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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

apart. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . It is held in this curve until dry. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The pieces are then dressed round. 1. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated.Fig. Toronto. long will make six boomerangs. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. wide and 2 ft. 2 -. as shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 2. Noble. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Fig. To throw a boomerang.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. until it is bound as shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. away. 1. distant. as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. --Contributed by J. E. with the hollow side away from you. Ontario. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis.

The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. or rather no bottom at all. one inside of the circle and the other outside. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. 6 in. long. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. A very light. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and it may be necessary to use a little water. however. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. high and 4 or 5 in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. If the snow is of the right consistency. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. thick. minus the top. and with a movable bottom. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. forcing it down closely. blocks . it is not essential to the support of the walls. the block will drop out. A wall. but about 12 in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. dry snow will not pack easily. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. First. made of 6-in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. which makes the building simpler and easier.

The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Goodbrod. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. D. 2. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. There is no outward thrust. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. It also keeps them out. A nail. 2. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Ore.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. --Contributed by Geo. 1. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. long and 1 in. C. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 3. and the young architect can imitate them. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. 3 -. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. which can be made of wood. which is about 1 ft. wide. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Fig. a. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 1. or an old safe dial will do. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Fig. The piece of wood. Union. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. above the ground. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. is 6 or 8 in. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly.

The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Merrill. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. If ordinary butts are used. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. as the weight always draws them back to place. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. the box locked . and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Syracuse. --Contributed by R. one pair of special hinges. S.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. says the Sphinx. New York. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box.

and the performer steps out in view. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. as shown in Fig. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. If the measuring has been done properly. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. If they do not. as shown in Fig. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Ga. 1. 2. on drawing paper. smooth surface. It remains to bend the flaps. To make a design similar to the one shown. -Contributed by L. 3. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Alberta Norrell. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Fig. Augusta. as shown. about 1-32 of an inch. When the sieve is shaken. All . Cover the back and all the face except the white background. allowing each coat time to dry. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Place the piece in a vise. With the metal shears. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. draw one-half of it. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. proceed as follows: First. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. one for each corner.

Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. A resistance. Galbreath. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. about 6 in. Denver. and in the positions shown in the sketch. is fitted tightly in the third hole. should be in the line. if rolled under the shoe sole. The current. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. C. causing it to expand. If a touch of color is desired. as shown at AA. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. used for insulation. A piece of porcelain tube. in passing through the lamp. 25 German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. --Contributed by R. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors.the edges should be left smooth. H. 25 gauge German-silver wire. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. In boring through rubber corks. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. which is about 6 in. long. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Colo. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. B. R. of No. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. in diameter. from the back end. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. When the current is turned off. The common cork. heats the strip of German-silver wire. After this has dried.

Purchase two long book straps.bottom ring. 1. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Mo. 3. . When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. with thin strips of wood. between them as shown in Fig. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely.

just the right weight for a woman to use. Fig. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. in diameter. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Pa. which is the right weight for family use. Y. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Syracuse. Place three paving bricks inside of the box.An ordinary electric bell.. and tack smoothly. Fig. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Two strips of brass. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. and a pocket battery. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. having a gong 2-1/2 in. and one weighing 25 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. as . 2. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Doylestown. The string is then tied.. 1. 3. to form a handle. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. long. one weighing 15 lb. 36 in. The folds are made over the string. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 4. Kane. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. C. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. These are shown in Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. 1. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. --Contributed by James M. 1. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. When the aeroplane tips. A. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. are mounted on the outside of the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Morse. Fig.

2. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Day. N. four washers and four square nuts. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. and many fancy knick-knacks. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. machine screws. long. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. if once used. such as brackets. --Contributed by Louis J. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The saw. bent as shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . AA. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Floral Park. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. in diameter. 3/32 or 1/4 in. two 1/8 -in. 1. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Y. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. The rod should be 36 or 38 in.

Detroit. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Of the leathers. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Scranton. For etching.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. An Austrian Top [12] . copper. as well as the depth of etching desired.. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. A. treat it with color. Michigan. If it colors the metal red. The buckle is to be purchased. after breaking up. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. be covered the same as the back. as well as brass and copper. of course. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Drying will cause this to change to purple. 1 part nitric acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium.may be made of either brass. of water. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Rub off the highlights. Silver is the most desirable but. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water in which dissolve. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. it has the correct strength. though almost any color may be obtained. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. File these edges. the most expensive. allowing each time to dry. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. --Contributed by W. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. or silver. Apply two coats. if copper or brass. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. In the design shown. 1 part sulphuric acid. therefore. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. using a swab and an old stiff brush. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. green and browns are the most popular.

set the top in the 3/4 -in.F. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. allowing only 1-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. thick. 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. A handle. Bore a 3/4-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. long. Michigan. . hole. starting at the bottom and winding upward. 5-1/4 in. 3/4 in. in diameter. Tholl. The handle is a piece of pine. pass one end through the 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. long. A 1/16-in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. wide and 3/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. is formed on one end. Parts of the Top To spin the top. When the shank is covered. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Ypsilanti. hole in this end for the top.

A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. having no sides. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Alberta Norrell. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. . Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Northville. --Contributed by Miss L. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Augusta. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. tarts or similar pastry. --A. A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. The baking surface. Ga. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Houghton.

two turns will remove the jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Centralia. Stringing Wires [13] A. then solder cover and socket together. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the same as shown in the illustration. says Studio Light. Mo. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. When you desire to work by white light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . glass fruit jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

--Contributed by Herman Fosel. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. . An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. They are fastened. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Janesville. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 12 in. Wis. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Vertical pieces. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. and not tip over. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. so it can be folded up. 4 Braces.for loading and development. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in.

The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The whole. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. New York. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The front can be covered . the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. C. After rounding the ends of the studs. Cincinnati. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. --Contributed by Dr.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. after filling the pail with water. Phillipsburg. O. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and a loop made in the end. Rosenthal. If the loop is tied at the proper place. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. H. -Contributed by Charles Stem. from scrap material.

the color will be an undesirable. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. By using the following method. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. principally mayonnaise dressing. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Develop them into strong prints. FIG. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. sickly one. 1 FIG. In my own practice. thoroughly fix. Md. Wehr. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. you are. by all rules of the game. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. if you try to tone them afterward. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The results will be poor. Baltimore. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. If the gate is raised slightly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The . it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. --Contributed by Gilbert A. the mouth of which rests against a. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. and. either for contact printing or enlargements.

. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.... Iodide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison..... when it starts to bleach. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. 1 and again as in Fig.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain...... --Contributed by T. transfer it to a tray of water. Gray.. Cal. 2 oz.. San Francisco... in size... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. but. L. It will bleach slowly and evenly. etc......." Cyanide of potassium .. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. A good final washing completes the process.. where it will continue to bleach.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. wide and 4 in... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. in this solution. to make it 5 by 5 in. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. The blotting paper can ... When the desired reduction has taken place.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses............ Water . With a little practice. without previous wetting. three times. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... 16 oz..... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. long to admit the angle support. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. 2.. Place the dry print. 20 gr.. 5 by 15 in... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. preferably the colored kind...

How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. 3. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. the shaft 1 in. Oshkosh. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Make a design similar to that shown. Monahan. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. --Contributed by L. 20 gauge. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Canada.J. and a length of 5 in. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by J.

but use a swab on a stick. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Fig. Trace the design on the metal. as shown in Fig. After this has dried. using carbon paper. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. after folding along the center line. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. deep. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. . using a small metal saw. being held perpendicular to the work. freehand. 3. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 4. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1. which gives the outline of the design Fig. then put on a second coat. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Do not put the hands in the solution. The metal must be held firmly. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. then trace the other half in the usual way.FIG. With the metal shears. After the sawing. Allow this to dry. For coloring olive green. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. With files. 2. Pierce a hole with a small drill. then coloring. 1 part nitric acid. 1 Fig. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Apply with a small brush. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Make one-half of the design.

Ii is an ordinary staple. then stain it a mahogany color. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Syracuse. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by Katharine D. it does the work rapidly. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. New York. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. as shown. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Richmond. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Cal.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. . as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. When this is cold. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. M. East Hartford. Conn. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. thick. Morse. --Contributed by M. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Burnett. --Contributed by H. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. attach brass handles. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Carl Cramer. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. After the stain has dried. on a chopping board.

--Contributed by Mrs. one shaft. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Florida. and several 1/8-in. in width at the shank. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. 1/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. holes. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. A. some pieces of brass. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. H. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. --Contributed by W. two enameled. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. 1. 53 steel pens. Atwell. Kissimmee. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. also locate the drill holes. Cal. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. thick and 4 in. brass. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. about 3/16 in. . machine screws. not over 1/4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Fig. Richmond. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. as shown at A. Jaquythe. square. 4. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. or tin. saucers or pans. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. as shown in Fig. thick. indicating the depth of the slots. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. L..

The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. machine screws. brass and bolted to the casing. 2. There should be a space of 1/16 in. 3. thick. 1. and pins inserted. Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. hole. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 2. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. as shown in Fig. If the shaft is square. as in Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. hole in the center. with a 3/8-in. If metal dishes. lead should be run into the segments.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. can be procured. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. machine screws and nuts. a square shaft used. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. supply pipe. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 3. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 5. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. 7. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. wide. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. with the face of the disk. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. long and 5/16 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. each about 1 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. into the hole. about 1/32 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. A 3/4-in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . thick. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in.. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. These are connected to a 3/8-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. long by 3/4 in. with 1/8-in. using two nuts on each screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 6. as shown.

With a string or tape measure. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. V. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. from the bottom end of the legs. to make the bottom. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Stain the wood before putting in the .the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. When assembling. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The lower part. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in. screws. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. --Contributed by S. Smith. Ill. we will call the basket. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Cooke. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. make these seams come between the two back legs. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. or more in diameter. high and 15 in. --Contributed by F. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Be sure to have the cover. Now you will have the box in two pieces. deep and 1-1/4 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. deep over all. square and 30-1/2 in. 8-1/2 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. from the top of the box. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. La Salle. using four to each leg. long. Canada. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. three of which are in the basket. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Hamilton.

wide. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. If all the parts are well sandpapered. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. -Contributed by Stanley H. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. 1. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Packard.2 Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Sew on to the covered cardboards.lining. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Md. Mass. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. you can. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. --also the lower edge when necessary.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Fig. 2. and gather it at that point. sewing on the back side. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Baltimore. Boston. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. When making the display. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. The side. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Cover them with the cretonne. wide and four strips 10 in.

Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. --Contributed by B. with slight modifications. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. L. Orlando Taylor. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. N. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Cross Timbers. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. --Contributed by H. Mo. saving all the solid part. Crockett. It is not difficult to . When through using the pad. 3. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. It is cleanly. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. and. Fig. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Y. Gloversville.

Both of these methods are wasteful. across the face. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. are shown in the diagram. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. --Contributed by Edith E. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. or if desired. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After this is done. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. -Contributed by C. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Lowell. El Paso. Lane. remove the contents. it should be new and sharp. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Bourne. If a file is used. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and scrape out the rough parts. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Mass. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After stirring. Texas.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years.

--Contributed by Geo. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The insects came to the light. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other.cooking utensil. F. Iowa. Greenleaf. Canton. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Those having houses . I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Ill. He captured several pounds in a few hours. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Wheeler. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. After several hours' drying. Des Moines. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The process works well and needs no watching. Oregon. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Oak Park. Ill. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Marion P. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Turl. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Loren Ward. As these were single-faced disk records.

The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Glenbrook. The single boards can then be fixed. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Conn. not even with the boards themselves. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. the bottom being 3/8 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and the second one for the developing bench. Dobbins. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. boards are preferable.. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Mass. plane and pocket knife. material. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in.. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the best material to use being matched boards. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. 6 in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and as they are simple in design. Only three pieces are required. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. --Contributed by Wm. and both exactly alike. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Worcester. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. thick. one on each side of what will be the . Lay the floor next. will do as well. --Contributed by Thomas E. by 2 ft. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Rosenberg. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond.

The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. etc.. which is fixed on as shown . A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and to the outside board of the sides. 9). and the top as at C in the same drawing. In hinging the door. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 10). 3 and 4. wide. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The developing bench is 18 in. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6. and should be zinc lined. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. These are all in section and are self-explanatory.. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 8. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. At the top of the doorway. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 6 and 9. so that it will fit inside the sink. and act as a trap for the light. 6. The roof boards may next be put on. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 11. the closing side as at B. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. by screwing to the floor. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.. below which is fixed the sink. hinged to it. brown wrapping paper. and in the middle an opening. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 9 by 11 in. is cut.doorway. 2 in section. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 5. as shown in Figs. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 7. of the top of the door for the same reason.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A circular piece about 2 in. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 14. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. as in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and a 3/8-in. 17. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. In use. For beating up an egg in a glass. 1. or red light as at K. these being shown in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor.in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. as shown in the sections. Karl Hilbrich. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 6. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. mixing flour and water. Pennsylvania. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. --Contributed by W. 13. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. four coats at first is not too many. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 19. 18. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. it is better than anything on the market. Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. but not the red glass and frame. 15. hole bored in the center for a handle. screwing them each way into the boards. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . after lining with brown paper. as shown in Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Erie. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. though this is hardly advisable. 20. as at I. 16. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 16. as at M. preferably maple or ash. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 13. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. if desired. 2.

D. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Smith. L. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. for a handle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. To operate. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Mo. G. long. Ark. as shown in the sketch. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Schweiger. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. --Contributed by Wm. Mitchell. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. about 3/8 in. which. when put together properly is a puzzle. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. New York. Kansas City. -Contributed by E. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Yonkers. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by L.copper should be. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match.

Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. Having completed the bare box. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as well as improve its appearance. need them. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 1. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. A number of 1/2-in. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 2. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. for the moment. as is usually the case. 3. as shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. After the box is trimmed. The design shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. . The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. which binds them together. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to make it set level. in order to thoroughly preserve it. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The corks in use are shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. the rustic work should be varnished. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 3. as shown in Fig.

but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Each long projection represents a leg. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. 1. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. being partly eaten into. When the corn is gone cucumbers. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Traps do no good.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. share the same fate. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. as shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. too dangerous. etc. 4. it's easy. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. 3. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. can't use poison. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. F. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. and observe results. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin.. . cabbages. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. 2. life in the summer time is a vexation. But I have solved the difficulty. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals.

Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. cut some of it off and try again.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. About 9-1/2 ft. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. by trial. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. long. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. . If. cut in 1/2-in.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Iowa. of No. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. strips. -. the coil does not heat sufficiently. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers.

Kane. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. is a good size--in this compound. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Syracuse. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. to cause the door to swing shut. coffee pot. N. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. of gasoline. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. In cleaning silver. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. C. it falls to stop G. Doylestown. 1) removed. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by James M. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Pa. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Texas. and a strip. forks. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. of whiting and 1/2 oz. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fig 2. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Morse. Dallas. . The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. hot-water pot. D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Y. but with unsatisfactory results. Stir and mix thoroughly. Do not wash them. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of oleic acid with 1 gal. as shown in the sketch. Knives. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig.

They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Waverly. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Pa. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. negatives. later fixed and washed as usual.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Sprout. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. which is. La. --Contributed by Theodore L. --Contributed by Oliver S. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Fisher. but unfixed. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Harrisburg. New Orleans. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. . Ill. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. of course. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. using the paper dry.

metal. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. a harmonograph is a good prescription. 1. Fig. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. then .A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. In this uncertainty lies the charm. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. To obviate this difficulty. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.

A small weight. or the lines will overlap and blur. such as a shoe buttoner. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Another weight of about 10 lb. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. which can be regulated. K. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. A small table or platform. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. to prevent any side motion. what is most important. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge.. that is. A weight. in diameter.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. as shown in the lower part of Fig. The length of the short pendulum H. provides a means of support for the stylus. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . R. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. makes respectively 3. J. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. 1-3/4 by 2 in. one-fifth. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Arizona.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. of about 30 or 40 lb. Rosemont. as long as the other. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. as shown in Fig. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. --Contributed by Wm. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. one-fourth. Gaffney. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. A length of 7 ft. A pedestal. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. is about right for a 10-ft. etc. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. in the center of the circle to be cut. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Punch a hole. exactly one-third. --Contributed by James T.. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Chicago. with a nail set or punch. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Holes up to 3 in. Ingham. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. for instance. 1. ceiling. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. G. 1. is attached as shown at H.

distributing them over the whole card. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. and proceed as before. 6. a correspondent of .H. 5. 3.J. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. -Contributed by W. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cruger.J.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. then put 2 at the top. 4. Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. dividing them into quarters. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. of course. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The capacity of the vise. Chicago. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. N. The two key cards are made alike. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cape May City. then 3 as in Fig. and 4 as in Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Morey. --Contributed by J. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 2. 1.

Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 30 gr. deep. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of the uprights. the portion of the base under the coil. 22 gauge German-silver wire. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 6 gauge wires shown. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Asbestos board is to be preferred. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. says Popular Electricity. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. drill 15 holes. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. To assemble. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Alberta Norrell. Ga. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. 1/2 oz. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. After securing the tint desired. of 18-per-cent No. Wind the successive turns of . If constructed of the former. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. from the top and bottom. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of water. citrate of iron and ammonia. respectively. 1/4 in. wood-screws. long. --Contributed by L. remove the prints. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Augusta. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Cut through the center. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. of ferricyanide of potash. After preparing the base and uprights. sheet of well made asbestos paper.

The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. then fasten the upright in place. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. square. Small knobs may be added if desired. 16 gauge copper wire. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Ampere. Ward. etc. 14 gauge. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. which. screws. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The case may be made of 1/2-in. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.. but these are not necessary. Y. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. N. as they are usually thrown away when empty. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. rivets. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . cut and dressed 1/2 in. Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. if one is not a smoker. --Contributed by Frederick E.

The material can be of any wood. especially if a large tub is used. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. and labeled "Poison. brass. Heat it until hot (not red hot). of water. Kenosha. California. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Ark. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. particularly so when the iron has once been used. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Larson.. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Richmond. A. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. being careful about the heat. zinc. as shown in the sketch. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. B. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. or has become corroded. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. then to the joint to be soldered. Copper. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. In soldering galvanized iron. and rub the point of the copper on it. G.14 oz. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. and one made of poplar finished black. a piece of solder. sandpaper or steel wool. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. --Contributed by A. --C. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. of glycerine to 16 oz. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. lead. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. S. --Contributed by W." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. The parts are put together with dowel pins. galvanized iron. tinner's acid. Wis. it must be ground or filed to a point. This is considerable annoyance. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. E and F. If the soldering copper is an old one. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. D. C. tin. Eureka Springs. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. . Jaquythe.

with good results. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. W. I bind my magazines at home evenings. -Contributed by H. wide. round iron. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. in diameter. B.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. The punch A. a ring may be made from any metal. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. brass and silver. Apart from this. Troy. 2. 7/8 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . is made of a piece of 5/8 in. and drill out the threads. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. This completes the die. Y. C. Take a 3/4-in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. nut. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. D. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Hankin. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. This will leave a clear hole. such as copper. however. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. which gives two bound volumes each year. Place the band. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Fig. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. N. 1. Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. in diameter. The covers of the magazines are removed. Brass rings can be plated when finished. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding.

A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. If started with the January or the July issue. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 5. size 16 or larger. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. The covering should be cut out 1 in. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. and place them against the strings in the frame. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1/8 in. 1. and then to string No. is used for the sewing material. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. through the notch on the left side of the string No. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. C. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. using . 1 in Fig. deep. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. . threaded double. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. allowing about 2 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The string No. 1.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. and a third piece. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. is nailed across the top. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. on all edges except the back. Start with the front of the book. 1. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied.4. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. of the ends extending on each side. as shown in Fig. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. The covering can be of cloth. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 2. After drawing the thread tightly. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. which is fastened the same as the first. then back through the notch on the right side. Coarse white thread. Place the cardboard covers on the book. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Five cuts. 2. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The sections are then prepared for sewing.

and mark around each one. round iron. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. and. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Tinplate.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto. Cal. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Nebr. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. at opposite sides to each other. For the blade an old talking-machine . The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. on which to hook the blade. College View. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Divine. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. --Contributed by Clyde E.

hydraulic pipe. at the same end. and another piece (B) 6 in. E. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Then on the board put . Moorhead. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Hays.. On the upper side. B. or double extra heavy. in order to drill the holes in the ends. C. thick. fuse hole at D. and 1/4 in. and 1/4 in. -Contributed by Willard J. with 10 teeth to the inch. F. Make the blade 12 in. by 1 in. and file in the teeth. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. thick. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Ohio. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. long. by 4-1/2 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. A. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. as it is sometimes called. as shown. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.. bore. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Summitville. and a long thread plug. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Miss. with a steel sleeve. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe.

Connect up as shown. some sheet copper or brass for plates. high around this apparatus. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. 4 jars. of wire to each coil. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . using about 8 in. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. the jars need not be very large. If you are going to use a current of low tension. and some No. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Boyd. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. --Contributed by Chas. as from batteries. about 5 ft. A lid may be added if desired. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. H. Philadelphia. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. of rubber-covered wire.

and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. For the front runners these measurements are: A. wide and 3/4 in. two pieces 30 in. 4 in. C. Equip block X with screw eyes. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 2 in. The current then will flow through the motor. C. 3 and No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 30 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood... 2. long. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. An iron washer. by 5 in. by 6 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Z. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. and four pieces 14 in. direct to wire across jars. 4. long. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 34 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. with the cushion about 15 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. are important. & S. as they "snatch" the ice. On the door of the auto front put the . long by 22 in. making them clear those in the front runner. In proportioning them the points A. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 4) of 3/4-in. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the brass trimmings use No. B and C. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. by 1 in. by 5 in. beginning at the rear. Their size also depends on the voltage. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. is used to reduce friction.the way. thick. square by 14 ft. Construct the auto front (Fig. See Fig. 1 and so on for No. apart. Put arm of switch on point No. Fig. oak boards. long. .. No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 3. and bolt through. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. two pieces 14 in. on No. 15-1/2 in. B. gives full current and full speed. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. as they are not substantial enough. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. two pieces 34 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. A variation of 1/16 in. 1. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. First sandpaper all the wood. 11 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. The stock required for them is oak. 2 in. 3 in. two for each jar. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. wide. Use no nails. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The top disk in jar No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 1 is connected to point No.. 2 and 3. 7 in. 27 B. A 3/4-in. above the ground. steel rod makes a good steering rod. The illustration shows how to shape it. wide by 3/4 in. wide and 2 in. and for the rear runners: A. 2. 2 is lower down than in No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. To wire the apparatus. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. and plane it on all edges. B. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. by 1-1/4 in. thick. long. however. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 1 on switch. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Use no screws on the running surface. by 1-1/4 in. sheet brass 1 in. 2. 5 on switch. The connection between point No. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs.. by 2 in... 16-1/2 in. or source of current. then apply a coat of thin enamel. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. For the steel runners use 3/8 in.

monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. long. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. If desired. by 1/2 in. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. overshoes. fasten a cord through the loop. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Then get some upholstery buttons. etc. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. cheap material. which is somewhat moist. parcels. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. to improve the appearance. a brake may be added to the sled. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. to the wheel. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. such as used on automobiles. may be stowed within. The best way is to get some strong. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Fasten a horn. brass plated. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. cutting it out of sheet brass. by 30 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. or with these for $25. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . a number of boys may share in the ownership. such as burlap. lunch. If the expense is greater than one can afford. If desired.

tree and bring. Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. London. the same diameter as the wheel. so that the center of the blade. though more difficult. CD. from F to G. FC. Draw a circle on paper.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. The first tooth may now be cut. some files. with twenty-four teeth. 4). should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. sheet metal. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. which. 3. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. 2. a compass. thick. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. mild steel or iron. will be over the line FG. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. say 1 in. The Model Engineer. when flat against it. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. First take the case of a small gearwheel. made from 1/16-in. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. by drawing diameters. the cut will be central on the line. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. A small clearance space. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 1. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. This guide should have a beveled edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. E. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Fig. The straight-edge. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in.

substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. No shock will be perceptible. 2. Then take one outlet wire. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. transmitter. hold in one hand. as shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. Focus the camera in the usual manner. B. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. A bright. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. each in the center. B. 1. Make a hole in the other. . 1. or several pieces bound tightly together.Four Photos on One Plate of them. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. R. either the pencils for arc lamps. electric lamp. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. as shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. If there is no faucet in the house. and the other outlet wire.

Slattery. J. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. If desired. leaving about 10 in. of course. But in this experiment. Ohio. One like a loaf of bread. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and will then burn the string C. are also needed. or more of the latter has been used. Then set the whole core away to dry. For a base use a pine board 10 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Emsworth. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Dry batteries are most convenient. --Contributed by Geo. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Several battery cells. under the gable. and again wind the wire around it. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and about that size. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. as shown. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Wrenn. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. at each end for terminals. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Ashland. 36 wire around it. A is a wooden block. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. B. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Pa. serves admirably. They have screw ends. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. as indicated by E E. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. by 1 in.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. by 12 in. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E.

while C is open. for the . in parallel. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. run a No. At one side secure two receptacles. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Newark. 1. Place 16-cp. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. the terminal of the coil. Fig. E. Ohio. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and the lamps. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris.wire. as shown. Connect these three to switch. and switch. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. These should have hollow ends. until the hand points to zero on the scale. From the other set of binding-posts. 12 or No. The oven is now ready to be connected. in series with bindingpost. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. 2.. C. Fig. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. as shown. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. D. and one single post switch. F. 14 wire. First make a support. Turn on switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. Jr. The apparatus is now ready for operation. connecting lamp receptacles. B B. C. D.

36 magnet wire instead of No. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 14. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 4 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. The pointer or hand. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 1/4 in. 1. is made of iron. If for 3-way. 3 amperes. The box is 5-1/2 in. etc. long. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. D. drill in only to the opening already through. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Montreal.E. Mine is wound with two layers of No. Fig. high. long and make a loop. --Contributed by J. 10 turns to each layer. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. is made of wire. as shown in the cut. This may be made of wood. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. The core. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. a battery. At a point a little above the center. Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. until the scale is full. 7.. to prevent it turning on the axle. 1/2 in. but if for a 4way. thick. although brass is better. 1. 5. a standard ammeter. B. drill a hole as shown at H. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 4 amperes. Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 6. Dussault. 2. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 5. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. E. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. deep. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. remove the valve. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. long. wide and 1-3/4 in. 3. inside measurements. a variable resistance. wind with plenty of No. D. C. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. and D. 14 wire. After drilling. To make one. It is 1 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. wide and 1/8 in. Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. This is slipped on the pivot. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. from the lower end.or 4-way valve or cock. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. drill through the entire case and valve. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. although copper or steel will do. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 4. A wooden box.

making two holes about 1/4 in. high.performing electrical experiments. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. E. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the other connects with the water rheostat. A. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. By connecting the motor. To start the light. provided with a rubber stopper. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the arc light. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. in thickness . This stopper should be pierced. which is used for reducing the current. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in diameter. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. as shown. B. F. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. D. One wire runs to the switch. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.

Fig. N. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. as shown in C. B. If all adjustments are correct. If the interrupter does not work at first. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. To insert the lead plate. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. 1.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Fig. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 1. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Carthage. 2. Y. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. long. where he is placed in an upright open . Jones. A. As there shown. as shown in B. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig. A piece of wood. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Having fixed the lead plate in position. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Turn on the current and press the button. --Contributed by Harold L. 2. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle.

and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. inside dimensions. If everything is not black. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. dressed in brilliant. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. especially the joints and background near A. to aid the illusion. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The lights. Its edges should nowhere be visible. should be miniature electric lamps. within the limits of an ordinary room. high. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. until it is dark there. giving a limp. They need to give a fairly strong light. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. from which the gong has been removed. light-colored garments. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. A. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. as the entire interior. with the exception of the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The skeleton is made of papier maché. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The glass should be the clearest possible. which can be run by three dry cells. should be colored a dull black. The model. by 7-1/2 in. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. by 7 in. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections.. loosejointed effect. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. is constructed as shown in the drawings. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. All . has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. and must be thoroughly cleansed. the illusion will be spoiled. figures and lights. L and M. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. could expect from a skeleton. and wave his arms up and down. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. especially L.coffin.

To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Cal. placed about a foot apart. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. square block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. If a gradual transformation is desired. W. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Two finishing nails were driven in. after which it assumes its normal color. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. --Contributed by Geo. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. fat spark. as shown in the sketch. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Fry. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery.

With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. The plates are separated 6 in. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. and should be separated about 1/8 in. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 1. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. as shown. In Fig. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. hydrogen gas is generated. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. If a lighted match . Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. A (see sketch). This is a wide-mouth bottle. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. by small pieces of wood. New York. Cohen. or a solution of sal soda. One of these plates is connected to metal top. into the receiver G. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. -Contributed by Dudley H. to make it airtight. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. In Fig. the remaining space will be filled with air. soldered in the top. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. with two tubes. F.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. B and C.

which is plugged up at both ends. as is shown in the illustration. says the Model Engineer. C C. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. then a suitable burner is necessary. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. by means of the clips. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. If desired. One row is drilled to come directly on top. A piece of 1/8-in. London. 1-5/16 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. and the ends of the tube. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. 1/2 in. The distance between the nipple. A. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. B. copper pipe. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. P. in diameter and 6 in. of No. should be only 5/16 of an inch. from the bottom. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. or by direct contact with another magnet. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Fig. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. 1. A nipple. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Fig. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A 1/64-in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. 36 insulated wire. is then coiled around the brass tube. N. A. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. either by passing a current of electricity around it. is made by drilling a 1/8in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. 2 shows the end view. copper pipe. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. N. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. long.

taking care not to bend the iron. 2). Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. this makes a much nicer book. leaving the folded edge uncut. should be cut to the diameter of the can. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Fig. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. longer and 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. 1. larger all around than the book. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Turn the book over and paste the other side.lamp cord. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. 1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. duck or linen. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. about 8 or 10 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Fig. at the front and back for fly leaves. Cut four pieces of cardboard. 3. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. trim both ends and the front edge. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. smoothly. fold and cut it 1 in. boards and all. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. cut to the size of the pages. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. with a fine saw. Fig. Take two strips of stout cloth. but if the paper knife cannot be used.

as shown. A. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. as shown in the sketch. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. H. Bedford City. in diameter and 30 in. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Toronto. . Parker. pasting them down (Fig. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. but its diameter is a little smaller. is made the same depth as B. 4). without a head. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. is fitted in it and soldered. Another tank. the joint will be gas tight.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. C. Ont. This will cause some air to be enclosed. or rather the top now. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. A gas cock. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. is perforated with a number of holes. and a little can. D. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. --Contributed by James E. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. which will just slip inside the little can. is turned on it. of tank A is cut a hole. Noble. B. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. In the bottom. deep. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Va. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. 18 in. E. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is soldered onto tank A. --Contributed by Joseph N. Another can.

B. J. The longitudinal corner spines. The wiring diagram. E. exactly 12 in. as shown at C. C. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. -Contributed by H. D. square by 42 in.. long. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. The diagonal struts. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. which moves to either right or left. A. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. basswood or white pine. and the four diagonal struts. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. shows how the connections are to be made. should be 1/4 in. and sewed double to give extra strength. The armature. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. B. D. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. long. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. with an electric-bell magnet. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. should be cut a little too long. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. If the back armature. tacks. Fig. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. The small guards. Beverly. The bridle knots. when finished.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. and about 26 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. to prevent splitting. If the pushbutton A is closed. fastened in the bottom. H is a square knot. by 1/2 in. are shown in detail at H and J. which may be either spruce. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. should be 3/8 in. B. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Fig. thus adjusting the . N. 2. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. A A. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. making the width. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Bott. S. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. 1.

D. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Closing either key will operate both sounders. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Clay Center. If the kite is used in a light wind. with gratifying results. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. can be made of a wooden .lengths of F and G. Chicago. --Contributed by A. and if a strong wind is blowing. that refuse to slide easily. shift toward F. Harbert. for producing electricity direct from heat. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Stoddard. A bowline knot should be tied at J. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. to prevent slipping. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. E. --Contributed by Edw. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the batteries do not run down for a long time. however. as shown. Kan. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters.

E. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The wood screw. A. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. 14 or No. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. C. F. by means of machine screws or. and also holds the pieces of wood. which conducts the current into the cannon. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. or parallel with the compass needle. When the cannon is loaded. A. C. with a pocket compass. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in.frame. A and B. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. E. and the current may then be detected by means. Chicago. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. B. in position. placed on top. A. --Contributed by A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Then. with a number of nails. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. to the cannon. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. Fasten a piece of wood. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. D. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. 16 single-covered wire..

The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Ohio. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Marion. 1. A and S. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. with the long arm at L'. Fig. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Mich. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. To reverse. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. where there is a staple. --Contributed by Henry Peck. A and S. in this position the door is locked. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. To lock the door. press the button. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. A. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Fig. To unlock the door. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1.the current is shut off. within the reach of the magnet. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Big Rapids. Keil. . when in position at A'. L. --Contributed by Joseph B. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Bend the strips BB (Fig. to receive the screw in the center. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. H. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. Chicago. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. screw is bored in the block. now at A' and S'. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. A hole for a 1/2 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. but no weights or strings. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. square and 3/8 in. B. 1.

When ready for use. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. are enameled a jet black. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. long. Thread the other end of the pipe. Rand. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. pipe with 1-2-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. about 18 in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and may be made at very slight expense. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and C is a dumbbell. West Somerville. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. The standard and base. hole. or for microscopic work. put in the handle. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. gas-pipe. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. --Contributed by C. J. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When the holes are finished and your lines set. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. Mass. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if desired the handles may . if enameled white on the concave side. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple.

Any old pail which is thick enough will do.be covered with leather. Warren. 1. across. D. 8 in. Fig. This peculiar property is also found in ice. B. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. M. North Easton. inside the pail. with a cover. which shall project at least 2 in. high by 1 ft.. long and 8 in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. across. A. Mass. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. E. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. --Contributed by C. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time.

say 1/4 in.-G. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. the point of the blue flame. 3) with false top and bottom. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. pipe. and 3/4 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. and graphite. 2. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. When lighted. sand. Set aside for a few days until well dried.. C. about 1 in. C. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. Fit all the parts together snugly. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. 15%. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 1330°. Whatever burner is used. W. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. but will be cheaper in operation. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 1). How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Line the pail. bottom and sides. and 3/8 in. diameter. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. of fine wire. After removing all the paper. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. The 2 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 1). carefully centering it. layer of the clay mixture. C. as is shown in the sketch. if you have the materials. cutting the hole a little smaller. projecting from each end (Fig. and with especial caution the first time. to hold the clay mixture. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. full length of iron core. E. L. and your kiln is ready for business. such . 2 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. if there is to be any glazing done. thick. After finishing the core. let this dry thoroughly. or make one yourself. make two wood ends... Cover with paper and shellac as before. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. It is placed inside the kiln. pack this space-top. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Wind about 1/8 in. in diameter. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. wider than the kiln. 60%. and varnish. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. thick. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. which is the hottest part. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 1390°-1410°. passing wire nails through and clinching them. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. strip of sheet iron. hotel china. pipe 2-ft. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Fig. the firing should be gradual. long.mixture of clay. 25%. in diameter. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. This done. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. as dictated by fancy and expense. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. hard porcelain.

diameter. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. as shown in the sketch herewith. leaving long terminals. 1. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. red and black. R. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Then. 2. C. B. and so on. Chicago. C. square them up and place in a vise. length of .. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. D. overlaps and rests on the body. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. bind tightly with black silk. Take the red cards. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. Washington. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. and divide it into two piles. 2. square them up. C. Next restore all the cards to one pack.53 in. the next black. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. The funnel. procure a new deck. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. as in Fig. about 1/16 in. . Then take the black cards. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. all cards facing the same way. A. taking care to have the first card red. as in Fig. Of course. --Contributed by J. every alternate card being the same color. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. and discharges into the tube. T. with a plane. 2). You can display either color called for. and plane off about 1/16 in. around the coil. 8 in. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig.

The cement. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. A. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. 1 gill of fine white sand. and then the frame is ready to assemble. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. through the holes already drilled. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. E. as the difficulties increase with the size. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Let . B. D. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. thus making all the holes coincide. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Fig. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. N. A. To find the fall of snow. The upright pieces. C. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in.J. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. the same ends will come together again. angle iron for the frame. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. of the frame. stove bolts. E. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. to form a dovetail joint as shown. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file.. the first thing to decide on is the size. The bottom glass should be a good fit.C. 1. When the glass is put in the frame a space. about 20 in. All the horizontal pieces. so that when they are assembled. F. 1 gill of litharge. Long Branch. and this is inexpensive to build. B. B. stove bolts. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.

Fig. if desired. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Fasten the lever. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. to the door knob. D. a centerpiece (A. A. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. B. Aquarium Finished If desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

AA. 26 in. long. PAUL S. 1 is the motor with one side removed. but mark their position on the frame. 3 shows one of the paddles. screwed to the door frame. White. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. approximately 1 ft. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. thus doing away with the spring. N. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 6 in. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Buffalo. to form the main supports of the frame. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Do not fasten these boards now. I referred this question to my husband. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. as at E. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. 1 . A small piece of spring brass. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 2 is an end view. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. will open the door about 1/2 in. D. Cut two of them 4 ft. 1. Fig. wide by 1 in. F. C. long. which is 15 in. from the outside top of the frame. Y.. and Fig. long. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 2 at GG. They are shown in Fig. Fig. to form the slanting part. Cut two pieces 30 in. long. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. with a water pressure of 70 lb. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. --Contributed by Orton E. Fig. E. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. B. to keep the frame from spreading. To make the frame. according to the slant given C. 1. another. another. for the top. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 2 ft. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. wide . and another.

fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Tack one side on. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. When it has cooled. 1. 4. Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. iron 3 by 4 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. that is. as shown in Fig. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. 2) with a 5/8-in. thick. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. and drill a 1/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and a 1/4 -in. 2) and another 1 in. iron. tapering from 3/16 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. holes. hole to form the bearings. steel shaft 12 in. (I. thick (HH. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Fasten them in their proper position. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. after which drill a 5/8 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Drill 1/8-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. remove the cardboard. by 1-1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. take down the crosspieces. pipe. long and filling it with babbitt metal. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. to a full 1/2 in. Make this hole conical. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole through its center. These are the paddles. hole through them. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Now block the wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Take the side pieces. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ.burlap will do -. 2) form a substantial base. Fig. GG. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Fig. hole from the tops to the 1-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. in diameter. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 24 in. and drill a 1-in. from one end by means of a key. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.

it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. it would be more durable. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. remove any white curtains there may be. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. drill press. but now I put them in the machine. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide.a water-tight joint. place the outlet over a drain. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. If sheet-iron is used. Correct exposure depends. Drill a hole through the zinc. on the lens. It is obvious that. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If the bearings are now oiled. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. any window will do. says the Photographic Times. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. of course. or what is called a process plate. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Do not stop down the lens. as shown in the sketch at B. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and the subject may move. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and leave them for an hour or so. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Focus the camera carefully. Darken the rest of the window. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Raise the window shade half way. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. light and the plate. shutting out all light from above and the sides. ice-cream freezer. start the motor. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. but as it would have cost several times as much. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. as this makes long exposure necessary. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. sewing machine. . and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. and as near to it as possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place.

C. 2. and without fog. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. B.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The core C. the core is drawn down out of sight. A. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The current required is very small. by twisting. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. 2. and a base. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. or can be taken from an old magnet. without detail in the face. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. hard rubber. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. with binding posts as shown. The glass tube may be a test tube. as a slight current will answer. D. With a piece of black paper. or wood. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. a core. as shown in Fig. an empty pill bottle may be used. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. until the core slowly rises. On completing . which is made of iron and cork. or an empty developer tube. full of water. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. a glass tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.

1 lb. and one not easy to explain. finest graphite. and make a pinhole in the center. whale oil. water and 3 oz. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. according to his control of the current. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. The colors appear different to different people. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1 pt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is Benham's color top. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk.

nearly every time. C. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. when the action ceases. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. or three spot. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. before cutting. especially if the deck is a new one.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. B. As this device is easily upset. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.L. In prize games. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. fan-like. -Contributed by D. Chicago.. In making hydrogen. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. A. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. deuce.B.

W. in diameter. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 10 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. S. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 9 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 2. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Bently. --Contributed by C. . Huron. Detroit. long and 3 in. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 3). as shown in Fig. Jr. J. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. long. (Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A.. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper. Fig. Make a 10-sided stick. Dak. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. in length and 3 in. 4. --Contributed by F. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 12 in. 1. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A.

Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. A piece of tin. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Cut out paper sections (Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. allowing 1 in. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. but bends toward D. will cause an increased movement of C. push back the bolt. bend it at right angles throughout its length. A second piece of silk thread. Denver. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Fortunately. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. with a pin driven in each end. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. making it three-ply thick. C. about the size of a leadpencil. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. it is equally easy to block that trick. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fig. Remove the form. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. long. on one side and the top. --Contributed by Reader. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. A. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. 6. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. E. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels.

B. long. 4 ft. A. are made 2 by 4 in. Jr. Minn... while the lower switch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Fremont Hilscher. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The feet. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Two wood-base switches.strip. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. The reverse switch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. By this arrangement one. S. will last for several years. long. are 7 ft. B. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Paul. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. as shown. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. S. posts. The 2 by 4-in. West St. --Contributed by J. The upper switch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. or left to right. S S. R. W. is connected each point to a battery. put together as shown in the sketch.

1. 2. H and K. and has two wood blocks. or anything available. The base is made of wood. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and the crank bearing C. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. with two washers. pulley wheel. Fig. which will be described later. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Fig. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. E. In Fig. cut in half. and in Fig. is an old bicycle pump. and valve crank S. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. which is made of tin. 2 and 3. FF.every house. and a cylindrical . 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The steam chest D. 3/8 in. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. thick. The hose E connects to the boiler. the size of the hole in the bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The piston is made of a stove bolt. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base.

piece of hard wood. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. 3. The valve crank S. This engine was built by W. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. can be an old oil can. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and saturated with thick oil. as it is merely a trick of photography. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. This is wound with soft string. powder can. G. as shown in Fig. of Cuba. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Schuh and A. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. to receive the connecting rod H. is cut out of tin. and the desired result is obtained. J. at that. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Eustice. Fig. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. San Jose. or galvanized iron. Cal. G. . A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and a very amusing trick. W. The boiler. using the positive wire as a pen. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. 4. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. 1. Fry. Wis. C. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Fig. First. --Contributed by Geo.

must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Fig. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. and pass ropes around . 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. as shown at AA. When turning. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. C. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Fig. The smaller wheel. Cut half circles out of each stave. and place a bell on the four ends. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. They may be of any size. 1 by covering up Figs. diameter. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. as shown. B. and Fig.

say 1/2 or 3/4 in. Louis. which allows the use of small sized ropes. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. W. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. from the transmitter. but not on all. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. produces a higher magnifying power). A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. To make this lensless microscope. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.G.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.M. such as clothes lines. which accounts for the sound. --Contributed by H. as shown in the illustration. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. long. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. procure a wooden spool. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Mo. A (a short spool. St. From a piece of thin . A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.

B. i. the object should be of a transparent nature. An innocent-looking drop of water. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. The lever. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. is fastened at each end by pins. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. . the diameter will appear three times as large. which costs little or nothing to make. or 64 times. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. if the distance is reduced to one-half.. D. 3. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. 2. H. e.) But an object 3/4-in. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. and at the center. is made of iron. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. E. The pivot. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. darting across the field in every direction. C. place a small object on the transparent disk. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.. 1. and look through the hole D. which are pieces of hard wood. by means of brads. as in all microscopes of any power. Fig. held at arm's length. cut out a small disk. C. otherwise the image will be blurred. can be made of brass and the armature. fastened to a wooden base. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. bent as shown.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. the diameter will appear twice as large. Viewed through this microscope. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. To use this microscope. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. The spring. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. A. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. B. and so on. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. in which hay has been soaking for several days. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. D. if the distance is reduced to one-third.

or a single piece. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. wide. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. coils wound with No. A. The door. 1. wood: C. B. D. E. 16 in. D. brass. binding posts: H spring The stop. wide. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. D. wood. long. Cut the top. and are connected to the contacts. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. HH. C. The back. DD. or taken from a small one-point switch. wood: F. between the armature and the magnet. K. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. . FF. in length and 16 in. should be about 22 in. connection of D to nail. wide. Each side. similar to the one used in the sounder. thick. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. A switch. can be made panel as shown. fastened near the end. AA. 16 in. brass: B. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. C. Fig.SOUNDER-A. which are made to receive a pivot. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. soft iron. wide and set in between sides AA. long and 14-1/2 in. nail soldered on A. B. brass or iron soldered to nail. F. brass: E. KEY-A. The base of the key. wide. K. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The binding posts. is cut from a board about 36 in. Fig. long by 16 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 2. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 26 wire: E. wide and about 20 in.

brads. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. E. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. long. Make 12 cleats. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 2 and made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. AA. as shown. as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. Garfield. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Ill. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. material. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.. When the electrical waves strike the needle. cut in them. 13-1/2 in. In operation. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .

--Contributed by R. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. and thus decreases the resistance. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. E. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A fairly stiff spring. Ridgewood. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. filled with water. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Brown. N.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. will give a greater speed. in order to increase the surface. J. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. B. through which a piece of wire is passed. pulls down the armature. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Y. down into the water increases the surface in contact. The cord is also fastened to a lever. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the pipe is used. F. and. Fairport. the magnet. C. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. A (see sketch). --Contributed by John Koehler. A. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Pushing the wire. when used with a motor.

B. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.for the secret contact. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. --Contributed by Perry A. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Of course. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Gachville. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. N. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. if desired. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . even those who read this description.

records and 5-5/8 in. Cal. wide. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Washington. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Dobson. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. in a semicircle 2 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. from the bottom. Jr. deep and 3/4 in.whenever the bell rings. Mangold. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. and on both sides of the middle shelf. --Contributed by Dr. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. . Nails for stops are placed at DD. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. thick and 12-in. D. Connect switch to post B. wide. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. E. A. 2. H. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. J. apart. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. With about 9 ft. Compton. The top board is made 28-in. C. C.. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. long and 5 in. East Orange. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. for 10in. --Contributed by H. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. N. long and full 12-in. wide. for 6-in. records. 1. The three shelves are cut 25-in.

closed. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. which in operation is bent. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. to which is fastened a cord. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown by the dotted lines. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. A. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . When the cord is passed over pulley C. Va. B. Roanoke. 1. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. E. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.

or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Fig. apart. In these grooves place wheels. 5) when they are placed. they will bind. in diameter. one in each end. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. is compressed by wheels. Fig. Figs. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. wide. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. which should be about 1/2 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Now put all these parts together. long. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. they will let the air through. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. E. thick. 3). in diameter. 3. holes (HH. excepting the crank and tubing.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. The crankpin should fit tightly. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 4 shows the wheel-holder. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Figs. Bore two 1/4 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. deep and 1/2 in. 1 in. through one of these holes. E. square and 7/8 in. 1. CC. Put the rubber tube. as shown in the illustration. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. If the wheels fit too tightly. Cut two grooves. Fig. In the sides (Fig. B. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. These wheels should be 3/4 in. deep. Do not fasten the sides too . wide. to turn on pins of stout wire. it too loose. 1 in. thick (A. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. against which the rubber tubing. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. D. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter.

is all the expense necessary. For ease in handling the pump. A in Fig. mark again. AA. --Contributed by Dan H. B. The animal does not fear to enter the box. as shown in Fig. The screen which is shown in Fig. beyond each of these two. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The three legs marked BBB. Fig. from each end. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. and 3-1/2 in. mark for hole and 3 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. stands 20 in. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Fig. Kan. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. because he can . 1. tubing. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. a platform should be added. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. and mark for a hole. To use the pump. as it gives steadiness to the motion. though a small iron wheel is better. the pump will give a steady stream. In the two cross bars 1 in. 1. 2. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. iron. 1. 15 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. costing 10 cents. Fig. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Idana. and are 30 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 2. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from the bottom and 2 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Hubbard. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. long. from that mark the next hole. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Take the center of the bar. 17-1/2 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. AA. from each end. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Cut six pieces.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. of material. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 1. from each end.

It is useful for running induction coils. or. potassium bichromate. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. . This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. 4 oz. The battery is now ready for use. --Contributed by H. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. 2). or small electric motors. If the solution touches the zinc. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. giving it a bright. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. C. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. 1) must be prepared. The mercury will adhere. 14 copper wire. some of it should be poured out. To cause a flow of electricity. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sulphuric acid. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. shuts him in. and touches the bait the lid is released and.see through it: when he enters. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. When through using the battery. stirring constantly. The battery is now complete. until it is within 3 in. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. acid 1 part). but if one casts his own zinc. of water dissolve 4 oz. Place the carbon in the jar. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. there is too much liquid in the jar. Meyer. and the solution (Fig. Philadelphia. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. however. When the bichromate has all dissolved. of the top. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The truncated. silvery appearance. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. dropping. add slowly. If it is wet. If the battery has been used before. long having two thumb screws. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. rub the zinc well.

This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. the jump-spark coil . If.Fig. however. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. e. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Madison. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. After putting in the coal.. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. i. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. which opens the door. the battery circuit. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. with slight changes. The price of the coil depends upon its size. while the coal door is being opened. Wis.

the full length of the coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 6. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 5. while a 12-in. . in a straight line from top to bottom. This coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 7. coil. which is made of light copper wire.7. 7). Change the coil described. Now for the receiving apparatus. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal.described elsewhere in this book. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 6. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. W W. as shown in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. diameter. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 7. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as shown in Fig. made of No. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. in a partial vacuum. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. This will make an excellent receiver. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. and closer for longer distances. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. apart. Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. being a 1-in. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. W W. After winding.

and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. No. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. using an electric motor and countershaft. being at right angles. 90°. where A is the headstock. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. For an illustration. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A. but simply illustrates the above to show that. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. may be easily made at very little expense. only. The writer does not claim to be the originator. . and hence the aerial line. 90°. which will be described later. A large cone pulley would then be required.6 stranded. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). These circles. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 1 to 4. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. at any point to any metal which is grounded. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. above the ground. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. Run a wire from the other binding post.The aerial line. to the direction of the current. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. I run my lathe by power. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. in the air. B the bed and C the tailstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. after all. are analogous to the flow of induction. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. being vertical. 1). attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. as it matches the color well. Figs. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.

thick. Fig. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. A. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 4. If the bearing has been properly made. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. To make these bearings. and runs in babbitt bearings. 6. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 4. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. on the under side of the bed. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. too. The bolts B (Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. After pouring. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 6 Headstock Details D. just touching the shaft. which pass through a piece of wood. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 2 and 3. and Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. deep. Heat the babbitt well. B. 5. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. which are let into holes FIG. Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . tapered wooden pin. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 5. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The headstock. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. but not hot enough to burn it. one of which is shown in Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot.

Oak Park. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. FIG. B. embedded in the wood. If not perfectly true. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. This prevents corrosion. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Newark. N. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.other machines. Take up about 5 ft. If one has a wooden walk. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. lock nut. they may be turned up after assembling. so I had to buy one. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. and a 1/2-in. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. the alarm is easy to fix up. of the walk . 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Ill.J. A. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary.

(A. so that they will not touch. Minn. leaving a clear solution. To avoid touching it. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Finally. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Minneapolis. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. hang the articles on the wires. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. of water. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. to roughen the surface slightly. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Fig. to remove all traces of grease. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. save when a weight is on the trap. 2). water. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Jackson. Connect up an electric bell. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R. silver or other metal. before dipping them in the potash solution. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. and the alarm is complete. add potassium cyanide again. clean the articles thoroughly.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. S. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in.

Repeat six times. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. will serve for the key. Make a somewhat larger block (E. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. a circuit is completed. with the pivot 2 in. must be about 1 in. 3) directly over the hole.5 to 4 volts. nickel and such metals. as at F. Having finished washing the precipitate. of water. With an electric pressure of 3. German silver. I. 18 wire. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. silver can be plated direct. if one does not possess a buffing machine. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Where Bunsen cells are used. Then. Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. and then treated as copper. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. zinc. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. thick by 3 in. 1 in. On brass. 10 in. make a key and keyhole. The wooden block C. This solution. lead. long. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. use 2 volts for large articles. copper. Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. square. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 1). an old electric bell or buzzer. Can be made of a 2-in. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. long. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. The wooden catch. Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. which . Fig. If more solution is required. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. piece of broomstick. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. light strokes. a hand scratch brush is good. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. B should be of the same wood. Take quick. with water. 1. Screw the two blocks together. from the lower end. A 1/4 in. and the larger part (F. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. 3. A (Fig. with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. shaking. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. hole in its center. of clothesline rope and some No. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys.up to 2 qt. When all this is set up. Before silver plating. about 25 ft. pewter. saw a piece of wood. which is advised. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. also. and 4 volts for very small ones. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1 not only unlocks. which is held by catch B. 1). To provide the keyhole. If accumulators are used. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. but opens the door. such metals as iron. --Model Engineer. when the point of the key touches the tin. as shown in Fig.

enlarged. he tosses it into the cave. floor. between the parlor and the room back of it. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. Fig. surrounding a perfectly black space. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. which unlocks the door. so much the better. the box should be painted black both inside and out. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. H. Heavy metal objects. Fig. cut in one side. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The interior must be a dead black. The magician stands in front of this. . with a switch as in Fig. H. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and plenty of candles. no painting inside is required. Klipstein. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. in his shirt sleeves. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Next. to throw the light toward the audience. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. H. 1. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Objects appear and disappear. half way from open end to closed end. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. some black cloth. Thus. heighten the illusion. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. he points with one finger to the box. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. One thing changes to another and back again. 0. with the lights turned low.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. sides and end. and finally lined inside with black cloth. such as forks. Receiving the bowl again. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. the requisites are a large soap box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. although a little more trouble. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. 116 Prospect St. or cave. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. a few simple tools. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Fig. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. New Jersey. Fig. 1. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. On either side of the box. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and hands its contents round to the audience. some black paint. spoons and jackknives. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 2. the illumination in front must be arranged. top. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Next. He removes the bowl from the black box. should be cut a hole. --Contributed by E. shows catch B. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. is the cut through which the rope runs. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. In front of you. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. 3. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. To prepare such a magic cave. and black art reigns supreme. B. East Orange. and a slit. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire.. The box must be altered first. 2. One end is removed.

But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. into the eyes of him who looks. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. of course. is on a table) so much the better. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and several black drop curtains. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if portieres are impossible. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The exhibitor should be . which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The illusion. But illusions suggest themselves. the room where the cave is should be dark. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. which are let down through the slit in the top. Consequently. you must have an assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. as presented by Hermann. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain.Finally. The audience room should have only low lights. a screen must be used. in which are oranges and apples. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. if. had a big stage. of course. his confederate behind inserts his hand. only he. and pours them from the bag into a dish. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. one on each side of the box. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. was identical with this. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus.

and c4 + electricity. b2. e1 and e2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c4. is shown in the diagram. respectively. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. f2.. FIG. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). held down on it by two terminals. 2. c2. by 4 in. and c1 – electricity. terminal c3 will show . Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. b3. making contact with them. by means of two wood screws. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. About the center piece H moves a disk. On the disk G are two brass strips. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down on disk F by two other terminals. and a common screw. and c2 to the zinc. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. d. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. held down by another disk F (Fig. making contact with them as shown at y. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. at L. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes .is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Finally. b2. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. 1. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. terminal c3 will show +. vice versa. A. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. 1. 2). respectively. respectively. or binding posts. Then. when handle K is turned to one side. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. 2. if you turn handle K to the right. or b2.a boy who can talk. with three brass strips. c1. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. square. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. b3. A represents a pine board 4 in. c3. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. so arranged that. as shown in Fig.

More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. . B is a onepoint switch. and when on No. from four batteries. from five batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 1.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 4.. Ohio. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when on No. when on No. Jr. you have the current of one battery. 5. Tuttle. and C and C1 are binding posts. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 3. and then hold the receiver to your ear. -Contributed by A. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when A is on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. from three batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Newark. Joerin. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. jump spark coil. --Contributed by Eugene F. E. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.

Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. which may be a button or other small object. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Wis. mark. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. of Burlington. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Thus. as shown in the sketch. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. traveled by the thread. A. Redmond. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. P. and supporting the small weight.. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. New Orleans.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. per second. over the bent portion of the rule. A. E. is the device of H. rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. B. mark. The device thus arranged. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. per second for each second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. so one can see the time. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. La. Handy Electric Alarm . When you do not have a graduate at hand. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. A.

wrapping the wire around the can several times. C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Pa. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. S. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. --Contributed by Gordon T. which illuminates the face of the clock. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. but may be closed at F any time desired. Instead. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. soldered to the alarm winder. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. . How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Crafton. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Lane. and with the same result. B. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. --C. When the alarm goes off. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. for a wetting is the inevitable result. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. It was not long before a big greyhound came along.which has a piece of metal. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then if a mishap comes.

when it is being prepared. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . battery zincs. and many other interesting and useful articles. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. 1 . but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The first thing to make is a molding bench. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. as shown. bearings. ornaments of various kinds. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. A. Macey. small machinery parts. which may. C. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. AA. whence it is soon tracked into the house. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Two cleats.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. --Contributed by A. If there is no foundry Fig. With the easily made devices about to be described. BE. cannons. models and miniature objects. New York City. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. engines. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. 1. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. L. and duplicates of all these. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. binding posts. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. as shown in Fig.

near at hand. If the box is not very strong. by 8 in. D. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A wedge-shaped piece. The dowels. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. white metal. is filled with coal dust. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and saw it in half longitudinally. the "cope. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. A good way to make the flask is to take a box.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. DD. It is made of wood and is in two halves.How to Make a Mold [96] . nailed to replace the bottom of a box. say 12 in. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. high. 1. A A. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. which can be either aluminum. H. Fig. which can be made of a knitted stocking." or lower part. CC. is nailed to each end of the cope. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. E. 2 . thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The flask. and the lower pieces. as shown. makes a very good sieve. 1. The cloth bag. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. If desired the sieve may be homemade. a little larger than the outside of the flask. and the "drag. try using sand from other sources. J. CC. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. An old teaspoon. as shown. is shown more clearly in Fig. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The rammer. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. previous to sawing. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. will be required. G. II . is made of wood. but this operation will be described more fully later on. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. by 6 in. is about the right mesh. F. and a sieve. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 2. A slight shake of the bag Fig. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. which should be nailed in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Fig. and this." or upper half. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.

as shown at E. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and by grasping with both hands. in order to remove the lumps. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and scatter about 1/16 in. turn the drag other side up. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and thus judge for himself. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and then more sand is added until Fig. as it is much easier to learn by observation. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as described. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." in position. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. the surface of the sand at . which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. as shown at C. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown. Place another cover board on top. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at D." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or "cope. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. where they can watch the molders at work. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. It is then rammed again as before. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or "drag. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. In finishing the ramming. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. After ramming. The sand is then ready for molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. and if water is added. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle.

and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. thus holding the crucible securely.E should be covered with coal-dust. as shown at J. in diameter. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. deep. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. after being poured. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. as shown at H. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. and then pour. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. wide and about 1/4 in. . in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Fig. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. to give the air a chance to escape. III. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at G. thus making a dirty casting. Place a brick or other flat." or pouring-hole. The "sprue. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. place the cope back on the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown in the sketch. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. After drawing the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as shown at F. as shown at H. is next cut. in order to prevent overheating. This is done with a spoon. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. made out of steel rod. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged.

In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. --Contributed by Harold S. battery zincs. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. 15% lead. used only for zinc. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. Although the effect in the illustration . white metal and other scrap available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. the following device will be found most convenient. may be used in either direction. is very desirable. Referring to the figure. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. babbitt. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. although somewhat expensive. and the casting is then ready for finishing. If a good furnace is available. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. but any reasonable number may be used. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Minneapolis. and. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Morton. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. In my own case I used four batteries. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin.

and the oarsman is obliged to travel. If desired. To make it take a sheet-iron band. may be made of hardwood. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Then walk down among the audience. B. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. says a correspondent of the Sphinx.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. connected by cords to the rudder. backward. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. The bearings. A. as shown at A. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. The brass rings also appear distorted. as shown in the illustration. shaft made. Fig. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. outward. By replacing the oars with paddles. Then replace the table. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. 2. Put a sharp needle point. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. --Contributed by Draughtsman. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Chicago. B. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Make one of these pieces for each arm. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. which will be sufficient to hold it.

but when in motion. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. should be made of wood. It may seem strange that ice . Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. when it will again return to its original state.melted babbitt. 1. 2. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. or under pressure. spoiling its appearance. 2 and 3. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. If galvanized iron is used. and a weight. Snow. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. In the same way. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. as shown in Fig. 3. If babbitt is used. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The hubs. Fig. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. W. E. C. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The covers. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. A. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. or the paint will come off. as shown in Fig. 1. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. D. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. A block of ice. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid.

Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the contact posts being of 1/4 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 1/2 in. but by placing it between books. whenever there is any connection made at all. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and assume the shape shown at B. but. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. sometimes only one or two feet a day. no matter how slow the motion may be. as shown on page 65. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. square. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Crafton. Lane. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 2 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. as per sketch. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. P. which resembles ice in this respect. B. Pa. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact.. by 1/4. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.should flow like water. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. it will gradually change from the original shape A. brass. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. in. or supporting it in some similar way. by 5 in.

H. wooden supports. The success depends upon a slow current.thumb screws. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. --Contributed by A. G. Ward. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. horizontal lever. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Indianapolis. pulleys. The parts are: A. as shown. B. the induction coil. furnace. weight. the battery. B. alarm clock. Pa. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. draft. draft chain. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. E.000 ft. C. A is the circuit breaker. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. about the size used for automobiles. J. as shown. and five dry batteries. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. G. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. vertical lever. F. I. D. Wilkinsburg. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. K . cord. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. In the wiring diagram. and C.

will fit nicely in them. which will provide a fine place for the plants. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Kalamazoo. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Artistic Window Boxes The top. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. where house plants are kept in the home. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. such as used for a storm window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 3. material framed together as shown in Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Mich. The frame (Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. as well as the bottom. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters.

that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. 1. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. one can regulate the batteries as required. a cork and a needle. and a suitable source of power. where they are glad to have them taken away. and will give the . N.. e. and cost 27 cents FIG. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. as indicated by Fig. This is more economical than dry cells. W. as if drawn upon for its total output. in diameter. S. Thus. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch.. so as to increase the current. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. which sells for 25 cents. Halifax.. It must be remembered. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Push the needle into the cork. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. multiples of series of three. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Canada. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. is something that will interest the average American boy. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. in this connection. and the instrument will then be complete. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. 1 cp. 1 each complete with base. --Contributed by Wm. However. However. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. can be connected up in series. Grant. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. A certain number of these. i. The 1/2-cp. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. after a rest. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. this must be done with very great caution. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. but maintain the voltage constant. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. for some time very satisfactorily. in any system of lamps. by connecting them in series.

However. according to the water pressure obtainable. each. lamps. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. especially those of low internal resistance.. lamp. . The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. although the first cost is greater. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. if wound for 6 volts. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. or 22 lights.proper voltage. for display of show cases. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. 3. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Thus. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. These will give 3 cp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. So. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and for Christmas trees. by the proper combination of these. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. where the water pressure is the greatest. and running the series in parallel. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. FIG. as in Fig. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Fig. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. 2 shows the scheme. In conclusion. making. and diffused light in a room. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. 11 series. Thus. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and then lead No. If wound for 10 volts. we simply turn on the water. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. which is the same as that of one battery. generates the power for the lights. to secure light by this method. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. lamps. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. 1-cp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. 18 B & S. Chicago. double insulated wire wherever needed.

are cut just alike. thus reversing the machine. the letters indicate as follows: FF. After I connected up my induction coil. a bait of meat. . which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. simply change the switch. or from one pattern. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. and C. B. DD. as shown in the sketch. Santa Clara. Emig. switch. Plymouth. Cal. and the sides. brushes of motor. AA. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. field of motor. we were not bothered with them. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or a tempting bone. --Contributed by F. bars of pole-changing switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. --Contributed by Leonard E. Ind. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. A. outside points of switch. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. CC. To reverse the motor. B. A indicates the ground. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Parker. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. center points of switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. BB. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves.

Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. a hammer. as it is the key to the lock. attached to the end of the armature B. Fry.. a piece of string. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. W. Melchior. merely push the button E. or would remain locked. 903 Vine St. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Hutchinson. and a table or bench. thus locking the door. San Jose. which is in the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. When the circuit is broken a weight. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Cal. The button can be hidden. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. If it is not. -Contributed by Claude B. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The experiment works best . one cell being sufficient. Minn. A. To unlock the door.

3. Porto Rico. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 18 Gorham St. Canada. 4). Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 1).An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Tie the ends of the string together. which pulls the draft open. attached at the other end. releasing the weight. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. W. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Crawford Curry. as shown in Fig. run through a pulley. I. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Wis. P. 2. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. . 3. --Contributed by Geo. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. A.Contributed by F. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. where it will remain suspended as shown. in the ceiling and has a window weight. C. Culebra. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. forming a loop. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. the stick falls away. -. Madison.. Schmidt. Ontario. Brockville. the key turns. D. On another block of wood fasten two wires.

square and 1 in. The cut shows the arrangement. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and then to the receiver.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Camden. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. thence to a switch. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. which fasten to the horn. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. including the mouthpiece. D. and break the corners off to make them round. S. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. running one direct to the receiver. and . Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and the other to the battery.. First. Use a barrel to work on. N. Jr. get two pieces of plate glass. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. or from a bed of flowers. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. 6 in. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. thick. Connect two wires to the transmitter. R. or tree. made with his own hands. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. J. --Contributed by Wm. Farley. J.

being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. a round 4-in. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. In a dark room. twice the focal length away. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. set the speculum against the wall. or it will not polish evenly. and spread on the glass. using straight strokes 2 in. melt 1 lb.. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. 1. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. and is ready for polishing. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. also rotate the glass. with pitch. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. of water. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and label. by the side of the lamp. Fig. the coarse grinding must be continued. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. wide around the convex glass or tool.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and a large lamp. then take 2 lb. so the light . When done the glass should be semitransparent. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When polishing the speculum. Fig. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. 2. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. When dry. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. with 1/4-in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. 2. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. wet till soft like paint. Use a binger to spread it on with. spaces. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Fasten. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. L. while walking around the barrel. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Have ready six large dishes.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. as in Fig. A. which is necessary to make it grind evenly.. Then warm and press again with the speculum. or less. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. then 8 minutes. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. in length. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and the under glass or tool convex. wetting it to the consistency of cream.

must be procured. longer strokes. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. long to the back of the speculum. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. as in K. With pitch. If not. 2. When dry. Fig. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. also how the rays R from a star . stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. that was set aside.. Then add 1 oz.………………………………. cement a strip of board 8 in. face down. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. from the lamp. 4 oz. Now add enough of the solution A..……………. Solution D: Sugar loaf ..……………………………. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Place the speculum. 100 gr. with distilled water.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.. The polishing and testing done. Nitric acid . fill the dish with distilled water. touched with rouge. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Fig. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Place the speculum S.100 gr. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. then ammonia until bath is clear. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Two glass or earthenware dishes. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 4 oz. 39 gr. deep.. Fig. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. the speculum is ready to be silvered. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. 840 gr. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. if a hill in the center. 2. the speculum will show some dark rings. or hills. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. When the focus is found. 25 gr. Then add solution B.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.

but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. . If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Thus an excellent 6-in.. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. long and cost me just $15. Place over lens. is a satisfactory angle. Then I made the one described. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. and proceed as for any picture. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. telescope can be made at home. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.John E. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Mellish. with an outlay of only a few dollars. which proves to be easy of execution.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. using strawboard and black paper. deg. About 20. cover with paper and cloth. stop down well after focusing. Make the tube I of sheet iron. two glass prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. slightly wider than the lens mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. My telescope is 64 in.

says the Master Painter. The rays of the clear. D.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. complete the arrangement. and reflect through the negative. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. then add a little sulphate of potash. or powdered alum. -Contributed by A. . Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. as shown in Fig. To unlock. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. A. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The paper is exposed. push the button D. Boody. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. 2. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. but will not preserve its hardening. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. add the plaster gradually to the water. Fig. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. B. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Ill. through the lens of the camera and on the board. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. 1. Zimmerman. instead of the contrary.

Fasten on the switch lever. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. 1). so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. Fig. 2. also provide them with a handle. 2. but will remain suspended without any visible support. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. throw . as at A and B. as shown in the sketch. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as in Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. To reverse.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Then blow through the spool. 3.

-Contributed by Morris L. as shown in the sketch. B. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. D. San Antonio. San Marcos. Tex. Neb. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbon sockets. wash in running water. Go McVicker. Tex. . In the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Take out. the armature. --Contributed by R. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. binding posts. rinse in alcohol. Levy. carbons. A is the electricbell magnet. L. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. C C. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Thomas. North Bend. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. --Contributed by Geo. and rub dry with linen cloth. although this is not necessary. and E E.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar.

All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 36 magnet wire. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 14 or No. Brooklyn. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. long or more. Bell. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 16 magnet wire. wound evenly about this core. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . By means of two or more layers of No. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. --Contributed by Joseph B. Divested of nearly all technical phrases.

which is desirable. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. hole is bored in the center of one end. 2 yd. then the strip of tin-foil. one piece of the paper is laid down. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The condenser is next wrapped . When cut and laid in one continuous length. but if it is not convenient to do this work. a box like that shown in Fig. in diameter. about 6 in. wide.which would be better to buy ready-made. with room also for a small condenser. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. long and 5 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and the results are often unsatisfactory. as shown in Fig. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Beginning half an inch from one end. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. No. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. which is an important factor of the coil. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. at a time. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The following method of completing a 1-in. A 7/8-in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. long and 2-5/8 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. After the core wires are bundled. 1. diameter. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. in length. 4. In shaping the condenser. or 8 in. making two layers. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. as the maker prefers.

spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. B. which is insulated from the first. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. to the door. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. long and 12 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. G. wide. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. I. shows how the connections are made. switch.) The wiring diagram. long to key.securely with bands of paper or tape. by 12 in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. flange turned on one side. go. B. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. V-shaped copper strip. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and one from battery. bell.. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. shelf for clock. battery . D. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. 3. lines H. A. open switch C. Fig. C. which allows wiring at the back. whole length. 4 in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. spark. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the other sheet. one from bell. copper lever with 1-in. E. The alarm key will turn and drop down. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. forms the other pole or terminal. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. round so that the inside . ready for assembling. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. F. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down.

of blue stone. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. If desired for use immediately. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. . induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. and then rivet the seam. and the battery is ready for use. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. 2 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. That is what they are for. Use a glass or metal shade. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Line the furnace. This is for blowing. London. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.diameter is 7 in. Short-circuit for three hours.. of zinc sulphate. instead of close to it. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. from the bottom. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. says the Model Engineer. but with the circuit. do not shortcircuit. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.

square and about 9 in. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and therein is the trick. Try it and see. below the bottom of the zinc. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. or think they can do the same let them try it. 1. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and then. for others the opposite way. To operate the trick. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.9 of a volt. porcelain and paper. but the thing would not move at all. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. herein I describe a much better trick. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Ohio. long.. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for some it will turn one way. the second finger along the side. Outside of the scientific side involved. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. If too low. 2. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. oxygen to ozone. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. g. If any or your audience presume to dispute. This type of battery will give about 0. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. thus producing two different vibrations. imparting to them a violet tinge. while for others it will not revolve at all. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. changes white phosphorus to yellow. as in the other movement. affects . Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right." which created much merriment. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Enlarge the hole slightly. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. grip the stick firmly in one hand. At least it is amusing. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.

This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. if possible. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but this is less satisfactory. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . and one of them is photomicrography. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. To the front board is attached a box. a means for holding it vertical.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a short-focus lens. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but not essential. but small flowers. says the Photographic Times. earth. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. an old tripod screw. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. however. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. insects. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. chemicals.

The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen.--Contributed by George C. Divide one-quarter of the circle . balloon. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. or 31 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. and a line. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 5 in. Fig. 9 ft. in diameter. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Mass. Boston. Madison. 113 7 lb. A line. 6 ft. 179 11 lb. which is 15 ft. 697 44 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. or 3 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 7-1/2 in. 1. in Cu. 7-1/2 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 8 ft. 12 ft. 268 17 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 ft. The following table will give the size. wide from which to cut a pattern. 11 ft. 65 4 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 381 24 lb. 905 57 lb. while it is not so with the quill. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. AB. 7 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Cap. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. CD. long and 3 ft.

This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The amounts necessary for a 10- . A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 70 thread. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This test will show if the bag is airtight. 3. and so on. Repeat this operation four times. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The pattern is now cut. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. on the curved line from B to C. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Procure 1 gal. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The cloth segments are sewed together. of beeswax and boil well together. using a fine needle and No. 2. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. keeping the marked part on the outside. 4. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. of the very best heavy body.

When the clock has dried.ft. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. above the level of the water in barrel A. or a fan. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. C. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. to the bag. using a fine brush. which may sound rather absurd. of iron. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. The outlet. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. or dusting with a dry brush. ft. 5 . 1 lb. a clean white rag. B. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. with the iron borings. it is not fit to use. by fixing. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. if it is good it will dry off. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of sulphuric acid.Green Iron ammonium citrate . as shown in Fig. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. until no more dirt is seen. A. balloon are 125 lb.. B. leaving the hand quite clean. of iron borings and 125 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. In the barrel. ]. capacity and connect them. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. this should be repeated frequently. 150 gr. . All FIG. Fill the other barrel. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. 1 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Water 1 oz. oil the spindle holes carefully. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. with water 2 in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. B. About 15 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. C. A. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. . After washing a part. The 3/4-in. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of water will make 4 cu. pipe. but if any grease remains on the hand. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Vegetable oils should never be used. of gas in one hour. A. should not enter into the water over 8 in. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. with 3/4in. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. 5.

The miniature 16 cp. Exposure. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. toning first if desired. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Dry the plates in the dark. fix in hypo. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. keeping the fingers out of the solution. or carbon. at the time of employment. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. . Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. and a vigorous negative must be used. and keep in the dark until used. to avoid blackened skin. The positive pole. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. says the Moving Picture World. A longer exposure will be necessary. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. This aerial collector can be made in . Sliver nitrate 50 gr. 20 to 30 minutes. or battery. . leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A cold. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Dry in the dark.. Port Melbourne.Water 1 oz. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. The negative pole. dry atmosphere will give best results. of any make. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.000 ft. Printing is done in the sun. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.

In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. the resistance is less. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. and have the other connected with another aerial line. If the waves strike across the needle. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. lead pipe. both positive and negative. 5 in. holes . As the telephone offers a high resistance. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. when left exposed to the air. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. and as less current will flow the short way. as described below. This will complete the receiving station. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. in diameter. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. long. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. If the wave ceases. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made.various ways. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. making a ground with one wire. forming a cup of the pipe. lay a needle. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. a positive and a negative. The storage cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight.

and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. by soldering the joint. B. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. of course. and the other to the negative. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. namely: a square hole. does not need to be watertight. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. says the Pathfinder. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. or tube B. or tube C. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This box can be square. one to the positive. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. a round one. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The cell may be charged with three gravity cells.as possible. except for about 1 in. When mixing the acid and water. Two binding-posts should be attached. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. D. on each end. an oblong one and a triangular one. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. This support or block.

all around the edge. 3. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. and match them together. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The third piece of brass. C. . as it is not readily overturned. deep and 4 ft. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. in place on the wood. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Chicago. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. C. 1. thick cut two pieces alike. This punt. is built 15 ft. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. as shown in Fig.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. wide. about 20 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. were fitted by this one plug. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 1. Ill. A and B. and has plenty of good seating capacity. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. back and under. Only galvanized nails should be used. long. 2. wide. leaving about 1/16 in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 2. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as shown in Fig.

Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A. long and fitted with a thumbscrew.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. thick and 3-1/2 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. square (Fig 2). is cut 1 in. Tacoma. gas pipe. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Wash. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. A piece of 1/4-in. In Fig. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.

--Contributed by Charles H. may be of interest to some of our readers. which the writer has made. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. no special materials could be obtained. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. or "rotor. without auxiliary phase. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. lamp. and to consume. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no more current than a 16-cp. H. In designing. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. with the exception of insulated wire. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . it had to be borne in mind that. if possible. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The winding of the armature. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. says the Model Engineer." has no connection with the outside circuit.

and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. and all sparking is avoided. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 5. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. as shown in Fig. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be.the field-magnet. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 3. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. or "stator. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. as shown in Fig. about 2-1/2 lb. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. being used. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. thick. Holes 5-32 in. 2. The stator is wound full with No. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. to be filed out after they are placed together. wrought iron. with the dotted line. C. A. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. in diameter were drilled in the corners. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. bolts put in and tightened up. After assembling a second time. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 1." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. while the beginnings . 4. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. this little machine is not self-starting. B. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. were then drilled and 1/4-in. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. holes. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Unfortunately. no steel being obtainable. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and filled with rivets.

Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. and the other by reduction in the camera. The rotor is wound with No. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Newark. and as the motor runs at constant speed. This type of motor has drawbacks. as before stated. McKinney. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. as a means of illustrating songs. having no commutator or brushes. 3-Contributed by C. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. E. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. In making slides by contact. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. 1. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 2. No starting resistance is needed. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. as shown in Fig. film to film. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. N. and as each layer of wire was wound. The lantern slide is a glass plate. One is by contact.. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and all wound in the same direction. The image should . All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and especially of colored ones. J. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Jr. a regulating resistance is not needed. and would not easily get out of order. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. it would be very simple to build.

Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and then a plain glass. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 1. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 2. also. as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and development should be over in three or four minutes. a little extra work will be necessary. 4. Fig. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 5. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. It is best. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Select a room with one window. D. B. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Being unbreakable. C. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 3. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . over the mat. about a minute. to use a plain fixing bath. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. A. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. If the exposure has been correct. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. if possible. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. Contrasty negatives make the best slides.appear in. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. except that the binding is different. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. they are much used by travelers.

and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. If the star is in front of the left eye. Vt. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. is to be used for the seat. 2. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the ends. long. as shown at A. in diameter and 40 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. from the center of this dot draw a star. from the end piece of the chair. known as rods and cones. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. 1. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. as shown at B. while the dot will be in front of the other. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Fig. long. in diameter and 20 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. as shown in Fig. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 1. These longer pieces can be made square. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Corinth. Fig. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. A piece of canvas. 16 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. long. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Hastings. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. wide and 50 in. holes bored in the end pieces. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. or other stout cloth. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in.

The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A disk 1 in. Cal. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as shown in Fig. J. as well as to operate other household machines. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. as shown in Fig. . per square inch. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. in thickness and 10 in. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. 1. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A belt. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft.-Contributed by P. O'Gara. made from an ordinary sash cord. 2. Auburn. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.

long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. to the top of the bench. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long. . direction. divided by the number of threads to the inch. square for a support. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. screwing it through the nut. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. 3/4 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. will be the thickness of the object. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. or inconvenient to measure. says the Scientific American. thick and 2-1/2 in. A simple. it serves a very useful purpose. wide. with as fine a thread as possible. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and the construction is complete. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Put the bolt in the hole. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. fairly accurate. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. then removing the object. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Bore a 1/4-in.

material 12 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Santa Maria. long. The wheel should be open . Place a 3/4-in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. long is used for the center pole. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. which show up fine at night. Bore a 3/4-in. bolt in each hole. beyond the end of the wood. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Oal. piece of wood 12 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. globe that has been thrown away as useless. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed.

long. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. square and 3 or 4 in. O.-Contributed by A. Fort Worth. of the ends with boards.Side and Top View or have spokes. 1/2 in. L. which should be 1/4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. wide and 1/8 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. pieces used for the spokes. made of the same material. and the lower part 61/2 in. and on its lower end a socket. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. thick. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. from the top end. Graham. wide and 1/8 in. A cross bar. long. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. long. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. at the top and 4 in. thick is used for the armature. C. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. from the ends. A piece of brass 2 in. in diameter. Tex. B. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. H and J. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The coil. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. is soldered. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. at the bottom. long. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The spool . Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. A. thick. P.

When you slide the pencil along the casing. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.--A. and in numerous other like instances. A. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. The armature. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.is about 2-1/2 in. then with a firm. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. for insulating the brass ferrule. D and E. 2 the hat hanging on it. F. At the bottom end of the frame. R. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core.J. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Mass. . and place it against a door or window casing. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. by soldering. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Bradlev. or a water rheostat heretofore described. A soft piece of iron. long. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. This tie can be used on grain sacks. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.000. is drilled. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. 2. which may be had by using German silver wire. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.000 for irrigation work. 1.E. B. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. S. This is a very neat trick if performed right. Randolph. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. C. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and directly centering the holes H and J. one without either rubber or metal end. that holds the lower carbon. do it without any apparent effort. --Contributed by Arthur D. S. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.

in diameter and 1/16 in. and then 1. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The vibrator. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. D. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The core of the coil. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. hole in the center. long and 1 in. about 1/8 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. about 3/16 in. for adjustment. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. from the core and directly opposite. wide. S. F. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 1. About 70 turns of No. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. in diameter. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. S. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. Fig. about 1 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. in diameter and 2 in. in diameter. Experiment with Heat [134] . The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. B. The switch. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. for the secondary.500 turns of No. with a 3/16-in. The vibrator B. thick. 2. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. for the primary. leaving the projections as shown. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. may be made from a 3/8-in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. long. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. C. Fig. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 1. The coil ends are made from cardboard. A. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. is constructed in the usual manner. mixed with water to form a paste. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.

The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and the same distance inside of the new board. Fig. as shown. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. thick on the inside. 1. long and when placed over the board. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. 16 in. The lock. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. and then well clinched. The knob on the dial extends out too far. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. between the boards. it laps down about 8 in. brass plate. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. . wide. which seemed to be insufficient.Place a small piece of paper. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. which is only 3/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The three screws were then put in the hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which is cut with two holes. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. lighted. The hasp. as shown in the sketch. board. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. 1. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. in an ordinary water glass. 2 to fit the two holes. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The tin is 4 in. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. with which to operate the dial.

any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. When making of wood. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. high for use in window displays. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but when the front part is illuminated. one in each division. black color. square and 10-1/2 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. When the rear part is illuminated. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. If the box is made large enough. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. and the back left dark. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . the glass. square and 8-1/2 in. or in the larger size mentioned. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. not shiny. which completely divides the box into two parts. clear glass as shown.

This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as shown at A in the sketch. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. long and 1 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. wide will be about the right size. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. a tank 2 ft. into the other. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When using as a window display. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as it appears. as shown in the sketch.. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. and with the proper illumination one is changed. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. above the top of the tank. When there is no electric current available. alternately. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. . Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and 6 ft. but with a length of 12 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. wide. lines gauged on each side of each. bore from each end. This precipitate is then washed. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. wide. The pieces can then be taken out. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. however. dried and mixed with linseed oil. 6 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. hole bored the full length through the center. square. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and a solution of iron sulphate added. Iron sulphate. with a length of 13 in. hole. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The 13-in. radius. A small platform. Columbus. 5 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. under sides together. Shape the under sides first. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. is built on the front. gauge for depth. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. bit. O. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Three windows are provided. If a planing mill is near. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. each. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. high. or ferrous sulphate. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. from the ground. 2 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. 1 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. one for each side. long. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and a door in front. as shown. This hole must be continued . The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. thick and 3 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. long. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. square and 40 in. is the green vitriol.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. two pieces 1-1/8 in. using a 3/4-in.

The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. thick and 3 in. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. hole in each block. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.through the pieces forming the base. apply two coats of wax. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Directions will be found on the filler cans. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. When this is dry. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Electric globes--two. Saw the two blocks apart. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. When the filler has hardened. if shade is purchased. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. square and drawing a diagonal on each. A better way. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. three or four may be attached as shown. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. For art-glass the metal panels are . Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. If the parts are to be riveted.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass. such as copper.

the object and the background.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. as shown in the sketch. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. Figure 1 shows the side. one way and 1/2 in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. 2 the front view of this stand. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. the other. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. and Fig. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The arms holding the glass. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. as in ordinary devices. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter.

All screws and brads that are used must be of brass.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. pointing north and south. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. in diameter for a base. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. in diameter. channel in the circumference of the ring. as shown in the sketch. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . An ordinary pocket compass. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Before mounting the ring on the base. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. wide and 6-5/16 in. thick 5/8-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. outside diameter. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thus forming a 1/4-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. uncork and recork again. as it is very poisonous. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. If the light becomes dim. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. wide and 11 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and swinging freely. about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. as shown in the cut. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Put the ring in place on the base.

3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.865 1. 1 oz. above the half can. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. AA.088 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .420 .715 . black oxide of copper. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. in diameter and 8 in. into these cylinders.500 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. EE. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. and north of the Ohio river.600 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. of the top. and mirrors.182 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. are mounted on a base. Place on top the so- . Corresponding mirrors. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. B. CC. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.289 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. The results given should be multiplied by 1. from the second to the third.

Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. of pulverized campor. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. little crystals forming in the liquid. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. 62 gr. When renewing. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. University Park. which otherwise remains clear. In Fig. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. always remove the oil with a siphon. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Put the solution in a long. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. slender bottle. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. says Metal Worker. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Colo. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. the wheel will revolve in one direction. alcohol. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. then they will not rust fast. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. 31 gr.

The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. This is used in place of the spoon. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and carbon are used. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Attach to the wires. If zinc and copper are used. --Contributed by C. A paper-fastener box. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Lloyd Enos. floating on a solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. on the under side of the cork. about 1-1/4 in.

E. Put ends. 3 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The standard. Rhamstine. B. H. E. 1. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. of wire on each end extending from the coil.in. Thos. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. wide and 2-1/2 in. 1/2. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. long that has about 1/4-in. long. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. C.not shorter than 18 in. stained and varnished. is made from a piece of No. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. one on each side of the board. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. of No. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Secure a piece of 1/4-in.in. Take a small piece of soft iron. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.Contributed by J. B. 1-1/4 in. A. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. C. and on the other around the glass tube. The bottom of the box. D. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. can be made of oak. piece of 1/4-in. or made with a little black paint. Bore holes for binding-posts.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. The base. . brass tubing. F. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 14 wire will do. glass tubing . To this standard solder the supporting wire. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. A circular piece of cardboard. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. long. Use a board 1/2.1-in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. D. to it. wide and 6 in. and then solder on the cover. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. G--No. The spring should be about 1 in. 10 wire about 10 in. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. hole. C. away. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. thick. D. A. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.

long. two pieces 2 ft. 3-in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 1. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. When the glass becomes soft. J. canvas. making a support as shown in Fig. Cuba. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. in diameter. long. Milwaukee. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Teasdale. 5. long. D. long. 2. four hinges. of 8-oz. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Smith. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. 3. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. from the right hand. long are used for the legs. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. The iron plunger.--Contributed by Edward M. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. . about 1 in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. of mercury will be sufficient. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Y. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3 in.of the coil. N. is drawn nearer to the coil. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. of No. E. Wis. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb.

using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of vacuum at the top. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. The tube now must be filled completely.. Toronto. Can. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. leaving 8 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 3. 2. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. long. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Fig. small aperture in the long tube.. Keys. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. thus leaving a. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Measure 8 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Take 1/2 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. 5. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. expelling all the air. holding in the left hand. This tube as described will be 8 in. 6. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Break off the piece of glass. 4. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction.

wide and 5 ft. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. long. 1 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wood screws. 1. long. 4 in. 9 in. thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. long. 3 in. thick. thick. and 1/4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. material 2 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 7. FIG. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as shown in Fig. A crosspiece 3/4-in. in diameter. These are bent and nailed. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 3. long. 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. from the end of same. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 3 in. wide and 12 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 4. joint be accurately put together.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Fig. This forms a slot.6 -. thick. cut in the shape shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. and the single projection 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. with each projection 3-in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. wide and 5 ft. 2. The large pulley is about 14 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. but yellow pine is the best. wide and 3 in. as in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 6. 5. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in.

Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. R. --Contributed by C. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. . The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Kan. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. by 1-in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. says Photography.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. above the runner level. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Water 1 oz. Manhattan. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Welsh. first removing the crank. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel.

1. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. also. --Contributed by Wallace C. of water. as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. Treasdale. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The print is washed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. . A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 3. Mass. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Leominster. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 1 oz. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. --Contributed by Edward M. Printing is carried rather far. 2. from an ordinary clamp skate. Newton.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. as shown in Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed.

is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. fasten a 2-in. 1-1/2 ft. 1. high for rabbits. extending the width of the box. A. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Church. and 3 ft. --Contributed by H. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. F. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. about 10 in. long. Alexandria. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. wide. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Va. and to the bottom. square piece. too. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Place a 10-in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. with about 1/8-in. The swing door B. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Then. say. Fig. wide and 4 in. 1. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The thread is broken off at the . Take two glass tubes. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. which represents the back side of the door. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Fig. causing the door to swing back and up. hole. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 2. as shown in the sketch. from one end. 1 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. high. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside.

by 7-in.by 5-in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. long. Out two rectangular holes. trolley cars. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. B. C. and go in the holder in the same way. Fig. plates. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. but cut it 1/4 in. inside of the opening. D. high and 12 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. wide. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. wide. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fig. 10 in. long. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. and exactly 5 by 7 in. A and B.proper place to make a small hole. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 2. black surfaced if possible. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Crilly. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. from the edge on each side of these openings. in size. -Contributed by William M. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. as shown in Fig. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Jr. shorter at each end. . horses and dogs. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. shorter. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 1 in. says Camera Craft. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. This opening. in size. wide and 5 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Chicago. automobiles. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 1. camera and wish to use some 4.. 3. to be used as a driving pulley. being 1/8 in. say 8 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.

but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. if it has previously been magnetized. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. in diameter." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. into which the dog is harnessed. making a . A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. A cell of this kind can easily be made. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. wide will be required. long and 6 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The needle will then point north and south.in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.

says Electrician and Mechanic. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Do not paint any surface. filter. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. of rosin and 2 oz. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. of the plate at one end. fodder. Place the pan on the stove. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. sal ammoniac. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. one that will hold about 1 qt. only the joints. plaster of paris. when the paraffin is melted. of the top. 1 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. long which are copper plated. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Form a 1/2-in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Pack the paste in. This makes the wire smooth. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. beeswax melted together. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. A is a block of l-in. pull out the wire as needed. leaving about 1/2-in. for a connection. 1/4 lb. fuel and packing purposes. of water. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. in diameter and 6 in. F is a spool.in. zinc oxide. and a notch between the base and the pan. . Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. short time. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. B is a base of 1 in.watertight receptacle. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. File the rods to remove the copper plate. in which P is the pan. 3/4 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. under the spool in the paraffin. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. with narrow flanges. pine. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up.

while for others it will not revolve at all. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. let them try it. or think they can do the same. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for some it will turn one way. square and about 9 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for others the opposite way. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. and one friend tells me that they were . in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Ohio. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Try it and see. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. as in the other movement. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and therein is the trick. At least it is amusing. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and then. long. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and he finally." which created much merriment. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. from vexation. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. but the thing would not move at all. Enlarge the hole slightly. 2. by the Hindoos in India. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. g. Toledo. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.

while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The experiments were as follows: 1. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. To operate. m. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. rotation was obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. no rotation resulted. 7. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. and. and I think the results may be of interest. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. the rotation may be obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 5. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. If the pressure was upon an edge. 2. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. gave the best results. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. secondly. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. p. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. 4. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 6. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand.100 r. Speeds between 700 and 1. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. by means of a center punch. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. Thus a circular or . The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 3. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece.

while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by G.D. forming a handle for carrying. is driven violently away. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. so far as can be seen from the photographs. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Sloan.. it will be clockwise.. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. unwetted by the liquid. Minn.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. D. a piece of wire and a candle. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. A wire is tied around the can. at first. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. G." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Washington. Ph. and the height of the fall about 6 in. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. --Contributed by M. Duluth. the upper portion is. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. if the pressure is from the left. Lloyd. or greasy. . All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. as shown. and the resultant "basket splash. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). A. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. C.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

about 2-5/8 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown in Fig. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. axle. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . long. in diameter. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. flange and a 1/4-in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. as shown. with a 1/16-in. thick and 1 in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. 1. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. hole drilled in the center. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop.

50. as shown in Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. San Antonio. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. These ends are fastened together. lamp in series with the coil. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. bent as shown. put together complete. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. wood. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. bottom side up. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 6. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. --Contributed by Maurice E. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 2. are shown in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 3. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. of No. The current. Fig. as shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 3/4 in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. This will save buying a track. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. wide and 16 in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. If the ends are to be soldered. The motor is now bolted. The parts. is made from brass. 5. The first piece. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Fuller. each in its proper place. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 2. holes 1 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Texas.brass. with cardboard 3 in. Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 3. long. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. A trolley. 1 from 1/4-in. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. is made from a piece of clock spring. 4. or main part of the frame. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. and the locomotive is ready for running. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.

Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. Cincinnati. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and as this end . --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The quarter will not go all the way down. 2. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. O. When cold treat the other end in the same way. and holes drilled in them. then continue to tighten much more. but do not heat the center.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 1. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. 3. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Fig. the length of a paper clip. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs.

the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. In the sketch. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. and adjusted . A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. has finished a cut for a tooth. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the cutter A. or apparent security of the knot. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. 2 and 1 respectively. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. A pair of centers are fitted. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. When the trick is to be performed.

trace the outline. tea cosey. Bunker. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). 2. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . N. blotter back. twisted around itself and soldered. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. if but two parts. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. above the surface.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. such as brass or marble. gentleman's card case or bill book. note book. (3.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Second row: -Two book marks. watch fob ready for fastenings. (4. Brooklyn. Y. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. draw center lines across the required space.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. at the same time striking light. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. lady's belt bag. tea cosey. 1. --Contributed by Samuel C. if four parts are to be alike. about 1-1/2 in. and a nut pick. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. When connecting to batteries. In this manner gears 3 in. (5. The frame holding the mandrel. --Contributed by Howard S. lady's card case. book mark.) Make on paper the design wanted. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (2. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. or one-half of the design. Bott. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. holding it in place with the left hand.to run true. Fold over along these center lines. (1. swing lathe. Fig. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. (6. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. long. coin purse. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. An ordinary machine will do. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. a distance of 900 miles. B. Thrust a pin.. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. where it condenses. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. into which fit a small piece of tube.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. D. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Florida. and bore a hole through the center. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The electrodes are made . The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. If the needle is not horizontal. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. C. and push it through a cork. A.

by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. wide and 4 ft. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Washington. using a high resistance receiver. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. If 20-ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. long. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 20 ft. apart and extend 1 ft. 2. use 10-ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 3. thick. D. 1-1/4 in. long. free from knots. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. 1/2. as shown in Fig. thick. take the glider to the top of a hill. C. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. --Contributed by Edwin L. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 2 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. thick. lengths and splice them. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 16 piano wire. by 3/4 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. wide and 4 ft long. 1. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. wide and 4 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. thick. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. both laterally and longitudinally. as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. several strips 1/2 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. To make a glide. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1-1/2 in. 3/4 in.in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. slacken speed and settle. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. Connect as shown in the illustration. or flying-machine. long for the body of the operator. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 1. square and 8 ft long. which is tacked to the front edge. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. Powell. 2. wide and 3 ft. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. long. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The operator can then land safely and . All wiring is done with No. lumber cannot be procured. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.

half man and half horse. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. When heated a little. 1. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Bellingham. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 2.exercised in making landings. M. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. which causes the dip in the line. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . a creature of Greek mythology. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. Olson.

Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. in diameter. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. making it 2-1/2 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. outside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. at the other. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. this will cost about 15 cents. a piece of brass or steel wire. The light from the . While at the drug store get 3 ft. about the size of stove pipe wire. long. about the size of door screen wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. of small rubber tubing. square. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. 14 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. long and about 3/8 in. will complete the material list.

It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. Dayton. If done properly the card will flyaway. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. This is very simple when you know how. Hunting. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. O.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig. 1. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. . M. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in the sketch.

When the desired shape has been obtained. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. as before. then put it on the hatpin head.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. This game is played by five persons. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. hold the lump over the flame. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. place the other two. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger." or the Chinese students' favorite game. as shown. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. as described. Cool in water and dry. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. closing both hands quickly. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. while the one in the right shall have disappeared.

or more in width. passing through neutralizing brushes. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. these sectors. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. distribute electric charges . using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long. Two pieces of 1-in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. are made from 7/8-in. in diameter and 15 in. Fig. in diameter. material 7 in. The two pieces. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. Fig. 3/4 in. 2. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. long. brass tubing and the discharging rods. in diameter. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. are made from solid. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. from about 1/4-in. The fork part is 6 in. These pins. as shown in Fig. wide. EE. the side pieces being 24 in. or teeth. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. GG. and pins inserted and soldered. The collectors are made. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. C C. to which insulating handles . should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and 4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. long and the standards 3 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 3. after they are mounted. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 3. The plates are trued up. The plates. in diameter. wide at one end. and of a uniform thickness. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. as shown in Fig. Two solid glass rods. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. D. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. in diameter. turned wood pieces. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. 1 in. 1-1/2 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and this should be done before cutting the circle. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The drive wheels. RR. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. at the other. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. 4. in diameter. in diameter. 1. long and the shank 4 in. free from wrinkles. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle.

wide and 22 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. --Contributed by C. which are bent as shown. D. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods.. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Lloyd Enos. in diameter. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. long. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Colorado City. Colo. ball and the other one 3/4 in. 12 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. and the work was done by themselves. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.are attached. one having a 2-in. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. KK.

How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. string together. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. yet such a thing can be done. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. deep. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. pens . as at A. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. The key will drop from the string. using a 1-in. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. bit. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.is a good one. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb.

rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. file. above the work and striking it with the hammer. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 2. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. very rapid progress can be made. then the other side. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. 8. inside the first on all. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Draw one-half the design free hand. 5. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. and the third one 1/4 in. or cigar ashes. flat and round-nosed pliers. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. etc. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 3. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. they make attractive little pieces to have about.. Inside this oblong. slim screw. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. This is to make a clean. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked.and pencils. two spikes. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 9. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Use . also trace the decorative design. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. about 3/4-in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. When the stamping is completed. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. unless it would be the metal shears. etc. Raise the ends. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. 6. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. extra metal on each of the four sides. Having determined the size of the tray. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 23 gauge. They are easily made. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. stamp the background promiscuously. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. above the metal. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. 7. 4. The second oblong was 3/4 in. sharp division between background and design. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray.

Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. third fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . In the first numbering. first fingers. The eyes. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. second fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 6. 10. 7. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 8. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. and fourth fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. and the effect will be most pleasing. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands.

below the thumbs are four units on each hand. the product of 12 times 12. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. 25 times 25.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 11. Put your thumbs together. In the second numbering. above 20 times 20. and the six lower fingers as six tens. above 15 times 15 it is 200. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. which would be 70. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. At a glance you see four tens or 40. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. which would be 16. or 60. 12. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. first fingers. thumbs. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. or the product of 6 times 6. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. or the product of 8 times 9. etc. as high as you want to go. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or numbers above 10. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. if we wish. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.. renumber your fingers. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600. 400. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Two times one are two. or 80. etc. etc. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. . Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Still. viz. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.. which tens are added. there are no fingers above.

It takes place also. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. For figures ending in 6. the value which the upper fingers have. or what. etc. For example. first finger 17. Take For example 18 times 18. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. when he removes his spectacles. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. and so on. however. not rotation. . but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. any two figures between 45 and 55. at the will of the observer. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. being 80). And the lump sum to add. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 75 and 85. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 3. The inversion and reversion did not take place. in the case of a nearsighted person. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the revolution seems to reverse. beginning the thumbs with 16. twenties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. about a vertical axis. the inversion takes place against his will. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 2. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. or from above or from below. forties. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. lastly. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. adding 400 instead of 100. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 8. thumbs.. 7. first fingers 22. which is the half-way point between the two fives. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the lump sum to add. thirties. 21. as one might suppose. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. and. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. further. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. whether the one described in second or third numbering.

The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. tee. when he knows which direction is right. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. sometimes the point towards him.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. A flat slide valve was used. Looking at it in semidarkness. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. as . The ports were not easy to make. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and putting a cork on the point. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the other appearance asserts itself. The cylinder consists of a 3-in.

about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The tools are simple and can be made easily. across and 1/2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. pipe 10 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. and make in one end a hollow. The eccentric is constructed of washers. If nothing better is at hand. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. pipe. about 2 in. apart. H. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. as in a vise. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. bottom side up. Kutscher. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. if continued too long without proper treatment. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Springfield. Ill. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. secure a piece of No. Beating copper tends to harden it and. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The steam chest is round. saw off a section of a broom handle. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in.. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. inexpensive. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. While this engine does not give much power. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Next take a block of wood. Fasten the block solidly. -Contributed by W. deep. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. it is easily built. . These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. across the head. in diameter.

will cause the metal to break. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. especially when the object is near to the observer. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Camden. Vinegar. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Hay. O. the other to the left. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. S. --Contributed by W. C. as it softens the metal. and. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. To overcome this hardness. To produce color effects on copper. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.

that for the right. from the stereograph. they must be a very trifle apart. diameter. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. with the stereograph. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. although they pass through the screen. and without any picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and lies to the right on the picture. as for instance red and green. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. because of the rays coming from them. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. because. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. orange. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. But they seem black.stereoscope. however. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. . would serve the same purpose. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. the one for the left eye being blue. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. not two mounted side by side. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. only the orange rays may pass through. In order to make them appear before the card." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. disappears fully. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. It is just as though they were not there. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. in the proper choice of colors. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. So with the stereograph. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The further apart the pictures are. while both eyes together see a white background. the further from the card will the composite image appear. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. it. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture.

in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. etc. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Place a NO. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. wide and 1 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. San Francisco. wireless. 1/4 in. 12 gauge wire. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. thick. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The weight of the air in round . Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. A No. in the shape of a crank. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in diameter. or the middle of the bottle. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Cal. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol.

The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. long. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. long. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather.. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. high. square. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. will calibrate itself. internal diameter and about 34 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. and a slow fall. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. thick. pine 3 in. wide and 4 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. The 4 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. wide and 40 in. or. . Only redistilled mercury should be used. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. In general. if you choose. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. But if a standard barometer is not available. high. a bottle 1 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. if accurately constructed. the contrary. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in.numbers is 15 lb. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in.6) 1 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. or a column of mercury (density 13. 30 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. long. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. the instrument. 34 ft. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. inside diameter and 2 in. square. high. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Before fastening the scale.

Procure a metal can cover. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 3. and place them as shown in Fig. Mark out seven 1-in. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 2. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. which is slipped quickly over the end. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. long. Number the pieces 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. 5. thick.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 6 and 7. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. wide and 10 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. a cover from a baking powder can will do.

3 to the center. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. N. Move 7-Jump No. 5's place. 6 into No. Move 15-Move No. each 10 ft. long and 2 ft. Move 14-Jump No. 1. 2's place. 2 over No. 6. 2 over No. 1 to No. 5 over No. 1 into No. in diameter. 3. Move 9-Jump No. 5 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5's place. Make 22 sections. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 2's place. Move 5-Jump No.J. Woolson. Move 3-Move No. 3 over No. Move 13-Move No. 7 over No. l over No. 7. Move 6-Move No. Move 4-Jump No. 3. Move 12-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 3. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 8-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. shaped like Fig. 7's place. Move 2-Jump No. 1. Move 10-Move No.-Contributed by W. which is the very best material for the purpose. To make such a tent. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. as shown in Fig. 2. 3 into No. 6 to No. 6 in. 5. 7 over No. using checkers for men. 2 . 6 over No. procure unbleached tent duck. 2. Cape May Point. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. This can be done on a checker board. 6. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. L. Move ll-Jump No.

Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 3 in. added. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. As shown in the sketch. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line.. 5) stuck in the ground. leaving the rest for an opening. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. long and 4 in. high. wide at the bottom. wide at the bottom. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 5. Use blocks. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Pa. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. These are ventilators. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. wide by 12 in. 9 by 12 in. Fig. about 9 in. as in Fig.J. made in two sections. Nail a thin sheet of brass. 2. In raising the tent. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 6. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design.in. After transferring the design to the brass. diameter. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. will do. round galvanized iron. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. long. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. in diameter. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Have the tent pole 3 in. from the top. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. to a smooth board of soft wood. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Emsworth. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Tress. Punch holes in the brass in . on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 6-in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. --Contributed by G. 2 in. fill with canvas edging. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top.

cut out the brass on the outside lines. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The pattern is traced as before. excepting the 1/4-in. When the edges are brought together by bending. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. When all the holes are punched. .the spaces around the outlined figures. around the outside of the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. Chicago. but before punching the holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. It will not. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. Corr. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. apart. bend into shape. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

Sometimes the cream will accumulate. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. or. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Oregon. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Dunham. A cast-iron ring. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. --Contributed by Geo. Mayger. pipe is used for the hub. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. If a wheel is selected. allowing 2 ft.however. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. better still. These pipes are . piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. --Contributed by H. Badger. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Que. between which is placed the fruit jar. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. A 6-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or center on which the frame swings. E. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. partially filled with cream.. pipe. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. G. Stevens. or less. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.

pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe clamps.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in.

The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. 1. as shown in Fig. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. while doing this. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. and the guide withdrawn. 3. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and dropped on the table. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which was placed in an upright position.

Denver. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. 2. Mo. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. in diameter on another piece of tin. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. D. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. and second. --Contributed by H. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Colo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. -Contributed by C. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The box can be made of selected oak or . St. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Louis. White. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. F. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Harkins. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. first. 1. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig.

If a camera lens is used. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. An open space 4 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. high and must . Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. focal length. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. AA. long. Two or three holes about 1 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. 1. long.mahogany. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. wide and 6-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. wide and 5 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 6-1/2 in. high and 11 in. from each end. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. fit into the runners. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. 2. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. 5-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The door covering this hole in the back. wide. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. but not tight. long and should be placed vertically. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from each end of the outside of the box. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and 2 in. wide by 5 in.

or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. West Toledo. and extending the whole height of the lantern." etc. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Ohio. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.. and so on. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. This process is rather a difficult one. Bradley. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. June and November. then the second knuckle will be March. calling that knuckle January. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. --Contributed by Chas. 1. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. as it requires an airtight case. calling this February. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. April. C.

Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. giving it an occasional stir. In each place two electrodes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. . The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Pour in a little turpentine. in. but waxed. the lid or cover closed. --Contributed by J. 1. 2. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 1 and 2.with small sticks. H. and set aside for half a day. The top of a table will do. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. In both Fig. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. N. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. and the lead 24 sq. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. fruit jars are required. Crawford. Schenectady. or suspended by a string. Y. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. in. one of lead and one of aluminum.

The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. he throws the other. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.. which you warm with your hands. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. as you have held it all the time.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. you remove the glass. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Cleveland. He. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. as well as others. O. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. This trick is very simple. After a few seconds' time.

if any snags are encountered. put it under the glass. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. in diameter in the center. Pull the ends quickly. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. on a table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. J. Colo. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.-Contributed by E. Crocker. . A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Be sure that this is the right one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.take the handiest one. Victor. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. near a partition or curtain. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. but in making one. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. but by being careful at shores.

1 piece. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 3 and 4. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. by 12 in. for the stern piece. 3 in. 8 in. by 2 in. 1 in. at the ends. of rope. long. and is removed after the ribs are in place. as illustrated in the engraving. 2 gunwales. one 6 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. wide and 12 ft. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. wide unbleached muslin. and. by 2 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 11 yd. 3 in.. is 14 ft. square by 16 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. drilled and fastened with screws. 1/4 in. 14 rib bands. are as follows: 1 keelson. 2 and braced with an iron band. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 mast. from the bow and the large one. Fig.. 8 yd. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 15 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. for center deck braces. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 8 in. apart. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. and fastened with screws. long.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. The keelson. and the other 12 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. for cockpit frame. wide 12-oz. by 16 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. ducking. clear pine. thick and 3/4 in. 1 piece. selected pine. Both ends are mortised. by 16 ft. 1 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. 1. from the stern. 1/8 in. 4 outwales. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. screws and cleats. long. 50 ft. for the bow. from each end to 1 in. Paint. 9 ft. of 1-yd. wide. 2 in. by 10 ft. 7 ft.

long is well soaked in water. The 11-yd. long. Before making the deck. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 1/4 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. thick and 12 in. 5. wide. wide and 24 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. 9. A piece of oak. . 4 in. thick. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. and fastened to them with bolts. 1 in. thick 1-1/2 in. 1 in. doubled. thick. is a cube having sides 6 in. 7 and 8. This block. long. A block of pine. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. A seam should be made along the center piece. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. wide and 3 ft. 6 and 7. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. These are put in 6 in. a piece 1/4 in. Braces. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide and 14 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. screws. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. apart. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 3-1/2 ft. in diameter through the block. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 6 in. thick and 1/2 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The trimming is wood. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. A 6-in. The deck is not so hard to do. also. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. wood screws. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. gunwales and keelson. Fig. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. corner braces. They are 1 in. 6. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Fig. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Figs. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. long. wide. from the bow. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The block is fastened to the keelson. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side.

The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The sail is a triangle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. at the other. Tronnes. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A strip 1 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. . each 1 in. Wilmette. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. wide at one end and 12 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 11. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. is 6 in. are used for the boom and gaff. 10 with a movable handle. wide. thick by 2 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. --Contributed by O. The house will accommodate 20 families. Fig. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. apart in the muslin. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. in diameter and 10 ft. The keel. long. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. 12. E. Ill. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. long. The mast has two side and one front stay. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts.

Wilmette. 5. and the other 18 in. wide and 2 ft. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. thick. Tronnes. long and five 1/2-in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long. 2 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 4. 1. 1 yd. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. with the ends and the other side rounding. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. one 11-1/2 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. thick. long. Take this and fold it over . The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. flat headed screws. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion.into two 14-in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 3. thick. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Cut the maple. Ill. five 1/2-in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. square. wide and 30 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. flat-headed screws. E. 2-1/2 in. wide. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 2. about 5/16 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. long. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. --Contributed by O. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig.

and make a turn in each end of the wires. When the glue is set. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. but can be governed by circumstances. 3 in. are rounded. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Mo. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. as well as the edges around the opening. After the glue. A. 2 and 3. long. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. Fig. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in.once. the top and bottom. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. wide and 2-3/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. long. 1. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. then centered. soaked with water and blown up. and the four outside edges. Figs. this square box is well sandpapered. 3-1/4 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. About 1/2 in. St. pieces 2-5/8 in. thick. F. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. wide and 3 ft. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. the mechanical parts can be put together. long. long. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. square. wide and 2-1/2 in. C. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Cut another piece of board. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 4-1/2 in. long. 5 from 1/16-in. forming an eye for a screw. square. Bliss. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. of each end unwound for connections. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide . long. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. 3/8 in. A. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. is set. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. thick. wide and 6-3/4 in. C. Glue a three cornered piece. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 5 in. long. 1-1/4 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Another piece. Wind three layers of about No. thick and 3 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. D. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. B. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. E. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 6-1/2 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The front. about 3/8 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. Louis. The sides are 3-1/4 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Make a double stitch all around the edge. --Contributed by W.

This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Yorkshire. 4. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. A pointer 12 in. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The stronger the current. and as the part Fig. and the farther apart they will be forced. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. L. 1/4 in. Austwick Hall. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. board. the part carrying the pointer moves away. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. wide and 9 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. W. 5-1/2 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 1/16 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. R. thick. Like poles repel each other. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Richmond Hill. Place the tin. I. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Fig.R. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Another strip of tin. from one end. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Chapman.and 2-5/8 in. long. F. Fig. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. hole is fastened to the pointer. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.A. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. 5. When the current flows through the coil. long. and fasten in place. from the spindle. so it will just clear the tin. that has the end turned with a shoulder. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. These wires should be about 1 in. the same size as the first. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. 4 is not movable. bored in the back. 4. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. wide and 2-1/2 in. The end of the polar axis B. G. long.S. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The base is a board 5 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . C. in diameter.

mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. and vice . Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. say Venus at the date of observation. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 10 min. 30 min. shows mean siderial. 1881. 10 min. M. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. at 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. A. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. The following formula will show how this may be found. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. thus: 9 hr.

Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. owing to the low internal resistance. --Contributed by Robert W. or. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. if one of these cannot be had. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Conn.m. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.f. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. and then verify its correctness by measurement. . How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. New Haven. Hall. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.

Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. consisted of an old shaft with a hole .One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. fresh grass. of alum and 4 oz. 1-3/4 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Then. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. thick. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. inside diameter and about 5 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Wet paper will answer. 3/8 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. leaves or bark. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. arsenic to every 20 lb. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. especially for cooking fish. The boring bar. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. and heap the glowing coals on top. long. cover up with the same. When the follower is screwed down. Fig. as shown in the accompanying picture. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. 1. put the fish among the ashes. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine.

The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. when they were turned in. pipe. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. about 1/2 in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. fastened with a pin. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. and threaded on both ends. thick. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew.

This plate also supports the rocker arms. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 3. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. as the one illustrated herewith. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. It . The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 30 in. long. bent in the shape of a U. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. The rough frame. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. If the valve keeps dripping. 2. Clermont. Fig. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. A 1-in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 4.valve stems. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. thick and 3 in. Iowa. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. wide. labor and time. Fig. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 5. however. and which gave such satisfactory results. square iron. was then finished on an emery wheel. but never one which required so little material. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. a jump spark would be much better. the float is too high.

in the ground with 8 ft. W. Nieman. in diameter and 15 in. strong clear material only should be employed. On this depends the safety of the contrivance.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. and a little junk. long is the pivot. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. hole bored in the post. and. --Contributed by C. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long. being held in position by spikes as shown. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet." little and big. from all over the neighborhood. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The crosspiece is 2 in. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. If it is to be used for adults. The seats are regular swing boards. from the center. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. It looks like a toy. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. timber. square and 5 ft. so it must be strong enough. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. extending above. square. 3/4 in. square and 2 ft. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. This makes an easy adjustment. in fact. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. long. with no trees or buildings in the way. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. 12 ft. completes the merry-go-round. A malleable iron bolt. Use a heavy washer at the head. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . set 3 ft. rope is not too heavy. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The illustration largely explains itself. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. A 3/4 -in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. butting against short stakes. long. strengthened by a piece 4 in. no matter what your age or size may be. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. for the "motive power" to grasp. As there is no bracing. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.

The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. These ends are placed about 14 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 1/4 by 3/32 in. a wreck. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The bow is now bent. light and strong. and 18 in. as shown in Fig. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.2 emery. long. The backbone is flat. To wind the string upon the reel.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. away. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. one for the backbone and one for the bow. Having placed the backbone in position. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. square. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. then it is securely fastened.the fingers. 4. 1. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and sent to earth. if nothing better is at hand. 2. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. A reel is next made. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Both have large reels full of . This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.

N. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Brooklyn. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . often several hundred yards of it. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he pays out a large amount of string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. First. C. Moody. Bunker. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. common packing thread. The handle end is held down with a staple. the balance. Mass. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.string. or glass-covered string. Y. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. If the second kite is close enough. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Newburyport.

Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then draw the string up tight. Vt. square (Fig. then a dust protector. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Corinth. each the size of half the table top. length of 2-in. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. must be attached to a 3-ft. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Hastings. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. --Contributed by Earl R. If the table is round. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. such as mill men use. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. lengths (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.

This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Wharton. hard pencil. from E to F. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions... The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 6-1/4 in. Calif. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. from C to D.9-1/4 in. G to H. which spoils the leather effect. trace the design carefully on the leather. Oakland. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Moisten the . but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Use a smooth.-Contributed by H. and E to G. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 17-1/2 in. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. 2-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in. . E.

about 1/8 in. and lace through the holes. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. wide. Trace the openings for the handles. Cut it the same size as the bag. get something with which to make a lining. apart. I made this motor . Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. G-J. Now cut narrow thongs. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. place both together and with a leather punch. and E-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. H-B. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. is taken off at a time. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. and corresponding lines on the other side. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. To complete the bag. if not more than 1 in. also lines A-G. with the rounded sides of the tools.

Calif. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 2. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. iron. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. D. as shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. in length. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 1. B. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. long.M. of No. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. . 1. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. each being a half circle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 24 gauge magnet wire. Shannon. Pasadena. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 2-1/4 in.

The gores for a 6-ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. high. near the center. pasted in alternately. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. from the bottom end. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and the gores cut from these. 1. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. are the best kind to make. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. balloon should be about 8 ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the .

widest point. coming through the small pipe A. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. If the gores have been put together right. 3. in diameter. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. B. In removing grease from wood. as shown in Fig. 4. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. 2. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A. leaving the solution on over night. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 5. After washing. These are to hold the wick ball. As the boat is driven forward by this force. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. somewhat larger in size. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . using about 1/2-in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. leaving a long wake behind. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. In starting the balloon on its flight. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The steam. --Contributed by R. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Staunton. E. Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. as shown in Fig. saturating it thoroughly. 1. lap on the edges. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in.

The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. as is shown in Fig. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. if you have several copies of the photograph. long. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. high and 8 in. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. In using either of the two methods described. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The blocks are about 6 in. apart on these lines. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. wide by 6 in. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. There are three ways of doing this: First. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. in bowling form. Second. long and each provided with a handle. Third.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. 1.

Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.Fig. 2. being careful not to dent the metal. N. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Y. Hellwig. Albany. Rinse the plate in cold water. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. thick. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. --Contributed by John A. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.

Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . If the bottom is not perfectly flat. with a set screw. These corner irons are also screwed to. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Va. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. S. CC. A. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. in diameter. thick. wide and 8 in. A circular piece of wood. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish.upon any particular object. and. Richmond. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 5 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. wide and of any desired height. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 1 Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. A. is fastened to a common camera tripod. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. B. long for the base. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and Fig. Paine. --Contributed by R. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. With this device. are screwed to the circular piece. Corner irons. and not produce the right sound. through which passes the set screw S. which is 4 in. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. In Fig. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 2 the front view. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Break off the frame. 6 in. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in.

If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. La Salle. Ill. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. I made a wheel 26 in. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. This will make a very compact electric horn.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. pine boards. . as only the can is visible. Lake Preston. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. R. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. This horn. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. D. thus producing sound waves.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Kidder. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. in diameter of some 1-in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. S. -1.

A. square. B. the same thickness as the coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. If the collection consists of only a few coins. 2. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Ghent. --Contributed by James R. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Fig. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. O. Kane. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The frame is made of a heavy card. 1.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. If there is a large collection of coins. --Contributed by C. Doylestown. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Purdy. thick and 12 in. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.

If desired. Milwaukee. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. melted and applied with a brush. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.E. One Cloud. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. --Contributed by R. Wis. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. they become uninteresting. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Neyer. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. and then glued together as indicated. The material required is a sheet of No. border all around. Canada. Cal. plus a 3/8-in. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. several large nails. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Noble. thick. a hammer or mallet. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. --Contributed by August T. Smith. though not absolutely necessary. for after the slides have been shown a few times. cut and grooved. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. --Contributed by J. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. into which to place the screws . Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. It will hold 4 oz.J. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Toronto. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. A rivet punch is desirable. A lead pencil. of developer.

Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. using 1/2-in. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Take the nail. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. screws placed about 1 in. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. like the one shown. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Punch rivet holes in holder and band.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. and file it to a chisel edge. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. never upon the metal directly. both outline and decoration. There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.

using a 1/2in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. for the lower rails. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in.wall. Rivet the band to the holder. 3/4 in. long. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. 3. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. of 11-in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Provide four lengths for the legs. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. two lengths. as shown in Fig. square and 181/2 in. 2. being ball bearing. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. in the other. About 1/2 yd. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. square. The pedal. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. and two lengths. each 1 in. up from the lower end. . l-1/8 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. 1. for the top. square and 11 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig.

The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. F. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by W. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. New York City. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. having quite a length of threads. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.

New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and 3/8 in. in depth. Luther. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. long.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The desired emblem. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. stitched on both edges for appearance. Two pieces of felt. and two holes in the other. and the other 2-3/4 in. long. using class.. from the end. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. D. something that is carbonated. Mich. Assemble as shown in the sketch. making a lap of about 1 in. Ironwood. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . from one end. wide and 4-1/4 in. one about 1 in. each 1-1/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. the end of the other piece is folded over. college or lodge colors. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. initial. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Purchase a 1/2-in. long. --Contributed by C.

Indianapolis. Schatz. A piece of lead.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. about 2 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. and the cork will be driven out. in diameter and 2 in. as shown at B. --Contributed by John H. 1/4 in. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. This method allows a wide range of designs. in the cover and the bottom. Fig. from the center and opposite each other. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . or more in height. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 1. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. which can be procured from a plumber. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. Ind. or a pasteboard box. 2. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Punch two holes A. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.

5. O. When the can is rolled away from you. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 3. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. as shown in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. or marble will serve. 1. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. are turned up as in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. Columbus. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. allowing the two ends to be free. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The pieces of tin between the holes A. on both top and bottom. A piece of thick glass. putting in the design. Fig. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. it winds up the rubber band. metal. . 4.

I secured a board 3/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Next place the leather on the glass. A pencil may be used the first time over. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. thick. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. New York City. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. from each end. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. After this has been done. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. long and bored a 1/2-in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. and. 1 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 3 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. wide and 20 in. face up. deep in its face. thicker than the pinion. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . or more thick on each side. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. hole through it. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. mark over the design.

1 top board. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1.in the board into the bench top. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 piece for clamp. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 2. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 piece for clamp. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. much of the hard labor will be saved. in diameter. 3 by 3 by 36. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 back board. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 piece. Fig. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Make the lower frame first. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2 crosspieces. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Rice. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 top board. N. Now fit up the two clamps. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. M. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2 by 2 by 18 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Brooklyn. Y. thick top board. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 side rails. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Cut the 2-in. 2 end rails. 1 screw block. --Contributed by A. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Syracuse. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 4 guides. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. lag screws as shown. New York. 1 by 9 by 80 in.

3 and 6 in. 1 pocket level.. rule. 1 rip saw. . 1 compass saw.screws.. 1 jack plane or smoother. in diameter. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 cross cut saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 countersink. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair dividers. 2 screwdrivers. 24 in. Only the long run. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 claw hammer. 1 set gimlets. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 nail set. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 monkey wrench. it can be easily found when wanted. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. as well as the pattern maker. 1 wood scraper. 1 marking gauge. They can be purchased at a hardware store. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair pliers. The bench is now complete. 1 set chisels. 24 in.. 1 2-ft. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The amateur workman.

becomes like A. 2. but will not make .1. No. try square. Fig. the projecting point A. Pa. will be easier to work. Doylestown. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. 1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1 oilstone. Fig. 1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Kane. 3. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. The calf skin. being softer. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. ---Contributed by James M. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. after constant use.1 6-in.

and the length 6-5/8 in. secure a piece of modeling calf. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. New York City. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. water or heat will not affect. such as copper or brass. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Two pieces will be required of this size. . First draw the design on paper.as rigid a case as the cow skin. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. If calf skin is to be used. Having prepared the two sides. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. lay the design on the face. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. which steam. Turn the leather. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. when dry. If cow hide is preferred. then prepare the leather. After the outlines are traced. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. will do just as well. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. the same method of treatment is used. cover it completely with water enamel and. -Contributed by Julia A. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. The form can be made of a stick of wood. White.

and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Herrman. as shown in the sketch. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Maine. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. New York City. --Contributed by W. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Portland. Cobb. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by Chester L. . it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cal. C. Jaquythe. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.

. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Wright. for instance. Mass. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. --Contributed by Wm. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. --Contributed by Geo.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. . was marked out as shown. Cambridge. A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Conn. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. This was very difficult. B. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Middletown. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. an inverted stewpan. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Roberts.

I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Indianapolis. F. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. apply powdered calcined magnesia. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. L. Illinois. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. If any traces of the grease are left. but not running over. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. --Contributed by C. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. as shown. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. such as chair seats. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. on a clear piece of glass. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. There was no quicklime to be had. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water.. used as part of furniture. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Ind. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Bone. Herbert. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. . Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. which has been tried out several times with success. so some bones were quickly calcined. and quite new. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Chicago.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. and the grease will disappear. face down. When dry. of boiling water. pulverized and applied. --Contributed by Paul Keller. well calcined and powdered. but only an odor which soon vanished. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. A beautifully bound book. If the article is highly polished. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.

. A. Howe. thick. This coaster is simple and easy to make. says Scientific American. The pieces marked S are single. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. Tarrytown. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. set and thumbscrews. long. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. If properly adjusted. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. high and are bolted to a block of wood. wide and 12 in. deep and 5 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.. the pieces .Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. --Contributed by Geo. 6 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. New York. 2 in.

A sharp knife. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. no doubt. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . for sending to friends. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. says Camera Craft. to the underside of which is a block. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. If the letters are all cut the same height. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Their size depends on the plate used. they will look remarkably uniform. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The seat is a board. E. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork.

" An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. for example. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. using care to get it in the right position. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. In cutting out an 0. So made. after. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. So arranged. mount them on short pieces of corks. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. pasting the prints on some thin card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. The puzzle is to get . but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. photographing them down to the desired size. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting.

Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. long that will just fit are set in. N. A hole 6 or 7 in. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.J. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Cape May Point. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. of its top. with the longest end outside. hung on pivots. so they will lie horizontal. says the American Thresherman. He smells the bait. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Bayley. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. G. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .-Contributed by I. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. snow or anything to hide it. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Old-Time Magic . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.

then spread the string. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. Press the hands together. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.faced up. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. --Contributed by Charles Graham. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Brooklyn. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Pawtucket. E. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then expose again. Idaho. Y. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. N. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Parker. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pocatello. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury.

and if carefully made. long.Genuine antique swords and armor. narrower. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The handle is next made. thick. in width. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. full size. they will look very much like the genuine article. dark red. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. using a straightedge and a pencil. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. When the glue is thoroughly dry.. wide and 2 in. near the point end. When the whole is quite dry. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. says the English Mechanic.. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. if any. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. 4 on the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The pieces. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. Glue the other side of the blade. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. wipe the blade . and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or green oil paint. whether he requires a single sword only. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 3 Fig. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. or a complete suit of armor. 2 Fig. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. end of the blade. The blade should be about 27 in. 1. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. 1 Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty.

The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 1. about 1-1/2 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia.. Both edges of the blade are sharp. Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. preferably of contrasting colors. the length of the blade 28 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. square and of any length desired. as it is . In making. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. in diameter. the illustration. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. the other two are identical. take two pieces of wood. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 1/8 in. the other is flat or half-round.with light strokes up and down several times. 4. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. of course. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. long. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. and 3 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 2. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. should be about 9 in. shows only two sides. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord.. thick and 5 in. In the finished piece. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 3. 1. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. 2. The length of the handle. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 1. follow the directions as for Fig. In making this scimitar. 3. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. in the widest part at the lower end. not for use only in cases of tableaux. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side.

and if so. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. piping and jackets by hard water. Mass. 2 in. in an attempt to remove it. long. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. about 3/8 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Y. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as there was some at hand. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. --Contributed by Katharine D. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Syracuse. --Contributed by John Blake. Doctors probed for the button without success. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. The thinness of the plank. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. square. A cold . and. however. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as shown in the sketch. On each edge of the board. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Franklin. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. N. It is made of a plank. A piece of mild steel. Both can be made easily. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. as can the pitch bed or block.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Morse. or an insecure fastening. at the lower end. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. each about 1 ft. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.

turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. To put it in another way.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. design down. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. To remedy this. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Trim up the edges and file them .. plaster of Paris. 18 gauge. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 5 lb. When this has been done. on the pitch. When the desired form has been obtained. 5 lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. secure a piece of brass of about No. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. using a small metal saw. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. a file to reduce the ends to shape. tallow.. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.

using powdered pumice with lye. in one minute or 550 lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle. but not to stop it. one 18 in. 3. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Fill the 3-in. . Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. to keep it from floating. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. make an unusual show window attraction. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen.000 ft. This in turn divided by 33. Before giving the description. per second.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.smooth. over the smaller vessel. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. space between the vessels with water. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. lb. 30 ft.000 lb. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. in diameter (Fig. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 1 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. 2). per minute. Fig. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. A. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. and still revolve. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. in one second. 1) and the other 12 in. That is lifting 33. or 550 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. and hang a bird swing. Cutter. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. or fraction of a horsepower. --Contributed by Harold H. 1 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in the center. it may be well to know what horsepower means. in diameter (Fig.

--Contributed. Mass. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.3 Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Somerville. Brooklyn. or on a pedestal. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Diameter 12 in. by L. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. 1 Fig. N.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Szerlip. --Contributed by J. Diameter Fig.18 in. Campbell. Y. F. 2 Fig. The effect is surprising.

covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. In riveting. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. using any of the common metal polishes. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and the clay . which may be of wood or tin. Rivet the cup to the base. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. is. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference.copper of No. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. with the pliers. which. Polish both of these pieces. often render it useless after a few months service. after which it is ready for use. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and cut out the shape with the shears. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. keeping the center high. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. and then. with other defects. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. the same as removing writing from a slate. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This compound is impervious to water. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. unsatisfactory. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. as a rule. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Do not be content merely to bend them over. away from the edge.

The siphon is made of glass tubes. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 3/4 in. Mich. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Houghton. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Mich. Dunlop. as shown in Fig. . The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Scotland. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. --Contributed by John T. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.can be pressed back and leveled. It is made of a glass tube. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. long. the device will work for an indefinite time. 2. in diameter and 5 in. Shettleston. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. --Contributed by A. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Northville. A. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 1. -Contributed by Thos. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. DeLoof. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use.

The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. London. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. As the handle is to . in width and 2 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. 1.1 FIG. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. put up as ornaments. long. This sword is 4 ft. stilettos and battle-axes.

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. in width. with wire or string' bound handle. The crossbar and blade are steel. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. When dry. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. in length. string. long. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. glue and put it in place. 5. This axe is made similar to the one . which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. with both edges of the blade sharp. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 6. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The handle is of wood. with both edges sharp. 3 is shown a claymore. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. This weapon is about 1 ft. the axe is of steel. When the whole is quite dry. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 4. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. the upper part iron or steel. The ball is made as described in Fig. In Fig. These must be cut from pieces of wood. sometimes called cuirass breakers. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The lower half of the handle is of wood.represent copper. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Both handle and axe are of steel. studded with brass or steel nails. very broad. paint it a dark brown or black. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. in length. 9. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. sharp edges on both sides. 8. 20 spike. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. A German stiletto. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. firmly glued on. wood with a keyhole saw. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. In Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. small rope and round-headed nails. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. This sword is about 4 ft. 11 were used. narrower. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. In Fig. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. This stiletto has a wood handle. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. one about 1/2 in. is shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Three large. 7.

W.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. high. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Davis. such as braided fishline.described in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. 2. together as shown in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Chicago. --Contributed by E. This will make a very good flexible belt. . the ends are tied and cut off. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . so the contents cannot be seen. will pull where other belts slip. 10. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.

J.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. with the circle centrally located. N. Bridgeton. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Before the performance. Oakland. held in the right hand. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. filled with water. about one-third the way down from the top. four glass tumblers. S. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Macdonald. Calif. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. some of the liquid. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. an acid. in a few seconds' time. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. 1 and put together as in Fig. These wires are put in the jar. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. apparently. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . To make the flowers grow in an instant. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. or using small wedges of wood. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. 2. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. --Contributed by A. There will be no change in color. The dotted lines in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. causing the flowers to grow.

--Contributed by W. Jaquythe. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Richmond. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. and kept ready for use at any time. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . says a correspondent of Photo Era. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. When many slides are to be masked. If the size wanted is No. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. This outlines the desired opening. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. and equally worthy of individual treatment. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. unless some special device is used. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. which are numbered for convenience in working. A. 4 for width and No. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. practical and costs nothing. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. 2 for height. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Cal. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides.

The one shown is merely suggestive. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. may be changed. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. and the extreme length 7 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. about half and half. The decoration. or. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. This done. using the carbon paper. but they can be easily revived. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Secure a sheet of No. not the water into the acid. Draw a design. or a pair of old tongs. and do not inhale the fumes. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. paint the design. the paper is folded along the center line. 16 gauge. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. possibly. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. a little less acid than water. the margin and the entire back of the metal. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. too. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. is about right for the No. With a stick. which is dangerous. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. When etched to the desired depth.

about 1 in. as in Fig. about 3 ft. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. about 2-1/2 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 3/8 in. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. about 8 in. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. and about 2-1/2 ft. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 2. 3. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. through it. with the wires underneath. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. long and 1 ft. Fig. 4. Cut out a piece of tin. attached to a post at each end. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. wide. 0 indicates the batteries. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. When the button S is pressed. thick. it will touch post F. as shown in Fig. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as shown in the illustration. and bore two holes. 1.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 5. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. so that when it is pressed down. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Nail a board. The connections are simple: I. 2. as at H. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. the bell will ring. Paint the table any color desired. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. It may be either nailed or screwed down. or more wide. to the table. 24 parts water. repeat as many times as is necessary. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 2. Fig. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. high. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. C and D. . A. Then get two posts. wide and of the same length as the table.

the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. 1. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. is to appear as steel. thick. such as . the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A wood peg about 2 in. but they are somewhat difficult to make. handle and all.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. long. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. These rings can be carved out. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire weapon.. The imitation articles are made of wood. After the glue is dry. says the English Mechanic. This weapon is about 22 in. 2. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The circle is marked out with a compass. long serves as the dowel.Imitation Arms and Armor .

then the hammer put on the base of the spike. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. or the amateur cannot use it well. 6. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The handle is of steel imitation. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. studded with large brass or steel nails. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. with a sharp carving tool. . The upper half of the handle is steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. flowers. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. as before mentioned. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. 2. etc. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Its length is about 3 ft. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. covered with red velvet. leaves. The lower half of the handle is wood. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. This weapon is about 22 in.ornamental scrolls. as shown. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The axe is shown in steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 3. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. long. 5. The handle is of wood. If such a tool is not at hand. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 8. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. also. as described in Fig. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the hammer and spike. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. used at the end of the fifteenth century. All of these axes are about the same length. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails.

A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 6. Fig. 5. The knife falling on its side (Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. Chicago. . and so on for nine innings. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. then the other plays. a three-base hit. 3. 4). The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. calls for a home run. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as shown in Fig. 2. as in Fig. 1.

The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. 1. as shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 2. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. This he does. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. of the rope and holds it. F. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . Somerville. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. of water for an hour or two. It may be found that the negative is not colored. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. 3. one of them burning . the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. with the rope laced in the cloth.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. while the committee is tying him up.-Contributed by J. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Campbell. Mass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. hypo to 1 pt. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.

Thome. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles.brightly. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. B. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. of sugar. etc. Lebanon. invisible to them (the audience). Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. the other without a light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. --Contributed by L. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. --Contributed by C. . The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. bolt.. 4 oz. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. 4 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of plumbago. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp.Contributed by Andrew G. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. with which he is going to light the other candle. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. showing that there is nothing between them. shades the light for a few seconds. Ky. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill Gauge screw. and. He then walks over to the other candle. Evans. Brown. 3/4 in. Louisville. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. of turpentine. Ky. of water and 1 oz. thick. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. thus causing it to light. New York City. The magician walks over to the burning candle.

Pulteney. diameter. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. which will give a strong. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. long. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Its current strength is about one volt. thick. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. but is not so good. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. 5 in. steady current. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Do not add water to the acid. Denniston. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. about 5 in. N. In making up the solution. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Y. into a tube of several thicknesses. H. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. for the material. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. --Contributed by C. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. or blotting paper.

thus saving much work in fitting up joints. long with a bearing at each end. To insure this. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. but somewhat lighter. steel. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. carrying the hour circle at one end. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next.station.) may be obtained. steel. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. steel. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. After much experimentation with bearings. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. Finally. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. a positive adjustment was provided. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. one drawing them together. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. One hole was bored as well as possible. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The . a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. the other holding them apart. while the other end is attached by two screws. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. As to thickness. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in.

The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. need not be changed. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Cassiopiae. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. subtract 24. save the one in the pipe. When properly set it will describe a great circle. and if it is not again directed to the same point. All set screws. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. is provided with this adjustment. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. and 15 min. If the result is more than 24 hours. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. once carefully made. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . To find a star in the heavens. in each direction from two points 180 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Point it approximately to the north star. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. apart.. All these adjustments. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. 45 min." Only a rough setting is necessary. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Set the declination circle to its reading. The pole is 1 deg. It is. The pointer is directed to Alpha. excepting those on the declination axis. are tightened. Each shaft. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Instead. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Declination is read directly. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. turn the pointer to the star. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction." When this is done. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To locate a known star on the map. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration.

If this will be too transparent. is folded several times. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. taking care not to add too much. long. -Contributed by Ray E. La. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. the others .. which is the one examined. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. cannon balls. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. as shown in the sketch. Ohio. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. a great effect will be produced. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The dance will begin. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. is the real cannon ball. then add 1 2-3 dr. 3 or 4 in. add a little more benzole. Plain City. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. New Orleans. of ether. In reality the first ball. Strosnider. benzole.

Return the card to the pack. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. --Contributed by J. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. etc. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. In boxes having a sliding cover. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Wis. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Milwaukee. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. taps. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 1). The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. 2. Cal. San Francisco. Fig. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Somerville. F. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. as shown in the illustration. Campbell. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. small brooches. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. without taking up any great amount of space. Mass.

from the bottom of the box. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. This box has done good service. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. slides and extra brushes. Beller. thus giving ample store room for colors. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Connecticut. Hartford. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. as shown in the illustration. prints. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. . round pieces 2-1/4 in. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.

Mass. will answer the purpose. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. holes in the bottom of one. 2). . When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 1). O. costing 5 cents. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. tacking the gauze well at the corners. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. or placed against a wall. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. -Contributed by C. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. with well packed horse manure. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. about threefourths full. When the ends are turned under. FIG.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Fill the upper tub. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. West Lynn. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.

often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Chicago. cutting the cane between the holes. Eifel. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If the following directions are carried out. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. oil or other fluid. if this is not available. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. M. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. --Contributed by L. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. and each bundle contains . If plugs are found in any of the holes. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. they should be knocked out. when they are raised from the pan. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. held there by inserting another plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. No plugs . a square pointed wedge. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. then across and down. after having been pulled tight. In addition to the cane. it should be held by a plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. as it must be removed again. 1. as shown in Fig. put about 3 or 4 in.

R. 41 °-30'. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.075 in. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. the next smallest. 1. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. Fig. but the most common. Patrick. 4. 5. using the same holes as for the first layer. 40°. we have 4.42 in. From table No. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. -Contributed by E.5 in.2+. 1. in this case) times the . 3. Even with this lubrication. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. W. 3. After completing the second layer. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. as for example. and for lat. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 42° is 4.15 in. All added to the lesser or 40°. --Contributed by M. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . lat. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. called the gnomon. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. is the horizontal dial.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. as shown in Fig.3 in. D. and for 1° it would be . The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Their difference is . The chemicals will not affect the rosin. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. The style or gnomon. the height of which is taken from table No. When cool. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. It consists of a flat circular table. the height of the line BC. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. 1 lat. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Fig. stretch the third one. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.075 in. as it always equals the latitude of the place. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. or the style. is the base (5 in. No weaving has been done up to this time. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.= 4. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 1. it is 4. If handled with a little care. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. for 2°. If you have a table of natural functions. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. There are several different designs of sundials. Michigan. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 5 in. 41°-30'. This will make three layers. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. as shown in Fig. During the weaving. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.15+. trim off the surplus rosin. and the one we shall describe in this article. Detroit. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.2 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.

or more.26 4. and perpendicular to the base or style.33 .07 4.49 30 .30 1. Fig.97 5 7 4. which will represent the base in length and thickness. base. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.76 1.88 36° 3.55 5.82 2.77 2. if of metal. 2.50 26° 2. 2 for given latitudes. gives the 6 o'clock points. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.85 1.30 2.55 30° 2.46 3.44 44° 4. according to the size of the dial.27 2.40 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.tangent of the degree of latitude. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.33 42° 4.79 4.12 52° 6.18 28° 2.87 4.00 40° 4.42 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. or if of stone. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.49 3.66 48° 5.56 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.23 6. using the points A and C as centers.91 58° 8.87 1.29 4-30 7-30 3.82 3. an inch or two. long.89 50° 5.59 2.37 5.96 32° 3.40 34° 3.02 1. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.57 3. with a radius of 5 in.55 46° 5. . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.16 1.37 54° 6.82 5.63 56° 7. and for this size dial (10 in.85 35 .93 2.64 4 8 3. 1. Draw the line AD.57 1. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.06 2.11 3.38 . The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. and intersecting the semicircles. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.42 45 . circle Sundial.41 38° 3.14 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.55 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Draw two semi-circles.19 1. Table NO.81 4. Its thickness.66 latitude.83 27° 2.03 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.10 6.42 1.32 6. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .94 1. To layout the hour circle.28 .93 6.20 60° 8.68 5-30 6-30 5. 2.66 1. For latitudes not given.16 40 .99 2.46 .39 .

changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sept. each article can be labelled with the name. and the . it will be faster. Each weapon is cut from wood. June 15. 900 Chicago.34 5.49 5.52 Table No.82 3. As they are the genuine reproductions. Mitchell. if west. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.add those marked + subtract those Marked .53 1.50 55 . E. This correction can be added to the values in table No. The + means that the clock is faster. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 3. Sioux City. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.68 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.21 2.46 5. will enable one to set the dial. says the English Mechanic.01 1.57 1. London.87 6. after allowing for the declination.49 3.72 5.08 1.10 4.71 2.50 . An ordinary compass.46 4.63 1.60 4. then the watch is slower. Sun time to local mean time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. adding to each piece interest and value.from Sundial lime. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Iowa.06 2.98 4.12 5.37 2.77 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.. 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.54 60 .30 2. 2 and Dec. April 16. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.89 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .19 2.means that the dial is faster than the sun.14 1. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 25.93 6. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.79 6. --Contributed by J.24 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. and for the difference between standard and local time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.

The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. 1. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. . 3.. the length of which is about 5 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Partisan. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.

sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. A gisarm or glaive. This weapon is about 6 ft. 7. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long with a round staff or handle.which is square. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The edges are sharp. 6 ft. sharp on the outer edges. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. which are a part of the axe. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. 5. It is about 6 ft. long. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. used about the seventeenth century. long.. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. . Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The spear is steel. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 8. press it well into the carved depressions. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. in diameter. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long with a round wooden handle. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The extreme length is 9 ft. about 4 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. the holes being about 1/4 in.

a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. the cross cords. This is important to secure neatness. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 5. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Ohio. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by R.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. B. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Loudonville. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Workman. They can be made of various materials. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. apart. H. 2 and 3. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. In Figs. 1. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. are less durable and will quickly show wear. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 4. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Substances such as straw. The twisted cross cords should . The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. are put in place. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Cut all the cords the same length. the most durable being bamboo. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper.

Four V-shaped notches were cut. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Lockport. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Harrer. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. of the bottom. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. below the top to within 1/4 in. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. wide. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. 3 in. New York. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. bamboo or rolled paper. as shown at B. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. shaped as shown at C. To remedy this. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. New Orleans. in which was placed a piece of glass. M. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. This was turned over the top of the other can. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. A slit was cut in the bottom. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . La. -Contributed by Geo. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The first design shown is for using bamboo.be of such material.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Newburgh. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. about 1/16 in. do not throw away the gloves. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. --Contributed by W. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Ill. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. wide. This should be done gradually. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is shown in the accompanying sketch. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Cal.tape from sticking to the carpet. Schaffner. Sanford. Pasadena. Y. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. H. After this is finished. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . It would be well to polish the brass at first. This plank. N. turned over but not fastened. Maywood. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. the brass is loosened from the block. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Shay. --Contributed by Chas. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. --Contributed by Joseph H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall.

Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Cal. -Contributed by W. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Oak Park. Jaquythe. K. --E. A. Unlike most clocks. Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. bent as shown. Marshall. the pendulum swings . in diameter. Ill. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.

. Now place the board to be joined. away. 3/4 in. The construction is very simple. 5/16 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Two uprights. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. the center one being 2-3/4 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. high. such as this one. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. in diameter. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. A. thick. by 1-5/16 in. high and 1/4 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. on the board B. C. Metzech. 6 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. . high. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. are secured in the base bar. B. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. In using this method. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. only have the opposite side up. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. wide. about 6 in. high. long and at each side of this. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. bar. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secure a board. about 12 in. is an electromagnet. wide that is perfectly flat. --Contributed by V. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Chicago. 7-1/2 in. Fasten another board. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and the other two 2-5/8 in. bearing on the latter. to the first one with screws or glue. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. says the Scientific American. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight.

The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. from one end. wide and 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. or more. by driving a pin through the wood. long. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. . These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 4. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Vanderslice. 2. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. wide and 5 in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. 3. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Pa. 1. is fastened in the hole A. --Contributed by Elmer A. Fig. as shown at A. Phoenixville. plates should be made 8 in. Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The trigger. 1. square inside. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in.

Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. square. 2 parts of whiting. 5 parts of black filler.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. one-half the length of the side pieces. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. -Contributed by J. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.A. as shown in the illustration. Fostoria. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. which allows 1/4 in. Simonis. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. by weight. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. if only two bands are put in the . rubbing varnish and turpentine. Ohio. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.

lower strings. A double convex lens. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. No. Dartmouth. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 8 in. It must be kept moist and well . 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. In use. deep. and it may be made as a model or full sized. as shown in Fig. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. A mirror. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. G. long. place tracing paper on its surface. Mass. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. preferably copper. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. keeps the strong light out when sketching. A piece of metal. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw. 1. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. In constructing helmets. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Grand Rapids. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. If a plain glass is used. II. in the opposite end of the box. wide and about 1 ft. --Contributed by Thos. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Michigan. London. says the English Mechanic. and the picture can be drawn as described. is necessary. DeLoof. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If you wish to make a pencil drawing.

the clay model oiled. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. Scraps of thin. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. After the clay model is finished. will be necessary. joined closely together. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . with a keyhole saw. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and continue until the clay is completely covered. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. a few clay-modeling tools. This being done. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. brown. 3. or some thin glue. on which to place the clay. and left over night to soak. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The clay. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and the deft use of the fingers. shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.kneaded. 1. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. as in bas-relief. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. All being ready. 2. 1. take.

as shown: in the design. which should be no difficult matter. In Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces.as possible. as seen in the other part of the sketch. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. a crest on top. When the helmet is off the model. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. When perfectly dry. or. 1. and the ear guards in two pieces. the piecing could not be detected. In Fig. one for each side. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Before taking it off the model. Indiana. and so on. When dry. a few lines running down. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. the skullcap. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The center of the ear guards are perforated. square in shape. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. Indianapolis. The whole helmet. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 9. They are all covered with tinfoil. owing to the clay being oiled. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. then another coating of glue. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 7. This contrivance should be made of wood. with the exception of the vizor. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. 5. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The band is decorated with brass studs. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. will make it look neat. --Contributed by Paul Keller. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the .

if the measurements are correct. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 4. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . is then packed down inside the collar. the fuse block. Fig. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. is shown in Fig. long. high. 1. Fig. Fig. The plate. This will make an open space between the plates. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The mineral wool. 1. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. AA. thick sheet asbestos. 3. one fuse block. 4. 4. two ordinary binding posts. E and F. in diameter and 9 in. one small switch. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. This will allow the plate. Fig. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. about 1 lb. thick. 2. The two holes. or. Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. until it is within 1 in. 12 in. GG. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron. long. FF. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 4. of the top. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. if this cannot be obtained. long. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. also the switch B and the fuse block C. as shown in Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. are allowed to project about 1 in. of fire clay. of No. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. and two large 3in. German-silver wire is better. with slits cut for the wires. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 2. 2. one oblong piece of wood. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. as shown in Fig. AA. which can be bought from a local druggist. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. to project through the holes D and A of the plate.same size. for connections. about 80 ft. 1. Fig. and. one glass tube. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. when they are placed in opposite positions. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4 lb. screws. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 1 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 3 in. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. wide and 15 in. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. above the collar. about 1/4 in. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. of mineral wool. 4. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. AA. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 4. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. each 4-1/2 in. If asbestos is used. The reverse side of the base. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. JJ. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. as shown in Fig. and C.

It should not be left heated in this condition. steam will form when the current is applied. H. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. If it is not thoroughly dry. when heated. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. A file can be used to remove any rough places. If this is the case. Can. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Fig. II. As these connections cannot be soldered. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. will slip and come in contact with each other. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. allowing a space between each turn. above the rim. Richmond. A. Cal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. then. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. When this is done. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. This completes the stove. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. The clay.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. --Contributed by R. as the turns of the wires. 4. more wire should be added. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. This point marks the proper length to cut it. apart. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. It should not be set on end. so that the circuit will not become broken. Next. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. when cool. 2. Cover over about 1 in. Cnonyn. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. KK. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. it leaves a gate for the metal. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Cut a 1/2-in. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. and pressed into it. While the clay is damp. St. Catherines. causing a short circuit. using care not to get it too wet. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Fig. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. deep. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. When the tile is in place. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section.

but 12 by 24 in. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the pie will be damaged. Ky. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. as shown. Louisville. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Then clip a little off the . is large enough. and the frame set near a window. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. --Contributed by Andrew G. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Thorne.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. says the Photographic Times. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. the air can enter from both top and bottom. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. constructed of 3/4-in. square material in any size. and the prints will dry rapidly. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter.

A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The driving arm D. The upright B. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. W. allowing each end to project for connections. thick and 3 in. -Contributed by S. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. which are fastened to the base. for the crank. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. slip on two cardboard washers. Two supports. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1. Le Mars. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. A 1/8-in. thick. 3. 1. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 2-1/2 in. long. 4 in. 2. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. As the shaft revolves. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Figs. which gives the shaft a half turn. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thick and 3 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. high. The connecting rod E. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. long. each 1/2 in. wide. 14 in. long. in diameter and about 4 in. 1. wide and 3 in. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1 and 3. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 1. 1/2 in. An offset is bent in the center. as shown. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 22 gauge magnet wire. thereby saving time and washing. causing a break in the current. each 1 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. open out. at GG. wide and 7 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in.Paper Funnel point. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. high. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Iowa. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The board can be raised to place . and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. high. Fig. long. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. in diameter. Herron. Fig.

Stecher. in height. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. 3 in. on a board. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. In designing the roost. One or more pots may be used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Mass. bottom side up. . Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. --Contributed by William F. Dorchester. Place the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. as shown in the sketch.

it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. preferably. paraffin and paint or varnish. etc. shelves. windows. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. in diameter. F. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.. 1. when combined. without any corresponding benefit. odd corners. The materials required are rope or. Fig. The bottom part of the sketch. grills and gratings for doors. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Wind the . using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. as shown in Fig. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. adopt the method described. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. ordinary glue.. 1. and give it time to dry. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. will produce the pattern desired. if it is other than straight lines. that it is heated.

Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Lockport.Fig. -Contributed by Geo. Harrer. Y. M. N. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. As the . Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. chips of iron rust. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. when it will be observed that any organic matter. etc. will be retained by the cotton. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. London. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. 1. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. which was used in front of a horse's head. but no farther. and the sides do not cover the jaws. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers..

This will make the model light and easy to move around. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as the surface will hold the clay. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. then another coat of glue. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. but for . Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. This can be made in one piece. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 6 and 7. This being done. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. and therefore it is not described. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 2. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 8. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This triangularshaped support. the same as in Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 2. with the exception of the thumb shield. as shown in the sketch. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and the clay model oiled. except the thumb and fingers. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 4. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. In Fig. and will require less clay. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. which is separate. which can be made in any size. All being ready. The armor is now removed from the model. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. the rougher the better. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers.

the foils will not move. the top of the rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. but 3-1/2 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. the two pieces of foil will draw together. wide and 1/2 in. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. are glued to it. cut into the shape shown in Fig. . and the instrument is ready for use. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. are better shown in Fig. The two pieces of foil. Redondo Beach. will be about right. each about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Ralph L. in depth. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two in each jaw. If it does not hold a charge. 9. Calif. long. two for the jaws and one a wedge. 2. fastened to the rod. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. N. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Buxton. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Y. A piece of board. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. La Rue. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Goshen. running down the plate. --Contributed by John G. 1/2 in.

long. as shown in the illustration. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. enameled or otherwise decorated. At a point 6 in. from the smaller end. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. M. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. 2-1/2 in. is made of a 1/4-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. pine board.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. --Contributed by Mrs. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Corsicana. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. hole bored through it. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as indicated in the . silvered. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. When a fish is hooked. The can may be bronzed. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Bryan. about 15 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Texas. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.

they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.Match Holder accompanying sketch." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Next prepare the metal holder. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. If soft wood. punch the holes. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. and trace upon it the design and outline. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. using a piece of carbon paper. long over all. A good size is 5 in. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. will do as well as the more expensive woods. thick. Polish the metal. take a piece of thin wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Any kind of wood will do. or even pine. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. then with a nail. as shown. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. wide by 6 in. using powdered pumice and lye. Having completed the drawing. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. such as basswood or pine was used. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. When it has dried over night. Basswood or butternut. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown.

yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. 2 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. of pure olive oil. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 1/2 in. long. If carving is contemplated. long. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. are used for the cores of the magnets. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. It is useful for photographers. Jaquythe. Instead of the usual two short ropes. thick. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. If one has some insight in carving. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. each 1 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. can be made on the same standards. Two wire nails. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. wide and 5 in. Cal. . the whole being finished in linseed oil. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. is used for the base of this instrument. A. --Contributed by W. Richmond.

as shown in Fig. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A piece of tin. --Contributed by W. says the English Mechanic. cloth or baize to represent the legs. About 1 in. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. H. London. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. at A. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. in the shape shown in the sketch. the paper covering put on. Lynas. A rubber band. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. as shown by the dotted lines. then covered with red. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. 1. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. 25 gauge. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. 3. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. leaving about 1/4 in. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. cut in the shape of the letter T. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. when the key is pushed down. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. . Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. All of the parts for the armor have been described. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. similar to that used in electric bells. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. except that for the legs. about No.

Take the piece shown in Fig.. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. completes the equipment. 2. The two pieces are bolted together. Fig. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. not too tight. hole in the center. So set up. Cut them to a length or 40 in. at each end. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. apart. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Silver paper will do very well. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. about 1 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. make the same series of eight small holes and. for the sake of lightness. 1 and drill a 1/4in. apart. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. one to another . says Camera Craft. These can be purchased at a stationery store. 1 in. long. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. A 1/4-in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. flat headed carriage bolt. Secure two strips of wood. or ordinary plaster laths will do.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. 3 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. can be made in a few minutes' time. Instead of using brass headed nails. drill six 1/4-in. and eight small holes. In one end of the piece. holes. in the other end.

D over A and C. in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. In this sketch.of the larger holes in the strip. and lay it over the one to the right. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. lay Cover B and the one under D. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 1. for instance. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as shown in Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. as in portraiture and the like. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 2. and the one beneath C. Then take B and lay it over A. 4. but instead of reversing . Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Start with one end. long. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. then B over C and the end stuck under A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. the one marked A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. doubled and run through the web of A. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. 2. C over D and B.

It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Monroeville. the design of which is shown herewith. always lap one string. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as in making the square fob. 5. The round fob is shown in Fig. --Contributed by John P. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Rupp. 1-1/2 in. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. over the one to its right. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as B. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 3. A loop. Ohio. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. as at A in Fig. is to be made of leather. long. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. especially if silk strings are used. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.

that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. it can be easily renewed. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. -Contributed by A. using the reverse side. such as a nut pick. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. filling them with wax. Northville. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. beeswax or paraffin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. pressing it against the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Houghton. door facing or door panel. . and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Mich. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Any smooth piece of steel. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase.

Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Fold together on lines C. leaving about 1/4 in. place it face down in the dish. remaining above the surface of the board. long. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Ill. Thompson. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Enough plaster should. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. but any kind that will not stick may be used. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. if blueprints are used. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. --Contributed by O. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. E and F. Select the print you wish to mount. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. New York. . J. apart and driven in only part way. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. it is best to leave a plain white margin. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. and about 12 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. says Photographic Times. those on matte paper will work best. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. The tacks should be about 1 in. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Y. D. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and after wetting. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Petersburg. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. N.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. although tin ones can be used with good success. thick.

How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown in the right of the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. as shown at the left in the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. roses. without mixing the solutions. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. etc. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. bell flowers. will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. violets.. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.

or delicate tints of the egg. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. made of heavy tin. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. in diameter and 1 in. The sound box. long. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 1-7/8 in. long and made of wood. Millstown. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. as shown. The diaphragm. turned a little tapering. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. but which will not wobble loose. not too tightly. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. 1. The first point should be ground blunt. and at the larger end. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. should be soldered to the box. as shown in the sketch. The tin horn can be easily made. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. Shabino. A rod that will fit the brass tube. When soldering these parts together. thick. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig.. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. --Contributed by L. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. L. is about 2-1/2 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. about 1/8s in. 2. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. South Dakota. 3. shading. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Fig.

dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Chicago. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Gold. Jr. Colo. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. mice in the bottom. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.Contributed by E. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Ill. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. put a board on top. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and. E. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Victor. while playing in the yard close to a grain house.

The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Pereira. Y. Can. . N.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Buffalo. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa.

through which several holes have been punched. This cart has no axle. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. A. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. as shown. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. cut round. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Put a small nail 2 in. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. longer than the length of the can. Mich. Grand Rapids. above the end of the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. by means of a flatheaded tack. Jaquythe. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. De Loof. Cal. a piece of tin. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Richmond. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Thos. on the side and at the lower edge of the box.

1 ft. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. New Orleans. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. A wedge-shaped piece of . Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. as shown. board. wide and as long as the box. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. La. Fig. 2. Pa.1. long. 1.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. --Contributed by James M. apart. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2 in. 2. deep and 3 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Kane. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. I reversed a door gong. 1-1/2 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The candles. 1/4 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. were below the level of the bullseye. Notches 1/8 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Doylestown. of course. thick. wide and 3 ft. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 2. wide. The baseboard and top are separable. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements.

3. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Mass. dressing one surface of each piece. the shelf could not be put on the window. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. After the glue has dried. the blade is put back into the groove . stone or wood. wide rubber bands or felt. For the handle. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. take two pieces of hard wood. by cutting away the ends.Book Back Holders metal. After completing the handle. when placed as in Fig. etc. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Ia. --Contributed by G. can be picked up without any trouble. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Worcester. This device is very convenient for invalids. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Cover the block with rubber. the reason being that if both were solid. wide into each side of the casing. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. 1. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. will. Wood. Needles. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. as shown in Fig. West Union. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. When not in use. A. it can be removed without marring the casing.. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. scissors.

Mass. Jacobs. Hutchins. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Each one is made of a hardwood block. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. --Contributed by H. Ohio.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Pa. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. 2. Erie. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. 1 in. Cleveland. Malden. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. long. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. A notch is cut in one side. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. --Contributed by Maud McKee. A. thus carrying the car up the incline. is shown in the accompanying sketch. If desired. S. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. . 1.

N. One sheet of metal.J. will be needed. The letters can be put on afterward.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and an awl and hammer. Prepare a design for the front. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. . A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. 6 by 9-1/2 in. a board on which to work it. If one such as is shown is to be used.. This will insure having all parts alike. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.

3/4 part. If any polishing is required. 2 parts white vitriol. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. or. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. varnish. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The stick may be placed by the side of. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. says Master Painter. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. . Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. as shown. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. mandolin or guitar. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. behind or through the center of a table leg. applied by means of a brush. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. a violin. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The music will not sound natural. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. which is desirable. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Remove the metal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. that can be worked in your own parlor. So impressive are the results. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. flat brush. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. One coat will do. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. On the back. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced.Fasten the metal to the board. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. to right angles. in the waste metal. placed on a table." In all appearance. if desired. 1/4 part. turpentine. 1 part. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. but weird and distant. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. paste the paper design right on the metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick.

each 6 in. says Work. long. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. round-head machine screws. long and measuring 26 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. and is easy to construct. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 28 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. long and spread about 8 in. without them. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. are shaped as shown in Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. . Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. 2. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Two pairs of feet. The longest piece. square bar iron. wide. across the top. thick by 1/2 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. apart. London. With proper tools this is easy. 3. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. it might be difficult.

of which a cross section is shown in Fig. After the glass is cut. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the latter being tapped to . as shown in Fig. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. special flux purchased for this purpose. C. Fig. The brads are then removed. Fig. A. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. is held by the brads. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. After the joints are soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 6. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design is formed in the lead. 5. lead. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. on it as shown. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. in the grooves of the borders. cut a long piece of lead. Place the corner piece of glass. using rosin as a flux.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. better still. While the piece of lead D. 4. 7. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. and the base border. D. or. The glass. B.

and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. and round the corners of one end for a ring. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. not less than 4 in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Make three washers 3-in. then flatten its end on the under side. then drill a 3/4-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. long. plank about 12 ft. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Jr. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. as shown in Fig. bolt.. 8. Dreier. This ring can be made of 1-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Secure a post. in diameter and about 9 in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. rounded at the top as shown. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Fasten the plates to the block B. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. Bore a 5/8-in. rocker bolt.the base of the clip. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. bolt. plates. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. H. N. in diameter and 1/4 in. J. Bore a 3/4-in. one on each side and central with the hole. and two wood blocks. square and of the length given in the drawing. Camden. long. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. A and B. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. This . The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. --Contributed by W. Two styles of hand holds are shown. holes through their centers. wood screws in each washer.

forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. bit. from one edge. long. 2-1/2 in. hickory. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. To substitute small. La. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. maple. because it will not stand the weather. long. square by 5 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. horse and rings. 1. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. New Orleans. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 7 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. in diameter and 7 in. 1-1/4in. 4 pieces. 4 pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 16 screws. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. If trees are convenient. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 9 in. long. and some one can swing an axe. 2 by 4 in. chestnut or ash. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Draw a line on the four 7-in. by 2 ft. screws. of 1/4-in. square by 9-1/2 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 4 filler pieces. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The four 7-in. 3 in. long. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. by 3 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. bolts and rope. straight-grained hickory. 1/2 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. by 6-1/2 ft. long and 1 piece. shanks. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 50 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 1 by 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home.

and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. each 3 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. at each end. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. from the end. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. apart. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. so the 1/2-in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. apart. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. 2. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.bored.. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. deep and remove all loose dirt. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. 8 in.. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. boards coincide. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. piece of wood. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter.

He stretched the thread between two buildings. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. just visible against the dark evening sky. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.. it is taken to the edge of the foot. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. was at its height. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. which at once gathered. and then passes in a curve across the base. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. about 100 ft. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. not much to look at in daytime. disappearing only to reappear again. in an endless belt. If the tumbler is rotated. passing through a screweye at either end. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. the effect is very striking. and materially heightened the illusion. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. it follows the edge for about 1 in. . a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. W." which skimmed along the distant horizon. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. And all he used was a black thread. not even the tumbler. but most deceptive at dusk.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. apart. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and ascends the stem. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. When the interest of the crowd.

4 in. so the point will be on top. 4 in. 4 wood screws. beginning at a point 9 in. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. 7 in. La. by 7 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. from either side of the center. 8 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Chisel out two notches 4 in. A wire about No. long. 8 bolts. 2 by 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 1. Bevel the ends of . long. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 8 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. square and 6 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 by 3 in. long. Fig. by 10 ft. 2 cross braces. wide and 1 in. To make the apparatus. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. 8 in. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The cork will come out easily. large spikes. 2 base pieces. and turned in a spiral D. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. 4 knee braces. square and 51/2 ft. preferably cedar. 4 bolts. by 2 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 by 4 in. deep. long. 2 in. 6 in. long and 1 doz. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 side braces. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. New Orleans.

before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. using four of the 7-in bolts. leaving the strainer always in position. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. ( To be Continued. Cal. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A large sized ladle. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. After the trenches are dug. The wood so treated will last for years. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. so the bolts in both will not meet. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. jellies. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. and countersinking the heads. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. etc. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.the knee braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. screws. Richmond. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. leave it undressed. A. but even unpainted they are very durable. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. except the bars.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. equipped with a strainer. . The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. These will allow the ladle to be turned. as shown in the diagram. If using mill-cut lumber. Two endpieces must be made. additional long. of 7 ft. --Contributed by W. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. save the bars. It is well to paint the entire apparatus.. Jaquythe. which face each other.

or various cutting compounds of oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. drill press or planer. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Oil. milling machine. of sufficient 1ength. A. which seems impossible. thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is necessary to place a stick. In order to accomplish this experiment. partly a barrier for jumps. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table.

one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. apart in a central position on the horse. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 in. 7 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 by 4 in. These are placed 18 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 1 in. long. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts.. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. ten 1/2-in. To construct. stud cut rounding on one edge. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. bolts. 2 bases. 4-1/2 in. is a good length. beginning 1-1/2 in. in diameter--the larger the better. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. and free from knots. long. 2 adjusting pieces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. bolts. apart. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. but 5 ft. 4 knee braces. long. from each end. long. long. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. bolt. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4 in. long. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. 4 in.. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. projections and splinters. 2 by 4 in. bolts. two 1/2-in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Procure from a saw mill. 2 by 4 in. long. by 3 ft. in the ground. piece of 2 by 4-in. Hand holds must be provided next. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 1 cross brace. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The round part of this log must be planed. These are well nailed in place. square by 5 ft. 3 in.

Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. such as a dent. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. over and around. etc. no one is responsible but himself. but nevertheless. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height.--Contributed by W. water. Jaquythe. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Also. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Cal. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. A. Richmond. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. it is caused by some obstruction. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. snow. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Such a hand sled can be made in a . the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces.horse top. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. pipe and fittings. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. it is caused by an overloaded shell. then bending to the shape desired. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping.

Joerin. W. Paris. Noble. are all the tools necessary. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. 1. Ontario. Vener. when straightened out. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. thick. France. which. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. --Contributed by Arthur E. 2. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Toronto. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Boston. --Contributed by J. will give the length. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. The end elevation.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. when complete. at E and F. then run a string over each part. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. These. . Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Mass. is much better than a wood sled. --Contributed by James E. in width and 1/32 in.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. It is best to use soft water. nor that which is partly oxidized. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 4. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3. . The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. AA and BB. and the latter will take on a bright luster.

5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. or various rulings may be made. 3. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. . 2. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. class ice-yacht. Broad lines can be made. The materials used are: backbone. 2. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. as shown in Fig. 4. 1). Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 8 and 9. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

nipples and flanges arranged as shown. It can be made longer or shorter. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pipe. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. bent and drilled as shown. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. pins to keep them from turning. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. but if it is made much longer. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass.Fig. out from the collar. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The headstock is made of two tees. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. a tee and a forging. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. about 30 in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. long. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. 1. Both the lower .

. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. --Contributed by M. but also their insulating properties. 2. else taper turning will result. a corresponding line made on this. as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. To do this. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. W. Man. Fruitvale. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. 3/4 or 1 in. thick as desired. --Contributed by W. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 1. Cal. Indiana. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Boissevain. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. or a key can be used as well. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Musgrove. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. as shown in Fig. 2. Laporte. M. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by W. 2. UpDeGraff. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Held.

The handle is of pine about 18 in. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. To obviate this. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Cline. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. In use. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Smith. as shown.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Ark. J. long. --Contributed by E.

A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Denver. New Orleans. take . it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. --Contributed by Walter W. La. if this method is followed: First. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Colo. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. on starting the lathe. and when once in true up to its size. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. face off the end of the piece. which should be backed out of contact. the drill does not need the tool. White. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. After being entered. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. centering is just one operation too many. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece.

Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. It can be used in a great number of tricks. after being shown empty. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The glass tube B. vanishing wand. by applying caustic soda or . the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. as shown in D. After the wand is removed. unknown to the spectators. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and this given to someone to hold. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a long piece of glass tubing. all the better. shorter t h a n the wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. a bout 1/2 in. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. is put into the paper tube A. shown at C. and can be varied to suit the performer. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The handkerchief rod. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. In doing this.

ends and bottom are made of hard wood. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. can be made by the home mechanic. 1 Neck. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. across the front and back to strengthen them. The brace at D is 1 in. This dimension and those for the frets . Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 2 Sides. 1/4 in. preferably hard maple. long. 1 End. 1. 3/16. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 1 Bottom. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. With care and patience. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. cut to any shape desired. as shown by K. by 14 by 17 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The sides. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them.potash around the edges of the letters. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. with the back side rounding. As the cement softens. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Glue the neck to the box. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. square and 1-7/8 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. End. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Glue strips of soft wood. and glue it to the neck at F. thick.

The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. in diameter. When it is completed you will have a canoe. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. -Contributed by J. A board 1 in. Stoddard.should be made accurately. thick and about 1 ft. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. E. H. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. or backbone. O. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Carbondale. long is used for a keel. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.Pa. 3/16 in. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Norwalk. 1) on which to stretch the paper. and beveled . --Contributed by Chas. but it is not. toward each end. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Frary. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Six holes.

but twigs of some other trees. The cross-boards (B. and. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Fig.. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. C.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 2). as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 3). For the ribs near the middle of the boat. are next put in. as shown in Fig. which are easily made of long. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. and are not fastened. b. Fig. but before doing this. 4). Osiers probably make the best ribs. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. in thickness and should be cut. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. . Fig. or similar material. with long stout screws. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. C. Green wood is preferable. Fig. long are required. thick. as they are apt to do. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. twigs 5 or 6 ft. will answer nearly as well. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. wide by 26 in. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Any tough. The ribs. Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 13 in. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. probably. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. in such cases. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. b. 4. B. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. These are better. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 3. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. a. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Shape these as shown by A. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. when made of green elm. apart. 2. 3. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. b. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. thick. 1 and 2. two strips of wood (b. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. buy some split cane or rattan. and notched at the end to receive them (B. such as is used for making chairbottoms. by means of a string or wire. 1. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. such as hazel or birch. Fig. or other place. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. 2). and so. Fig. slender switches of osier willow. some tight strips of ash. as before described. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. In drying. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. the loose strips of ash (b. 3). long. 3/8 in.) in notches. For the gunwales (a.

it can be obtained in almost any length desired. and very tough. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. When thoroughly dry. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. The paper is then trimmed. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. preferably iron. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. B. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. 5). b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. however. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. You may put in . If the paper be 1 yd. tacking it to the bottom-board. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. If not. apply a second coat of the same varnish. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. It should be drawn tight along the edges. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. When the paper is dry. Fig. Being made in long rolls. but neither stiff nor very thick. of very strong wrapping-paper. and held in place by means of small clamps. and steady in the water. if it has been properly constructed of good material. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. but with less turpentine. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. It should be smooth on the surface. and light oars. Then take some of the split rattan and. wide. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. after wetting it. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint.

We procured a box and made a frame. 1 and the end in . and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. 5). Drive the lower nail first. they will support very heavy weights. 2. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. fore and aft. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Fig. 1. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. to fit it easily. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.

as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the glass. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Pittsburg. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and the result is. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. this makes the tube airtight. 3. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. This is an easy . This way has its drawbacks. A good way to handle this work. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. 5.Fig. 4. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Pa. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Close the other end with the same operation. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. being softer where the flame has been applied. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed.

The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. metal shears. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The candle holders may have two. Seventh. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. then reverse. After the bulb is formed. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. with a piece of carbon paper. four. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. also trace the decorative design. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. 23 gauge. fifth. thin screw. Give the metal a circular motion. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. or six arms. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. file. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. rivet punch. -Contributed by A. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the metal. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Sixth. three. very rapid progress can be made. extra metal all around. above the work and striking it with the hammer. second.way to make a thermometer tube. third. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. fourth. Oswald.

It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . and holder.

dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Twenty cents was all I spent. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. of glycerine to about 200 deg. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. hammer. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and brace and bit were the tools used. is a broomstick. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. A saw. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. except they had wheels instead of runners. Fifty. glycerine 4 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and water 24 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and in a week . Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Mother let me have a sheet. The gaff. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Shiloh. deep. J. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. on a water bath. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. I steer with the front wheel. winding the ends where they came together with wire. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. all the rest I found. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Soak 1 oz. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. alcohol 2 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. thus it was utilized. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. using a steel pen. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. sugar 1 part. they were like an ice boat with a sail. smooth it down and then remove as before. the stick at the bottom of the sail. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. when it will be ready for use. The boom. if it has not absorbed too much ink.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and it will be ready for future use. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and add the gelatine. F. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and other things as they were needed. N. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 3. and 14 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and the lens slide. Fig. above the center. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. H. or a lens of 12-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. thick. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. DD. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. about 2 ft. and.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. wide and 15 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. E. wide. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. and a projecting lens 2 in. slide to about 6 ft.. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. provided the material is of metal. at a distance of 24 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. wire brads. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. or glue. as desired. long. high. but if such a box is not found. describe a 9-in. are . 8 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. G. at a point 1 in. 1. and the work carefully done. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The slide support. A and B. This ring is made up from two rings. A table. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The board is centered both ways. If a small saw is used. well seasoned pine. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens.

B. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Small strips of tin.constructed to slip easily on the table. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. but not long enough. should the glass happen to upset. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. and when the right position is found for each. A sheet .-Contributed by G. E. JJ. Minn. St. P. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. light burning oil. To reach the water. Paul. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. the water at once extinguishes the flame. of safe. the strips II serving as guides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. apply two coats of shellac varnish. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. placed on the water.

and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 4. If one of these clips is not at hand.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. then the corners on one end are doubled over.H. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. from a tent company. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Y. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . N. Schenectady. to cover the mattresses. 3 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 2. I ordered a canvas bag. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.. 3. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. by 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. --Contributed by J. 9 in. 1. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig. 12 ft. 3. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Crawford.

C. White. through which the indicator works. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A Film Washing Trough [331] . to the coil of small wire for volts. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. wide. A rubber band. so as to form two oblong boxes.each edge. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. 2. open on the edges. 3 to swing freely on the tack. To calibrate the instrument. 3/4 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Do not use too strong a rubber. holes in the edge. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 1. 1. apart. thick. 1/2 in. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. and insert two binding-posts. Teasdale. Warren. Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. for amperes and the other post. in the center coil. 2. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 1/2 in. to keep it from unwinding. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Denver. 2. first mark the binding-post A. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Colo. --Contributed by Edward M. long. long and 3/16 in. --Contributed by Walter W. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 3/4 in. insulating them from the case with cardboard. D. Attach a piece of steel rod. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. An arc is cut in the paper. Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Pa. as shown in Fig. drill two 3/16 in. V.

Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. --Contributed by M. Cut a 1/4-in. O. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Dayton. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. as shown. with the large hole up. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Wood Burning [331] . Place this can on one end of the trough. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Hunting. M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place.

thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. wide and 4 in. 3/4 in. but not very thick. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Auburn. Whitehouse. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. This will make a very pretty ornament. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . as shown in the sketch. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. If the small bottle used is opaque. provided the bottle is wide. 2. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John Shahan. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. If the cork is adjusted properly. Ala. Place the small bottle in as before. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 1. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. N. many puzzling effects may be obtained. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. --Contributed by Fred W. Upper Troy.Y. long.

high without the upper half. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. W. 1. iron rod. 2 ft. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 3. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. line. was 1/4in. --Contributed by D. thick. 2. If a transmitter is used. Fig. long. Fig. 1 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. I. 1. to the shaft. 1. B. On a 1000-ft. 1. wide. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Fig. Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. sugar pine on account of its softness. Its smaller parts. Fig. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. G. as shown in Fig. were constructed of 1-in. such as blades and pulleys. pulley. A staple. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which was nailed to the face plate. The 21/2-in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. The wire L was put . thick and 3 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The bearing blocks were 3 in. pulley F. by the method shown in Fig. Milter. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. was keyed to shaft C. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. even in a light breeze. which extended to the ground. which was 6 in. K. Both bearings were made in this manner. The shaft C. in diameter and 1 in. 4. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. thick. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.

Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. 2. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. for instance. pine 18 by 12 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. washers were placed under pulley F. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. The smaller one. There a 1/4-in. in diameter. 0. If you have no bell. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. long and bend it as . which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. This fan was made of 1/4-in. when the windmill needed oiling. To make the key. This board was 12 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. long and 3 in. wide and 1 in. To lessen the friction here. Fig. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. G. 1. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The power was put to various uses. with all parts in place. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. The bed plate D. cut out another piece of tin (X. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. in the center of the board P. so that the 1/4-in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. apart in the tower. long. hole was bored for it. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. was tacked. 3 in. Fig. Fig. across the thin edge of a board. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. top down also. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 1) 4 in. strips. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. long. long and bend it as shown at A. 6. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. square to the board P at the top of the tower. H. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. a 1/2-in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 25 ft. as. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 1. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. through the latter. was 2 ft. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 6. The other lid. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. providing one has a few old materials on hand. and was cut the shape shown. 1. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 5. long and 1/2 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. R. Shaft G was but 1/4 in.

the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The rear barrels are. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. although it can be made with but two. 2. after the manner of bicycle wheels. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B.shown. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. causing a buzzing sound. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. as shown at Water. McConnell. and. 1. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Before tacking it to the board. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. like many another device boys make. When tired of this instrument. at the front. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. -Contributed by John R. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. using cleats to hold the board frame. Going back to Fig. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Thus a center drive is made. fitted with paddles as at M. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. as indicated. Now. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. By adjusting the coils. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. leaving the other wire as it is.

which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. To propel it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which will give any amount of pleasure. copper piping and brass tubing for base. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. or even a little houseboat. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. can be built. The speed is slow at first.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. as shown in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. feet on the pedals. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. There is no danger. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 1. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. 3. there will not be much friction.

2. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Turn a small circle of wood. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. and so creating a false circuit.of pleasure for a little work. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Place one brass ring in cylinder. A. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If magnifying glass cannot be had. C. Shape small blocks of boxwood. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Then melt out the rosin or lead. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 1. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. B. 2. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. D. 1. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig.

J. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Brinkerhoff. set alarm key as shown in diagram. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. such as is used for cycle valves. which stops bell ringing. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone.india rubber tubing. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. --Contributed by C. F. Pa. Ogden. thick. wire from batteries to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. or 1/4in. while lying in bed. contact post. after two turns have been made on the key. The parts indicated are as follows: A. --Contributed by Geo. long. bell. T. if too small. wire from light to switch. key of alarm clock. copper tubing. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. Throw lever off from the right to center. D. C. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. 4 in. wide and 1/16 in. bracket. To get the cylinder into its carriage. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. by having the switch on the baseboard. E. some glue will secure them. dry batteries. after setting alarm. B. wire from bell to switch. Chatland. and pulled tight. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. X. H. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. near the bed. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot.. C. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. brass rod. brass strip. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. In placing clock on shelf. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 3/8 in. Swissvale. shelf. I. S. 4-1/2 in. G. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. To operate this. 5-1/4 by 10 in. long. switch. Utah. When alarm goes off.

will do the heating. All that is required is a tin covering. S. Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Minn. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. for instance. as . Procure a good quality of stiff paper. a bed warmer. 4 in. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. 2. long. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 2. in diameter. Make the spindle as in Fig. 1. Pull out the nail and stick. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 1/4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Fig. letting it extend 3/4 in. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. which can be made of an old can. as at A. wide. A flannel bag. about 3-1/2 in. as in Fig. 3. Fig. Lanesboro. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. being careful not to get the sand in it.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. making it as true and smooth as possible. about 6 in. beyond the end of the spindle. --Contributed by Chas. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Make a shoulder. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. This is to form the fuse hole. Chapman. 1. as at B. Having finished this. from one end. as at A. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. A small lamp of about 5 cp.

The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. spring and arrows. thick. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . A piece of oak. 5/8 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The illustration shows how this is done. Joerin. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. this is to keep the edges from splitting. wide and 3/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. long. wide and 6 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 6 in. wide and 3 ft. deep. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The material must be 1-1/2 in. A piece of tin.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 11/2 in. thick. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. 1 in. or hickory. 1. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. ash.

is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The bow is not fastened in the stock. When the trigger is pulled. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. it lifts the spring up. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The stick for the bow. from the end of the stock. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 9. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. as shown in Fig. The trigger. thick.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. 7. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. better still. from the opposite end. or through the necessity of. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 6. Wilmette. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. having the latter swing quite freely. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. and one for the trigger 12 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. --Contributed by O. Fig. A spring. Trownes. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. To throw the arrow. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 3. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. in diameter. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Such a temporary safe light may be . To shoot the crossbow. Ill. Fig. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 4. 8. E. 2. place the arrow in the groove. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. wide at each end. Fig. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which is 1/4 in.

There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. C. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. since the flame of the candle is above A. make the frame of the wigwam. it is the easiest camp to make. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. respectively. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Moreover. says Photo Era. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The cut should be about 5 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and replace as shown at B. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. from the ground. making lighting and trimming convenient. Remove the bottom of the box. Remove one end. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. By chopping the trunk almost through. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. is used as a door. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. from the ground. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. the bark lean-to is a . apart. This lamp is safe. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. and nail it in position as shown at A. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The hinged cover E. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges.

a 2-in. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A piece of elm or hickory. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. . and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. will dry flat. For a permanent camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. long. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. deep and covered with blankets. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. are a convenient size for camp construction. spruce. Where bark is used. long and 2 or 3 ft. piled 2 or 3 ft. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. 3 ft.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Tongs are very useful in camp. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. long and 1-1/2 in. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and split the tops with an ax. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. wide. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Sheets of bark. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. make the best kind of a camp bed. thick. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. For a foot in the middle of the stick. selecting a site for a camp. 6 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and when the camp is pitched. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. makes a good pair of tongs. and cedar. In the early summer. wide and 6 ft.

. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

Kane. to another . wide. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. about 4 in. deep and 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. changing the water both morning and night. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. B. Fig.. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. I drove a small cork. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. the interior can. --Contributed by James M. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. A.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Pa. and provide a cover or door. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. 1. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Doylestown.

The diagram. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 2. 3. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. fused into one side. for instance. Fig. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. if necessary. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. such as ether. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises.glass tube. a liquid. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. E. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. until. limit. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. C. which project inside and outside of the tube. to pass through an increasing resistance. This makes . The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 4 and 5). The current is thus compelled.

or even 1/16 in. After the template is marked out. thick. Fig. The bearing studs are now made. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. but merely discolored. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A 5/8in. in diameter. 3. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. Michigan. therefore. and for the outside of the frame. These holes are for the bearing studs. After cleaning them with the solution. when several pieces are placed together. by turning the lathe with the hand. mark off a space. as shown in the left-hand sketch. assemble and rivet them solidly. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. bent at right angles as shown. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. two holes. Then the field can be finished to these marks. larger than the dimensions given. brass or iron. thick. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. Before removing the field from the lathe. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. screws. clamp the template. tap. between centers. 1.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. to allow for finishing. Alpena. set at 1/8 in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. When the frame is finished so far. 3-3/8 in. drill the four rivet holes. thicker. A. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. If the thickness is sufficient. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. making it 1/16 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. or pattern. they will make a frame 3/4 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. which may be of any thickness so that. 2. cannot be used so often. which will make it uniform in size. hole is . It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. brass. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. in diameter. on a lathe. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Fig. 3-3/8 in. 4-1/2 in.

brass rod is inserted. soldered into place.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. 4. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The shaft of the armature. is turned up from machine steel. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. solder them to the supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. into which a piece of 5/8-in. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. When the bearings are located. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and build up the solder well. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.

are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. wide. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 1/8 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. and held with a setscrew. as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. When annealed. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. thick. sheet fiber. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. brass rod. After they . 3/4 in. 3/4 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. 6. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Armature-Ring Core. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 3. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 3. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. thick. thick. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. as shown in Fig. 7. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. by 1-1/2 in. then drill a 1/8-in. 1-1/8 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Procure 12 strips of mica. Rivet them together. as shown m Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. washers. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. being formed for the ends. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. to allow for finishing to size. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Make the core 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. 5. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. or segments. thick are cut like the pattern. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. 9. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. inside diameter. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. hole and tap it for a pin. holes through them for rivets. wide. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core.. deep and 7/16 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The pins are made of brass. 6. threaded. thick and 1/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. 8. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Find the centers of each segment at one end.

of No. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. they are glued to the core insulation. sheet fiber. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. This winding is for a series motor. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. by bending the end around one of the projections.have dried. are soldered together. shown at B. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. after the motor is on the stand. The winding is started at A. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. When the glue is set. wide and 1 in. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. until the 12 slots are filled. or side. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. 5. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. yet it shows a series of . 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 1. which will take 50 ft. Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. being required. Run one end of the field wire. sheet fiber. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of the end to protrude. Fig. After one coil. In starting to wind. about 100 ft. 6 in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 8 in. The two ends are joined at B. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. long. To connect the wires. shown at A. and wind on four layers. The source of current is connected to the terminals. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. the two ends of the wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. All connections should be securely soldered. of the wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The field is wound with No. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. thick. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in.

If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. or. Nine wires run from the timer. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. one from each of the eight contacts. and one. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. is fastened to the metallic body. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. A 1/2-in. still more simply. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. as in the case of a spiral.

the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. board. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. thus giving 16 different directions. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. of the dial. Covering these is a thin. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Without this attachment. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. It should be . circle. 6 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer.The Wind Vane. long. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 45 deg. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial.

or. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Fill the box with any handy ballast. will be enough for the two sides. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. though a special knife. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. thus making a universal joint. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. To work these outlines. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Cut 3-in. however. if not too high. also a piece of new carpet. and securely nail on the top of the box. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. making it heavy or light.about 6 ft. called a chip carving knife. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. and about 6 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. is most satisfactory. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. -Contributed by James L. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. To make it. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. will answer the purpose just as well. N. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. according to who is going to use it. . Place the leather on some level. Before tacking the fourth side. high. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Buffalo. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. 14 by 18 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. long to give the best results. Blackmer. Y. will be sufficient. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover.

A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

of water. away from it. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. or a hip that has been wrenched. N. If a fire breaks out.will do if a good stout needle is used. and fasten the feathers inside of it. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. square and tying a piece of . Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Syracuse. temporary lameness. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Morse. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. a needle and some feathers. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. as in cases of a sprained ankle. --Contributed by Katharine D. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. rather than the smooth side. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. can be thrown away when no longer needed. B. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Y. of common salt and 10 lb. The bottles should hold about 1 qt.

It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. N. and tacked it to the boards. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The diaphragm C. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. and a coil of wire. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.. Ashland. Wis. . Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. F. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The strings should be about 15 in. etc. deep. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The coil is 1 in. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. A. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The end is filed to an edge. and the receiver is ready for use. letting it go at arm's length. high. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm.string to each corner. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. --Contributed by John A. as shown. This not only keeps the rats out. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. the corners being wired. One end is removed entirely. The body of the receiver. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. B. Gordon Dempsey. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. thus helping the rats to enter. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. which is the essential part of the instrument. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. 1/8 in. is cut on the wood. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. board all around the bottom on the inside. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. wound on the head end. Hellwig. commonly called tintype tin. Paterson. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.J. wide and 1/16 in. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. long. Albany. --Contributed by J. made up of four layers of No. G. setting traps. cut to the length of the spool. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. N. laying poisoned meat and meal. A small wooden or fiber end. There is a 1-in. long. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. E. Y. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. but not sharp.

Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. gold. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. To clean small articles. A single line will be sufficient. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and bend each strip in shape. The vase is to have three supports. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. wide. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Take a piece of string or. to . begin with the smallest scrolls. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. better still. a piece of small wire. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper.

6-3/8 in. as shown in the sketch.. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. from the lines EF on the piece. 3-1/2 in. Work down the outside line of the design. through which to slip the fly AGH. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Press or model down the leather all around the design. . using a duller point of the tool. After taking off the pattern. Fold the leather on the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint.. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. sharp pencil. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. and does not require coloring. 3-1/4 in. Trace also the line around the purse. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. 4-1/4 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from C to D. About 1 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. wide when stitching up the purse. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. from E to F. thus raising it.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.

How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. with pins or small nails. by 12 ft. and a model for speed and power. following the dotted lines. and which will be very interesting. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. square. It is neat and efficient. Now take another piece of wood. b. being cast in wooden molds. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. This also should be slightly beveled. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Cut off six pieces 12 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. long. then nail it. as shown in Fig. and the projections B. Fit this to the two . thick. with the largest side down. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and cut out a wheel. with the open side down. 3. When it is finished. 1 was cut. 2. and. around the wheel. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. with a compass saw. deep. leaving the lug a. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. deep. all the way around. First. as well as useful. the "open" side. Then nail the wheel down firmly. and tack the other piece slightly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. 1.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic.

place it between two of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. bolts. and bore six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . hole 1/4 in. holes through it. and clean all the shavings out of it. Now take another of the 12-in. 1. and boring a 3/8-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and lay it away to dry. then bolt it together.pieces just finished.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. 4. in the center of it. After it is finished. hole bored through its center. square pieces of wood. as shown by the black dots in Fig. slightly beveled. Now put mold No. hole entirely through at the same place.

Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. drill in it.1. Let it stand for half an hour. After it is fitted in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and connect to the boiler. true it up with a square. place it under the drill. Pour metal into mold No. Now take mold No. d.black dots in Fig. long. in diameter must now be obtained. the other right-handed. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. B. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. over the defective part. see that the bolts are all tight. from the one end. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. b. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in.2. long. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. 5.1. This is the same as Fig. put the top of the brace through this hole. until it is full. instead of the right-handed piece. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and run in babbitt metal again. holes at d. screw down. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. 6. holes. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Put this together in mold No. Fig. lay it on a level place. place the entire machine in a vise. and 3/8-in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Then bolt the castings together. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and pour babbitt metal into it. and drill it entirely through. as shown in illustration. take an ordinary brace. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. 6. This is mold No. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and the other in the base. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 1. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. one in the projections. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.2. and two 1/4-in. and drill them in the same manner. as shown by the black dots in Fig. one in the lug. only the one is left-handed. wide and 16 in. and lay it away to dry. and the exhaust hole in projection b. where the casting did not fill out. A piece of mild steel 5 in. fasten a 3/8-in. so that it will turn easily. 4. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Using the Brace . Find the center of the paddle-wheel. This is for a shaft.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and bore three 1/4-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel.

Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. turn the wheel to the shape desired. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. with a boss and a set screw. will do good service. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Then take a knife or a chisel.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. piece and at right angles to it. and the other 8 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. one 6 ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed. long. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. At each end of the 6ft.

in diameter. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. leaving 1 ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. The tiller. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in diameter at the base. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. in front of the rudder block. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. where they often did considerable damage. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. boards to make the platform. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. so much the better will be your boat. plank. piece and at right angles to it. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. which may come in handy in heavy winds. at the top. projecting as in Fig. Fig. 3. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Fig. long. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. To the under side of the 8-ft. should be of hardwood. distant. 8 a reef point knot. plank nail 8-in. 1. bolt the 8-ft. in diameter in the center. 1. Over the middle of the 6-ft. tapering t