the sewing material. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. is nailed across the top. of the ends extending on each side. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2. . The covering can be of cloth.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. After drawing the thread tightly. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The string No.4. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 1/8 in. If started with the January or the July issue. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. on all edges except the back. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Five cuts. 1 in Fig. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Coarse white thread. and then to string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. which is fastened the same as the first. threaded double.

Nebr.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. round iron. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. For the blade an old talking-machine . at opposite sides to each other. Cal. Divine. --Contributed by Clyde E. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. College View. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. and mark around each one. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. on which to hook the blade. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Encanto. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. Tinplate. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end.

A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. at the same end. long. A. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Hays. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and file in the teeth. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Make the blade 12 in. as it is sometimes called. thick. Miss. with 10 teeth to the inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. hydraulic pipe. by 4-1/2 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. C. fuse hole at D. F. Then on the board put .. Summitville. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. -Contributed by Willard J. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. or double extra heavy. bore. with a steel sleeve. Moorhead. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Ohio. and another piece (B) 6 in. thick. and a long thread plug. and 1/4 in. E. B. as shown. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. On the upper side. by 1 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in..

and some No. Boyd. high around this apparatus. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Connect up as shown. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. A lid may be added if desired. Philadelphia. 4 jars. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. of rubber-covered wire. If you are going to use a current of low tension. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. the jars need not be very large. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. using about 8 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. about 5 ft. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. H.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Chas. of wire to each coil. as from batteries. 18 gauge wire for the wiring.

27 B. Their size also depends on the voltage. 5 on switch. Construct the auto front (Fig. two pieces 34 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 11 in. Use no screws on the running surface. Use no nails. 1 on switch. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. with the cushion about 15 in. long by 22 in. wide by 3/4 in. For the brass trimmings use No. C. as they are not substantial enough. See Fig. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Put arm of switch on point No. thick. sheet brass 1 in. B and C. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 1 and so on for No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 1. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. steel rod makes a good steering rod. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. as they "snatch" the ice. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. wide. thick. by 2 in. The current then will flow through the motor. long. 3. Z. 2. 34 in. 2 and 3. A 3/4-in. The top disk in jar No. 4. and bolt through. For the front runners these measurements are: A. are important. At the front 24 or 26 in. 2 is lower down than in No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. by 2 in. C. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.. First sandpaper all the wood. 2. by 5 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. two pieces 30 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. apart.. and plane it on all edges. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. The illustration shows how to shape it. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. by 1 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 2. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. An iron washer. and for the rear runners: A. wide and 2 in. In proportioning them the points A. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. direct to wire across jars. 16-1/2 in. Fig. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. is used to reduce friction. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 2 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 7 in. The stock required for them is oak. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. making them clear those in the front runner.. . by 1-1/4 in. B. oak boards. by 6 in. long.. To wire the apparatus. beginning at the rear. 4 in. The connection between point No. on No. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. and four pieces 14 in.the way. two for each jar.. B. A variation of 1/16 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. by 5 in. square by 14 ft. gives full current and full speed. 30 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 1 is connected to point No. by 1-1/4 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. No. Equip block X with screw eyes. or source of current.. then apply a coat of thin enamel. however. long. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. above the ground. & S. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. 3 and No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. two pieces 14 in. 4) of 3/4-in. wide and 3/4 in. long. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 15-1/2 in.. 3 in. On the door of the auto front put the .

such as used on automobiles.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. may be stowed within. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If the expense is greater than one can afford. to improve the appearance. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. to the wheel. by 30 in. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. such as burlap. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. brass plated. cheap material. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. a brake may be added to the sled. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. If desired. If desired. parcels. a number of boys may share in the ownership. The best way is to get some strong. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. or with these for $25. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. by 1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. cutting it out of sheet brass. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . which is somewhat moist. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. long. fasten a cord through the loop. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Fasten a horn. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. etc. overshoes. lunch. Then get some upholstery buttons.

Ill. Leland. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.tree and bring. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. --Contributed by Stewart H. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. .

The Model Engineer. made from 1/16-in. London.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. First take the case of a small gearwheel. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. The first tooth may now be cut. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. 2. CD. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. by drawing diameters. some files. Fig. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. a compass. which. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Draw a circle on paper. say 1 in. 4). when flat against it. A small clearance space. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. 1. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Fig. though more difficult. mild steel or iron. the same diameter as the wheel. the cut will be central on the line. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. from F to G. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. so that the center of the blade. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. with twenty-four teeth. The straight-edge. FC. This guide should have a beveled edge. 3. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. sheet metal. E. Fig. thick. will be over the line FG. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . outside diameter and 1/16 in.

R. as shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. some wire and some carbons. each in the center. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. ground it with a large piece of zinc. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. If there is no faucet in the house. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. transmitter. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Then take one outlet wire. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. . or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 1. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. electric lamp. 2. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. 1. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. and the other outlet wire. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. B. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. hold in one hand. A bright. B. No shock will be perceptible. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator.

Ashland. Several battery cells. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. of course. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Emsworth. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. at each end for terminals. and again wind the wire around it. 36 wire around it. --Contributed by Geo. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Wrenn. by 12 in. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. and about that size. leaving about 10 in. by 1 in. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Slattery. under the gable. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. A is a wooden block. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. as shown. Then set the whole core away to dry. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Pa. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. J. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. If desired. Dry batteries are most convenient. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and will then burn the string C. B. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. They have screw ends. as indicated by E E. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . But in this experiment. one at the receiver can hear what is said. or more of the latter has been used. D D are binding posts for electric wires. For a base use a pine board 10 in. are also needed. a transmitter which induces no current is used. One like a loaf of bread. serves admirably. Ohio.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter.

2. in series with bindingpost. and the lamps. run a No. F. and switch. the terminal of the coil. The apparatus is now ready for operation. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. while C is open. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp.wire. C. and one single post switch. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. for the . Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. C. First make a support. E. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. until the hand points to zero on the scale. 14 wire. 12 or No. These should have hollow ends. D. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. in parallel. Newark. Connect these three to switch. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. B B. Jr. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. as shown. B B. connecting lamp receptacles. The oven is now ready to be connected. Turn on switch. Place 16-cp.. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. D. as shown. At one side secure two receptacles. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 1. Fig. From the other set of binding-posts. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Ohio. Fig.

1. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. long. where A is the homemade ammeter.. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . E. D. 4 in. thick. deep. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. until the scale is full. 5. a battery. long and make a loop. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. is made of iron. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do.or 4-way valve or cock. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 36 magnet wire instead of No. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. drill through the entire case and valve. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 7. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Mine is wound with two layers of No. to prevent it turning on the axle. 1. is then made and provided with a glass front. B. The core. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 1/4 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Montreal. C. Fig. 4. 4 amperes. After drilling. and D. 3.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 2. wide and 1-3/4 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. If for 3-way. The pointer or hand. although brass is better. D. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. Fig. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 3 amperes. a standard ammeter. as shown in the cut. Fig. 14.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. drill a hole as shown at H. A wooden box. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. a variable resistance. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer. drill in only to the opening already through. but if for a 4way. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D.E. inside measurements. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. long. wind with plenty of No. At a point a little above the center. This is slipped on the pivot. 1/2 in. 5. To make one. It is 1 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. The box is 5-1/2 in. from the lower end. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. high. 14 wire. This may be made of wood. --Contributed by J. wide and 1/8 in. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Dussault. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Fig. 6. is made of wire. remove the valve. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. etc. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw.

F. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. and the other connects with the water rheostat. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. E. One wire runs to the switch. in thickness . To start the light. and the arc light. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. By connecting the motor. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. D. in diameter. as shown.performing electrical experiments. B. This stopper should be pierced. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. A. which is used for reducing the current. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. high. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and a metal rod. provided with a rubber stopper. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. making two holes about 1/4 in. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.

Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A piece of wood. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 2. 1. As there shown. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. If the interrupter does not work at first. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. as shown in B. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Turn on the current and press the button. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. --Contributed by Harold L. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. B. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 2. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. 1. A. To insert the lead plate. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Fig. Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Carthage. Having finished the interrupter. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. where he is placed in an upright open . long. If all adjustments are correct. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 1. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. as shown in C. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Jones. N. Y. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig.

especially the joints and background near A. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and can be bought at Japanese stores. which can be run by three dry cells. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. is constructed as shown in the drawings. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. could expect from a skeleton. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. inside dimensions. by 7 in. and wave his arms up and down. The lights. by 7-1/2 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. to aid the illusion. and must be thoroughly cleansed. giving a limp. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. the illusion will be spoiled. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. dressed in brilliant. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. with the exception of the glass. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. especially L.. light-colored garments. figures and lights. should be colored a dull black. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. high. until it is dark there. L and M. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. should be miniature electric lamps. A white shroud is thrown over his body. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The skeleton is made of papier maché. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. A. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. All . from which the gong has been removed. If everything is not black. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. loosejointed effect. Its edges should nowhere be visible. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The glass should be the clearest possible. They need to give a fairly strong light. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry.coffin. within the limits of an ordinary room. The model. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. as the entire interior. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. If it is desired to place the box lower down.

To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. as shown in the sketch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Fry. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy.that is necessary is a two-point switch. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. San Jose. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. If a gradual transformation is desired. placed about a foot apart. square block. --Contributed by Geo. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Cal. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. fat spark. W. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Two finishing nails were driven in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.

and should be separated about 1/8 in. A (see sketch). The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. the remaining space will be filled with air. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. F. New York. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. as shown. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. or a solution of sal soda. Cohen. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. In Fig. In Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. into the receiver G. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. by small pieces of wood. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. -Contributed by Dudley H. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. hydrogen gas is generated. to make it airtight. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. The plates are separated 6 in. 1. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. B and C. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. If a lighted match . One of these plates is connected to metal top. soldered in the top. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. This is a wide-mouth bottle. with two tubes. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar.

A. long. from the bottom. London. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A. A. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. long. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. in diameter and 6 in. says the Model Engineer. which forms the vaporizing coil. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A. If desired. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A nipple. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A 1/64-in. as is shown in the illustration. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A piece of 1/8-in. 1/2 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. 1-5/16 in. by means of the clips. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. of No. C C. either by passing a current of electricity around it. Fig. then a suitable burner is necessary. and the ends of the tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. copper pipe. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. 36 insulated wire. The distance between the nipple. N. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. P. is then coiled around the brass tube. or by direct contact with another magnet. One row is drilled to come directly on top. copper pipe. Fig. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. B. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. which is plugged up at both ends. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. 2 shows the end view. 1. N. is made by drilling a 1/8in.

Turn the book over and paste the other side. Fig. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Fig. 3. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. at the front and back for fly leaves. larger all around than the book. trim both ends and the front edge. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. longer and 1/4 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. smoothly. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. 1/4 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. about 8 or 10 in.lamp cord. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. this makes a much nicer book. leaving the folded edge uncut. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 1. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. cut to the size of the pages. with a fine saw. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. 2). taking care not to bend the iron. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Take two strips of stout cloth. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. boards and all. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. but if the paper knife cannot be used. fold and cut it 1 in. duck or linen.

Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. In the bottom. as shown in the sketch. Va. A. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. or rather the top now. --Contributed by Joseph N. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. but its diameter is a little smaller. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. D. in diameter and 30 in. B. Another tank. Ont. is turned on it. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. --Contributed by James E. is soldered onto tank A. E. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Bedford City. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. the joint will be gas tight. . 4). pasting them down (Fig. H. Another can. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. without a head. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. of tank A is cut a hole. C.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. deep. which will just slip inside the little can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Parker. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is made the same depth as B. Toronto. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. 18 in. A gas cock. is perforated with a number of holes. Noble. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. and a little can.

B. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. with an electric-bell magnet. The wiring diagram. which may be either spruce. Bott. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. tacks. A. The small guards. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. D. long. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. J. C. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. The armature. Beverly. If the back armature. fastened in the bottom..Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. S. should be 3/8 in. making the width. basswood or white pine. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Fig. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. as shown at C. should be cut a little too long. by 1/2 in. N. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. should be 1/4 in. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. -Contributed by H. If the pushbutton A is closed. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. H is a square knot. which moves to either right or left. The bridle knots. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Fig. and sewed double to give extra strength. The longitudinal corner spines. square by 42 in. long. and the four diagonal struts. 1. and about 26 in. A A. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. exactly 12 in. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. D. The diagonal struts. B. when finished. B. E. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. thus adjusting the . shows how the connections are to be made. are shown in detail at H and J. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. 2. to prevent splitting.

D. for producing electricity direct from heat. and. Harbert. A bowline knot should be tied at J. --Contributed by Edw. the batteries do not run down for a long time. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Chicago. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind. shift toward F. --Contributed by A. that refuse to slide easily. Clay Center. to prevent slipping. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. can be made of a wooden . Stoddard. with gratifying results. however. and if a strong wind is blowing. E.lengths of F and G. thus shortening G and lengthening F. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. as shown.

and also holds the pieces of wood. and the current may then be detected by means. Chicago. E. D. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A and B. spark. A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. A. C. --Contributed by A. E. A. Fasten a piece of wood. The wood screw. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. F. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. 16 single-covered wire. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Then. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire.. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. or parallel with the compass needle. which conducts the current into the cannon. by means of machine screws or. 14 or No. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. C. placed on top. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . C. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. When the cannon is loaded.frame. with a number of nails. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. B. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. in position.

Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. L. where there is a staple. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. B. To reverse. but no weights or strings. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Connect as shown in the illustration. To unlock the door. within the reach of the magnet. Big Rapids. press the button. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. A and S. 1. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. H. A. --Contributed by Joseph B. Fig. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. . Bend the strips BB (Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. square and 3/8 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Chicago. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Mich. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Marion. when in position at A'. A hole for a 1/2 in.the current is shut off. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. to receive the screw in the center. requiring a strong magnet. Keil. To lock the door. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Ohio. In Fig. 1. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Henry Peck. screw is bored in the block. with the long arm at L'. now at A' and S'. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. A and S. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm.

gas-pipe. hole. and C is a dumbbell.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. Mass. The standard and base. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. Thread the other end of the pipe. and if desired the handles may . and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and may be made at very slight expense. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. are enameled a jet black. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. Rand. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. J. --Contributed by C. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. if enameled white on the concave side. put in the handle. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. West Somerville. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. When ready for use. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. about 18 in. long. or for microscopic work.

E. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Mass. as shown at A in the sketch. Warren. B. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . North Easton. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. high by 1 ft. This peculiar property is also found in ice. --Contributed by C. D. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. M. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. with a cover. across. 1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 8 in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a cylindrical core of wood. inside the pail. long and 8 in. Fig. across. which shall project at least 2 in.be covered with leather. 1. Fig. A. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.

and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 1330°. and varnish. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. 1). How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. 1390°-1410°. or make one yourself. if there is to be any glazing done. long over the lid hole as a chimney. the point of the blue flame. bottom and sides. 1). to hold the clay mixture. W. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. E. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. such . 15%. long. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. and your kiln is ready for business. the firing should be gradual. L. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. make two wood ends. and with especial caution the first time. Fit all the parts together snugly. and 3/4 in. Fig. but will be cheaper in operation. and 3/8 in. After finishing the core. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. of fine wire. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. pipe 2-ft.. and on it set the paper wrapped core.mixture of clay. sand. and graphite. C. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. diameter. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 3) with false top and bottom. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Cover with paper and shellac as before. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 25%. in diameter. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. pipe. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. This done.. projecting from each end (Fig. as dictated by fancy and expense. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. strip of sheet iron. Whatever burner is used. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. It is placed inside the kiln. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Line the pail. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. which is the hottest part. hard porcelain. but it will burn a great deal of gas. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. thick. as is shown in the sketch. pack this space-top. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 60%. layer of the clay mixture. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. When lighted. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. The 2 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. cutting the hole a little smaller. After removing all the paper. about 1 in. full length of iron core. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in.-G. If the cover of the pail has no rim. wider than the kiln. 2. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. if you have the materials. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. let this dry thoroughly. C. C. thick. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. hotel china. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. in diameter. say 1/4 in. Wind about 1/8 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. carefully centering it.

red and black. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. about 1/16 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. A. bind tightly with black silk. C. . 2). B.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. D. 2. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. overlaps and rests on the body. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 1. You can display either color called for. Take the red cards. as in Fig. Of course. diameter. The funnel. --Contributed by J. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. and discharges into the tube. and so on. leaving long terminals. Then. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. length of . the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Chicago. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. all cards facing the same way. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Then take the black cards. the next black.53 in. around the coil. T. and plane off about 1/16 in. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Washington. C. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. with a plane. procure a new deck. as shown in the sketch herewith. 2. 8 in. taking care to have the first card red. as in Fig. square them up and place in a vise. and divide it into two piles. square them up. every alternate card being the same color. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. R.

Let . N. To find the fall of snow. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. C. B. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. B. The upright pieces..J. and then the frame is ready to assemble. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. stove bolts. The cement. Fig. the same ends will come together again. 1. as the difficulties increase with the size. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. E. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. The bottom glass should be a good fit. D. to form a dovetail joint as shown. and this is inexpensive to build. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Long Branch. so that when they are assembled. about 20 in. of the frame. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. When the glass is put in the frame a space. E. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. F. A. 1 gill of fine white sand. A. Drill all the horizontal pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. All the horizontal pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin.C. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. thus making all the holes coincide. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. the first thing to decide on is the size. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. through the holes already drilled. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. angle iron for the frame. 1 gill of litharge. B. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement.

Fig.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. a centerpiece (A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. D. B. A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. if desired. to the door knob. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fasten the lever. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. having a swinging connection at C. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.

B. 1 . Cut two pieces 30 in. They are shown in Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. AA. Two short boards 1 in. thus doing away with the spring. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 6 in. long. which is 15 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. another. wide . with a water pressure of 70 lb. wide by 1 in.. soldered to the end of the cylinder. --Contributed by Orton E. Fig. 2 ft. N. Fig. PAUL S. F. 2 at GG. according to the slant given C. I referred this question to my husband. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. long. 1. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Buffalo. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. D. Y. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. E. Cut two of them 4 ft. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 1. White. several lengths of scantling 3 in. will open the door about 1/2 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 2 is an end view. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Fig. from the outside top of the frame. but mark their position on the frame. Do not fasten these boards now. for the top. and Fig. long. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. 1 is the motor with one side removed. hoping it may solve the same question for them. to keep the frame from spreading. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. long. to form the slanting part. and another. as at E. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 26 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. screwed to the door frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. approximately 1 ft. A small piece of spring brass. To make the frame. another. C.

fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces.burlap will do -. and a 1/4 -in. Take the side pieces. 2) and another 1 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. When it has cooled. iron. hole through their sides centrally. that is. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. holes. by 1-1/2 in. Fasten them in their proper position. after which drill a 5/8 in. and drill a 1-in. to a full 1/2 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. GG. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Tack one side on. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -.along the edges under the zinc to form . Drill 1/8-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Next secure a 5/8-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. as shown in Fig. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. hole through them. take down the crosspieces. Fig. 2) form a substantial base. thick. steel shaft 12 in. from one end by means of a key. Fig. hole through its center. 1. with the wheel and shaft in place. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. remove the cardboard. These are the paddles. Make this hole conical. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. 4. (I. then drill a 3/16-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. hole to form the bearings. hole from the tops to the 1-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. iron 3 by 4 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. 24 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Now block the wheel. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. thick (HH. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. in diameter. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. pipe. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. tapering from 3/16 in. and drill a 1/8-in. Fig. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in.

and the subject may move. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room.a water-tight joint. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. light and the plate. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Do not stop down the lens. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. ice-cream freezer. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. shutting out all light from above and the sides. it would be more durable. any window will do. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. . and leave them for an hour or so. Drill a hole through the zinc. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Darken the rest of the window. or what is called a process plate. It is obvious that. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. says the Photographic Times. on the lens. If the bearings are now oiled. but now I put them in the machine. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. but as it would have cost several times as much. start the motor. If sheet-iron is used. The best plate to use is a very slow one. of course. and as near to it as possible. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. drill press. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Raise the window shade half way. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as shown in the sketch at B. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. place the outlet over a drain. sewing machine. remove any white curtains there may be. Focus the camera carefully. Correct exposure depends. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. as this makes long exposure necessary. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills.

with binding posts as shown. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. D. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. With a piece of black paper. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. the core is drawn down out of sight. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or an empty developer tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. and a base.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. hard rubber. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. as a slight current will answer. a core. or wood. On completing . and without fog. full of water. The glass tube may be a test tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. or can be taken from an old magnet. 2. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. until the core slowly rises. The core C. an empty pill bottle may be used. without detail in the face. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The current required is very small. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. 2. a glass tube. A. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as shown in Fig. by twisting. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. C. which is made of iron and cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. B.

1 pt. white lead. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 lb. whale oil. and one not easy to explain. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. finest graphite. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. The colors appear different to different people. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . water and 3 oz. according to his control of the current. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. is Benham's color top. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk.

This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. before cutting. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. fan-like. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. A.B. B. In prize games.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. As this device is easily upset. Chicago. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. -Contributed by D. when the action ceases. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. nearly every time. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.L. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. C. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. In making hydrogen. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. especially if the deck is a new one. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. or three spot. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. thus partly filling bottles A and C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. deuce. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.

long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Fig. S. Jr. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A..requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. (Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 12 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. . --Contributed by C. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 4. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 9 in. J. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Bently. W. 2. in length and 3 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Huron. Dak. --Contributed by F. Detail of Phonograph Horn . S. 10 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. in diameter. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Detroit. Form a cone of heavy paper. as shown in Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Make a 10-sided stick. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 1. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long and 3 in. 3). at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A.. long. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig.

so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. A. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. allowing 1 in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Remove the form. When the glue is thoroughly hardened.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Fig. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. it is equally easy to block that trick. and walk in. push back the bolt. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fortunately. long. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. will cause an increased movement of C. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. making it three-ply thick. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. with a pin driven in each end. A second piece of silk thread. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Denver. bend it at right angles throughout its length. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . --Contributed by Reader. on one side and the top. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. E. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Cut out paper sections (Fig. but bends toward D. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. A piece of tin. C. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. about the size of a leadpencil. 6.

Paul. are 7 ft. W. long. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Fremont Hilscher. Two wood-base switches. is connected each point to a battery. put together as shown in the sketch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. and rest on a brick placed under each end. S. --Contributed by J. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S. The 2 by 4-in.. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. The feet. long. A. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. as shown. B. By this arrangement one. The upper switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Minn. will last for several years. are made 2 by 4 in.. while the lower switch. or left to right.strip. B. West St. S S. posts. R. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The reverse switch. Jr. 4 ft. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.

cut in half. pulley wheel. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 1. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The steam chest D. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 2. The base is made of wood. In Fig. 2 and 3. the other parts being used for the bearing B.every house. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. E. Fig. The hose E connects to the boiler. is an old bicycle pump. which will be described later. FF. 3/8 in. and the crank bearing C. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and has two wood blocks. or anything available. The valve motion is shown in Figs. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and a cylindrical . The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and in Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The piston is made of a stove bolt. thick. with two washers. Fig. and valve crank S. which is made of tin. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. H and K. either an old sewing-machine wheel. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust.

Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and a very amusing trick. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. as shown in Fig. San Jose. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Fig. of Cuba. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. is cut out of tin. to receive the connecting rod H. 4. . photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. or galvanized iron. This is wound with soft string. First. can be an old oil can. W. The boiler. and the desired result is obtained. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Wis. C. G. Fig. using the positive wire as a pen. 1. and saturated with thick oil. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. at that. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This engine was built by W. G. Schuh and A. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly.piece of hard wood. as it is merely a trick of photography. The valve crank S. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. powder can. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. J. Fry. --Contributed by Geo. 3. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Eustice. Cal.

Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. They may be of any size. B. as shown. Fig. diameter. to cross in the center. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown at AA. 1 will be seen to rotate. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. C. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The smaller wheel. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. When turning.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. and pass ropes around . considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper.

When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. To make this lensless microscope. long.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. such as clothes lines. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. as shown in the illustration. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. which accounts for the sound.. Louis. which allows the use of small sized ropes. W. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. produces a higher magnifying power). DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. St. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. --Contributed by H. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but not on all. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Mo. from the transmitter. A (a short spool. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. procure a wooden spool. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.G.M. From a piece of thin . This in turn will act on the transmitter.

in which hay has been soaking for several days. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and at the center. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. bent as shown. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. i. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. B. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. cut out a small disk. the diameter will appear twice as large. E. otherwise the image will be blurred. 2. which are pieces of hard wood. held at arm's length. fastened to a wooden base. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. (The area would appear 64 times as large.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. the diameter will appear three times as large. B. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. can be made of brass and the armature. D. A. or 64 times. e. The spring. and so on. C.. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. 1. It is very important that the hole D should be very small.) But an object 3/4-in. 3. which costs little or nothing to make. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. An innocent-looking drop of water. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. Viewed through this microscope. is made of iron. as in all microscopes of any power. is fastened at each end by pins. by means of brads. C. and look through the hole D. darting across the field in every direction. if the distance is reduced to one-third. if the distance is reduced to one-half.. place a small object on the transparent disk. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. To use this microscope. the object should be of a transparent nature. D. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. H. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. The lever. . The pivot. Fig.

brass: E. 1. between the armature and the magnet. E. thick. binding posts: H spring The stop. or a single piece. C.SOUNDER-A. long by 16 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. AA. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wide. nail soldered on A. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. can be made panel as shown. D. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. fastened near the end. brass or iron soldered to nail. should be about 22 in. connection of D to nail. Each side. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. Fig. brass. wood. Fig. which are made to receive a pivot. A. is cut from a board about 36 in. FF. The back. or taken from a small one-point switch. KEY-A. D. soft iron. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 2. 26 wire: E. F. long. The door. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wide. wide and about 20 in. C. wide. coils wound with No. 16 in. B. and are connected to the contacts. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. 16 in. wood: F. K. wide and set in between sides AA. brass: B. HH. DD. D. wood: C. The binding posts. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide. B. in length and 16 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. . long and 14-1/2 in. The base of the key. K. A switch. Cut the top.

E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Garfield. long. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. brads. 2 and made from 1/4-in. as shown. In operation. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. AA. as shown in the sketch.. material. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Ill. When the electrical waves strike the needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Make 12 cleats. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. cut in them. with 3/4-in.

a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The cord is also fastened to a lever. C. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. N. will give a greater speed.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. A. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. when used with a motor. Ridgewood. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the pipe is used. A (see sketch). in order to increase the surface. Y. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Pushing the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. E. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. B. and. N. F. Fairport. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. J. Brown. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. --Contributed by R. pulls down the armature. --Contributed by John Koehler. filled with water. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. and thus decreases the resistance. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. A. the magnet. A fairly stiff spring. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork.

In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. even those who read this description. if desired. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. B. Of course. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Borden. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. N. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. --Contributed by Perry A. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Gachville.for the secret contact.

for 10in. Mangold. N. From a piece of brass a switch. . wide. C. H. 1. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Connect switch to post B. as shown in Fig. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cal. Nails for stops are placed at DD. --Contributed by H. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. in a semicircle 2 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Washington. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. --Contributed by Dr. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. deep and 3/4 in. Compton. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. C. records. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. With about 9 ft. where the other end of wire is fastened. for 6-in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. apart.. A. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in.whenever the bell rings. and on both sides of the middle shelf. East Orange. wide. long and full 12-in. D. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. wide. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. thick and 12-in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. long and 5 in. E. as shown in Fig. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. 2. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. The top board is made 28-in. Jr. Dobson. records and 5-5/8 in. from the bottom. wide. J.

Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. to which is fastened a cord. E. B. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Va. 1. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown by the dotted lines. which in operation is bent. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown in Fig. Roanoke. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. A. closed. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .

CC. long. Do not fasten the sides too . is compressed by wheels. excepting the crank and tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. through one of these holes. E. The crankpin should fit tightly. Cut two grooves. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Figs. square and 7/8 in. D. Bore two 1/4 in. Put the rubber tube. in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. it too loose. 3). On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. E. deep and 1/2 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1. thick. but a larger one could be built in proportion. deep. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Fig. holes (HH. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Fig. In the sides (Fig. Now put all these parts together. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. thick (A. 1 in. Fig. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. which should be about 1/2 in. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1 in. 5) when they are placed.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Notice the break (S) in the track. B. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. In these grooves place wheels. Figs. apart. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. 3. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. in diameter. as shown in the illustration. wide. one in each end. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. wide. they will bind. against which the rubber tubing. in diameter. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. they will let the air through. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig.

stands 20 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. AA. 1. 1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 15 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. tubing. as shown in Fig. A in Fig. Fig. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. For ease in handling the pump. beyond each of these two. from that mark the next hole.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. is all the expense necessary. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. mark for hole and 3 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. from each end. Take the center of the bar. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 2. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. the other wheel has reached the bottom. a platform should be added. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. The three legs marked BBB. from each end. Then turn the crank from left to right. The screen which is shown in Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. iron. 2. the pump will give a steady stream. mark again. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and mark for a hole. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. B. of material. To use the pump. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Fig. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. though a small iron wheel is better. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from each end. 17-1/2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. and are 30 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Kan. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by Dan H. Idana. costing 10 cents. and 3-1/2 in. because he can . For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Cut six pieces. AA. In the two cross bars 1 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. long. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Hubbard. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank.

until it is within 3 in. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. The battery is now complete. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. When through using the battery. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. sulphuric acid. --Contributed by H. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Philadelphia. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. of water dissolve 4 oz. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. If it is wet. or. It is useful for running induction coils. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. and the solution (Fig. and touches the bait the lid is released and. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. some of it should be poured out. The battery is now ready for use. or small electric motors. however. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. giving it a bright. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Place the carbon in the jar. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. stirring constantly. of the top. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. but if one casts his own zinc. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. potassium bichromate. long having two thumb screws. Meyer. dropping. silvery appearance. If the solution touches the zinc. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. 4 oz. To cause a flow of electricity. add slowly. C. rub the zinc well. . shuts him in. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. When the bichromate has all dissolved. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw.see through it: when he enters. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. 1) must be prepared. 14 copper wire. acid 1 part). the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. If the battery has been used before. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. The truncated. 2). Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. The mercury will adhere. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. there is too much liquid in the jar. Then pour the solution into the battery jar.

The price of the coil depends upon its size. which opens the door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. If. Madison. Wis. the battery circuit. e.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. however. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. i. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. with slight changes.Fig. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. pressing the pedal closes the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. while the coal door is being opened. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. After putting in the coal.

described elsewhere in this book. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. the full length of the coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This will make an excellent receiver. in a partial vacuum. 7. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Now for the receiving apparatus. 6. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. apart. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. while a 12-in. 5. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This coil. 7). An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 6. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil.7. as shown in Fig. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. diameter. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. Change the coil described. in a straight line from top to bottom. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. made of No. coil. After winding. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. . as shown in Fig. 7. W W. W W. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. which is made of light copper wire. and closer for longer distances. being a 1-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission.

For an illustration. 90°. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. using an electric motor and countershaft. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. after all. and hence the aerial line. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. but simply illustrates the above to show that. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). A large cone pulley would then be required. Run a wire from the other binding post. 1 to 4. where A is the headstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. These circles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. I run my lathe by power. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A. No. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. are analogous to the flow of induction. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. being vertical. may be easily made at very little expense. only. to the direction of the current. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. above the ground. in the air. Figs. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. 1). being at right angles. B the bed and C the tailstock. which will be described later. 90°.The aerial line. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil.6 stranded. . The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. as it matches the color well.

Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 6 Headstock Details D. 5. hardwood being preferable for this purpose.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. one of which is shown in Fig. B. If the bearing has been properly made. To make these bearings. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and it is well to have the shaft hot. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. tapered wooden pin. but not hot enough to burn it. which are let into holes FIG. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. steel tubing about 1/8 in. thick. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 2 and 3. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 6. and runs in babbitt bearings. too. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 4. Heat the babbitt well. just touching the shaft. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. deep. Fig. The headstock. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 4. pitch and 1/8 in. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. and Fig. After pouring. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. on the under side of the bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 5. The bolts B (Fig. A.

except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Take up about 5 ft. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. they may be turned up after assembling. FIG. Newark. and a 1/2-in. A. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. the alarm is easy to fix up. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Ill. lock nut. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. embedded in the wood.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. of the walk . To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. This prevents corrosion.J. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. B. so I had to buy one. If one has a wooden walk. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig.other machines. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. N. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Oak Park.

Minneapolis. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. hang the articles on the wires. and the alarm is complete. Finally. --Contributed by R. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. 2). Minn. to roughen the surface slightly. before dipping them in the potash solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. water. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Jackson. so that they will not touch. add potassium cyanide again. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. To avoid touching it. clean the articles thoroughly. of water. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. leaving a clear solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. silver or other metal. Do not touch the work with the hands again. (A. Fig. S. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. to remove all traces of grease. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Then make the solution . Connect up an electric bell. save when a weight is on the trap.

also. as shown in Fig. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. which is held by catch B. make a key and keyhole. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described.5 to 4 volts. about 25 ft. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and the larger part (F. Then. Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. Where Bunsen cells are used. a circuit is completed. A 1/4 in. --Model Engineer. On brass. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. 1. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. The wooden catch. when the point of the key touches the tin. This solution. 1). long.up to 2 qt. but opens the door. 1). of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 18 wire. square. Fig. such metals as iron. which . To provide the keyhole. Can be made of a 2-in. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. light strokes. German silver. 3) strikes the bent wire L. with water. With an electric pressure of 3. will serve for the key. thick by 3 in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. and then treated as copper. an old electric bell or buzzer. copper. which is advised. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. B should be of the same wood. long. Repeat six times. Before silver plating. if one does not possess a buffing machine. piece of broomstick. zinc. with water. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. 1 in. Take quick. A (Fig. The wooden block C. Make a somewhat larger block (E. pewter. from the lower end. Fig. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. saw a piece of wood. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. When all this is set up. 10 in. use 2 volts for large articles. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. lead. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1 not only unlocks. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. hole in its center. Having finished washing the precipitate. Screw the two blocks together. I. shaking. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. silver can be plated direct. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. If more solution is required. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. must be about 1 in. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. of clothesline rope and some No. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. with the pivot 2 in. nickel and such metals. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. 3) directly over the hole. of water. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 3. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. If accumulators are used. as at F. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point.

so much the better. spoons and jackknives. 1. with a switch as in Fig. sides and end. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 1. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. with the lights turned low. shows catch B. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and hands its contents round to the audience. some black cloth. The magician stands in front of this. The interior must be a dead black. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. such as forks. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. One end is removed. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. or cave. He removes the bowl from the black box. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and a slit. H. surrounding a perfectly black space. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and black art reigns supreme. H. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The box must be altered first. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. between the parlor and the room back of it. he tosses it into the cave. although a little more trouble. a few simple tools. H. one-third of the length from the remaining end. On either side of the box. New Jersey. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. --Contributed by E. heighten the illusion. In front of you. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. the illumination in front must be arranged. 2. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Next. To prepare such a magic cave. which unlocks the door. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. East Orange. Fig. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. cut in one side. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. floor. to throw the light toward the audience. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Next. half way from open end to closed end. Fig. 3. top. no painting inside is required. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Objects appear and disappear. 0. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Thus. he points with one finger to the box. 2.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. enlarged. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann.. and plenty of candles. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. in his shirt sleeves. B. Fig. Klipstein. One thing changes to another and back again. 116 Prospect St. Receiving the bowl again. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. the requisites are a large soap box. some black paint. and finally lined inside with black cloth. is the cut through which the rope runs. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). should be cut a hole. Fig. Heavy metal objects. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. .

or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. of course. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and several black drop curtains. which can be made to dance either by strings. had a big stage. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. only he. the room where the cave is should be dark. if. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. one on each side of the box. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. which are let down through the slit in the top. The illusion. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. was identical with this. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and pours them from the bag into a dish. his confederate behind inserts his hand. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. Consequently. But illusions suggest themselves. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. of course. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. into the eyes of him who looks. as presented by Hermann. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. is on a table) so much the better. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. a screen must be used. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. you must have an assistant. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The audience room should have only low lights. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The exhibitor should be . and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. in which are oranges and apples. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain.Finally. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and if portieres are impossible. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm.

if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. by 4 in. f2. terminal c3 will show +. c3. held down by another disk F (Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . e1 and e2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch).is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. terminal c3 will show . or b2. A represents a pine board 4 in. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance.. c1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. c2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. 1. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. 1. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. held down on it by two terminals. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. About the center piece H moves a disk. at L. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. vice versa. by means of two wood screws. b1. with three brass strips. respectively. Finally. d. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2.a boy who can talk. so arranged that. 2). b3. 2. A. FIG. or binding posts. respectively. is shown in the diagram. when handle K is turned to one side. and c4 + electricity. On the disk G are two brass strips.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. b2. 2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and c1 – electricity. as shown in Fig. their one end just slips under the strips b1. Then. c4. square. respectively. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. b2. Fig. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. and c2 to the zinc. and a common screw. b3. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. making contact with them as shown at y. making contact with them.

When switch B is closed and A is on No. Ohio. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. 1. Tuttle. from five batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Joerin. when on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 5. jump spark coil. 4. B is a onepoint switch. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. 3. from four batteries. E. when on No. -Contributed by A. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. and C and C1 are binding posts. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. . you have the current of one battery. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries.. and when on No. Jr. when A is on No. from three batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). --Contributed by Eugene F. Newark.

it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. over the bent portion of the rule. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. The device thus arranged. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. mark. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A.. and placed on the windowsill of the car. per second. as shown in the sketch.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. La. of Burlington. per second for each second. A. is the device of H. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. mark. Wis. which may be a button or other small object. Redmond. Handy Electric Alarm . and supporting the small weight. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. New Orleans. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. so one can see the time. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Thus. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. rule. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. E. traveled by the thread. B. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. P. When you do not have a graduate at hand. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid.

then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. but may be closed at F any time desired. Crafton. --C. which illuminates the face of the clock. S. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Pa. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. and with the same result. --Contributed by Gordon T. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. for a wetting is the inevitable result. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. C. When the alarm goes off. B. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Lane. Instead. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then if a mishap comes. . soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn.which has a piece of metal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward.

The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. models and miniature objects. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. C. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. as shown. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. engines. ornaments of various kinds. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. binding posts. If there is no foundry Fig. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. With the easily made devices about to be described. as shown in Fig. 1 . New York City. small machinery parts. L. when it is being prepared. Two cleats. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. cannons. and duplicates of all these. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. bearings. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Macey. whence it is soon tracked into the house. A. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. AA. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. --Contributed by A. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. battery zincs. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. BE. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. but it is a mistake to try to do this. and many other interesting and useful articles.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. 1.

The cloth bag.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. E. try using sand from other sources. D. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. It is made of wood and is in two halves. Fig. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. F. An old teaspoon.How to Make a Mold [96] . After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. II . say 12 in. CC. as shown. and a sieve. If the box is not very strong. white metal. is shown more clearly in Fig. which can be made of a knitted stocking. G. which can be either aluminum. high. is about the right mesh. and this. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. DD. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel." or lower part. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A slight shake of the bag Fig. by 8 in. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. the "cope. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. 2. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Fig. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and the "drag. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. H. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. If desired the sieve may be homemade. A A. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. J. The flask. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is filled with coal dust. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. The rammer. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and the lower pieces. and saw it in half longitudinally. 1. previous to sawing. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. is made of wood. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. 2 . makes a very good sieve. a little larger than the outside of the flask. will be required. is nailed to each end of the cope. The dowels. by 6 in. A wedge-shaped piece. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use." or upper half. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. as shown. CC. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. which should be nailed in.near at hand. 1.

A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. in order to remove the lumps. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. where they can watch the molders at work." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as described. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. turn the drag other side up. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. In finishing the ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. After ramming. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. or "drag. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and thus judge for himself. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. and if water is added. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at C. the surface of the sand at . pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at D. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. It is then rammed again as before. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." in position. and scatter about 1/16 in. or "cope. and by grasping with both hands. as shown at E. Place another cover board on top.

The pattern is then drawn from the mold. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown at H. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in diameter. and then pour. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. thus holding the crucible securely. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at G. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. is next cut. wide and about 1/4 in. thus making a dirty casting. III. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. after being poured. This is done with a spoon. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Fig. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. made out of steel rod. After drawing the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at J. to give the air a chance to escape. as shown in the sketch." or pouring-hole. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. The "sprue. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. place the cope back on the drag.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. in order to prevent overheating. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. deep. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. . as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as shown at H. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at F. it shows that the sand is too wet. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold.E should be covered with coal-dust.

babbitt. white metal and other scrap available. the following device will be found most convenient. Referring to the figure. Minneapolis. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. may be used in either direction. --Contributed by Harold S. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Although the effect in the illustration . A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. 15% lead. battery zincs. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Morton. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. is very desirable. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. used only for zinc. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. although somewhat expensive. If a good furnace is available. In my own case I used four batteries. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. and the casting is then ready for finishing. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. but any reasonable number may be used.

by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. --Contributed by Draughtsman. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Then replace the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. Put a sharp needle point. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. To make it take a sheet-iron band. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. connected by cords to the rudder. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. backward. By replacing the oars with paddles. A. shaft made. 3/4 in. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Make one of these pieces for each arm. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The bearings. outward. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. to prevent them from rubbing the hands.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. The brass rings also appear distorted. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. If desired. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. Then walk down among the audience. B. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. which will be sufficient to hold it. Chicago. may be made of hardwood. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. as shown at A. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. B. Fig. as shown in the illustration. 2.

If babbitt is used. In the same way. and a weight. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 2 and 3. A.melted babbitt. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. If galvanized iron is used. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 2. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. spoiling its appearance. when it will again return to its original state. or under pressure. A block of ice. Snow. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The covers. E. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. as shown in Fig. being simply finely divided ice. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. or the paint will come off. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. C. D. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 1. W. It may seem strange that ice . but when in motion. 1. The hubs. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Fig. 1. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. 3. should be made of wood.

as per sketch. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Pa. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series.. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. thus giving a high resistance contact. brass. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Lane. but. by 1/4. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 5 in.should flow like water. B. Crafton. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. P. or supporting it in some similar way. The rate of flow is often very slow. in. by 2 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but by placing it between books. which resembles ice in this respect. --Contributed by Gordon T. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. whenever there is any connection made at all. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 1/2 in. square. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. and assume the shape shown at B. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pressing either push button. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. as shown on page 65. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions.

000 ft. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. G. the induction coil. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. about the size used for automobiles. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. cord. the battery. I. Indianapolis. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. B. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. as shown. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and C. weight. furnace. Wilkinsburg. E. wooden supports. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and five dry batteries. The parts are: A. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. K . draft chain. alarm clock. F. pulleys. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. G. draft. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Pa. C. The success depends upon a slow current. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. D. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. Ward.thumb screws. horizontal lever. B. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. J. In the wiring diagram. --Contributed by A. as shown. H. vertical lever. A is the circuit breaker.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. material framed together as shown in Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. such as used for a storm window. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. as well as the bottom. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. will fit nicely in them. Kalamazoo. 3. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . -Contributed by Gordon Davis. where house plants are kept in the home. Artistic Window Boxes The top. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Mich. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.

This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and the instrument will then be complete. However. i. which sells for 25 cents. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. this must be done with very great caution. S. where they are glad to have them taken away.. However. Halifax. 1. in any system of lamps. This is more economical than dry cells. for some time very satisfactorily. N. 1 each complete with base. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and will give the . it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. A certain number of these. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. multiples of series of three. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. one can regulate the batteries as required. --Contributed by Wm. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage.. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Grant. Push the needle into the cork. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. can be connected up in series. is something that will interest the average American boy. Thus. The 1/2-cp.. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. as if drawn upon for its total output. It must be remembered. in this connection. a cork and a needle. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. W. but maintain the voltage constant. by connecting them in series. 1 cp. and cost 27 cents FIG. in diameter. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. so as to increase the current. after a rest. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. as indicated by Fig. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and a suitable source of power. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. e. Canada.

lamps. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed.proper voltage. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamp. lamps. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. if wound for 6 volts. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. to secure light by this method. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used.. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. which is the same as that of one battery. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 2 shows the scheme. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. or 22 lights. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Chicago. Thus. 3. for display of show cases. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. However. and for Christmas trees. by the proper combination of these. according to the water pressure obtainable. These will give 3 cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. 1-cp. each. So. we simply turn on the water. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Fig. and then lead No. Thus. If wound for 10 volts. 11 series. as in Fig. although the first cost is greater. where the water pressure is the greatest. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. making. double insulated wire wherever needed. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and running the series in parallel. 18 B & S. especially those of low internal resistance. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. In conclusion. and diffused light in a room. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. . generates the power for the lights. FIG. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp.

A indicates the ground. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Cal. or from one pattern. field of motor. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Emig. and C. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. --Contributed by Leonard E. --Contributed by F. A. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Parker. center points of switch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. B. To reverse the motor. Ind. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. we were not bothered with them. a bait of meat. switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. BB. Plymouth. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. AA. thus reversing the machine. CC. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. the letters indicate as follows: FF. DD. . are cut just alike. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. After I connected up my induction coil. or a tempting bone. as shown in the sketch. B. bars of pole-changing switch. and the sides. brushes of motor. simply change the switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. outside points of switch. Santa Clara.

a hammer. or would remain locked. The button can be hidden. a piece of string. -Contributed by Claude B. one cell being sufficient. Cal.. The experiment works best .Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Hutchinson. If it is not. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. W. which is in the door. San Jose. thus locking the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Minn. as it is the key to the lock. merely push the button E. To unlock the door. and a table or bench. Fry. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. 903 Vine St. attached to the end of the armature B. When the circuit is broken a weight. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. A. Melchior.

P. . Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Canada. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 1). -. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig.. 4). forming a loop. 2. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. attached at the other end. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 3. A. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. which pulls the draft open. Schmidt. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. I. Porto Rico. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 3. Ontario. the current flows with the small arrows. as shown in Fig. W. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. C.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.Contributed by F. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Tie the ends of the string together. where it will remain suspended as shown. Wis. Madison. releasing the weight. D. --Contributed by Geo. the key turns. run through a pulley. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Crawford Curry. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Brockville. 18 Gorham St. the stick falls away. Culebra. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock.

J. and then to the receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. or from a bed of flowers. First. S. or tree. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. R. made with his own hands. and break the corners off to make them round. The cut shows the arrangement. running one direct to the receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Jr. thick. N. --Contributed by Wm. and . The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. get two pieces of plate glass. which fasten to the horn. including the mouthpiece. Farley.. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and the other to the battery. square and 1 in. D. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Use a barrel to work on. 6 in. Camden. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. thence to a switch. Connect two wires to the transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. J.

When dry. and is ready for polishing. 1. and spread on the glass. 2. L. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. set the speculum against the wall. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Then warm and press again with the speculum.. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wide around the convex glass or tool. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Fasten. with pitch. melt 1 lb. When done the glass should be semitransparent. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. while walking around the barrel. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Have ready six large dishes. spaces. Use a binger to spread it on with. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. also rotate the glass. twice the focal length away.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. A. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge.. of water. When polishing the speculum. then take 2 lb. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and label. with 1/4-in. in length. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. then 8 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. using straight strokes 2 in. and a large lamp. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. wet till soft like paint. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. the coarse grinding must be continued. so the light . In a dark room. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. by the side of the lamp. as in Fig. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. a round 4-in. or less. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. or it will not polish evenly. Fig. unless a longer focal length is wanted. and the under glass or tool convex. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Fig. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.

as in K. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. longer strokes.………………………………. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. With pitch. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. cement a strip of board 8 in. that was set aside. with distilled water. from the lamp. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. If not.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. then ammonia until bath is clear. and pour the rest into the empty dish. the speculum will show some dark rings.100 gr... Place the speculum S. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Then add solution B. Now add enough of the solution A. 2... Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….…………………………….. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. When dry. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 4 oz. Fig. also how the rays R from a star . 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Fig. The polishing and testing done. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. if a hill in the center. Place the speculum. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.. Nitric acid . Then add 1 oz. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. When the focus is found. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. or hills. The knife should not be more than 6 in. the speculum is ready to be silvered. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).……………. Fig. 39 gr. Solution D: Sugar loaf . and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. face down. 840 gr. Two glass or earthenware dishes.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. fill the dish with distilled water. 100 gr. touched with rouge. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. deep. 2.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. must be procured. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 4 oz. long to the back of the speculum. 25 gr.

but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. deg. Place over lens. and proceed as for any picture. About 20. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. . cover with paper and cloth. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. is a satisfactory angle. The flatter they are the less they will distort. slightly wider than the lens mount. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. long and cost me just $15. Mellish. Thus an excellent 6-in. My telescope is 64 in. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.John E.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. which proves to be easy of execution. using strawboard and black paper. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. telescope can be made at home. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.. two glass prisms. Then I made the one described. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with an outlay of only a few dollars. stop down well after focusing. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.

Do not stir it. but will not preserve its hardening. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. complete the arrangement. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. add the plaster gradually to the water. unobstructed light strike the mirror. A. -Contributed by A.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. through the lens of the camera and on the board. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. . then add a little sulphate of potash. Fig. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Zimmerman. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. and reflect through the negative. Ill. The paper is exposed. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. instead of the contrary. push the button D. To unlock. D. says the Master Painter. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The rays of the clear. B. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. 2. Boody. 1. as shown in Fig. or powdered alum. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.

This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 1). use a string. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 3. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. To reverse. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 2. as shown in the sketch. as at A and B. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Then blow through the spool. throw . thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fasten on the switch lever. Fig. as in Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. also provide them with a handle.

Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. In the sketch. carbon sockets. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. --Contributed by Geo. Levy. carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth. Thomas. D. --Contributed by R.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. binding posts. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. C C. as shown in the sketch. Tex. Neb. B. A is the electricbell magnet. . San Antonio. North Bend. Tex. Push one end of the tire into the hole. rinse in alcohol. L. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Take out. Go McVicker. wash in running water. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. San Marcos. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. and E E. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.

Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Bell. long or more. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. By means of two or more layers of No. 16 magnet wire. Brooklyn. wound evenly about this core. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 36 magnet wire. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 14 or No. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. --Contributed by Joseph B. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length.

diameter. No. When cut and laid in one continuous length. coil illustrates the general details of the work. hole is bored in the center of one end. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. and finally the fourth strip of paper. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. with room also for a small condenser. the entire core may be purchased readymade. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. in length. 2 yd. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. but if it is not convenient to do this work. one piece of the paper is laid down. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. making two layers. at a time. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 1. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. Beginning half an inch from one end. long and 5 in. The condenser is next wrapped . After the core wires are bundled. then the strip of tin-foil. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box.which would be better to buy ready-made. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. A 7/8-in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. a box like that shown in Fig. and the results are often unsatisfactory. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. as the maker prefers. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. which is desirable. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. long and 2-5/8 in. In shaping the condenser. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. which is an important factor of the coil. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 4. or 8 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. in diameter. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. as shown in Fig. This makes a condenser which may be folded. wide. about 6 in.

in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. which allows wiring at the back. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. copper lever with 1-in. 3. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. whole length. D. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. V-shaped copper strip. long to key. spark. open switch C. long and 12 in. round so that the inside . forms the other pole or terminal. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. B. bell. shelf for clock. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. flange turned on one side. Fig.) The wiring diagram. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. 4 in. B. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. lines H. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. to the door. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. and the other sheet. battery . which is insulated from the first. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. shows how the connections are made. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell.. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. go. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The alarm key will turn and drop down. I. by 12 in. one from bell. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and one from battery. G. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. A. ready for assembling. switch. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. E. F.securely with bands of paper or tape. C. wide.

. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. If desired for use immediately. 2 in. London. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and the battery is ready for use. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. This is for blowing. Use a glass or metal shade. do not shortcircuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. says the Model Engineer. Line the furnace. That is what they are for. of zinc sulphate. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Short-circuit for three hours.. instead of close to it. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. and then rivet the seam. but with the circuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance.diameter is 7 in. from the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. of blue stone.

Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.9 of a volt. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. for some it will turn one way. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood." which created much merriment. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. porcelain and paper. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. below the bottom of the zinc. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. or think they can do the same let them try it. Ohio. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and then. affects . thus producing two different vibrations. 2. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Try it and see. 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Enlarge the hole slightly. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and therein is the trick. for others the opposite way. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. At least it is amusing. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. changes white phosphorus to yellow.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. imparting to them a violet tinge. but the thing would not move at all. g. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. If any or your audience presume to dispute. long. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. as in the other movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. square and about 9 in. oxygen to ozone. If too low. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the second finger along the side. herein I describe a much better trick. This type of battery will give about 0. Outside of the scientific side involved. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. To operate the trick. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass.

the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and one of them is photomicrography. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. that also can be obtained from hardware stores.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for holding it vertical. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. earth. insects. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. but not essential. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. if possible. but this is less satisfactory. says the Photographic Times. but small flowers. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a short-focus lens. however. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. chemicals. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . To the front board is attached a box. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. an old tripod screw.

179 11 lb. 381 24 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 7-1/2 in. The following table will give the size. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 8 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. Madison. 9 ft. in Cu. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. long and 3 ft. and a line. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 268 17 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. CD. Cap. 65 4 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.--Contributed by George C. A line. 5 ft. 5 in. 697 44 lb. Ft Lifting Power. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 12 ft. 11 ft. or 31 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Fig. while it is not so with the quill. 905 57 lb. 113 7 lb. AB. Mass. Boston. 1. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 7 ft. balloon. wide from which to cut a pattern. or 3 ft. in diameter. 7-1/2 in. 6 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. which is 15 ft.

cutting all four quarters at the same time. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The cloth segments are sewed together. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. of beeswax and boil well together. 70 thread.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. keeping the marked part on the outside. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. and so on. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 2. Repeat this operation four times. 4. on the curved line from B to C. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. 3. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The pattern is now cut. The amounts necessary for a 10- . If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. using a fine needle and No. of the very best heavy body. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Procure 1 gal. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly.

of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B.ft. C. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. which may sound rather absurd. pipe. of gas in one hour. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of iron borings and 125 lb. A.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of sulphuric acid. to the bag. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. a clean white rag. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. using a fine brush. with 3/4in. ft. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. this should be repeated frequently. if it is good it will dry off. of iron. 5 . with water 2 in. After washing a part. About 15 lb. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The outlet. In the barrel. The 3/4-in. 1 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. . When the clock has dried. capacity and connect them. or a fan. Water 1 oz. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. A. B. by fixing. as shown in Fig. oil the spindle holes carefully. until no more dirt is seen. 1 lb. B. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. leaving the hand quite clean. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. ]. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. 5. should not enter into the water over 8 in. C. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. above the level of the water in barrel A. of water will make 4 cu. but if any grease remains on the hand. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. balloon are 125 lb. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. All FIG. or dusting with a dry brush. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Fill the other barrel. it is not fit to use. with the iron borings. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. B. 150 gr. . a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.

Printing is done in the sun. The miniature 16 cp. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. A cold. 20 to 30 minutes. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. or zinc. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Port Melbourne. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. and a vigorous negative must be used. Print to bronzing under a strong negative.000 ft. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. . or battery. Exposure. to avoid blackened skin. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. says the Moving Picture World. at the time of employment. and keep in the dark until used. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. dry atmosphere will give best results. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter.. The positive pole. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of any make. This aerial collector can be made in . keeping the fingers out of the solution. A longer exposure will be necessary. The negative pole. Dry the plates in the dark.Water 1 oz. . or carbon. toning first if desired. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Dry in the dark. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. fix in hypo. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner.

As the telephone offers a high resistance. If the wave ceases. lead pipe. holes . 5 in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. long. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. The storage cell. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. the resistance is less. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. as described below. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. If the waves strike across the needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. in diameter. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. forming a cup of the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. both positive and negative. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. a positive and a negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in.various ways. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. lay a needle. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. when left exposed to the air. will soon become dry and useless. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. making a ground with one wire.

namely: a square hole. This support or block. does not need to be watertight. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. D. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. This box can be square. one to the positive. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. of course. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. or tube C. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. or tube B. and the other to the negative. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. an oblong one and a triangular one. except for about 1 in. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. When mixing the acid and water. on each end. Two binding-posts should be attached. a round one. This. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . by soldering the joint. B. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The other plate is connected to the zinc. says the Pathfinder. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency.as possible.

The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. and match them together. The third piece of brass. Chicago. is built 15 ft. 2. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. long. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. all around the edge. Only galvanized nails should be used. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. as shown in Fig. 2. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. back and under. C. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. A and B. wide. deep and 4 ft. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 3. leaving about 1/16 in. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. were fitted by this one plug. Ill.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. This punt. C. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. about 20 in. as it is not readily overturned. 1. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. thick cut two pieces alike. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. . is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. in place on the wood. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. wide. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 1. and has plenty of good seating capacity.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. thick and 3-1/2 in. gas pipe. Wash. B. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. square (Fig 2). Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A piece of 1/4-in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Tacoma. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. is cut 1 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig.

lamp. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . or "rotor. if possible. and to consume. In designing. says the Model Engineer. no special materials could be obtained. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. may be of interest to some of our readers. H. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. with the exception of insulated wire.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Wagner.--Contributed by Charles H. without auxiliary phase. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. which the writer has made. no more current than a 16-cp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The winding of the armature. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate." has no connection with the outside circuit. it had to be borne in mind that. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.

Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. 1.the field-magnet. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. no steel being obtainable. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 4. also varnished before they were put in. as shown in Fig. were then drilled and 1/4-in. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and filled with rivets. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. wrought iron. The stator is wound full with No. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. B. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. C. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. about 2-1/2 lb. Unfortunately. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. to be filed out after they are placed together. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. A. or "stator. 2. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. this little machine is not self-starting. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. being used. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. bolts put in and tightened up. After assembling a second time. holes. thick. Holes 5-32 in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 3. as shown in Fig. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. with the dotted line. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 5. and all sparking is avoided. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron.

depending upon the number of alternations of the supply.. 2. This type of motor has drawbacks. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. if applied immediately. Jr. 3-Contributed by C. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and especially of colored ones. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. McKinney. and would not easily get out of order. and all wound in the same direction. as shown in Fig. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. In making slides by contact. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. E. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Newark. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and as the motor runs at constant speed. as a means of illustrating songs. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. One is by contact. as before stated. The lantern slide is a glass plate. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. and as each layer of wire was wound. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The image should . All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. having no commutator or brushes. it would be very simple to build. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. 1. J. and the other by reduction in the camera. The rotor is wound with No. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. No starting resistance is needed. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. a regulating resistance is not needed. N. If too late for alcohol to be of use. film to film.

and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. to use a plain fixing bath. over the mat. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. These can be purchased from any photo material store. If the exposure has been correct. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. they are much used by travelers. 4. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Select a room with one window. Draw lines with a pencil. also. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Being unbreakable. and development should be over in three or four minutes. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. D. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. C. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. A. B. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. It is best.appear in. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. if possible. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Fig. except that the binding is different. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 1. a little extra work will be necessary. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . as shown in Fig. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. 3. 5. as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. about a minute. 2.

Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. as shown at A. Corinth. If the star is in front of the left eye. Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. as shown in Fig. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Fig. holes bored in the end pieces. long. from the end piece of the chair. Vt. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 2. Hastings. while the dot will be in front of the other. in diameter and 20 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. These longer pieces can be made square. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. in diameter and 40 in. wide and 50 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. long. A piece of canvas. known as rods and cones. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. is to be used for the seat. 16 in. 1. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. long. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. as shown at B. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. from the ends. 1. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. or other stout cloth. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball.

1. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. per square inch. as well as to operate other household machines. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. . A disk 1 in.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. as shown in Fig. Cal. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. made from an ordinary sash cord. J. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. O'Gara. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A belt. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. in thickness and 10 in. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. 2. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Auburn. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.

thick and 2-1/2 in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. to the top of the bench. fairly accurate. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. will be the thickness of the object. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. screwing it through the nut. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. long. direction. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. with as fine a thread as possible. 3/4 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. it serves a very useful purpose. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. . Bore a 1/4-in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Cut out a piece from the block combination. or inconvenient to measure. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. then removing the object. square for a support. A simple. and the construction is complete. Put the bolt in the hole. says the Scientific American. wide. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench.

from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. long is used for the center pole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. long. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. piece of wood 12 ft. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Bore a 3/4-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Place a 3/4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. bolt in each hole. globe that has been thrown away as useless.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. material 12 ft. The wheel should be open . This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Santa Maria. which show up fine at night. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Oal. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. beyond the end of the wood.

thick is used for the armature. and on its lower end a socket. The coil. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. of the ends with boards. Graham. thick. which should be 1/4 in. H and J. is soldered. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. at the top and 4 in. long. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B.-Contributed by A. pieces used for the spokes. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. thick. A piece of brass 2 in. at the bottom. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted.Side and Top View or have spokes. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. O. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. from the top end. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. in diameter. long. long. C. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. The spool . long. B. P. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. L. square and 3 or 4 in. wide and 1/8 in. Fort Worth. 1/2 in. Tex. to be operated by the magnet coil. A. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. made of the same material. and the lower part 61/2 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A cross bar. from the ends. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying.

This tie can be used on grain sacks. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. do it without any apparent effort. and place it against a door or window casing. 1. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. B. The armature. At the bottom end of the frame. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. is drilled. C.E.--A. which may be had by using German silver wire. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Mass. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. This is a very neat trick if performed right. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. 2. R. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. for insulating the brass ferrule. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and directly centering the holes H and J. then with a firm. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. and in numerous other like instances. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.000 for irrigation work. that holds the lower carbon. F. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. S.J. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. one without either rubber or metal end. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. . 2 the hat hanging on it. by soldering. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.is about 2-1/2 in.000. When you slide the pencil along the casing. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. long. or a water rheostat heretofore described. A. D and E. S. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Bradlev. Randolph. --Contributed by Arthur D. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. A soft piece of iron. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.

Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. in diameter. C. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The vibrator. in diameter and 2 in. F. 1. 2. A. is connected to a flash lamp battery. D. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. long and 1 in. Fig. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. mixed with water to form a paste. about 1/8 in. B. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. may be made from a 3/8-in. The core of the coil. wide. about 3/16 in. S. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. hole in the center. for adjustment. about 1 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. from the core and directly opposite. 1. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. Fig. thick. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The switch. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. with a 3/16-in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core.500 turns of No. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. About 70 turns of No. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. and then 1. for the primary. S. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The coil ends are made from cardboard. in diameter. leaving the projections as shown. is constructed in the usual manner. in diameter and 1/16 in. long. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The vibrator B. for the secondary.

between the boards. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. in an ordinary water glass. as shown. with which to operate the dial. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 1. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and the same distance inside of the new board. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. 1. long and when placed over the board. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. thick on the inside. brass plate.Place a small piece of paper. 16 in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 2 to fit the two holes. board. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The hasp. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which is only 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes. Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. lighted. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. which seemed to be insufficient. The lock. The three screws were then put in the hasp. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. . The tin is 4 in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. it laps down about 8 in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. and then well clinched. wide. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk.

AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. When the rear part is illuminated. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. or in the larger size mentioned. black color. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When making of wood. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. square and 8-1/2 in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. one in each division. not shiny. If the box is made large enough. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. and the back left dark. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. clear glass as shown. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. any article placed therein will be reflected in. high for use in window displays. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. square and 10-1/2 in.

. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown in the sketch. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. wide will be about the right size. a tank 2 ft. long and 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. into the other. alternately.. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as it appears. When there is no electric current available. When using as a window display. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. above the top of the tank. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

A small platform. This precipitate is then washed. dried and mixed with linseed oil. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. gauge for depth. high. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. wide. hole. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. and 6 ft. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. two pieces 1-1/8 in. 6 in. one for each side. lines gauged on each side of each. with a length of 13 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. radius. however. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. bit. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. or ferrous sulphate. Iron sulphate. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. each.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. is the green vitriol. under sides together. as shown. The 13-in. square. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. long. Shape the under sides first. wide. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. 2 ft. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. square and 40 in. Columbus. thick and 3 in. The pieces can then be taken out. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. but with a length of 12 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. hole bored the full length through the center. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Three windows are provided. bore from each end. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. long. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. O. using a 3/4-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. 5 ft. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and a door in front. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. is built on the front. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. If a planing mill is near. from the ground. 1 in. This hole must be continued .

hole in each block. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. When this is dry." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. three or four may be attached as shown. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Directions will be found on the filler cans. if shade is purchased. Saw the two blocks apart. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The sketch shows one method of attaching. When the filler has hardened. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. apply two coats of wax. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.through the pieces forming the base. If the parts are to be riveted. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. For art-glass the metal panels are . The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Electric globes--two. A better way. thick and 3 in.

the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE . such as copper.Construction of Shade . as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.

but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and Fig.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. Figure 1 shows the side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as shown in the sketch. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The arms holding the glass. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. one way and 1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. the object and the background. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. as in ordinary devices. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. 2 the front view of this stand. the other. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.

into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. about 1-1/4 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick 5/8-in. Put the ring in place on the base. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thus forming a 1/4-in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. uncork and recork again. outside diameter. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. in diameter for a base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and swinging freely. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. pointing north and south. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Before mounting the ring on the base. wide and 6-5/16 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Cut another circular piece 11 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. and an inside diameter of 9 in. If the light becomes dim. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. wide and 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . An ordinary pocket compass. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. as it is very poisonous. channel in the circumference of the ring. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. long. in diameter. as shown in the sketch. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as shown in the cut. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown.

600 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.088 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. in diameter and 8 in. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Corresponding mirrors.182 .500 . and north of the Ohio river. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.289 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.715 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. from the second to the third. CC.865 1. black oxide of copper.420 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The results given should be multiplied by 1. of the top. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Place on top the so- . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. 1 oz. above the half can. AA.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . and mirrors. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. are mounted on a base. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. B. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. into these cylinders. EE.

of pulverized nitrate of potassium. little crystals forming in the liquid. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. says Metal Worker. University Park. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 31 gr. Put the solution in a long. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. slender bottle. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. then they will not rust fast. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 62 gr. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. always remove the oil with a siphon. In Fig. alcohol. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. When renewing. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. which otherwise remains clear. of pulverized campor. Colo. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.

on the under side of the cork. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. Attach to the wires. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If zinc and carbon are used. Solder in the side of the box . If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. will allow the magnet to point north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. --Contributed by C. about 1-1/4 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. This is used in place of the spoon. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Lloyd Enos. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A paper-fastener box.

Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. or made with a little black paint. B. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. wide and 6 in. Put ends. 1/2. The spring should be about 1 in. brass tubing. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. E. away. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. as shown in Fig. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. 1-1/4 in. Use a board 1/2. wide and 2-1/2 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. If the hose is not a tight fit. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. hole. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. and then solder on the cover. C. D. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring.in. D. long that has about 1/4-in. C. E. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.in. stained and varnished. . 10 wire about 10 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Rhamstine.Contributed by J. B. H. Thos. of No. Wind evenly about 2 oz. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. 1. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. D. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 3 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. of wire on each end extending from the coil. To this standard solder the supporting wire. piece of 1/4-in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long. one on each side of the board. A. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. A.1-in. 14 wire will do. A circular piece of cardboard. glass tubing . On one side bend the wire around the tube B.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch.not shorter than 18 in. G--No. Bore holes for binding-posts. The bottom of the box. long. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. to it. The base. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. can be made of oak. thick. is made from a piece of No. F. The standard. and on the other around the glass tube. C. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in.

yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. from the right hand. about 1 in. of mercury will be sufficient. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.--Contributed by R. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. J. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 5.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Teasdale. long. long. of 8-oz. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. When the glass becomes soft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. two pieces 2 ft. of No. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. four hinges. N. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long are used for the legs. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. 3. Cuba. About 1-1/2 lb. Smith. 3 in. as shown in Fig. . 2. making a support as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Milwaukee. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. in diameter. canvas. D. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.of the coil. is drawn nearer to the coil. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 1. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 3-in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Wis. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The iron plunger. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. E. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Y. long.

Keys. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 4. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 3. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. This tube as described will be 8 in. long. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Can. thus leaving a. 6. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. small aperture in the long tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of vacuum at the top. 5. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Toronto. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Break off the piece of glass. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Fig. holding in the left hand. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. leaving 8 in. Take 1/2 in.. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. --Contributed by David A. The tube now must be filled completely. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Measure 8 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 2. expelling all the air.

with each projection 3-in. 4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. and 1/4 in. material 2 in. 3. wide and 5 ft.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. as shown in Fig. 9 in. long. long. 1. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. Fig. 4. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 3 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as shown in Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. from the end of same. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. Four blocks 1/4 in. thick. thick. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. in diameter. thick. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. wood screws. 3 in. 5. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . FIG. but yellow pine is the best. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. as in Fig. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. long. joint be accurately put together. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. thick. thick.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. wide and 5 ft. 7. long. wide and 3 in. 2. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The large pulley is about 14 in. 1 in. wide and 12 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 1 in.6 -. 6. These are bent and nailed.

attach runners and use it on the ice. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Water 1 oz. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. first removing the crank. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Manhattan. Kan. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Welsh. --Contributed by C. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. above the runner level. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. says Photography. . which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. by 1-in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. R. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter.

Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. 2. Printing is carried rather far. . The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. of water. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Leominster. and very much cheaper. also. This is done with a camel's hair brush. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Newton. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. from an ordinary clamp skate. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. 1 oz. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. --Contributed by Wallace C.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 1. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Mass. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Edward M. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Treasdale. as shown in Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 3. as shown in Fig. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws.

1-1/2 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. F. Alexandria. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. as shown in the sketch. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1. wide. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Church. and to the bottom. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. --Contributed by H. Then. A. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The swing door B. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Fig. from one end. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Place a 10-in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. 1 ft. extending the width of the box. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. and bend them as shown in the sketch. wide and 4 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. high for rabbits. say. with about 1/8-in. long. Take two glass tubes. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. about 10 in. Va. which represents the back side of the door. too. 2. high. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. hole. and 3 ft. Fig. causing the door to swing back and up. The thread is broken off at the . 1. square piece. fasten a 2-in.

long. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. wide. in size. Cut an opening in the other piece. automobiles. black surfaced if possible. being 1/8 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. wide. Chicago. plates. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Crilly. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. shorter. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. but cut it 1/4 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. says Camera Craft. long. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. to be used as a driving pulley. C. Jr. This opening. wide and 5 in. in size. high and 12 in. as shown in Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 3. trolley cars. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. and exactly 5 by 7 in. A and B. 10 in.proper place to make a small hole. inside of the opening. camera and wish to use some 4. Out two rectangular holes. B. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. horses and dogs. shorter at each end.by 7-in. Fig. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. from the edge on each side of these openings. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage.by 5-in.. 1 in. -Contributed by William M. and go in the holder in the same way. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. say 8 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. 1. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Fig. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. . 2. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. D.

in diameter. long and 6 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. The needle will then point north and south." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. wide will be required. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if it has previously been magnetized. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. making a .in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.

Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. short time. . sal ammoniac. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of water. fodder. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. only the joints. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Do not paint any surface. of rosin and 2 oz. of the plate at one end. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. when the paraffin is melted. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. zinc oxide. beeswax melted together. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. of the top. This makes the wire smooth. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Pack the paste in. 1/4 lb. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb.watertight receptacle. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. says Electrician and Mechanic. pull out the wire as needed. A is a block of l-in. 1 lb. 3/4 lb. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. for a connection. Place the pan on the stove. fuel and packing purposes. one that will hold about 1 qt. in diameter and 6 in. Form a 1/2-in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. leaving about 1/2-in. pine. and a notch between the base and the pan. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. filter. F is a spool. under the spool in the paraffin. long which are copper plated. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. B is a base of 1 in. plaster of paris. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. with narrow flanges. in which P is the pan.in.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Toledo. Ohio. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. while for others it will not revolve at all. and then. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. for some it will turn one way. 2. from vexation. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. by the Hindoos in India. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. as in the other movement. thus producing two different vibrations. At least it is amusing. and therein is the trick. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. g. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. let them try it. for others the opposite way. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. long. Enlarge the hole slightly." which created much merriment. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. or think they can do the same. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Try it and see. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and one friend tells me that they were . you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. grip the stick firmly in one hand. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and he finally. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. but the thing would not move at all. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. square and about 9 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge..

this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. the rotation may be obtained. rotation was obtained. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. 4. Thus a circular or . secondly. gave the best results. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. no rotation resulted. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The experiments were as follows: 1. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the pressure was upon an edge. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. 6. 2. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. by means of a center punch. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. 3. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. p.100 r. m.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 5. Speeds between 700 and 1. 7. To operate. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. and I think the results may be of interest. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring.

--Contributed by G. Ph. if the pressure is from the left. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. is driven violently away. . Minn. and the resultant "basket splash. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. and the height of the fall about 6 in. or greasy. A wire is tied around the can. it will be clockwise. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. D. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).D. G. A.. Lloyd. forming a handle for carrying. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Sloan. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. so far as can be seen from the photographs. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. the upper portion is. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Duluth." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.. a piece of wire and a candle. at first. Washington. unwetted by the liquid. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by M. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. C.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

about 2-5/8 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown in Fig. flange and a 1/4-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. hole drilled in the center. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. thick and 1 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. long. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. with a 1/16-in. 1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. axle.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. as shown. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. in diameter." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1.

bent as shown. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Fig.50.brass. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 3. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. wood. 1 from 1/4-in. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . which must be 110 volt alternating current. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 2. 3/4 in. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. holes 1 in. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The motor is now bolted. 3. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. or main part of the frame. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. and the locomotive is ready for running. are shown in Fig. The parts. of No. This will save buying a track. long. each in its proper place. A trolley. as shown in Fig. Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. is made from brass. bottom side up. is made from a piece of clock spring. 2. 5. wide and 16 in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The current. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice E. San Antonio. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. 6. 4. If the ends are to be soldered. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. lamp in series with the coil. Fuller. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Texas. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The first piece. These ends are fastened together. put together complete. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. with cardboard 3 in.

slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. 1. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Fig 1. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. the length of a paper clip. as shown in Fig. Fig. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. but do not heat the center. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. and as this end . Cincinnati. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and holes drilled in them. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. O. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. The quarter will not go all the way down. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. then continue to tighten much more. 3. 2. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned.

and adjusted . square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. has finished a cut for a tooth. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. or apparent security of the knot. When the cutter A. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In the sketch. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

and a nut pick. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . 2. watch fob ready for fastenings. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. lady's belt bag. gentleman's card case or bill book. Second row: -Two book marks. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. note book. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. dividing it into as many parts as desired. --Contributed by Howard S. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. draw center lines across the required space. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 1. (2.) Make on paper the design wanted. long. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. at the same time striking light. if but two parts.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Brooklyn. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case.) Place the paper design on the leather and. about 1-1/2 in. such as brass or marble. above the surface. tea cosey. Fig. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (1.to run true. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). (5. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. N. tea cosey. blotter back. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. trace the outline. --Contributed by Samuel C. coin purse. In this manner gears 3 in. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. book mark. if four parts are to be alike. lady's card case. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. The frame holding the mandrel. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Bunker. or one-half of the design. Fold over along these center lines. Bott. (4. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Y. When connecting to batteries. (3. twisted around itself and soldered. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. An ordinary machine will do. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. (6. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. holding it in place with the left hand.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. swing lathe. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and bore a hole through the center. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Thrust a pin. from Key West. C. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. A. where it condenses. Florida. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube.C. into which fit a small piece of tube. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. B. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. a distance of 900 miles. D.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and push it through a cork. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.

41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. Powell. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. which is tacked to the front edge. long. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. square and 8 ft long. The operator can then land safely and . 12 uprights 1/2 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1. 3. Connect as shown in the illustration. Washington. --Contributed by Edwin L. 1-1/2 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. wide and 4 ft. thick. or flying-machine. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. long. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 1. D. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. To make a glide. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. free from knots. take the glider to the top of a hill. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 16 piano wire. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. long. 2. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. and also to keep it steady in its flight. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 2 in. thick. by 3/4 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. as shown in Fig.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. thick. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. long for the body of the operator. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. wide and 20 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. slacken speed and settle. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 3 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 2. wide and 3 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights.in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. long. lengths and splice them. apart and extend 1 ft. as shown in Fig. several strips 1/2 in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. thick. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. All wiring is done with No. 1. 3/4 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 1-1/4 in. wide and 4 ft long. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. using a high resistance receiver. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. C. lumber cannot be procured. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. long. Four long beams 3/4 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 1/2. use 10-ft. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. both laterally and longitudinally. If 20-ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces.

but this must be found by experience. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind.

This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Bellingham. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. 2. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. When heated a little. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 1. Olson. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. --Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. half man and half horse. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. a creature of Greek mythology. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. M.exercised in making landings. which causes the dip in the line. as shown in Fig. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] .

Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. outside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. long and about 3/8 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. in diameter. a piece of brass or steel wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. long. of small rubber tubing. making it 2-1/2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. about the size of door screen wire. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. square. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The light from the . the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. about the size of stove pipe wire. 14 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. will complete the material list. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. this will cost about 15 cents. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. at the other. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in.

door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. --Photo by M. M. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. as shown in the sketch. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. O. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. This is very simple when you know how. .Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. as shown in Fig. while others will fail time after time. 2. 1. If done properly the card will flyaway. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton.

Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. place the other two. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as described. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. closing both hands quickly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Cool in water and dry. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . then put it on the hatpin head. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. as before. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as shown." or the Chinese students' favorite game. This game is played by five persons. If a certain color is to be more prominent. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. hold the lump over the flame. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. When the desired shape has been obtained. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. distribute electric charges . A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. passing through neutralizing brushes.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.

as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. free from wrinkles. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 2. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The collectors are made. These pins. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. are made from 7/8-in. from about 1/4-in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The fork part is 6 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. The plates are trued up. to which insulating handles . and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 1 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. RR. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. 3. the side pieces being 24 in. long. in diameter. Fig. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. C C. and 4 in. after they are mounted. long and the shank 4 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. and pins inserted and soldered. Two pieces of 1-in. 3. The plates. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. material 7 in. The two pieces. 1. 4. D. wide. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. or teeth. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. turned wood pieces. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. wide at one end. GG. in diameter. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The drive wheels. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. EE. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. brass tubing and the discharging rods. at the other. long. and of a uniform thickness. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. in diameter and 15 in. Two solid glass rods. Fig. long and the standards 3 in. are made from solid. 3/4 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole.

Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the work was done by themselves. Lloyd Enos. Colo. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. one having a 2-in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. KK. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. 12 ft. Colorado City. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. which are bent as shown. --Contributed by C.are attached. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. wide and 22 ft. in diameter. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers.. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. D. long. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .

Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. pens . fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.is a good one. and bore a hole 1/2 in. deep. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. using a 1-in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The key will drop from the string. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. as at A. They can be used to keep pins and needles. yet such a thing can be done. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. string together. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. bit.

about 3/4-in. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. using a nail filed to chisel edge. file. etc. Inside this oblong. inside the first on all. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. also trace the decorative design. 4. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. When the stamping is completed. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Use . 6. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. This is to make a clean. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. The second oblong was 3/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. stamp the background promiscuously. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. extra metal on each of the four sides. 7. inside the second on all. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house.. unless it would be the metal shears. slim screw. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. two spikes. Raise the ends. then the other side.and pencils. very rapid progress can be made. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. 2. Having determined the size of the tray. sharp division between background and design. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Proceed as follows: 1. 3. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. 9. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. They are easily made. 23 gauge. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Draw one-half the design free hand. 8.. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. etc. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 5. above the metal. or cigar ashes. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. and the third one 1/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle.

and the effect will be most pleasing. and fourth fingers. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 6. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 10. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 9. The eyes. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. 7. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. first fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . third fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. second fingers. 8. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. In the first numbering.

the product of 12 times 12. first fingers. above 20 times 20. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right.. and the six lower fingers as six tens. renumber your fingers. Put your thumbs together.. 11. etc. 600. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Let us multiply 12 by 12. or 80. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Still. Two times one are two. but being simple it saves time and trouble. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. there are no fingers above. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or the product of 8 times 9.. etc. or numbers above 10. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 25 times 25. 400. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. as high as you want to go. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. if we wish. thumbs. which would be 70. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. 2 times 2 equals 4. etc. viz. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or 60. which would be 16. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. At a glance you see four tens or 40. In the second numbering. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. . 12. or the product of 6 times 6. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. which tens are added.

at the will of the observer. as one might suppose. thirties. 3. For example. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. and so on. which is the half-way point between the two fives. thumbs. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. first finger 17. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the value of the upper fingers being 20. and. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 75 and 85. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. when he removes his spectacles. For figures ending in 6. etc. the lump sum to add. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. not rotation. Take For example 18 times 18. adding 400 instead of 100. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. or what. in the case of a nearsighted person. 8. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. or from above or from below. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. . lastly. 7. the value which the upper fingers have. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. however. And the lump sum to add. the revolution seems to reverse. It takes place also. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. any two figures between 45 and 55. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. beginning the thumbs with 16. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 21. twenties. whether the one described in second or third numbering. further. Proceed as in the second lumbering. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. about a vertical axis.. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. first fingers 22. being 80). forties. the inversion takes place against his will. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 2. but was compulsory and followed regular rules.

one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. when he knows which direction is right. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. as . It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Looking at it in semidarkness. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. the other appearance asserts itself. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. and putting a cork on the point. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. sometimes the point towards him. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. A flat slide valve was used. The ports were not easy to make. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances.

The steam chest is round. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. . H. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. such as is shown in the illustration. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. across the head. While this engine does not give much power. If nothing better is at hand. Kutscher. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate.. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. as in a vise. The eccentric is constructed of washers. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. saw off a section of a broom handle. apart. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. deep. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. and make in one end a hollow. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. inexpensive. bottom side up. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. pipe. secure a piece of No. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Fasten the block solidly. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Next take a block of wood. -Contributed by W. The tools are simple and can be made easily. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. pipe 10 in. Ill. across and 1/2 in. in diameter.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. about 2 in. Springfield. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. it is easily built. Beating copper tends to harden it and.

heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. S. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. To produce color effects on copper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. especially when the object is near to the observer. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Hay. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. This process is called annealing. as it softens the metal. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. and. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. --Contributed by W. the other to the left. Vinegar. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. C. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Camden. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . O. To overcome this hardness. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish.will cause the metal to break.

In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. It is just as though they were not there. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. however. only the orange rays may pass through. diameter. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. would serve the same purpose. and without any picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and lies to the right on the picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the one for the left eye being blue. not two mounted side by side. although they pass through the screen. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored.stereoscope. The further apart the pictures are. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. disappears fully. they must be a very trifle apart. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. that for the right. But they seem black. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. while both eyes together see a white background. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. with the stereograph. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. because of the rays coming from them. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. . Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. the further from the card will the composite image appear. because. from the stereograph. in the proper choice of colors. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The red portions of the picture are not seen. So with the stereograph. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. In order to make them appear before the card." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. as for instance red and green. orange. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. it.

This should only be bored about half way through the block. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Place a NO. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. in diameter. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. 1/4 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. wide and 1 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. thick. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. or the middle of the bottle.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. wireless. 12 gauge wire. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Cal. San Francisco. etc. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in the shape of a crank. The weight of the air in round . The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.

The tube is now to be filled with mercury. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. long. wide and 40 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. a bottle 1 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.. the instrument. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. or a column of mercury (density 13. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner.numbers is 15 lb. long. . of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. and a slow fall. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. long. But if a standard barometer is not available. if you choose. internal diameter and about 34 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. will calibrate itself. 34 ft. square. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Only redistilled mercury should be used. if accurately constructed. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. high. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. the contrary. square. The 4 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. but before attempting to put in the mercury. thick. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. high. 30 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. pine 3 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. inside diameter and 2 in. high. Before fastening the scale. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. wide and 4 in.6) 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. In general. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.

thick. wide and 10 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 2. and place them as shown in Fig. 3. 5. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. which is slipped quickly over the end. Procure a metal can cover. 1. Mark out seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. long. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. the size of the outside of the bottle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 6 and 7. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Number the pieces 1.

1. L. 1. 6 in. 3. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 12-Jump No. 3 over No.-Contributed by W. shaped like Fig. 7's place. 1 into No. 2. 2's place. 3 into No. 6 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 3. Woolson. Move 2-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2 over No. 6. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Make 22 sections. using checkers for men. which is the very best material for the purpose. 1 to No. each 10 ft. Move 4-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 7-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. 2's place. 7 over No. Move ll-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 3-Move No. 7 over No. 2 over No. Move 9-Jump No. To make such a tent. This can be done on a checker board. as shown in Fig. long and 2 ft. 5's place. Move 6-Move No. 3. 2 . 2. in diameter. Move 5-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 5 over No. 6 to No. 6 into No. 7. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.J. Move 13-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 10-Move No. N. 5.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 15-Move No. 3 to the center. l over No. 6. 5's place. Cape May Point. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 5 over No.

Nail a thin sheet of brass. about 9 in. Emsworth. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. from the top. as in Fig. 3 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. After transferring the design to the brass. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide by 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Fig. Tress. leaving the rest for an opening. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. high. In raising the tent. long and 4 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. As shown in the sketch. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in.. 5) stuck in the ground. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. will do. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Pa. 6. fill with canvas edging. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. --Contributed by G. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 2. in diameter. These are ventilators. 9 by 12 in. wide at the bottom. long. 5. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable.in.J. added. 2 in. diameter. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. to a smooth board of soft wood. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. round galvanized iron. Have the tent pole 3 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Use blocks. made in two sections. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 6-in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Fig. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide at the bottom. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft.

I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When all the holes are punched. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. apart. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. around the outside of the pattern. Corr. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. When the edges are brought together by bending. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. . The pattern is traced as before.the spaces around the outlined figures. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. cut out the brass on the outside lines. It will not. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. bend into shape. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. excepting the 1/4-in. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. but before punching the holes. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand.

A cast-iron ring. If a wheel is selected. G. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. These pipes are . or. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. --Contributed by H. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. partially filled with cream. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. E. --Contributed by Geo. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. pipe is used for the hub. Dunham. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. between which is placed the fruit jar. A 6-in. Mayger. Stevens. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. or less. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Badger. Que.however. Oregon. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. pipe.. allowing 2 ft. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. better still. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.

pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. pipe clamps. An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.

In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and the guide withdrawn. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. while doing this. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . which should be marked by one of the audience for identification.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. 3. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The performer. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. which was placed in an upright position. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and dropped on the table. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. 1.

Louis. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. D. --Contributed by H. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. 1. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Harkins. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. and second. it requires no expensive condensing lens. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Mo. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in diameter on another piece of tin. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. -Contributed by C. St. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. 2. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Denver. The box can be made of selected oak or . F. in a half circle. first. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. White.

and tacked to the inside surface of the door. as shown in Fig. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. focal length. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 3-1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in.mahogany. from each end. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high and 11 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The door covering this hole in the back. 1. represented by the dotted line in Fig. high and must . The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. This will be 3/4 in. long and should be placed vertically. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. fit into the runners. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end of the outside of the box. 5-1/2 in. 2. Two or three holes about 1 in. wide and 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide by 5 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. long. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. AA. but not tight. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. and 2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. If a camera lens is used. long. An open space 4 in.

C. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. 1. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and extending the whole height of the lantern. This process is rather a difficult one. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. provided it is airtight. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. calling that knuckle January. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. April. Ohio. as it requires an airtight case. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. the article may be propped up . calling this February. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen.. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then the second knuckle will be March.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. June and November." etc. and so on. West Toledo. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Bradley. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. --Contributed by Chas. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand.

Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. 1. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. or suspended by a string. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. giving it an occasional stir. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. the lid or cover closed. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. 1 and 2. H. Schenectady. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. taking care to have all the edges closed. --Contributed by J. Crawford. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. In each place two electrodes. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. and set aside for half a day. in. fruit jars are required. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Pour in a little turpentine. Y. N. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. In both Fig. and the lead 24 sq.with small sticks. . Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The top of a table will do. but waxed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig.

You have an understanding with some one in the company. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. After a few seconds' time. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. as you have held it all the time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Cleveland. This trick is very simple. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. you remove the glass. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. he throws the other. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts.. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. as well as others. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. O. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. which you warm with your hands. He.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.

A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. but by being careful at shores. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. if any snags are encountered. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. in diameter in the center.take the handiest one. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. near a partition or curtain. Colo. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Victor. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Pull the ends quickly. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. but in making one.-Contributed by E. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. J. Crocker. put it under the glass. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Be sure that this is the right one. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. on a table. . Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief.

selected pine. as illustrated in the engraving. for the stern piece. by 16 ft. long. at the ends. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . Fig. and. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. for cockpit frame. and fastened with screws. 9 ft. Both ends are mortised. long. 4 outwales. is 14 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. are as follows: 1 keelson. 8 yd. and the other 12 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. from the stern. ducking. 2 gunwales. 1. 1/8 in. Paint. wide and 12 ft. by 16 ft. 8 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. screws and cleats. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. apart. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. The keelson. 3 and 4. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. drilled and fastened with screws.. wide. wide unbleached muslin. one 6 in. 1 in. by 8 in. of 1-1/2-yd. of 1-yd. long. from the bow and the large one. of rope. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 3 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 10 ft. 1 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 2 in. by 2 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. long. 1/4 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 1 piece. from each end to 1 in. square by 16 ft. 1 mast. 14 rib bands. wide and 12 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. clear pine. 50 ft. by 12 in. 3 in.. wide 12-oz. by 15 ft. for the bow. thick and 3/4 in. 2 in. 11 yd. 1 piece. 7 ft. for center deck braces. 1 in.

The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. corner braces. wood screws. The 11-yd. These are put in 6 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. A 6-in. 9. A seam should be made along the center piece. and fastened to them with bolts. long. thick 1-1/2 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wide and 24 in. 6. This block. doubled. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. long is well soaked in water. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. 5. wide. A block of pine. 1 in. Figs. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The deck is not so hard to do. thick. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. The block is fastened to the keelson. . and a seam made joining the two pieces together. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 1 in. thick. 6 and 7. thick and 12 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wide. gunwales and keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The trimming is wood. Braces. is a cube having sides 6 in. thick and 1/2 in. Fig. 6 in. They are 1 in. 7 and 8. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. A piece of oak. from the bow. Fig. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. screws. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. also. wide and 14 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Before making the deck. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. a piece 1/4 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 1/4 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. long. in diameter through the block. apart. is cut to fit under the top boards. 3-1/2 ft. 4 in. long. wide and 3 ft. length of canvas is cut in the center.

long that will fit the holes in the hinge. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. long. The house will accommodate 20 families. is 6 in. The keel. 12. Tronnes. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. wide at one end and 12 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. apart in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. thick by 2 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 11. A strip 1 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. each 1 in. at the other. Ill. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. --Contributed by O. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. in diameter and 10 ft. long. are used for the boom and gaff. The sail is a triangle. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. 10 with a movable handle. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. E. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. wide. Wilmette. . which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Fig.

After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. and 3 ft. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide and 30 in. wide. 4. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Wilmette. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. long and five 1/2-in. 1. with the ends and the other side rounding. 1 yd. Bevel both sides of the pieces. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. flat-headed screws. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. thick. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. long. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. E. thick. long. Tronnes. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. flat headed screws.into two 14-in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. five 1/2-in. Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. and the other 18 in. 2. square. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. wide and 2 ft. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide. 2 in. 2-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Cut the maple. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. thick. about 5/16 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Ill. 5. 3. one 11-1/2 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. --Contributed by O. long. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them.

wide and 6-3/4 in. thick. thick and 3 in. Fig. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. the mechanical parts can be put together. forming an eye for a screw. If carefully and neatly made. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. square. --Contributed by W. as well as the edges around the opening. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 2 and 3. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. then centered. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. soaked with water and blown up. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. D. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. but can be governed by circumstances. long. wide and 2-1/2 in. and the four outside edges. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. B. 3 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. the top and bottom. this square box is well sandpapered. Louis. wide and 2-3/4 in. 5 from 1/16-in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. 1-1/4 in. C. wide and 4-1/2 in. Bliss. wide . A. A. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Make a double stitch all around the edge. leaving a small opening at one corner. After the glue. Figs. 6-1/2 in. 1. wide and 5 in. long. are rounded. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. long. The front. F. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. long. long. pieces 2-5/8 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. 3/8 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Another piece. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Wind three layers of about No. St. 3-1/4 in. is set. square. Glue a three cornered piece. E. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. When the glue is set. wide and 6-1/2 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. about 3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. C. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping.once. Cut another piece of board. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. of each end unwound for connections. thick. About 1/2 in. Mo. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in.

A pointer 12 in. in diameter. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. Chapman. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. from one end. that has the end turned with a shoulder.A. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 4 is not movable. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Place the tin. L. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The base is a board 5 in. 5-1/2 in. The stronger the current. 1/4 in. 5. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. from the spindle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. When the current flows through the coil. bored in the back. and the farther apart they will be forced. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. hole is fastened to the pointer. wide and 9 in. These wires should be about 1 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. so it will just clear the tin. and as the part Fig. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. and fasten in place. The resistance is now adjusted to show . long. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 1/16 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. R. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. board. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. I. C. W.R. G. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. the same size as the first. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. F. showing a greater defection of the pointer. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.S. Fig. 4. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. long. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Like poles repel each other. 4. Fig. Austwick Hall.and 2-5/8 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The end of the polar axis B. Richmond Hill. Yorkshire. Another strip of tin. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. --Contributed by George Heimroth. the part carrying the pointer moves away. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. thick.

A. and vice . If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. M.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. at 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. thus: 9 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. say Venus at the date of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. shows mean siderial. 30 min. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 10 min. 10 min. 1881. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.

get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. or.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. --Contributed by Robert W. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. New Haven.m. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Hall. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. owing to the low internal resistance.f. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. if one of these cannot be had. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Conn. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. .

One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 3/8 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. of alum and 4 oz. leaves or bark. 1-3/4 in. especially for cooking fish. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. as shown in the accompanying picture. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. When the follower is screwed down. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. cover up with the same. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. long. Fig. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wet paper will answer. fresh grass. inside diameter and about 5 in. thick. and heap the glowing coals on top. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. put the fish among the ashes. arsenic to every 20 lb. The boring bar. 1. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Then.

When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. thick. when they were turned in. fastened with a pin. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. about 1/2 in. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. and threaded on both ends. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod.

wide. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. If the valve keeps dripping. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. It . Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. the float is too high. and which gave such satisfactory results. 3. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. This plate also supports the rocker arms. but never one which required so little material. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 2. square iron. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Fig. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. long. A 1-in. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. bent in the shape of a U. then it should be ground to a fit. as the one illustrated herewith. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. 5. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing.valve stems. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. however. labor and time. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. was then finished on an emery wheel. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Clermont. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The rough frame. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. 30 in. 4. Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. thick and 3 in. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Iowa. a jump spark would be much better. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints.

This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. for the "motive power" to grasp. in the ground with 8 ft. The illustration largely explains itself. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . long is the pivot. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. strengthened by a piece 4 in. Use a heavy washer at the head. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. If it is to be used for adults. completes the merry-go-round. so it must be strong enough. rope is not too heavy. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. in diameter and 15 in. timber. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and. --Contributed by C. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in." little and big. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. being held in position by spikes as shown. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. square. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. no matter what your age or size may be. A 3/4 -in. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. As there is no bracing. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. This makes an easy adjustment. strong clear material only should be employed. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. square and 5 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. and a little junk. butting against short stakes. long. The crosspiece is 2 in. The seats are regular swing boards. from the center. extending above. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. hole bored in the post. with no trees or buildings in the way. square and 2 ft. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. 3/4 in. long.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. W. from all over the neighborhood. Nieman. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. A malleable iron bolt. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. set 3 ft. 12 ft. It looks like a toy. long. in fact.

These ends are placed about 14 in. The bow is now bent. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. long. as shown in Fig.2 emery.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. 1/4 by 3/32 in. a wreck. To wind the string upon the reel. and sent to earth. then it is securely fastened. Both have large reels full of . Having placed the backbone in position. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. 4. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. if nothing better is at hand. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. square. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string.the fingers. 1. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The backbone is flat. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. one for the backbone and one for the bow. 2. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. A reel is next made. and 18 in. light and strong. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. away. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.

the balance. First. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. --Contributed' by Harry S. The handle end is held down with a staple. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough.-Contributed by S. Moody. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. N. Y. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. or glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. Newburyport. C. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Mass. often several hundred yards of it. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.string. common packing thread. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Brooklyn. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Bunker.

Cut four pieces of canton flannel. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Hastings. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. make the pad as shown in the illustration. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. lengths (Fig. then a dust protector. cutting the circular piece into quarters. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. length of 2-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. square (Fig. Corinth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. must be attached to a 3-ft. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. each the size of half the table top.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. --Contributed by Earl R. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. then draw the string up tight. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. such as mill men use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Vt. If the table is round. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required.

Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.-Contributed by H.. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 6-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. . Calif. 16-1/4 in.9-1/4 in. trace the design carefully on the leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. and E to G. Wharton. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Oakland. 2-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. 17-1/2 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Use a smooth. Moisten the . not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. G to H. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. E. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. hard pencil. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. which spoils the leather effect. from E to F. from C to D. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp... and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.

with the rounded sides of the tools. Now cut narrow thongs. and E-G. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Trace the openings for the handles. To complete the bag. get something with which to make a lining. and corresponding lines on the other side. H-B. G-J. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. also lines A-G. is taken off at a time. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. if not more than 1 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. wide. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. about 1/8 in. I made this motor . place both together and with a leather punch. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. apart. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag.

The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Shannon. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. D. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Pasadena. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. each being a half circle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. as shown in Fig. 1. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Calif. 24 gauge magnet wire. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones.M. of No. 1. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. iron. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. B. in length. 2-1/4 in. . 2. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. long. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J.

or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The gores for a 6-ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. are the best kind to make. balloon should be about 8 ft. near the center. high.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. pasted in alternately. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and the gores cut from these. from the bottom end.

The boat soon attains considerable speed. somewhat larger in size. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. These are to hold the wick ball. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Fig. saturating it thoroughly. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. coming through the small pipe A. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. leaving a long wake behind. After washing. so it will hang as shown in Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. 5. using about 1/2-in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. --Contributed by R. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. leaving the solution on over night. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 1. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. in diameter. Staunton. 3. In starting the balloon on its flight. as shown in Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. E. 2. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. lap on the edges. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. If the gores have been put together right. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 4. The steam. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface.widest point. A. B. In removing grease from wood. after which the paint will adhere permanently. As the boat is driven forward by this force. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . as shown in Fig.

1. as is shown in Fig. apart on these lines. wide by 6 in. in bowling form. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. There are three ways of doing this: First. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Third. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The blocks are about 6 in. In using either of the two methods described. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . high and 8 in. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. long. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. if you have several copies of the photograph. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long and each provided with a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.

--Contributed by John A. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board.Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. not pointed down at the road at an angle. N. Rinse the plate in cold water. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Hellwig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Albany. thick. Y. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. being careful not to dent the metal. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners.

with a set screw. and. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 1 Fig. thick. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. wide and 8 in. and not produce the right sound. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. --Contributed by R. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A. wide and of any desired height. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. CC. Va. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Richmond. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. With this device. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. S. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Break off the frame. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 6 in. 5 in. through which passes the set screw S. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. In Fig. Corner irons. are screwed to the circular piece. 2 the front view. and Fig. A. long for the base. Paine. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. in diameter. These corner irons are also screwed to. which is 4 in.upon any particular object. A circular piece of wood. is fastened to a common camera tripod. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . If the bottom is not perfectly flat. B.

will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Lake Preston. thus producing sound waves. Kidder. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Ill. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. I made a wheel 26 in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. This horn.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. as only the can is visible. S. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. -1. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. pine boards. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. D. R. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. . This will make a very compact electric horn. La Salle. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

O. Kane. B. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. square. If there is a large collection of coins. --Contributed by James R. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. the same thickness as the coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Purdy. The frame is made of a heavy card.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. thick and 12 in. 2. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. If the collection consists of only a few coins. A. Ghent. Doylestown. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. --Contributed by C. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 1. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Fig.

One Cloud. --Contributed by R. border all around. Wis. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. --Contributed by August T. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Smith. Milwaukee. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. --Contributed by J. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. melted and applied with a brush. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful.E. into which to place the screws . The material required is a sheet of No. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. though not absolutely necessary. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and then glued together as indicated. It will hold 4 oz. Cal. thick. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. A rivet punch is desirable. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.J. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. If desired. plus a 3/8-in. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Noble. several large nails. Neyer. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. a hammer or mallet. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. cut and grooved. Canada. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. of developer. they become uninteresting. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. A lead pencil. Toronto. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.

Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Take the nail. screws placed about 1 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. and file it to a chisel edge. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Remove the screws.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. never upon the metal directly. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. There are several ways of working up the design. both outline and decoration. like the one shown. draw one part. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. using 1/2-in. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in.

Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. two lengths. for the lower rails. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. 3/4 in. Rivet the band to the holder. square and 11 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. of 11-in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. being ball bearing. 2. Provide four lengths for the legs. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. 1. l-1/8 in. in the other. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The pedal. using a 1/2in. each 1 in. long. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 181/2 in. About 1/2 yd. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. long. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed.wall. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. and two lengths. as shown in Fig. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. square. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. 3. for the top. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. . one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in.

--Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Attalla.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. having quite a length of threads. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. New York City. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Ala. --Contributed by W.

The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The desired emblem.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. making a lap of about 1 in. Mich. long. from the end. the end of the other piece is folded over. --Contributed by C. initial. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Two pieces of felt. long. from one end. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. one about 1 in. in depth. stitched on both edges for appearance. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Ironwood. and 3/8 in. something that is carbonated. and the other 2-3/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. using class. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. D. Luther. Assemble as shown in the sketch.. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and two holes in the other. long. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Purchase a 1/2-in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. each 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors.

Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. in the cover and the bottom. 2. in diameter and 2 in. and the cork will be driven out. about 2 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. This method allows a wide range of designs. from the center and opposite each other. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Schatz. if desired by the operator. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. --Contributed by John H. Fig. Punch two holes A. 1/4 in. or a pasteboard box. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or more in height. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Indianapolis. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Ind. as shown at B. as shown in the sketch. 1. A piece of lead.

. 4. metal. Columbus. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. putting in the design. as shown in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. When the can is rolled away from you. 5. Fig. or marble will serve. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick.Rolling Can Toy lead. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. are turned up as in Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. it winds up the rubber band. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 3. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. The pieces of tin between the holes A. A piece of thick glass. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. O. and the ends of the bands looped over them. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 1. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing.

from each end. New York City. face up. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Next place the leather on the glass. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The edges should be about 1/8 in. deep in its face. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. wide and 20 in. 1 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. thick. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. thicker than the pinion. hole through it. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. After this has been done. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes .Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and. I secured a board 3/4 in. mark over the design. A pencil may be used the first time over. or more thick on each side. long and bored a 1/2-in. 3 in.

1 by 12 by 77 in. 1. 1 piece. 2 end rails. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. thick top board. 1 top board. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Make the lower frame first. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Rice. 4 guides. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. --Contributed by A. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig.in the board into the bench top. 1 screw block. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 back board. Y. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. and fit it in place for the side vise. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Syracuse. 3 by 3 by 20 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Fig. 2 by 12 by 77 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 piece for clamp. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. M. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. pieces for the vise slides. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Brooklyn. lag screws as shown. Cut the 2-in. in diameter. 3 by 3 by 36. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2 crosspieces. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2 side rails. 2. New York. N. 1 top board.

24 in. 1 nail set. rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 marking gauge. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. . 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 compass saw. 1 2-ft.. The amateur workman. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 set gimlets. The bench is now complete. 1 set chisels. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. as well as the pattern maker. They can be purchased at a hardware store. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 cross cut saw. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pair dividers. 1 claw hammer. 1 wood scraper. 1 countersink. 2 screwdrivers.. in diameter. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 24 in. 1 pair pliers. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 3 and 6 in. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 pocket level. 1 rip saw.screws.

1. but will not make . 1. Fig. 1 oilstone. try square. 3. becomes like A. will sink into the handle as shown at D. the projecting point A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 1. Fig. Doylestown. will be easier to work. Kane. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. The calf skin. Pa.1 6-in. 2. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. being softer. No. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. after constant use.

Having prepared the two sides. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. First draw the design on paper. cover it completely with water enamel and. New York City. -Contributed by Julia A. will do just as well. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Turn the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. If calf skin is to be used. .as rigid a case as the cow skin. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. After the outlines are traced. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. White. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. and the length 6-5/8 in. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Two pieces will be required of this size. then prepare the leather. which steam. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. lay the design on the face. If cow hide is preferred. such as copper or brass. water or heat will not affect. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. the same method of treatment is used. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. The form can be made of a stick of wood. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. when dry.

and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cobb. as shown in the sketch. Portland. Cal. --Contributed by Chester L. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Maine. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Herrman. . This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. C.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Jaquythe. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by W. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. A. New York City. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth.

Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. was marked out as shown. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Geo. Middletown. Wright. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Mass. Cambridge. . To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Conn. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A thick piece of tin. This was very difficult. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. B. --Contributed by Wm. Roberts.

L. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Ind. so some bones were quickly calcined. which has been tried out several times with success. pulverized and applied. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. When dry. but not running over. --Contributed by Paul Keller. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by C. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. There was no quicklime to be had. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Illinois. Indianapolis. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Bone. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. F. A beautifully bound book. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. If the article is highly polished. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. and quite new. If any traces of the grease are left. of boiling water. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. well calcined and powdered. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The next morning there was no trace of oil. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Herbert. face down.. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. on a clear piece of glass. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. and the grease will disappear. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. used as part of furniture. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. . such as chair seats. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. as shown. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Chicago. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water.

Tarrytown. A. Howe. 6 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. New York. 2 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. If properly adjusted. the pieces . thick. deep and 5 in. The pieces marked S are single. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. long. --Contributed by Geo.. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. set and thumbscrews. says Scientific American.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. high and are bolted to a block of wood.

which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The seat is a board. to the underside of which is a block. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. A sharp knife. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. for sending to friends. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. If the letters are all cut the same height. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Their size depends on the plate used. albums and the like.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . says Camera Craft. E. no doubt. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. they will look remarkably uniform.

A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. pasting the prints on some thin card. So arranged. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. photographing them down to the desired size. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. for example. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. using care to get it in the right position. In cutting out an 0. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. So made. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. The puzzle is to get . mount them on short pieces of corks. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. after. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible.

then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. says the American Thresherman. G. so they will lie horizontal. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. snow or anything to hide it. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Cape May Point. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. with the longest end outside. N. squeezes along past the center of the tube. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. long that will just fit are set in. A hole 6 or 7 in. He smells the bait. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Old-Time Magic . Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. of its top. Bayley. hung on pivots.J.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.-Contributed by I.

faced up. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. E. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Y. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Rhode Island. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Brooklyn. Pocatello. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. --Contributed by L. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Press the hands together. Pawtucket. or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by Charles Graham. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. then spread the string. Idaho. N. Parker. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. then expose again. Szerlip.

Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. narrower. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. When the whole is quite dry. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. thick. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. they will look very much like the genuine article. if any. 4 on the blade. full size. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. and if carefully made. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. or green oil paint. The pieces. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The blade should be about 27 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.. in width. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 2 Fig. wide and 2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. end of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. long. wipe the blade . The handle is next made. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. dark red.. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. says the English Mechanic. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 1 Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Glue the other side of the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. using a straightedge and a pencil. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. whether he requires a single sword only. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. or a complete suit of armor. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. near the point end. 1. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. 3 Fig. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain.

follow the directions as for Fig. about 1-1/2 in. 1. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. This sword is about 68 in. 3. thick and 5 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. square and of any length desired. the other is flat or halfround. the other two are identical.. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 2. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 1/8 in. 2. long. 1. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. Fig. and 3 in. should be about 9 in. In making this scimitar. 3. Both edges of the blade are sharp. take two pieces of wood. preferably of contrasting colors. in diameter. In making. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. of course. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece.. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. as it is . the other is flat or half-round.with light strokes up and down several times. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In the finished piece. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. shows only two sides. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. 4. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. the length of the blade 28 in. The length of the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the illustration. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. in the widest part at the lower end. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine.

took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. piping and jackets by hard water. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. and if so. N. A piece of mild steel. Franklin. On each edge of the board. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. at the lower end. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. It is made of a plank. as can the pitch bed or block. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. square. however. about 3/8 in. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. or an insecure fastening. Mass. long. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Both can be made easily. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Syracuse. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. 2 in. in an attempt to remove it. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Doctors probed for the button without success. and. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as there was some at hand. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Katharine D. each about 1 ft. Y. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . --Contributed by John Blake. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Morse. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The thinness of the plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Fasten this to the plank with bolts.

5 lb. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. When this has been done. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 18 gauge. Trim up the edges and file them . plaster of Paris. tallow.. To remedy this. a file to reduce the ends to shape. design down. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. secure a piece of brass of about No. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. on the pitch. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous.. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 5 lb. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. To put it in another way. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. When the desired form has been obtained. using a small metal saw. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.

or fraction of a horsepower. per minute. and hang a bird swing. in diameter (Fig. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. --Contributed by Harold H. one 18 in. lb. A. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in one second. 1 ft.000 lb. 1 ft. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. living together in what seems like one receptacle. in the center.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. or 550 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. The smaller is placed within the larger. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 30 ft. This in turn divided by 33. using powdered pumice with lye. per second. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Before giving the description. Clean the metal thoroughly. Fig. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. That is lifting 33. space between the vessels with water. and still revolve. to keep it from floating. lb. . Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Cutter. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. in diameter (Fig. 3. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. it may be well to know what horsepower means. make an unusual show window attraction. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. 1) and the other 12 in. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. but not to stop it.smooth. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. 2). Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. over the smaller vessel. Fill the 3-in.

N. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Somerville. Diameter Fig. 1 Fig.18 in. Szerlip. Mass. Campbell. --Contributed.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. or on a pedestal. F. --Contributed by J. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. by L.3 Fig. Brooklyn. Y. Diameter 12 in. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 2 Fig. The effect is surprising. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.

shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This compound is impervious to water. the same as removing writing from a slate. keeping the center high. is. with other defects. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. unsatisfactory. and then. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. using any of the common metal polishes. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Polish both of these pieces. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Rivet the cup to the base. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. often render it useless after a few months service. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. In riveting. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. with the pliers. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray.copper of No. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. away from the edge. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and cut out the shape with the shears. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. as a rule. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. after which it is ready for use. which. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and the clay . which may be of wood or tin.

The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. long. A. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. It is made of a glass tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. . The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. -Contributed by Thos. DeLoof. Shettleston. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Dunlop. in diameter and 5 in. --Contributed by A. the device will work for an indefinite time. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. 3/4 in. Grand Rapids. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Mich. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Houghton. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Mich. 1. Northville. Scotland. 2.

The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. long. put up as ornaments. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. This sword is 4 ft. in width and 2 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. As the handle is to .1 FIG. 1. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. stilettos and battle-axes. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. London. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.

The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. In Fig. narrower. with both edges of the blade sharp. This sword is about 4 ft. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. In Fig.represent copper. 8. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. A German poniard is shown in Fig. firmly glued on. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. in length. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 5. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. small rope and round-headed nails. Three large. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. When dry. Cut two strips of tinfoil. sometimes called cuirass breakers. the upper part iron or steel. 6. with wire or string' bound handle. 7. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. long with a dark handle of wood. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. very broad. 9. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. one about 1/2 in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 20 spike. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. long. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The ball is made as described in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 11 were used. 3 is shown a claymore. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. paint it a dark brown or black. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The sword shown in Fig. string. sharp edges on both sides. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. glue and put it in place. 4. the axe is of steel. in length. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. in width. This weapon is about 1 ft. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A German stiletto. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. which is about 2-1/2 ft. In Fig. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. the same as used on the end of the handle. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. studded with brass or steel nails. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. This axe is made similar to the one . The crossbar and blade are steel. with both edges sharp. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Both handle and axe are of steel. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. wood with a keyhole saw. then glued on the blade as shown. This stiletto has a wood handle. When the whole is quite dry. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife.

and as the tension members are all protected from wear. the ends are tied and cut off. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. Davis. --Contributed by E. high. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. This will make a very good flexible belt. such as braided fishline.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 10. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Chicago. . so the contents cannot be seen.described in Fig. W. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When wrapped all the way around. Old-Time Magic . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. together as shown in Fig. 2. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.

with the circle centrally located. 2. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. or using small wedges of wood. four glass tumblers. Macdonald. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. These wires are put in the jar. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Before the performance. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. There will be no change in color. in a few seconds' time. filled with water. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. S. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth.J. 1 and put together as in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. apparently. The dotted lines in Fig. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Oakland. To make the flowers grow in an instant. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. --Contributed by A. held in the right hand. Bridgeton. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. some of the liquid. an acid. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Calif. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. N. causing the flowers to grow. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. about one-third the way down from the top.

This outlines the desired opening. A. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. 2 for height. practical and costs nothing. If the size wanted is No. which are numbered for convenience in working. and equally worthy of individual treatment. and kept ready for use at any time. unless some special device is used. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Richmond. 4 for width and No. When many slides are to be masked. --Contributed by W. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Cal. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Jaquythe. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. not only because of the fact just mentioned.

In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. not the water into the acid. paint the design. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . or a pair of old tongs. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. using the carbon paper. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. With a stick. may be changed. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. but they can be easily revived. about half and half. or.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and do not inhale the fumes. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The one shown is merely suggestive. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. possibly. This done. the paper is folded along the center line. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. 16 gauge. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. a little less acid than water. Draw a design. When etched to the desired depth. The decoration. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. which is dangerous. Secure a sheet of No. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. too. is about right for the No. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. and the extreme length 7 in. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame.

2. as at H. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. or more wide. long and 1 ft. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 0 indicates the batteries. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Fig. 5. with the wires underneath. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. long. wide. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 24 parts water. Cut out a piece of tin. thick. about 2-1/2 in. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. about 8 in. 4. Nail a board. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. J is another wire attached in the same way. to the table. 1. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. so that when it is pressed down. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. attached to a post at each end. and bore two holes. Fig. through it. . 3. as shown in Fig. 2. Then get two posts. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 5. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. A. When the button S is pressed. high. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. in diameter and 1/4 in. about 3 ft. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 3/8 in. the bell will ring. Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. and about 2-1/2 ft. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. it will touch post F. 2. wide and of the same length as the table. about 1 in. Fig. C and D. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Paint the table any color desired. as shown in the illustration. The connections are simple: I. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. as in Fig.plunge it into the acid bath quickly.

Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. This weapon is about 22 in. 1. The circle is marked out with a compass. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. long serves as the dowel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. says the English Mechanic. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. such as . but they are somewhat difficult to make. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. After the glue is dry. These rings can be carved out.Imitation Arms and Armor . The entire weapon.. The imitation articles are made of wood. thick. 2. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. handle and all. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. is to appear as steel. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A wood peg about 2 in.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. long.

A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. leaves. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of steel imitation. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The spikes are cut out of wood. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The entire handle should be made of one piece. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The lower half of the handle is wood. 8. Its length is about 3 ft. flowers. The handle is of wood. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. . as shown.ornamental scrolls. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the hammer and spike. 6. long. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. as before mentioned. also. covered with red velvet. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. etc. 3. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The axe is shown in steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 5. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. is shown in Fig. The upper half of the handle is steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. studded with large brass or steel nails. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. If such a tool is not at hand. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. or the amateur cannot use it well. with a sharp carving tool. All of these axes are about the same length. as described in Fig.

A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Chicago. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. and so on for nine innings. 4). 7) calls for one out. The knife falling on its side (Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. . 1. 2.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 3. a three-base hit. as shown in Fig. Fig. 5. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 6. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. the knife resting on its back. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. calls for a home run. then the other plays.

When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. as shown in Fig. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. hypo to 1 pt. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. one of them burning . 2.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. of the rope and holds it. Somerville. Campbell. This he does. F. If it is spotted at all. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Mass. Old-Time Magic . of water for an hour or two. It may be found that the negative is not colored. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. 1. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 3. with the rope laced in the cloth. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.-Contributed by J. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.

showing that there is nothing between them. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of plumbago. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Lebanon. invisible to them (the audience). of sugar. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. . thick. 3/4 in. the other without a light. with which he is going to light the other candle. Thome. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. --Contributed by L. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions.. 4 oz. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. He then walks over to the other candle. of turpentine. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. shades the light for a few seconds. 4 oz. Drill Gauge screw. of water and 1 oz. bolt. Evans. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. thus causing it to light. and. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. New York City. --Contributed by C. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Brown. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. B. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. etc.Contributed by Andrew G. Ky. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. The magician walks over to the burning candle.brightly. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Ky. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Louisville.

Y. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. about 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. long. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Pulteney. which will give a strong. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. 5 in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. thick. into a tube of several thicknesses. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. diameter. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Denniston. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Do not add water to the acid. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. for the material. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. N. steady current. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. --Contributed by C.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. or blotting paper. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Its current strength is about one volt. In making up the solution. To make the porous cell. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. but is not so good. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. H. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes.

The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. steel.station. the other holding them apart. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. while the other end is attached by two screws.) may be obtained. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. Finally. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. steel. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. As to thickness. To insure this. a positive adjustment was provided. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. carrying the hour circle at one end. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. long with a bearing at each end. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. one drawing them together. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. One hole was bored as well as possible. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The . but somewhat lighter. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.

since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. apart. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. All these adjustments. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. It is. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Instead. turn the pointer to the star. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The aperture should be 1/4 in. If the result is more than 24 hours.. and 15 min. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction.. and if it is not again directed to the same point. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. need not be changed.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The pole is 1 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Cassiopiae. Declination is read directly. To find a star in the heavens. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. excepting those on the declination axis." When this is done. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. To locate a known star on the map. are tightened. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. All set screws. subtract 24. once carefully made. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. 45 min. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. save the one in the pipe." Only a rough setting is necessary. is provided with this adjustment. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Set the declination circle to its reading. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Each shaft. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Point it approximately to the north star. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit.

Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. The ball is found to be the genuine article. -Contributed by Ray E. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Ohio. The dance will begin. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. add a little more benzole. Plain City. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Strosnider. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of ether.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. a great effect will be produced. long. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. the others . of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. benzole. taking care not to add too much. then add 1 2-3 dr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. 3 or 4 in. In reality the first ball. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. which is the one examined. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. New Orleans. If this will be too transparent. La. is folded several times. of gum sandarac and 4 gr.. cannon balls. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. is the real cannon ball. as shown in the sketch. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian.

--Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 2. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Campbell. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. In boxes having a sliding cover. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Wis. --Contributed by J. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. taps. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Fig. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . without taking up any great amount of space.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Somerville. Return the card to the pack. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. F. 1). Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. etc. small brooches. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. San Francisco. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. as shown in the illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Milwaukee. Cal.

prints. from the bottom of the box. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. round pieces 2-1/4 in. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Hartford. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Connecticut. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. thus giving ample store room for colors. . the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Beller. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration.

costing 5 cents. -Contributed by C. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. 1).A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. . will answer the purpose.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. West Lynn. holes in the bottom of one. or placed against a wall. about threefourths full. FIG. Fill the upper tub. Mass. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. with well packed horse manure. When the ends are turned under. 2). Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Darke. tacking the gauze well at the corners. O. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.

from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. if this is not available. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. they should be knocked out. oil or other fluid. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. If the following directions are carried out. and each bundle contains . The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. --Contributed by L. Chicago. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If plugs are found in any of the holes. when they are raised from the pan. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. cutting the cane between the holes. M. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. Eifel.

then across and down. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In addition to the cane. put about 3 or 4 in. as it must be removed again.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. after having been pulled tight. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. 1. as shown in Fig. and. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. it should be held by a plug. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. a square pointed wedge. No plugs . and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. held there by inserting another plug.

stretch the third one. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. If you have a table of natural functions. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. --Contributed by M.5 in. 3. or the style. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB.3 in. After completing the second layer. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. W. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. trim off the surplus rosin. 1.42 in. Even with this lubrication. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . D. 5. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 1 lat. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. From table No. the next smallest. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand.= 4. as shown in Fig. and for 1° it would be . as the height of the line BC for lat. There are several different designs of sundials. is the horizontal dial. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. in this case) times the . After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 40°. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. When cool. R. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Their difference is . lat. 5 in. This will make three layers. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Michigan. All added to the lesser or 40°.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. as it always equals the latitude of the place. called the gnomon. Fig. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 41°-30'. 42° is 4. but the most common. 41 °-30'. it is 4. 1. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. is the base (5 in.2+. -Contributed by E. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. No weaving has been done up to this time. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the height of the line BC.075 in.15 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. If handled with a little care. During the weaving. 3. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as shown in Fig. and the one we shall describe in this article. and for lat. Patrick.2 in. for 2°. as for example. The style or gnomon. using the same holes as for the first layer. 4. Detroit. It consists of a flat circular table. Fig. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.075 in. 1. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used.15+. we have 4. the height of which is taken from table No. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented.

57 3.85 1.96 32° 3.55 46° 5.02 1.28 .18 28° 2. long. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.38 .63 56° 7.10 6.44 44° 4.56 .93 2. Fig.93 6.23 6. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 1.33 42° 4.42 . Chords in inches for a 10 in.32 6. an inch or two. Its thickness.30 1.82 2.91 58° 8.59 2.82 3.33 .57 1.06 2. Draw two semi-circles.94 1.37 5.79 4.37 54° 6.39 .30 2. For latitudes not given. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Draw the line AD.46 . which will represent the base in length and thickness. gives the 6 o'clock points. 2 for given latitudes.49 30 .42 1.83 27° 2.14 5. circle Sundial.07 4.55 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. and for this size dial (10 in.29 4-30 7-30 3.55 30° 2.64 4 8 3.85 35 . or if of stone. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. 1. using the points A and C as centers. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.19 1.40 34° 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.41 38° 3.tangent of the degree of latitude. with a radius of 5 in. and intersecting the semicircles. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.81 4. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.16 40 .99 2.12 52° 6. To layout the hour circle. and perpendicular to the base or style.77 2.49 3.16 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.87 1. Table NO. if of metal.40 1. according to the size of the dial.87 4.46 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.50 26° 2.97 5 7 4.27 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.88 36° 3. or more.76 1.89 50° 5.55 4. base.66 latitude.26 4. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.00 40° 4. 2.03 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .66 48° 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. .11 3.42 45 .20 60° 8.82 5. 2.

and the .72 5. Iowa. Sept. 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.08 1. each article can be labelled with the name. April 16. London.50 . An ordinary compass. This correction can be added to the values in table No. 2 and Dec.52 Table No. it will be faster.79 6.68 3. and for the difference between standard and local time. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. says the English Mechanic. The + means that the clock is faster.21 2.71 2.93 6. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.from Sundial lime. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. then the watch is slower. E. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. adding to each piece interest and value. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.89 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.10 4.60 4.82 3.46 5.63 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.means that the dial is faster than the sun. will enable one to set the dial. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.57 1. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.12 5. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.34 5. Mitchell.53 1. Each weapon is cut from wood.24 5. 900 Chicago.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 3.06 2. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. if west. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Sun time to local mean time. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.49 3..87 6.49 5.50 55 .01 1. 25. Sioux City. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.19 2. As they are the genuine reproductions.37 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.30 2.46 4. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.54 60 . --Contributed by J. June 15.14 1. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.98 4. after allowing for the declination.77 3.

Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Partisan. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. . The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 3. When putting on the tinfoil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.

These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel.. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. 5. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. is shown in Fig. long with a round wooden handle. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. It is about 6 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. 8. long. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round staff or handle. used about the seventeenth century. press it well into the carved depressions. long. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. This weapon is about 6 ft. 6 ft. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil.which is square. about 4 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. in diameter. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. the holes being about 1/4 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The edges are sharp. sharp on the outer edges. 7. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The spear is steel. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. A gisarm or glaive. . long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. which are a part of the axe. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood.

are put in place. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Cut all the cords the same length. Ohio. are less durable and will quickly show wear. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. H. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 5. the cross cords. 2 and 3. as shown in Fig. Loudonville. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. In Figs. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. the most durable being bamboo. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. This is important to secure neatness. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. used for spacing and binding the whole together. 4. Substances such as straw. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. or in holes punched in a leather strap. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. B. The twisted cross cords should . Workman. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. They can be made of various materials. 1. apart. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance.

in which was placed a piece of glass. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Harrer. wide. This was turned over the top of the other can. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping.be of such material. shaped as shown at C. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. La. bamboo or rolled paper. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. of the bottom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lockport. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. as shown at B. for a length extending from a point 2 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. To remedy this. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. -Contributed by Geo. below the top to within 1/4 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. M. New York. The first design shown is for using bamboo. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. 3 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. A slit was cut in the bottom. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. New Orleans. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material.

plank as long as the diameter of the platform. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. wide. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Newburgh. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. do not throw away the gloves. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there .tape from sticking to the carpet. Ill. After this is finished. Schaffner. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Sanford. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. This plank. Y. H. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Shay. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. --Contributed by Joseph H. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This should be done gradually. --Contributed by Chas. Pasadena. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by W. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. the brass is loosened from the block. turned over but not fastened. giving the appearance of hammered brass. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cal. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. and two along the side for attaching the staff. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Maywood. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. N. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall.

by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. --E. -Contributed by W. Unlike most clocks. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Marshall. Ill. K. Cal. Richmond. A. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. bent as shown. Oak Park. in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. the pendulum swings .

6 in. Two uprights.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Fasten another board. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. A. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. in diameter. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. wide that is perfectly flat. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. such as this one. bearing on the latter. wide. In using this method. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. says the Scientific American. on the board B. .. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Metzech. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. high. C. Now place the board to be joined. away. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. The construction is very simple. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. high and 1/4 in. bar. 3/4 in. high. about 12 in. by 1-5/16 in. thick. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. 5/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. only have the opposite side up. long and at each side of this. about 6 in. B. high. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Chicago. is an electromagnet. Secure a board. are secured in the base bar. to the first one with screws or glue. --Contributed by V. 7-1/2 in.

Vanderslice. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. wide and 5 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. from one end. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The trigger. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 4. 1. wide and 1 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. by driving a pin through the wood. square. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 2. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Phoenixville.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square inside. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. Fig. Pa. long. as shown at A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. or more. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. . 3.

Ohio.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. square. one-half the length of the side pieces.A. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 2 parts of whiting. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. if only two bands are put in the . which allows 1/4 in. -Contributed by J. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Simonis. Fostoria. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. by weight. 5 parts of black filler. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.

and the picture can be drawn as described. --Contributed by Thos. No. Grand Rapids. as shown in Fig. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Mass. A mirror. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. is necessary. II. keeps the strong light out when sketching. If a plain glass is used. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 1. deep. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. in the opposite end of the box. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. G. A double convex lens. -Contributed by Abner B. DeLoof. preferably copper. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. It must be kept moist and well . If the wire fits the lamp loosely. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Shaw. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. In constructing helmets. Michigan. place tracing paper on its surface. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. 8 in. In use. Dartmouth. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal.lower strings. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is set at an angle of 45 deg. London. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A piece of metal. wide and about 1 ft. long. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. which may be either of ground or plain glass. says the English Mechanic. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box.

up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. or some thin glue. and the deft use of the fingers. on which to place the clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and over the crest on top. and left over night to soak. and continue until the clay is completely covered. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. shown in Fig. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. as shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. After the clay model is finished. 3. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. All being ready. Scraps of thin. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. will be necessary. with a keyhole saw. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The clay. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. This being done. take. the clay model oiled. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. joined closely together. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 2. a few clay-modeling tools. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. 1. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. brown. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling.kneaded. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. 1. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. as in bas-relief.

make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The center of the ear guards are perforated. Indiana. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. square in shape. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. When dry. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. which should be no difficult matter. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. will make it look neat. They are all covered with tinfoil. a crest on top. and the ear guards in two pieces. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. In Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The band is decorated with brass studs. should be modeled and made in one piece. or. Indianapolis. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. When perfectly dry. When the helmet is off the model. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The whole helmet. 9. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. the skullcap. In Fig. with the exception of the vizor. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. the piecing could not be detected. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. one for each side. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. a few lines running down. 7. This contrivance should be made of wood. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 5. as shown: in the design. then another coating of glue. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 1. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Before taking it off the model.as possible. and so on. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely.

2. two ordinary binding posts. The plate. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. and two large 3in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. FF. 1 in. Fig. 1. thick sheet asbestos. are allowed to project about 1 in. of the top. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. if this cannot be obtained. of No. each 4-1/2 in. AA. 1. 12 in. one glass tube. 4. 4. wide and 15 in. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. if the measurements are correct. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. A round collar of galvanized iron. E and F. above the collar. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The two holes. Fig. 2. is then packed down inside the collar. If asbestos is used. 4. about 1/4 in. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. about 80 ft. long. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The reverse side of the base. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 4. Fig. long. Fig. 1. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. as shown in Fig. 3 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. the fuse block. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. one small switch. the holes leading to the switch. and C. AA. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 2. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. AA. of mineral wool. or. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4 lb. should extend about 1/4 in. 1.same size. when they are placed in opposite positions. high. with slits cut for the wires. and. to receive screws for holding it to the base. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. which can be bought from a local druggist. The mineral wool. Fig. Fig. German-silver wire is better. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. This will make an open space between the plates. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. about 1 lb. thick. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. screws. Fig. until it is within 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. is shown in Fig. one oblong piece of wood. long. one fuse block. GG. 3. as shown in Fig. JJ. as it stands a higher temperature. for connections. This will allow the plate. of fire clay. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. as shown in Fig. 1. 4. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 1.

A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. H. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cut a 1/2-in. then. As these connections cannot be soldered. Cnonyn. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The clay. KK. apart. If this is the case. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Catherines. it leaves a gate for the metal. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. 2. This point marks the proper length to cut it. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. While the clay is damp. using care not to get it too wet. Cover over about 1 in. It should not be set on end. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. as the turns of the wires. Fig. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Can. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. and pressed into it. steam will form when the current is applied. above the rim. Fig. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. when heated. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Richmond. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. 4. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. deep. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. so that the circuit will not become broken. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. allowing a space between each turn. A. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. when cool. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. This completes the stove. --Contributed by R. Cal. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. If it is not thoroughly dry. will slip and come in contact with each other. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Next. causing a short circuit. Jaquythe. more wire should be added. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. When this is done. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A file can be used to remove any rough places.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. When the tile is in place. --Contributed by W. St. It should not be left heated in this condition. II.

If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Ky. the air can enter from both top and bottom." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. --Contributed by Andrew G. constructed of 3/4-in. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. says the Photographic Times. is large enough. Thorne. as shown. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. and the prints will dry rapidly. square material in any size. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. but 12 by 24 in. Louisville. Then clip a little off the . Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. and the frame set near a window. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the pie will be damaged.

long. long. long. wide. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Two supports. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The connecting rod E. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. long. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The connections are made as shown in Fig. wide and 7 in. slip on two cardboard washers. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. in diameter and about 4 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. in diameter. 3. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Figs. high. open out. 14 in. 1. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. allowing each end to project for connections. An offset is bent in the center. thick and 3 in. at GG. each 1 in. Fig. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The driving arm D. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 1. W. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 1/2 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 2-1/2 in. Iowa. 1. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thereby saving time and washing. 2. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 22 gauge magnet wire. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. each 1/2 in. high. Fig. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. thick and 3 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. for the crank. 1 and 3. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. which gives the shaft a half turn. thick. Herron. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. which are fastened to the base. A 1/8-in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The board can be raised to place . wide and 3 in. as shown. causing a break in the current. The upright B.Paper Funnel point. -Contributed by S. As the shaft revolves. 4 in. Le Mars. Fig. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. high. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 1/2 in.

wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. in height. One or more pots may be used. Dorchester. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Mass. . The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Stecher. 3 in. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. making a framework suitable for a roost. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. as shown in the sketch. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. --Contributed by William F. In designing the roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. on a board. bottom side up. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Place the pot.

will produce the pattern desired. 1. that it is heated. if it is other than straight lines. as shown in Fig. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. F. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. in diameter. odd corners. paraffin and paint or varnish. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. shelves.. The bottom part of the sketch. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. preferably. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Wind the . How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. without any corresponding benefit. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. 1. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Fig. ordinary glue. F. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. etc. when combined. and give it time to dry. The materials required are rope or. grills and gratings for doors. adopt the method described.. windows. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.

A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . -Contributed by Geo. Fig. Lockport. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.Fig. Harrer. M. N. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. 2. Y.

The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. 1. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. As the . London. which was used in front of a horse's head. says the English Mechanic. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig... Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. will be retained by the cotton. chips of iron rust. etc.. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. This piece of horse armor. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. when it will be observed that any organic matter. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. but no farther. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

All being ready. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This being done. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. as the surface will hold the clay. the same as in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. 2. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This will make the model light and easy to move around. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. and the clay model oiled. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. except the thumb and fingers. but the back is not necessary. 8. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the rougher the better. with the exception of the thumb shield. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which can be made in any size. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. In Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. but for . The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. This can be made in one piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. which is separate. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 6 and 7. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. then another coat of glue.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and therefore it is not described. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This triangularshaped support. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. and will require less clay. as shown in the sketch. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The armor is now removed from the model. 2. 4. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper.

cut into the shape shown in Fig. Y. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. in depth. and the instrument is ready for use. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. --Contributed by John G. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. will be about right. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Goshen. the foils will not move. 1/2 in. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. N. running down the plate. La Rue. 9. Buxton. are glued to it.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. When locating the place for the screw eyes. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. 2. two in each jaw. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. but 3-1/2 in. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. each about 1/4 in. are better shown in Fig. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The two pieces of foil. --Contributed by Ralph L. A piece of board. wide and 1/2 in. . If it does not hold a charge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Calif. Redondo Beach. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. two for the jaws and one a wedge. fastened to the rod. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. the top of the rod. long.

Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. The can may be bronzed. Bryan. is made of a 1/4-in. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as indicated in the . long. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. from the smaller end. silvered. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. A. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as shown in the illustration. Texas. Corsicana. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. about 15 in. hole bored through it. pine board. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. At a point 6 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. When a fish is hooked. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. --Contributed by Mrs. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. 2-1/2 in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. M. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die.

Next prepare the metal holder. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. A good size is 5 in. long over all. such as basswood or pine was used. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. using a piece of carbon paper. take a piece of thin wood. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. 3/8 or 1/4 in. put a coat or two of wax and polish . or even pine. Polish the metal. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. wide by 6 in. punch the holes. Basswood or butternut. Having completed the drawing. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red.Match Holder accompanying sketch. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Any kind of wood will do. 22 is plenty heavy enough. and trace upon it the design and outline. thick. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. then with a nail. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. When it has dried over night. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. using powdered pumice and lye. as shown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If soft wood.

can be made on the same standards. long. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. are used for the cores of the magnets. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. of pure olive oil. 1/2 in. thick. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. . If carving is contemplated. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. wide and 5 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. If one has some insight in carving. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. It is useful for photographers. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Richmond. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. each 1 in. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Instead of the usual two short ropes. is used for the base of this instrument. the whole being finished in linseed oil. A. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Jaquythe. long. 2 in. --Contributed by W. Cal. Two wire nails.

Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. about No. A rubber band. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. cut in the shape of the letter T. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. similar to that used in electric bells. as shown in Fig. as shown by the dotted lines. when the key is pushed down. in the shape shown in the sketch. London. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. About 1 in. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. at A. except that for the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. 1. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. H. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. All of the parts for the armor have been described. --Contributed by W. then covered with red. 3. Lynas. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. says the English Mechanic. leaving about 1/4 in. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. 25 gauge. A piece of tin. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. the paper covering put on.

in the other end. So set up. 3 in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. drill six 1/4-in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. or ordinary plaster laths will do. A 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Take the piece shown in Fig.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Secure two strips of wood. completes the equipment. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. long. hole in the center. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. about 1 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. 1 and drill a 1/4in. for the sake of lightness. Fig. Instead of using brass headed nails. make the same series of eight small holes and. In one end of the piece. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. By moving the position of the bolt from. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. not too tight. can be made in a few minutes' time. apart. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. 1 in. and eight small holes. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. at each end. These can be purchased at a stationery store. flat headed carriage bolt. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. The two pieces are bolted together. 2. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. one to another . Silver paper will do very well. says Camera Craft. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. holes. apart. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Cut them to a length or 40 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts..

In this sketch. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 2. 4. A round fob is made in a similar way. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 2. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. D over A and C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Then take B and lay it over A. the one marked A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 1. of the ends remain unwoven. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as in portraiture and the like.of the larger holes in the strip. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. but instead of reversing . for instance. Fig. and the one beneath C. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 2. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. lay Cover B and the one under D. and lay it over the one to the right. doubled and run through the web of A. long. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Start with one end. C over D and B.

Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. --Contributed by John P. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . as at A in Fig. Monroeville. as B. as in making the square fob. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. especially if silk strings are used. 3. over the one to its right. long. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. the design of which is shown herewith. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. always lap one string. A loop. Ohio. 5. The round fob is shown in Fig. Other designs can be made in the same manner. 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. is left out at the center before starting on one side. is to be made of leather. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Rupp. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob.

To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. A. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. Mich. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. filling them with wax. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. -Contributed by A. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. door facing or door panel. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Northville. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. . Houghton. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. beeswax or paraffin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. using the reverse side. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. such as a nut pick. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. pressing it against the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. it can be easily renewed. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Any smooth piece of steel. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness.

Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. J. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. . The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Select the print you wish to mount. thick. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Thompson. Petersburg. place it face down in the dish. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. if blueprints are used. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. D. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. long. although tin ones can be used with good success. apart and driven in only part way. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold together on lines C. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. N. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. leaving about 1/4 in. those on matte paper will work best. remaining above the surface of the board. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. --Contributed by O. E and F. it is best to leave a plain white margin. New York. and after wetting. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The tacks should be about 1 in. Y. Ill. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Enough plaster should. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. and about 12 in. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. says Photographic Times.

bell flowers. as shown in the right of the sketch.. without mixing the solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. etc. violets. One of the . Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. roses. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. filling the same about onehalf full.

is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 3. made of heavy tin. 1. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . which should be of thin ferrotype tin. shading. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The first point should be ground blunt. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and at the larger end. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. 1-7/8 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. thick. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Millstown.. in diameter and 1 in. about 1/8s in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. When soldering these parts together. or delicate tints of the egg. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. as shown. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. --Contributed by L. long. as shown in the sketch. turned a little tapering. Shabino. The tin horn can be easily made. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. but which will not wobble loose. L.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The diaphragm. should be soldered to the box. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. not too tightly. 2. South Dakota. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The sound box. is about 2-1/2 in. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. long and made of wood. Fig.

open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Gold. says the Iowa Homestead. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Colo. mice in the bottom. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Victor. Ill. and.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Chicago. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. put a board on top. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr.Contributed by E. E.

Pereira. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Y. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Buffalo. . or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. N. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Ottawa. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Can. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. --Contributed by Lyndwode.

Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Grand Rapids. Mich. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. longer than the length of the can. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. a piece of tin. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Richmond.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Put a small nail 2 in. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and at one end of the stick fasten. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. through which several holes have been punched. Cal. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Jaquythe. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. above the end of the dasher. cut round. De Loof. as it can be made quickly in any size. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. by means of a flatheaded tack. as shown. This cart has no axle. --Contributed by Thos. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. A.

wide and 3 ft. 2. 2. Doylestown. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Kane. of course. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Notches 1/8 in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. were below the level of the bullseye. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2 in. deep and 3 in. Fig. La. The baseboard and top are separable. as shown. thick. long. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. apart. wide and as long as the box. 2. 1-1/2 in. board. New Orleans. wide. A wedge-shaped piece of . deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. --Contributed by James M. wide and 1/8 in. 1 ft. Pa. 1. The candles. 1/4 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. I reversed a door gong.1.

3. This device is very convenient for invalids. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade is put back into the groove . Needles. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it.. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. will. wide rubber bands or felt. to prevent its scratching the desk top. West Union. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. by cutting away the ends. When not in use. wide into each side of the casing. After completing the handle. After the glue has dried. Wood. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. can be picked up without any trouble. when placed as in Fig. as shown in Fig. stone or wood. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Cover the block with rubber. scissors. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. The block can also be used as a paperweight. --Contributed by G. it can be removed without marring the casing. A. dressing one surface of each piece. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Worcester. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. 1. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf.Book Back Holders metal. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Mass. the reason being that if both were solid. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Ia. For the handle.

2. Cleveland. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. --Contributed by Maud McKee. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. as shown in Fig. . S. -Contributed by W. Pa. Erie. Ohio. Jacobs. as shown in Fig. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. is shown in the accompanying sketch. A. long. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Hutchins. Mass. square and 4 in. Malden. Each one is made of a hardwood block. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A notch is cut in one side.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1 in. If desired. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. --Contributed by H. thus carrying the car up the incline. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. 1. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop.

Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. This will insure having all parts alike. One sheet of metal. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. a board on which to work it. Cape May Point. will be needed. Prepare a design for the front..The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.J. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. N. The letters can be put on afterward. and an awl and hammer. . If one such as is shown is to be used. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. 6 by 9-1/2 in.

3/4 part. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. On the back. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. but weird and distant. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. varnish. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. turpentine. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. paste the paper design right on the metal. If any polishing is required." In all appearance. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. One coat will do. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. that can be worked in your own parlor. The stick may be placed by the side of. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. 1 part. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. only the marginal line is to be pierced. says Master Painter. 2 parts white vitriol. a violin. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. placed on a table. applied by means of a brush. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. The music will not sound natural. So impressive are the results. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. behind or through the center of a table leg. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. in the waste metal. . Remove the metal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. if desired. flat brush. or. as shown. 1/4 part. mandolin or guitar.Fasten the metal to the board. to right angles. which is desirable. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise.

it might be difficult. 2. With proper tools this is easy. across the top. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. London. The longest piece. round-head machine screws. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. and is easy to construct. long and measuring 26 in. wide. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. . each 6 in. long. long and spread about 8 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. thick by 1/2 in. without them. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. says Work. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. are shaped as shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. Two pairs of feet. apart. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. square bar iron. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. each 28 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. 3.

Place the corner piece of glass. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. better still. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. While the piece of lead D. 5. 6. The brads are then removed. the latter being tapped to . and the base border. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 7. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. is held by the brads. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design is formed in the lead. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. 5. or. special flux purchased for this purpose.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. lead. After the glass is cut. A. on it as shown. using rosin as a flux. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. cut a long piece of lead. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Fig. 4. as shown in Fig. After the joints are soldered. The glass. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. C. D. B.

Fasten the plates to the block B. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. one on each side and central with the hole. not less than 4 in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. as shown in Fig. N. thick and drill 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. long. in diameter and 1/4 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Camden. H. Bore a 5/8-in.the base of the clip. rocker bolt. Bore a 3/4-in. 8. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. plates. Jr. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. The center pin is 3/4-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. J. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Make three washers 3-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Dreier. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. bolt. then flatten its end on the under side. This . wood screws in each washer. long. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. A and B.. square and of the length given in the drawing. plank about 12 ft. and round the corners of one end for a ring. then drill a 3/4-in. bolt. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. rounded at the top as shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. in diameter and about 9 in. and two wood blocks. This ring can be made of 1-in. --Contributed by W. long. Secure a post. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. holes through their centers. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in.

16 screws. If trees are convenient. hickory.will make an excellent cover for a pot. and some one can swing an axe. 4 pieces. square by 9-1/2 ft. in diameter and 7 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 3 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. 1. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 1/2 in. from one edge. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2-1/2 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 2 by 4 in. long. long and 1 piece. by 6-1/2 ft. long. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. long. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. straight-grained hickory. 4 in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. La. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. long. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. To substitute small. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. by 2 ft. New Orleans. screws. chestnut or ash. 4 filler pieces. shanks. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. by 3 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. because it will not stand the weather. 1-1/4in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 4 pieces. 3/4 by 3 in. square by 5 ft. long. 9 in. bit. maple. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. boards along the side of each from end to end. The four 7-in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 50 ft. 1 by 7 in. of 1/4-in. horse and rings. bolts and rope. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 in.

apart. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. at each end.bored. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. piece of wood. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. 8 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. 2. deep and remove all loose dirt. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. so the 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. boards coincide. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . apart. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Bore a 9/16-in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. each 3 ft. from the end.. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle.

and then passes in a curve across the base. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. it follows the edge for about 1 in. the effect is very striking. not even the tumbler. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gathered. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. not much to look at in daytime. it is taken to the edge of the foot. If the tumbler is rotated. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. apart. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. . passing through a screweye at either end. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. disappearing only to reappear again. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible." which skimmed along the distant horizon. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. in an endless belt. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and materially heightened the illusion. He stretched the thread between two buildings. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. just visible against the dark evening sky. about 100 ft. was at its height. W. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. When the interest of the crowd. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.. but most deceptive at dusk. And all he used was a black thread. and ascends the stem. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses.

from either side of the center. long. long. Fig. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 3 ft. preferably cedar. New Orleans. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 2 ft. and turned in a spiral D. deep. 2 side braces. 8 in. 6 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. 7 in. long and 1 doz. 2 base pieces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 by 3 in. 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 4 wood screws. 8 in. 4 in. 1. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. long. long. Bevel the ends of . so the point will be on top. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. square and 6 ft. wide and 1 in. beginning at a point 9 in. large spikes. square and 51/2 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 8 bolts. The cork will come out easily. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. by 10 ft. 2 in. To make the apparatus. La. long. by 7 ft. long. long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 bolts. 2 cross braces. A wire about No.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 2 by 4 in.

and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Two endpieces must be made. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. save the bars. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. etc. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Jaquythe. ( To be Continued. leave it undressed. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by W. If using mill-cut lumber. which face each other. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. and countersinking the heads. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. leaving the strainer always in position. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. These will allow the ladle to be turned. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. except the bars. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. as shown in the diagram. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. . while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet.the knee braces. A. jellies. The wood so treated will last for years. Richmond. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Cal. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.. A large sized ladle. using four of the 7-in bolts. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. equipped with a strainer. After the trenches are dug. additional long. of 7 ft. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. screws. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. but even unpainted they are very durable.

it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. drill press or planer. partly a barrier for jumps. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it is necessary to place a stick. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. milling machine. . Oil. A.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. or various cutting compounds of oil. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. which seems impossible. of sufficient 1ength. thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.

The material required is as follows: Two posts. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. ten 1/2-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 7 in. The round part of this log must be planed. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in.. square by 5-1/2 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. wood yard or from the woods. 2 by 4 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 4-1/2 in. bolt. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 2 adjusting pieces. long. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. is a good length. long. 2 by 4 in. bolts. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. 1 cross brace. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. in the ground. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. piece of 2 by 4-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 by 4 in.. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. apart in a central position on the horse. square by 5 ft. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. by 3 ft. but 5 ft. long. bolts. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. To construct. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Procure from a saw mill. bolts. Hand holds must be provided next. 1 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. long. 4 knee braces. long. from each end. 2 bases. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. These are well nailed in place. apart. 4 in. in diameter--the larger the better. long. by 3 ft. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 3 in. 4 in. and free from knots. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. projections and splinters. These are placed 18 in.

Also. water. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. it is caused by some obstruction. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. pipe and fittings. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. no one is responsible but himself. Richmond. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Such a hand sled can be made in a . The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. such as a dent. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Jaquythe. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. A. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.horse top. over and around. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. but nevertheless. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. snow. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Cal. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle.--Contributed by W. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by an overloaded shell. etc. then bending to the shape desired.

Ontario. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by Arthur E. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. will give the length. France. then run a string over each part. --Contributed by James E. . 1. 2. Noble. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. These. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Mass. W. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Vener. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Boston. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. are all the tools necessary. thick. is much better than a wood sled.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by J. Joerin. The end elevation. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. in width and 1/32 in. when complete. Paris. 1/4 or 3/16 in. when straightened out. which. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Toronto. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. at E and F.

AA and BB.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. It is best to use soft water. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. 3. . Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The method shown in Figs. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 4. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. and the latter will take on a bright luster. are nailed.

having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 1). the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. . 2. The materials used are: backbone. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Broad lines can be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 3. or unequal widths as in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. class ice-yacht.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2. or various rulings may be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 8 and 9. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. long. 1. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. but if it is made much longer. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. Both the lower . a tee and a forging. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It can be made longer or shorter. about 30 in.Fig. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. out from the collar. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. pipe. bent and drilled as shown. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. pins to keep them from turning. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. A good and substantial homemade lathe. a larger size of pipe should be used.

. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 2. a straight line should be scratched Fig. It is about 1 in. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. as shown in Fig. 2. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Indiana. Laporte. or a key can be used as well. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 3/4 or 1 in. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. Man. Musgrove. but also their insulating properties. Fruitvale. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. --Contributed by W. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Held. Boissevain. To do this. M. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by M. a corresponding line made on this. UpDeGraff. Cal. else taper turning will result. 2. W. 1. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. thick as desired.

The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Smith. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ft. Cline. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. as shown. In use. J. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. To obviate this. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. --Contributed by E. Ark. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in.

After being entered.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. if this method is followed: First. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. take . on starting the lathe. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. New Orleans. --Contributed by Walter W. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. which should be backed out of contact. Denver. La. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Colo. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. face off the end of the piece. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. centering is just one operation too many. White. and when once in true up to its size. the drill does not need the tool. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut.

after being shown empty. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shorter t h a n the wand. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. by applying caustic soda or . all the better. the cap is placed over the paper tube. unknown to the spectators. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as shown in D. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The handkerchief rod. vanishing wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a long piece of glass tubing. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. shown at C. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. a bout 1/2 in. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The glass tube B. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. In doing this. is put into the paper tube A.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. says the Sphinx. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. After the wand is removed. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. It can be used in a great number of tricks.

As the cement softens. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. by 14 by 17 in. square and 1-7/8 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue the neck to the box. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. long. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Glue strips of soft wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 Bottom. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. and glue it to the neck at F. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. With care and patience. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. as shown by K. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1/4 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. End. 3/16. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. cut to any shape desired. preferably hard maple. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Cut a piece of hard wood. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 End. The brace at D is 1 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. with the back side rounding. can be made by the home mechanic. 2 Sides. across the front and back to strengthen them. thick. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1 Neck. The sides. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in.potash around the edges of the letters. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. This dimension and those for the frets . 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in.

and beveled . When it is completed you will have a canoe. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. A board 1 in. E. but it is not. -Contributed by J. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Norwalk.should be made accurately. in diameter. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. 3/16 in. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. O. Carbondale.Pa. Six holes. Frary. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. toward each end. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. or backbone. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Stoddard. wide and 11-1/2 ft. thick and about 1 ft. long is used for a keel. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. 1) on which to stretch the paper. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. H. --Contributed by Chas.

in thickness and should be cut. 3/8 in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. C. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. thick. 1. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales.) in notches. b. in such cases. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in.. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. The cross-boards (B. but before doing this. are next put in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. apart. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. B. when made of green elm. 1 and 2. and notched at the end to receive them (B. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. two strips of wood (b. or similar material. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 2. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. In drying. 2). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. such as is used for making chairbottoms. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. as shown in Fig. Any tough. such as hazel or birch. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. or other place. b. and so. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. thick. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. will answer nearly as well. but twigs of some other trees. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. twigs 5 or 6 ft. procure at a carriage factory. C. Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. a. 4. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and. long. 3. long are required. 3. Fig. 2). Shape these as shown by A. slender switches of osier willow. as before described. . For the gunwales (a. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. and are not fastened. 3). fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. probably. as shown in Fig. Fig. with long stout screws. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. which are easily made of long. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The ribs. Green wood is preferable. These are better. wide by 26 in. Fig. 13 in. some tight strips of ash. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 3). 4). b. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. as they are apt to do. Fig. by means of a string or wire. the loose strips of ash (b.

and steady in the water. If not. It should be smooth on the surface. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and very tough. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. after wetting it. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. of very strong wrapping-paper.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Being made in long rolls. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. but neither stiff nor very thick. When the paper is dry. If the paper be 1 yd. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. apply a second coat of the same varnish. You may put in . and held in place by means of small clamps. B. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. however. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. The paper is then trimmed. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. 5). When thoroughly dry. wide. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. but with less turpentine. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and light oars. Fig. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. tacking it to the bottom-board. if it has been properly constructed of good material. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Then take some of the split rattan and. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. preferably iron.

We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 5). fore and aft. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 5. 1 and the end in . they will support very heavy weights. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. to fit it easily. and make a movable seat (A. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.

and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. This way has its drawbacks. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 5. Close the other end with the same operation. This is an easy . The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and the result is. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Pittsburg. 3. and the glass. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. this makes the tube airtight. A good way to handle this work. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. 4. being softer where the flame has been applied. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pa. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another.

23 gauge. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. four. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. second. -Contributed by A.way to make a thermometer tube. file. extra metal all around. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. After the bulb is formed. Oswald. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. then reverse. Seventh. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Sixth. three. above the metal. very rapid progress can be made. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. third. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. flat and round-nosed pliers. fifth. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. or six arms. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Give the metal a circular motion. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. also trace the decorative design. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. fourth. with a piece of carbon paper. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The candle holders may have two. thin screw. above the work and striking it with the hammer. rivet punch. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating.

After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. drip cup. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Having pierced the bracket.

all the rest I found. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and add the gelatine. glycerine 4 parts. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. except they had wheels instead of runners. Soak 1 oz. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. and in a week . when it will be ready for use. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and it will be ready for future use. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and other things as they were needed. if it has not absorbed too much ink. The gaff. thus it was utilized. and water 24 parts. is a broomstick. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. on a water bath. the stick at the bottom of the sail. smooth it down and then remove as before. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. deep. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. alcohol 2 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Heat 6-1/2 oz. hammer. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. of glycerine to about 200 deg. sugar 1 part. I steer with the front wheel. Fifty. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. F. J. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. A saw. N. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. The boom. using a steel pen. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and brace and bit were the tools used. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Mother let me have a sheet. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. winding the ends where they came together with wire. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Twenty cents was all I spent. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Shiloh. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

long. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. provided the material is of metal. thick. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. DD. well seasoned pine. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. and the lens slide. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. If a small saw is used. slide to about 6 ft. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. about 2 ft. and 14 in. Fig. wire brads. E. or glue. A and B. wide and 15 in. H. focus enlarging a 3-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. at a distance of 24 ft. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. at a point 1 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 3. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The slide support. describe a 9-in.. as desired. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. are . 1/2 to 3/4 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The board is centered both ways. G. wide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. above the center. and. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. and the work carefully done. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. 1. This ring is made up from two rings. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. and a projecting lens 2 in. but if such a box is not found. 8 in. A table. or a lens of 12-in. high. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp.

Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Small strips of tin. and when the right position is found for each. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. A sheet . the water at once extinguishes the flame. Paul. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. P. B. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. light burning oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. placed on the water. E. the strips II serving as guides. should the glass happen to upset. apply two coats of shellac varnish.constructed to slip easily on the table. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. St. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Minn. but not long enough. JJ. of safe.-Contributed by G. To reach the water. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick.

The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 12 ft. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. I ordered a canvas bag. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. N. Schenectady. Fig. to cover the mattresses. Crawford. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Fig. 3 in. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. from a tent company.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 1. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 2. 9 in. If one of these clips is not at hand. by 12 ft.H. --Contributed by J. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 4. form a piece of wire in the same shape. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Y. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.

connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. thick. open on the edges. 1. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire.each edge. Denver. --Contributed by Walter W. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Do not use too strong a rubber. Attach a piece of steel rod. Colo. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 3/4 in. D. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. to keep it from unwinding. so as to form two oblong boxes. 2. through which the indicator works. Fig. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. V. and insert two binding-posts. An arc is cut in the paper. 2. Fold two strips of light cardboard. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. in the center coil. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. A rubber band. drill two 3/16 in. first mark the binding-post A. C. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A Film Washing Trough [331] . On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. wide. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Fig. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edward M. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 2. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Warren. White. 1/2 in. long. 1. To calibrate the instrument. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. long and 3/16 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. Pa. Teasdale. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. holes in the edge. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. apart. for amperes and the other post.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. O. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] . as shown. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. with the large hole up. Dayton. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Cut a 1/4-in. M. Place this can on one end of the trough. Hunting. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.

mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.

or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.Y. but not very thick. Whitehouse. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. If the small bottle used is opaque. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Fred W. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. N. long. Ala. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 1. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by John Shahan. This will make a very pretty ornament. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. wide and 4 in. Upper Troy. 2. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. thick. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . provided the bottle is wide. Auburn. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the cork is adjusted properly. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. many puzzling effects may be obtained.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend.

wide. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. was 1/4in. 1. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 2 ft. Fig. thick. which was 6 in. 3. long. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. A staple. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. G. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Milter. iron rod. to the shaft. 4. B. The wire L was put . The 21/2-in. On a 1000-ft. K. were constructed of 1-in. thick. in diameter and 1 in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. even in a light breeze. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. which extended to the ground. Fig. Its smaller parts. such as blades and pulleys. pulley. pulley F. Fig. high without the upper half. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 2. The bearing blocks were 3 in. which gave considerable power for its size.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 1 in. Fig. --Contributed by D. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. was keyed to shaft C. which was nailed to the face plate. The shaft C. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. line. thick and 3 in. If a transmitter is used. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. W. as shown in Fig. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. by the method shown in Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. 1. Both bearings were made in this manner. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. I.

1. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. pine 18 by 12 in. 6. R. was 2 ft. The power was put to various uses. To lessen the friction here. 1) 4 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. The smaller one. Fig. The other lid. long and bend it as shown at A. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. hole for the shaft G was in the center. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. To make the key. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. in the center of the board P. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. hole was bored for it. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. a 1/2-in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. square to the board P at the top of the tower. was tacked. Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Two washers were placed on shaft C. cut out another piece of tin (X. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. 3 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. top down also. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. when the windmill needed oiling. 2. This completes the receiver or sounder. long. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 1. This board was 12 in. washers were placed under pulley F. wide and 1 in. There a 1/4-in. across the thin edge of a board. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. apart in the tower. H. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. and was cut the shape shown. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 5. strips. long and bend it as . 1. 25 ft. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. in diameter. G. for instance. 1. The bed plate D. 0. 6. Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. long and 1/2 in. Fig. If you have no bell. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. as. long and 3 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long. through the latter. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. with all parts in place. This fan was made of 1/4-in.

Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. McConnell. as indicated. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Going back to Fig. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B.shown. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Now. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. 2. 1. causing a buzzing sound. By adjusting the coils. using cleats to hold the board frame. fitted with paddles as at M. at the front. and. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. like many another device boys make. Before tacking it to the board. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Thus a center drive is made. -Contributed by John R. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. as shown at Water. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The rear barrels are. leaving the other wire as it is. although it can be made with but two. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. When tired of this instrument. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.

Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. 1. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 3. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. There is no danger. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. copper piping and brass tubing for base. or even a little houseboat. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. there will not be much friction. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The speed is slow at first. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. To propel it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. as shown in Fig. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which will give any amount of pleasure.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. feet on the pedals. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. can be built.

If magnifying glass cannot be had. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Turn a small circle of wood. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. C. Fig. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Then melt out the rosin or lead. A. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 2. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. and so creating a false circuit. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 1. Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. D. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 2. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2.of pleasure for a little work. B. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 1. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. or it may be put to other uses if desired. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it.

set alarm key as shown in diagram. T. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. S. X.india rubber tubing. To operate this. and pulled tight. wire from batteries to switch. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. bell. bracket. by having the switch on the baseboard. brass strip. long. To get the cylinder into its carriage. H. if too small. --Contributed by Geo. wire from bell to switch. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. switch. When alarm goes off. To throw on light throw levers to the left. long. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. copper tubing. shelf. The parts indicated are as follows: A. contact post. In placing clock on shelf. C. 3/8 in. Utah. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. --Contributed by C. D. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. E. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . brass rod. 4-1/2 in. or 1/4in. J. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. such as is used for cycle valves. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. F. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. 5-1/4 by 10 in. which stops bell ringing. B. near the bed. Pa. while lying in bed. 4 in. dry batteries. after two turns have been made on the key. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Chatland. I. some glue will secure them. G. wide and 1/16 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Ogden. wire from light to switch. Throw lever off from the right to center. after setting alarm.. Swissvale. C. key of alarm clock. Brinkerhoff. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. thick. so it can be reached without getting out of bed.

making it as true and smooth as possible.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 3. wide. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Minn. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as in Fig. Make a shoulder. This is to form the fuse hole. Lanesboro. 2. S. as at A. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 4 in. will do the heating. 1. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 1/4 in. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. as at A. Make the spindle as in Fig. 2. Pull out the nail and stick. as at B. long. for instance. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. beyond the end of the spindle. Having finished this. a bed warmer. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Chapman. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. from one end. 1. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. All that is required is a tin covering. which can be made of an old can. A flannel bag. about 6 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as . Fig. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. letting it extend 3/4 in.

11/2 in. 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. 1. wide and 3/8 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and 6 ft. 6 in. 5/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3 ft. 1 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A piece of tin. good straight-grained pine will do. deep. The material must be 1-1/2 in. ash. or hickory. long. The illustration shows how this is done. long. long. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. spring and arrows. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Joerin. A piece of oak. thick. thick. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. this is to keep the edges from splitting. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire.

from the end of the stock. thick. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. or through the necessity of. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. The trigger. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Wilmette. having the latter swing quite freely. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. A spring. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Trownes. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 7. place the arrow in the groove. The bow is not fastened in the stock. as shown in Fig. 4. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. which is 1/4 in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 6. in diameter. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. better still. 8.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. from the opposite end. wide at each end. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. When the trigger is pulled. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . 2. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. and one for the trigger 12 in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. To shoot the crossbow. E. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. To throw the arrow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 3. The stick for the bow. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Ill. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. it lifts the spring up. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 9. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part.

Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. apart. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Moreover. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. and nail it in position as shown at A. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. from the ground. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. C. from the ground. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. since the flame of the candle is above A. says Photo Era. it is the easiest camp to make. By chopping the trunk almost through. Remove the bottom of the box. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. making lighting and trimming convenient. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. the bark lean-to is a . The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. respectively. and replace as shown at B. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. is used as a door. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. This lamp is safe. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The hinged cover E. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Remove one end. make the frame of the wigwam. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The cut should be about 5 ft.

Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. For a permanent camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. piled 2 or 3 ft. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. wide and 6 ft. wide. deep and covered with blankets. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and when the camp is pitched. make the best kind of a camp bed. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Sheets of bark. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. and split the tops with an ax. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. For a foot in the middle of the stick. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. 6 ft. spruce. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. . Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. a 2-in. will dry flat. long and 2 or 3 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. makes a good pair of tongs. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Where bark is used. In the early summer. long and 1-1/2 in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. 3 ft. are a convenient size for camp construction. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Tongs are very useful in camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and cedar. thick. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. long. selecting a site for a camp. nails are necessary to hold it in place. A piece of elm or hickory. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.

hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. .

be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. to another . Pa. I drove a small cork. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. --Contributed by James M. When the temperature outside is 10 deg.. 1. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. A. Doylestown. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. wide. B. the interior can. changing the water both morning and night. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Kane. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. B. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. about 4 in. Fig. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. and provide a cover or door. deep and 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.

The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. until. to pass through an increasing resistance.glass tube. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. fused into one side. a liquid. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. for instance. E. C. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 2. 3. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. if necessary. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 4 and 5). which project inside and outside of the tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Fig. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. such as ether. The current is thus compelled. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. This makes . 2. The diagram. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown.

which will make it uniform in size. Before removing the field from the lathe. two holes. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. After the template is marked out. in diameter. Then the field can be finished to these marks. thick. tap. 3-3/8 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. After cleaning them with the solution. cannot be used so often. is composed of wrought sheet iron.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. but merely discolored. assemble and rivet them solidly. on a lathe. which may be of any thickness so that. A 5/8in. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. When the frame is finished so far. to allow for finishing. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. These holes are for the bearing studs. If the thickness is sufficient. A. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. drill the four rivet holes. set at 1/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. clamp the template. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. in diameter. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. or even 1/16 in. 2. screws. Michigan. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. 1. thicker. brass. making it 1/16 in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. thick. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. therefore. larger than the dimensions given. hole is . 4-1/2 in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. between centers. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. when several pieces are placed together. brass or iron. and for the outside of the frame. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. mark off a space. The bearing studs are now made. Fig. they will make a frame 3/4 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. 3-3/8 in. Alpena. or pattern. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in.

brass rod is inserted. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. file them out to make the proper adjustment. soldered into place. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . When the bearings are located. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. is turned up from machine steel. solder them to the supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. 4. The shaft of the armature. or otherwise finished. and build up the solder well. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.

deep and 7/16 in. being formed for the ends. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. by 1-1/2 in. thick. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 6. When annealed. 3. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 3. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The sides are also faced off and finished. and then they are soaked in warm water. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. sheet fiber. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The pins are made of brass. After they . When this is accomplished. thick. brass rod. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Rivet them together. Armature-Ring Core. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 3/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 1/8 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. wide. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. and held with a setscrew. thick. wide. as shown m Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. threaded. 9. 7. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Make the core 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. thick are cut like the pattern. Find the centers of each segment at one end. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments.. or segments. thick and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. to allow for finishing to size. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 8. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 6. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 5. as shown in Fig. 1-1/8 in. washers. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Procure 12 strips of mica. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. holes through them for rivets. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown in Fig. inside diameter. then drill a 1/8-in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig.

to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The two ends are joined at B. The winding is started at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. after the motor is on the stand. All connections should be securely soldered. the two ends of the wire. Run one end of the field wire. shown at B. The source of current is connected to the terminals. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. of No. yet it shows a series of . 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. sheet fiber. Fig. and wind on four layers. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. of the end to protrude. 8 in. they are glued to the core insulation. 1. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. In starting to wind. of the wire. 5. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. by bending the end around one of the projections. thick. This winding is for a series motor. After one coil. long. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. The field is wound with No. To connect the wires. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. or side. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 1. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. When the glue is set. shown at A. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Fig. sheet fiber. 6 in. are soldered together.have dried. being required. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. about 100 ft. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. until the 12 slots are filled. wide and 1 in. which will take 50 ft.

Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Nine wires run from the timer. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. A 1/2-in.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. or. which serves as the ground wire. still more simply. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . is fastened to the metallic body. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.

the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. long. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. circle. It should be . the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill.The Wind Vane. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. of the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Without this attachment. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Covering these is a thin. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 45 deg. thus giving 16 different directions. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. board. 6 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. N. Before tacking the fourth side. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. according to who is going to use it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Buffalo. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. long to give the best results. Fill the box with any handy ballast. thus making a universal joint. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Cut 3-in. To make it. is most satisfactory. if not too high. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. -Contributed by James L. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. also a piece of new carpet. though a special knife. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. will be enough for the two sides. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Y. Blackmer. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will be sufficient. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. or. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady.about 6 ft. will answer the purpose just as well. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. and about 6 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. called a chip carving knife. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Place the leather on some level. however. high. To work these outlines. making it heavy or light. and securely nail on the top of the box. . 14 by 18 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. square and tying a piece of . When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. a needle and some feathers. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. can be thrown away when no longer needed. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Morse. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle.will do if a good stout needle is used. or a hip that has been wrenched. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Syracuse. temporary lameness. and tie them together securely at the bottom. away from it. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. If a fire breaks out. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. B. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. of water. rather than the smooth side. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Y. of common salt and 10 lb. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. --Contributed by Katharine D. N.

the corners being wired. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The diaphragm C. G. cut to the length of the spool. board all around the bottom on the inside. E. --Contributed by J. A small wooden or fiber end. Hellwig. setting traps. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Paterson. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. Albany. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Gordon Dempsey. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. F. long. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. thus helping the rats to enter. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. This not only keeps the rats out. The coil is 1 in. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. wound on the head end. N. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.J. etc. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The strings should be about 15 in. The body of the receiver. wide and 1/16 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. 1/8 in. and the receiver is ready for use. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A. and a coil of wire. Y. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. deep. is cut on the wood. letting it go at arm's length. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. long. There is a 1-in. made up of four layers of No. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. laying poisoned meat and meal. commonly called tintype tin. Wis. N. which is the essential part of the instrument. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin.. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Ashland. as shown. but not sharp. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. One end is removed entirely. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. and tacked it to the boards. The end is filed to an edge. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. . high. --Contributed by John A.string to each corner. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. B. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off.

Take a pair of round-nose pliers. to . Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. gold. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. wide. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a piece of string or. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. begin with the smallest scrolls. The vase is to have three supports. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and bend each strip in shape. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. To clean small articles. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. better still. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. a piece of small wire.

from E to F. 4-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Trace also the line around the purse. from the lines EF on the piece. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard.which the supports are fastened with rivets. After taking off the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. 3-1/2 in. About 1 in.. using a duller point of the tool. through which to slip the fly AGH. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 6-3/8 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. as shown in the sketch. 3-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. wide when stitching up the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and does not require coloring.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern.. . Press or model down the leather all around the design. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. sharp pencil. thus raising it. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from C to D.

with a compass saw. 1/2 in. as well as useful. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 2. all the way around. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. b. following the dotted lines. with pins or small nails. being cast in wooden molds. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. by 12 ft. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Now take another piece of wood. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with the open side down. 1 was cut. and the projections B. When it is finished. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Fit this to the two . around the wheel. and tack the other piece slightly. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. It can be made without the use of a lathe. long. First. deep.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. with the largest side down. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. the "open" side. square. deep. This also should be slightly beveled. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and a model for speed and power. then nail it. and cut out a wheel. and which will be very interesting. thick. Make the lug 1/4 in. leaving the lug a.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 3. 1. as shown in Fig. It is neat and efficient. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction.

Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. bolts.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole 1/4 in. Now put mold No. Now take another of the 12-in. Take the mold apart. one of which should have a 3/8-in.pieces just finished. and lay it away to dry. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole entirely through at the same place. and bore six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. hole bored through its center. then bolt it together. holes through it. 4. and boring a 3/8-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. 1. as shown by the . deep. as shown by the black dots in Fig. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. in the center of it.

5. drill in it. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and lay it away to dry. and two 1/4-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. true it up with a square. 6. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. instead of the right-handed piece. 4. take an ordinary brace. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. put the top of the brace through this hole. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.1. until it is full. After it is fitted in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. where the casting did not fill out. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Commencing 1-1/2 in. fasten a 3/8-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and 3/8-in. Using the Brace . long.2. Let it stand for half an hour. so that it will turn easily. This is the same as Fig. B. place the entire machine in a vise. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. see that the bolts are all tight. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b. place it under the drill. and connect to the boiler. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 1. only the one is left-handed. Put this together in mold No. long. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and run in babbitt metal again.2. the other right-handed. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. as shown in illustration. as shown by the black dots in Fig. one in the projections. 6. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. holes at d. This is for a shaft. one in the lug. and bore three 1/4-in. and the other in the base. Fig. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. This is mold No. Then bolt the castings together. in diameter must now be obtained. wide and 16 in. and drill them in the same manner. and pour babbitt metal into it. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. d. over the defective part. Now take mold No.1. holes. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. lay it on a level place. Pour metal into mold No. from the one end. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Now cut out one of the 12-in.black dots in Fig. screw down. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and drill it entirely through. b.

Plan of Ice Boat . and with three small screw holes around the edge. while it is running at full speed. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.. long. and the other 8 ft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and. At each end of the 6ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Then take a knife or a chisel. turn the wheel to the shape desired. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. with a boss and a set screw. will do good service. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. one 6 ft. piece and at right angles to it. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.

which may come in handy in heavy winds. in diameter at the base. Run the seam on a machine. as the runners were fastened. in the top before the skate is put on. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. plank nail 8-in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. The spar should be 9 ft. 2 by 3 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. piece and at right angles to it. leaving 1 ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. in diameter. The tiller. 3. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. 8 a reef point knot. at the butt and 1 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. at the end. To the under side of the 8-ft. tapering to 1-1/2 in. in diameter in the center. at the top. 1. 1. Fig. plank. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. boards to make the platform. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. bolt the 8-ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. long. long. so much the better will be your boat. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. projecting as in Fig. should be of hardwood. in front of the rudder block. Fig. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. where they often did considerable damage. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. long and 2-1/2 in. This fits in the square hole. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . and about 8 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. distant.

Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Pa. allowing the springs to contact at C. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. R. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. P. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. and the alarm bell will ring. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. small piece of wood. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. --Contributed by J. so that they come in contact at C. Adams. wide. bent into a hook at each end. and place it behind a stove. P. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. block of wood nailed to A. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. to block B. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Mechanicsburg. Ariz. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Comstock. The . It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. The arrangement proved quite too effective. B. Its parts are as follows: A. S S. --Contributed by John D. Phoenix.

and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. says the American Boy. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. in diameter. 1. including the . Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The center pole should be 10 ft. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Take the glass. The seat arms may be any length desired. Gild the pan all over.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. 2. high. The stump makes the best support. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred.