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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 2 -. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. --Contributed by J. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. as shown in Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. as shown in Fig. apart.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 2. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. E. Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. It is held in this curve until dry. 1. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. distant. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 2.Fig. long will make six boomerangs. with the hollow side away from you. away. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. wide and 2 ft. To throw a boomerang. Toronto. Ontario. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Noble. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. The pieces are then dressed round. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated.

The top will then have a uniform inward slant. but about 12 in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. or rather no bottom at all. 6 in. If the snow is of the right consistency. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. thick. high and 4 or 5 in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. forcing it down closely. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. dry snow will not pack easily. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. made of 6-in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. long. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. First. A wall. A very light. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. blocks . and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. however. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. minus the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. the block will drop out. and with a movable bottom.

if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and the young architect can imitate them. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Goodbrod. or an old safe dial will do. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 3. A nail. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Fig. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 2. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. above the ground. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Fig. Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 2. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. is 6 or 8 in. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The piece of wood. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 1. Ore. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. It also keeps them out. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. 1. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. D. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 3 -. wide. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. long and 1 in. C. --Contributed by Geo. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. a. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. There is no outward thrust. which can be made of wood. Union. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. which is about 1 ft. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig.

Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. as the weight always draws them back to place. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. If ordinary butts are used. S. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Merrill. New York. --Contributed by R. Syracuse. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the box locked . one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. says the Sphinx.

When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Alberta Norrell. 3. To make a design similar to the one shown. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. -Contributed by L. as shown in Fig. smooth surface. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. draw one-half of it. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. one for each corner. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 2. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Augusta. When the sieve is shaken. proceed as follows: First. If the measuring has been done properly. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 1. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. allowing each coat time to dry. All . Fig. Ga. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water.and the performer steps out in view. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. It remains to bend the flaps. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. If they do not. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. on drawing paper. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Place the piece in a vise. With the metal shears. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes.

causing it to expand. R. in passing through the lamp. The current. The common cork. H. When the current is turned off. if rolled under the shoe sole. B. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. A piece of porcelain tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Colo. about 6 in. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. After this has dried. and in the positions shown in the sketch. from the back end. should be in the line. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. 25 German-silver wire. If a touch of color is desired. used for insulation. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. A resistance. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. heats the strip of German-silver wire. which is about 6 in. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. of No. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Denver. long. Galbreath. In boring through rubber corks. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. --Contributed by R. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. as shown at AA.the edges should be left smooth. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. in diameter. C. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the .

bottom ring. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Mo. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. 2. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. with thin strips of wood. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. . When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Purchase two long book straps. --Contributed by David Brown. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Kansas City. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Fig. leaving a space of 4 in. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. 3. 1. as shown in Fig. between them as shown in Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.

Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. 4. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. and one weighing 25 lb. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Kane.. and tack smoothly. The string is then tied. A. just the right weight for a woman to use. one weighing 15 lb. Pa. Fig. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. --Contributed by James M. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. in diameter.An ordinary electric bell. to form a handle. The folds are made over the string. N. 2. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. C. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 1. 3. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Fig. 1. --Contributed by Katharine D. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Two strips of brass. These are shown in Fig. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Doylestown. are mounted on the outside of the box. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. as . Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and a pocket battery. long. 36 in. Morse. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Fig. Y. which is the right weight for family use. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. When the aeroplane tips. Syracuse..

two 1/8 -in. The saw. 1. 2. AA. bent as shown in Fig. Y. 2. long. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. if once used.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. four washers and four square nuts. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Frame Made of a Rod . toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 3/32 or 1/4 in. --Contributed by Louis J. N. in diameter. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. and many fancy knick-knacks. machine screws. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Day. such as brackets. Floral Park. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest.

or silver. of water.may be made of either brass. For etching. File these edges. as well as brass and copper. green and browns are the most popular. A. Detroit. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. it has the correct strength. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. An Austrian Top [12] . --Contributed by W. be covered the same as the back. If it colors the metal red. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. if copper or brass. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. 1 part sulphuric acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. therefore. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Watch Fob For coloring silver. 1 part nitric acid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. of course. of water in which dissolve. copper. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Of the leathers.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Apply two coats. as well as the depth of etching desired. after breaking up. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Silver is the most desirable but. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. though almost any color may be obtained. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Scranton. Rub off the highlights. use them in place of the outside nuts. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. In the design shown. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. allowing each time to dry.. The buckle is to be purchased. Michigan. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. the most expensive. treat it with color. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush.

in diameter. 3/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A handle. A 1/16-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. long. wide and 3/4 in. When the shank is covered. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. starting at the bottom and winding upward. pass one end through the 1/16-in. 1-1/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine.F. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. Tholl. . Ypsilanti. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. thick. Michigan. is formed on one end. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. --Contributed by J. long. hole.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 5-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously.

permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. Mich. Houghton. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. . some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. tarts or similar pastry. --Contributed by Miss L. Ga. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. having no sides. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. A. The baking surface.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. --A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Northville. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.

Stringing Wires [13] A. the same as shown in the illustration. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . When you desire to work by white light. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. glass fruit jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Centralia. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. two turns will remove the jar. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Mo. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. then solder cover and socket together. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.

square by 62 in. Janesville. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 4 Vertical pieces. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. . so it can be folded up. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 16 Horizontal bars. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1-1/4 in. Wis. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. They are fastened. square by 12 in.for loading and development. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 4 Braces.

The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. C. New York. O. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. --Contributed by Dr. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Phillipsburg. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Cincinnati. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The whole. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. after filling the pail with water. After rounding the ends of the studs. If the loop is tied at the proper place. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. from scrap material. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The front can be covered . H. -Contributed by Charles Stem. and a loop made in the end. Rosenthal.

If the gate is raised slightly. The . Baltimore. In my own practice. the mouth of which rests against a. Md. --Contributed by Gilbert A. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. Wehr. 1 FIG. the color will be an undesirable. you are. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. if you try to tone them afterward. either for contact printing or enlargements. sickly one. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. principally mayonnaise dressing. FIG. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. and. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. thoroughly fix. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. by all rules of the game. The results will be poor. By using the following method. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Develop them into strong prints. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints.

. three times.... without previous wetting. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete..... --Contributed by T. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.... 2.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects..... It will bleach slowly and evenly... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in..... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. 5 by 15 in. The blotting paper can . etc.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. in size. When the desired reduction has taken place. Cal. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. transfer it to a tray of water. 16 oz... to make it 5 by 5 in.. Gray.." Cyanide of potassium . A good final washing completes the process..... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. With a little practice.... Iodide of potassium . thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. San Francisco. Place the dry print. where it will continue to bleach. Water ...... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... 1 and again as in Fig. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. preferably the colored kind. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.... long to admit the angle support. wide and 4 in. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. L... when it starts to bleach.. 2 oz. 20 gr.... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. in this solution.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. but..

20 gauge. the shaft 1 in.J. wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Canada. 3. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Oshkosh. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wisconsin. wide. having a width of 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Make a design similar to that shown. the head of which is 2 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and a length of 5 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Monahan. --Contributed by L.

3. After this has dried. being held perpendicular to the work. using a small metal saw. then put on a second coat. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. . Do not put the hands in the solution. 1 part nitric acid. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. as shown in Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The metal must be held firmly. Apply with a small brush. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Allow this to dry.FIG. then coloring. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. freehand. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 1. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Fig. but use a swab on a stick. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. After the sawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. deep. which gives the outline of the design Fig. after folding along the center line. Pierce a hole with a small drill. With files. using carbon paper. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Trace the design on the metal. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. using turpentine. then trace the other half in the usual way. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. For coloring olive green. 2. 4. Make one-half of the design. With the metal shears.

Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. M. Carl Cramer. Morse. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. After the stain has dried. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Burnett. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Ii is an ordinary staple. thick. When this is cold. attach brass handles. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Syracuse. on a chopping board. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. . New York. Conn. East Hartford. Cal. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. --Contributed by Katharine D. Richmond. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. as shown. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. it does the work rapidly. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by M. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by H.

Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. about 3/16 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. one shaft. Atwell. as shown at A. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Cal. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. saucers or pans. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. square. --Contributed by Mrs. thick and 4 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. A. Florida. H. L. . not over 1/4 in. two enameled. 1. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. in width at the shank. WARNECKE Procure some brass. 1/4 in. machine screws. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. holes. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. brass. indicating the depth of the slots. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig.. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Kissimmee.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. or tin. and several 1/8-in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. 53 steel pens. thick. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. some pieces of brass. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Fig. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. also locate the drill holes. 4. Jaquythe. Richmond. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered.

a square shaft used. and the ends filed round for the bearings. as in Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. hole is drilled to run off the water. thick. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. can be procured. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 2. 5. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. with a 3/8-in. long and 5/16 in. using two nuts on each screw. with the face of the disk. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 3. 6. Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. machine screws. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 7. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. about 1/32 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . brass and bolted to the casing. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. wide. with 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Fig. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. A 3/4-in. lead should be run into the segments. in diameter and 1/32 in. If the shaft is square. each about 1 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. hole. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. as shown. and pins inserted. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. machine screws and nuts. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 2. supply pipe. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. thick. 1. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. into the hole. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. hole in the center. long by 3/4 in. If metal dishes. 3. The shaft hole may also be filed square.. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Bend as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided.

The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. from the bottom end of the legs. make these seams come between the two back legs. --Contributed by F. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. deep and 1-1/4 in. three of which are in the basket. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. When assembling. we will call the basket. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Fasten with 3/4-in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. high and 15 in. or more in diameter. La Salle. The lower part. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Stain the wood before putting in the . With a string or tape measure. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Hamilton. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. --Contributed by S. Cooke. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. screws. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. deep over all. Ill. V. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Smith. using four to each leg. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. square and 30-1/2 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Be sure to have the cover. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. long. to make the bottom. Canada. 8-1/2 in. from the top of the box.

3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . wide and four strips 10 in. Boston. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. --also the lower edge when necessary.2 Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. 1. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. 2. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. wide. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The folded part in the center is pasted together. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Md. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. you can. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Stanley H. Mass. Cover them with the cretonne. If all the parts are well sandpapered. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The side. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Fig. Packard. Baltimore. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. When making the display. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in.lining. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. and gather it at that point. sewing on the back side. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes.

Mo. --Contributed by B. Orlando Taylor. 3. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. When through using the pad. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. with slight modifications. L. Cross Timbers. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. --Contributed by H. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. saving all the solid part. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Fig. Y. Gloversville. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. N. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Crockett. and. It is cleanly.

take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Lane. Mass. are shown in the diagram. S. across the face. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. If a file is used. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. El Paso. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. After stirring. Lowell. remove the contents. Bourne. and scrape out the rough parts. or if desired. -Contributed by C. Both of these methods are wasteful. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. --Contributed by Edith E. Texas. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. After this is done. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. it should be new and sharp.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.

the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Oak Park. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Those having houses . Greenleaf. Wheeler. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. A Postcard Rack [25]. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Turl. As these were single-faced disk records. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Oregon. Ill. Canton. Iowa. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Loren Ward. F. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The insects came to the light. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Geo. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. --Contributed by Marion P.cooking utensil. Ill. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The process works well and needs no watching. circled over the funnel and disappeared. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Des Moines. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them.

by 2 ft. will do as well. The single boards can then be fixed. material. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Dobbins. 6 in. and as they are simple in design. the bottom being 3/8 in. --Contributed by Wm. Conn. Lay the floor next. and both exactly alike. Rosenberg. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. not even with the boards themselves. Both sides can be put together in this way. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. but for cheapness 3/4 in. thick. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper.. Only three pieces are required. Worcester. Mass. one on each side of what will be the . boards are preferable. plane and pocket knife. and the second one for the developing bench. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. --Contributed by Thomas E. the best material to use being matched boards. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Glenbrook.

nailing them to each other at the ridge. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 11. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The roof boards may next be put on. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 2 in section. At the top of the doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. Fig. 6. 6. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. by screwing to the floor. 9 by 11 in. and act as a trap for the light. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. In hinging the door. 6 and 9. 3 and 4. 10). but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. wide. 8. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. etc. brown wrapping paper. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . 7. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and shown to a larger scale in Fig.. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. It is shown in detail in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves..doorway. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. below which is fixed the sink. hinged to it. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. and to the outside board of the sides. 9). and should be zinc lined. of the top of the door for the same reason. as shown in Figs. 5. is cut. and in the middle an opening. and the top as at C in the same drawing. the closing side as at B. so that it will fit inside the sink. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig..

Details of the Dark Rook .

The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. though this is hardly advisable. For beating up an egg in a glass. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 2. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 13. The handle should be at least 12 in. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Pennsylvania. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. these being shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. it is better than anything on the market. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. A circular piece about 2 in. 16. after lining with brown paper. preferably maple or ash. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as shown in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. as shown in the sections. and a 3/8-in. as in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. and a tank stand on it. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. if desired. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. mixing flour and water. Karl Hilbrich. Fig. 18. In use. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. or red light as at K. 15. 13. 6. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. four coats at first is not too many. 19. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Fig. Erie. 20. 16. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. are fastened in the corners inside. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. but not the red glass and frame. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 17. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. 14. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. which makes it possible to have white light. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 1. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. as at I. hole bored in the center for a handle.in Fig. as at M.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. for a handle. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. when put together properly is a puzzle. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. New York. --Contributed by Wm. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Mitchell. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Ark. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. about 3/8 in. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Mo. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. -Contributed by E. Schweiger. Eureka Springs. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . G. L.copper should be. Kansas City. Yonkers. D. as shown in the sketch. Smith. --Contributed by L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. which. To operate. long.

and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. the rustic work should be varnished. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 2. in order to thoroughly preserve it. holes should be drilled in the bottom. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. need them. which binds them together. 3. Having completed the bare box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 3. If the sill is inclined. especially for filling-in purposes. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. After the box is trimmed. as is usually the case. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. A number of 1/2-in. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. the box will require a greater height in front. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. for the moment. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. to make it set level. The design shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. . why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them.

Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. and observe results. cabbages. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. When the corn is gone cucumbers. being partly eaten into. 2.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. it's easy. can't use poison. 3. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. life in the summer time is a vexation. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.. Each long projection represents a leg. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. as shown in Fig. 1. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. drilled at right angles. . etc. 4. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. too dangerous. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. share the same fate. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Traps do no good. F. But I have solved the difficulty. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill.

To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. of No. long. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The solution can be used over and over again. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. the coil does not heat sufficiently. cut in 1/2-in. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. If. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. strips.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. -. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. . Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. About 9-1/2 ft. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. and made up and kept in large bottles. cut some of it off and try again. Iowa. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. by trial.

Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. 1) removed. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. but with unsatisfactory results. it falls to stop G. of oleic acid with 1 gal. In cleaning silver. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. is a good size--in this compound. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Morse. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Stir and mix thoroughly. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. N. C. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. as shown in the sketch. to cause the door to swing shut. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. of gasoline. Y. Doylestown. Pa. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. forks. Kane. Fig 2. Do not wash them. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Knives. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. coffee pot. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. of whiting and 1/2 oz. . Dallas. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Texas. --Contributed by Katharine D. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. and a strip. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. D. Syracuse. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. --Contributed by James M. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. hot-water pot. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again.

later fixed and washed as usual. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. La. which is. using the paper dry. negatives. --Contributed by Oliver S. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Ill. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Sprout. --Contributed by Theodore L. Waverly.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. but unfixed. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Harrisburg. . Pa. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Fisher. of course. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. New Orleans.

No two hamonograms are exactly alike. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. To obviate this difficulty. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. 1. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. metal. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Fig. The harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. then . The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.

Rosemont. of about 30 or 40 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. Chicago. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. The length of the short pendulum H. in diameter. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. is attached as shown at H. one-fourth. Arizona. ceiling. R.. Ingham. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . To saw and file it out takes time and skill. as long as the other. exactly one-third. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Gaffney. A small weight. is about right for a 10-ft. K. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Another weight of about 10 lb. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. as shown in the lower part of Fig. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Punch a hole. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. as shown in Fig. A length of 7 ft. J. Holes up to 3 in. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. 1. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. what is most important.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. 1-3/4 by 2 in. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. that is. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. A pedestal. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. with a nail set or punch. etc. one-fifth. and unless the shorter pendulum is. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. G. which can be regulated. for instance. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. or the lines will overlap and blur. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A weight. 1. --Contributed by James T. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. in the center of the circle to be cut. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. to prevent any side motion. such as a shoe buttoner. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.. --Contributed by Wm.

Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. --Contributed by J. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. distributing them over the whole card. 1. The two key cards are made alike. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 4. dividing them into quarters. then put 2 at the top. one for the sender and one for the receiver. -Contributed by W.J. 2. 6.J. and proceed as before. N. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and 4 as in Fig. 3. then 3 as in Fig. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. a correspondent of . and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Fig. Cruger. Chicago. Cape May City. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. of course.H. 5. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Morey.

1/4 in. 22 gauge German-silver wire. wood-screws. deep.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. citrate of iron and ammonia. If constructed of the former. 30 gr. of 18-per-cent No. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. After preparing the base and uprights. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. of ferricyanide of potash. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. respectively. long. After securing the tint desired. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Ga. 1/2 oz. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. sheet of well made asbestos paper. --Contributed by L. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Wind the successive turns of . remove the prints. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. To assemble. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Cut through the center. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. drill 15 holes. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. the portion of the base under the coil. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. of the uprights. acetic acid and 4 oz. from the top and bottom. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. of water. Alberta Norrell. says Popular Electricity. 6 gauge wires shown. Augusta.

square. Y. as they are usually thrown away when empty. cut and dressed 1/2 in. if one is not a smoker.. Small knobs may be added if desired. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. rivets. but these are not necessary. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. The case may be made of 1/2-in. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Ampere. 16 gauge copper wire. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. N. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. screws. 14 gauge. then fasten the upright in place. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Ward. etc. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. --Contributed by Frederick E. which. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.

being careful about the heat. E and F. If the soldering copper is an old one. --C. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. The parts are put together with dowel pins. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. and labeled "Poison. Heat it until hot (not red hot).. zinc. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. California." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. particularly so when the iron has once been used. of glycerine to 16 oz. In soldering galvanized iron. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. lead. a piece of solder. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Jaquythe. . The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Ark. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. or has become corroded. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. B. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. brass. as shown in the sketch. Copper. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. S. and one made of poplar finished black. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. The material can be of any wood. D. tin. C. G. This is considerable annoyance. A. --Contributed by W. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. of water. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Larson. Eureka Springs. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. tinner's acid. then to the joint to be soldered. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. sandpaper or steel wool. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Kenosha. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. galvanized iron. it must be ground or filed to a point. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. especially if a large tub is used.14 oz. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. and rub the point of the copper on it. Wis. --Contributed by A. Richmond. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again.

in diameter. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. nut. Place the band. such as copper. in diameter. B. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. brass and silver. Fig. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Troy. round iron. however. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. 2. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. thick and 1-1/4 in. N. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The dimensions shown in Fig. Y. The covers of the magazines are removed. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Hankin. a ring may be made from any metal. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Take a 3/4-in. and drill out the threads. with good results. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. D. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Apart from this. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. wide. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Fig.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. C. This will leave a clear hole. W. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. -Contributed by H. 7/8 in. 1. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. This completes the die. The punch A.

as shown in Fig. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Start with the front of the book. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. After drawing the thread tightly. The string No. The covering can be of cloth. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 2. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Place the cardboard covers on the book. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. which is fastened the same as the first. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. on all edges except the back. of the ends extending on each side. using . 5. size 16 or larger. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. If started with the January or the July issue. and a third piece. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. and then to string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. 1. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1/8 in.4. Coarse white thread. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1 in Fig. . Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. allowing about 2 in. then back through the notch on the right side. The sections are then prepared for sewing. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. is used for the sewing material. and place them against the strings in the frame. C. 1. threaded double. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. The covering should be cut out 1 in. deep. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. is nailed across the top. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Five cuts.

iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Divine. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. round iron. Encanto. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Nebr. Tinplate. and. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. on which to hook the blade. Cal. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. College View. at opposite sides to each other. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. For the blade an old talking-machine .Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. and mark around each one.

and a long thread plug. fuse hole at D. and file in the teeth. or double extra heavy. with a steel sleeve. Hays. -Contributed by Willard J. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. by 1 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush.. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). hydraulic pipe. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in.. E. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. at the same end. as shown. C. Ohio. Miss. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. On the upper side. Summitville. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. as it is sometimes called. and another piece (B) 6 in. B. Make the blade 12 in. A. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. thick. Moorhead. bore. and 1/4 in. thick. Then on the board put . by 4-1/2 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. F. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. long. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. about 5 ft. using about 8 in. the jars need not be very large. high around this apparatus. If you are going to use a current of low tension. and some No. of rubber-covered wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. of wire to each coil. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. H. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 4 jars. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Connect up as shown. Philadelphia. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Boyd. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. --Contributed by Chas. A lid may be added if desired. some sheet copper or brass for plates. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. as from batteries.

by 1-1/4 in. long.. Their size also depends on the voltage. 1 is connected to point No. direct to wire across jars. long. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Use no nails. 2. oak boards. thick. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. . Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 11 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The illustration shows how to shape it. B. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. as they "snatch" the ice. two pieces 14 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. C. wide. Put arm of switch on point No. See Fig. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Z. above the ground. by 2 in. 2 and 3. wide by 3/4 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 5 on switch. 2 is lower down than in No. 4. The sled completed should be 15 ft. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 1 and so on for No. 4) of 3/4-in. No. 30 in. long. by 1 in. B and C. The top disk in jar No. 3. and four pieces 14 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. wide and 2 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. two pieces 34 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The connection between point No.. with the cushion about 15 in. by 2 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. beginning at the rear.the way.. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 3 and No. In proportioning them the points A. & S. On the door of the auto front put the . 4 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. two pieces 30 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 1 on switch. 2 in. 2. 1. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. as they are not substantial enough. or source of current. B. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through.. 34 in. sheet brass 1 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. however. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars.. 27 B. 3 in. apart.. by 1-1/4 in. 16-1/2 in. by 6 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. To wire the apparatus. Fig. square by 14 ft. by 5 in. C. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. A 3/4-in. First sandpaper all the wood. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. thick. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. is used to reduce friction. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. For the brass trimmings use No. The current then will flow through the motor. by 5 in. two for each jar.. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. The stock required for them is oak. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 7 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. long. 2. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. wide and 3/4 in. 15-1/2 in. making them clear those in the front runner. on No. An iron washer. and for the rear runners: A. long by 22 in. and bolt through. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Construct the auto front (Fig. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. and plane it on all edges. gives full current and full speed. A variation of 1/16 in. are important. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.

bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. long. The best way is to get some strong. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Fasten a horn. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . cheap material. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. overshoes. to the wheel. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. may be stowed within. If desired. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. a number of boys may share in the ownership. by 30 in. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. cutting it out of sheet brass. lunch. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. such as burlap. brass plated. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. which is somewhat moist. by 1/2 in. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If desired. fasten a cord through the loop. such as used on automobiles. to improve the appearance. Then get some upholstery buttons. etc. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. or with these for $25. parcels. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. a brake may be added to the sled.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.tree and bring. Ill. Leland. Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. .

How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. thick. some files. from F to G. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. mild steel or iron. Fig. The Model Engineer. The straight-edge. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 2. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. by drawing diameters. a compass. when flat against it. the same diameter as the wheel. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. so that the center of the blade. sheet metal. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. 4). outside diameter and 1/16 in. The first tooth may now be cut. Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Fig. with twenty-four teeth. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. E. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. the cut will be central on the line. First take the case of a small gearwheel. This guide should have a beveled edge. 3. A small clearance space. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. Draw a circle on paper. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. though more difficult. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. will be over the line FG. CD. made from 1/16-in. which. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. say 1 in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. 1. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. London. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. FC. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock.

Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Focus the camera in the usual manner. B. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. each in the center. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. . B. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. as shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Then take one outlet wire. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. A bright. and the other outlet wire. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. or several pieces bound tightly together. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. 2. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. some wire and some carbons. R. Make a hole in the other. either the pencils for arc lamps. hold in one hand. 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. transmitter. ground it with a large piece of zinc. electric lamp.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver.

B. Several battery cells. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. or more of the latter has been used. of course. One like a loaf of bread. Slattery. under the gable. Ohio. at each end for terminals.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Wrenn. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. If desired. Pa. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. A is a wooden block. J. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. and will then burn the string C. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. a transmitter which induces no current is used. as indicated by E E. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. They have screw ends. D D are binding posts for electric wires. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. But in this experiment. by 12 in. by 1 in. serves admirably. Dry batteries are most convenient. leaving about 10 in. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Emsworth. as shown. and again wind the wire around it. For a base use a pine board 10 in. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. --Contributed by Geo. and about that size. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. are also needed. Ashland. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. 36 wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry.

Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. At one side secure two receptacles. Fig. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. From the other set of binding-posts. in parallel. D. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. as shown. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. run a No. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. The coil will commence to become warm. These should have hollow ends. 2. Place 16-cp. until the hand points to zero on the scale. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Fig. for the . and switch.. 12 or No. while C is open. C.wire. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Turn on switch. Jr. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. E. in series with bindingpost. as shown. 14 wire. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. B B. D. Newark. Connect these three to switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. First make a support. 1. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. F. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. connecting lamp receptacles. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. B B. Ohio. the terminal of the coil. The oven is now ready to be connected. and one single post switch. and the lamps.

wide and 1-3/4 in.or 4-way valve or cock. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. but if for a 4way. as shown in the cut. This may be made of wood. 2. etc. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 7. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. long. 1/4 in. D. 3. C. The box is 5-1/2 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig.E. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. A wooden box. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. a battery. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Fig. until the scale is full. where A is the homemade ammeter.. Dussault. a variable resistance. 14 wire. from the lower end. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . deep. although brass is better. and D. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. to prevent it turning on the axle. --Contributed by J. D. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. If for 3-way. It is 1 in. Fig. Montreal. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. thick. high. 4 in. This is slipped on the pivot. wide and 1/8 in. The core. 4 amperes. 3 amperes. wind with plenty of No. Fig. 1/2 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. remove the valve. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 5. 1. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 6. B. At a point a little above the center. 4. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 10 turns to each layer. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. is then made and provided with a glass front. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. long. 5. drill in only to the opening already through. inside measurements. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Fig. a standard ammeter. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. is made of wire. 1. long and make a loop.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. E. The pointer or hand. To make one. After drilling. 14. drill a hole as shown at H. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. is made of iron. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. although copper or steel will do. drill through the entire case and valve. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Mine is wound with two layers of No.

Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. in diameter. in thickness . B. This stopper should be pierced. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and the other connects with the water rheostat. By connecting the motor. provided with a rubber stopper. One wire runs to the switch. D. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. making two holes about 1/4 in. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. which is used for reducing the current.performing electrical experiments. and the arc light. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. F. A. high. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and a metal rod. To start the light. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. E. as shown. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.

2. 1. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A. 2. To insert the lead plate. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. If the interrupter does not work at first. as shown in C.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. B. A piece of wood. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. As there shown. 1. long. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Having finished the interrupter. Y. 1. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fig. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. If all adjustments are correct. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. --Contributed by Harold L. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. N. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Jones. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in B. Carthage. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig.

The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. as the entire interior. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. If everything is not black. to aid the illusion. The box need not be made of particularly good wood.. by 7-1/2 in. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. until it is dark there. within the limits of an ordinary room. A. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. dressed in brilliant. should be miniature electric lamps. All . The lights. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. They need to give a fairly strong light. which can be run by three dry cells. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass.coffin. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and wave his arms up and down. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. L and M. from which the gong has been removed. the illusion will be spoiled. figures and lights. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. should be colored a dull black. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. If it is desired to place the box lower down. inside dimensions. The glass should be the clearest possible. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The model. high. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The skeleton is made of papier maché. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. loosejointed effect. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. especially L. especially the joints and background near A. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. A white shroud is thrown over his body. with the exception of the glass. light-colored garments. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. could expect from a skeleton. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. by 7 in. giving a limp. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf.

so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Two finishing nails were driven in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. as shown in the sketch. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . fat spark. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. after which it assumes its normal color. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Cal.that is necessary is a two-point switch. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. W. square block. San Jose. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Fry. If a gradual transformation is desired. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. placed about a foot apart. --Contributed by Geo.

It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. Cohen. B and C. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. New York. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. into the receiver G. One of these plates is connected to metal top. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. 1. A (see sketch). connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. The plates are separated 6 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. In Fig. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. to make it airtight. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. as shown. -Contributed by Dudley H. F. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. If a lighted match . which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. hydrogen gas is generated. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. with two tubes. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. soldered in the top. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. or a solution of sal soda. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. the remaining space will be filled with air. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar.

Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. and the ends of the tube. C C. by means of the clips. from the bottom. 1. copper pipe. P. or by direct contact with another magnet. N. either by passing a current of electricity around it. The distance between the nipple. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A nipple. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. long. then a suitable burner is necessary. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. N. A piece of 1/8-in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A. A 1/64-in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. One row is drilled to come directly on top. A. 1/2 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. If desired. in diameter and 6 in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. Fig. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. as is shown in the illustration. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A. which is plugged up at both ends. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. 1-5/16 in. of No. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. B. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. is made by drilling a 1/8in. Fig.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. copper pipe. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. 2 shows the end view. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. says the Model Engineer. 36 insulated wire. long. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. London.

passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Cut four pieces of cardboard. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. boards and all. smoothly. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. at the front and back for fly leaves. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 2). duck or linen.lamp cord. trim both ends and the front edge. longer and 1/4 in. taking care not to bend the iron. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. fold and cut it 1 in. about 8 or 10 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. 1/4 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. with a fine saw. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 1. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. larger all around than the book. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. should be cut to the diameter of the can. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. this makes a much nicer book. 3. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Fig. Fig. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). cut to the size of the pages. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Take two strips of stout cloth.

is fitted in it and soldered. is perforated with a number of holes. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. without a head. but its diameter is a little smaller. E. --Contributed by Joseph N. the joint will be gas tight. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. In the bottom. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Toronto. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Another tank. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. 4). and a little can. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is turned on it. as shown. of tank A is cut a hole. A. which will just slip inside the little can. or rather the top now. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. B. pasting them down (Fig. Va. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. deep. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. A gas cock. as shown in the sketch. is soldered onto tank A. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Bedford City. --Contributed by James E. This will cause some air to be enclosed. 18 in. Ont. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. in diameter and 30 in. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Noble. C. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. . D. is made the same depth as B. H. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Parker. Another can.

and about 26 in. B. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. The diagonal struts. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. are shown in detail at H and J. and sewed double to give extra strength. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. D. and the four diagonal struts. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. 2. The small guards. If the pushbutton A is closed. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. basswood or white pine. tacks. long. S. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. exactly 12 in. shows how the connections are to be made. C. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Bott. long. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. H is a square knot. by 1/2 in. B. If the back armature. with an electric-bell magnet. fastened in the bottom. E. to prevent splitting. thus adjusting the . which moves to either right or left. when finished. The wiring diagram. Beverly. Fig. should be 1/4 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. -Contributed by H. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. should be cut a little too long. The longitudinal corner spines. D. J. as shown at C. N. A A. Fig. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A. which may be either spruce. 1. The armature.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The bridle knots.. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. should be 3/8 in. making the width. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. square by 42 in.

Stoddard. Harbert. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. A bowline knot should be tied at J. can be made of a wooden . thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. E. --Contributed by A. Kan. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Closing either key will operate both sounders. shift toward F. the batteries do not run down for a long time. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. thus shortening G and lengthening F. D. Chicago. If the kite is used in a light wind. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Clay Center.lengths of F and G. that refuse to slide easily. with gratifying results. as shown. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. --Contributed by Edw. to prevent slipping. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. and. and if a strong wind is blowing. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. however. for producing electricity direct from heat.

Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. A. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. D. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. C. and also holds the pieces of wood. with a number of nails. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A and B. in position. with a pocket compass. 14 or No. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The wood screw. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Then. C. by means of machine screws or. to the cannon. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and the current may then be detected by means. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. which conducts the current into the cannon. Chicago. if there are no trunnions on the cannon.. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. E. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Fasten a piece of wood. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. When the cannon is loaded. B. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. 16 single-covered wire. A. E. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . F. --Contributed by A. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. placed on top.frame. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. or parallel with the compass needle. C. spark.

B. screw is bored in the block. with the long arm at L'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Mich. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Chicago. A. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. to receive the screw in the center. Bend the strips BB (Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. where there is a staple. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. To lock the door. A hole for a 1/2 in. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. A and S. A and S. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. H. In Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. To reverse. 1. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Fig. requiring a strong magnet. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Ohio.the current is shut off. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Marion. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. square and 3/8 in. Big Rapids. 1. press the button. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. To unlock the door. but no weights or strings. . in this position the door is locked. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. now at A' and S'. Fig. L. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. --Contributed by Joseph B. within the reach of the magnet. Keil. when in position at A'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm.

are enameled a jet black. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. long. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. Mass. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. J. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. or for microscopic work. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. pipe with 1-2-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and may be made at very slight expense. The standard and base. about 18 in. and if desired the handles may . and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. West Somerville. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. if enameled white on the concave side. Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. When ready for use. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. --Contributed by C. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. gas-pipe. Thread the other end of the pipe. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. hole. put in the handle. and C is a dumbbell. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete.

B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 8 in.be covered with leather. Fig. This peculiar property is also found in ice. as shown at A in the sketch. Warren. Fig. which shall project at least 2 in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B.. across. E. high by 1 ft. 1. with a cover. North Easton. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. D. inside the pail. A. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. M. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. --Contributed by C. across. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. long and 8 in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . 1. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Mass.

A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 1). The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. E. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. When lighted. 1330°. W. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and 3/4 in. about 1 in. and graphite. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. carefully centering it. as is shown in the sketch. full length of iron core. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. After finishing the core. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. if you have the materials. It is placed inside the kiln. which is the hottest part. thick. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. 1390°-1410°. and varnish. strip of sheet iron. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln.. Wind about 1/8 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. the point of the blue flame. cutting the hole a little smaller. Cover with paper and shellac as before. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. pipe. This done. pack this space-top. let this dry thoroughly. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support.. in diameter. Line the pail. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. layer of the clay mixture. and your kiln is ready for business. Set aside for a few days until well dried.mixture of clay. 1). thick. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. or make one yourself. long over the lid hole as a chimney. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. After removing all the paper. 3) with false top and bottom. hotel china. hard porcelain. as dictated by fancy and expense. say 1/4 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. wider than the kiln. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. and on it set the paper wrapped core. long. Whatever burner is used. projecting from each end (Fig. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. sand. C. Fit all the parts together snugly. to hold the clay mixture. diameter. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. make two wood ends. passing wire nails through and clinching them. in diameter. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 2. and with especial caution the first time. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 2 in. the firing should be gradual. L. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. 60%. The 2 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.. pipe 2-ft. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 25%. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. but will be cheaper in operation. 15%. bottom and sides. C. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Fig. of fine wire.-G. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. if there is to be any glazing done. C. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. such . but it will burn a great deal of gas. and 3/8 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes.

8 in. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. A. red and black. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. leaving long terminals. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. C. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. square them up. You can display either color called for. square them up and place in a vise.. and divide it into two piles. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. as shown in the sketch herewith. bind tightly with black silk. D. as in Fig. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. 1. C. --Contributed by J. 2. Next restore all the cards to one pack. . this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Washington. all cards facing the same way. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner.53 in. procure a new deck. C. R. around the coil.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. T. Of course. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. 2. Then take the black cards. and plane off about 1/16 in. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Then. taking care to have the first card red. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Take the red cards. 2). length of . and discharges into the tube. the next black. Chicago. about 1/16 in. The funnel. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. as in Fig. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and so on. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. every alternate card being the same color. B. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. overlaps and rests on the body. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. diameter. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with a plane.

To find the fall of snow. about 20 in. thus making all the holes coincide. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. A. of the frame. and this is inexpensive to build. E. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in..C. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. 1 gill of fine white sand. F. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Fig. The bottom glass should be a good fit. so that when they are assembled. N. When the glass is put in the frame a space. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Drill all the horizontal pieces. B. 1. the first thing to decide on is the size. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. the same ends will come together again. and then the frame is ready to assemble. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. through the holes already drilled. stove bolts. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. angle iron for the frame. to form a dovetail joint as shown. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. C. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. A. Let . will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. The upright pieces. All the horizontal pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. The cement.J. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. E. B. stove bolts. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. Long Branch. D. B. 1 gill of litharge.

and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. B. Fig. having a swinging connection at C. D. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Aquarium Finished If desired. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. a centerpiece (A. and. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. on the door by means of a metal plate. if desired. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fasten the lever.

F. A small piece of spring brass. 3 shows one of the paddles. long. PAUL S. and another. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. from the outside top of the frame. 1 is the motor with one side removed. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. several lengths of scantling 3 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. according to the slant given C. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. soldered to the end of the cylinder. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. will open the door about 1/2 in. 6 in. another. screwed to the door frame.. as at E. They are shown in Fig. Fig. wide by 1 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1. I referred this question to my husband. to form the slanting part. long. E. Two short boards 1 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. which is 15 in. B. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Do not fasten these boards now. N. for the top. 1. to form the main supports of the frame. White. Fig. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. showing the paddle-wheel in position. C. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 2 is an end view. Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 1 . thus doing away with the spring. Buffalo. long. to keep the frame from spreading. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Cut two of them 4 ft. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. AA. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. --Contributed by Orton E. Cut two pieces 30 in. approximately 1 ft. another. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. D. Y. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. 2 ft. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 2 at GG. 26 in. and Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. To make the frame. long. wide .

holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Fasten them in their proper position. iron 3 by 4 in. Make this hole conical. Drill 1/8-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. (I. thick. iron. These are the paddles. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. after which drill a 5/8 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Fig. Take the side pieces. holes. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). long and filling it with babbitt metal. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. hole to form the bearings. 4. to a full 1/2 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. When it has cooled. hole through their sides centrally. Fig. remove the cardboard. then drill a 3/16-in. 24 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. steel shaft 12 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. thick (HH. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. that is. 2) form a substantial base. and a 1/4 -in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Fig. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. pipe. hole through its center.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. take down the crosspieces. Tack one side on. 1. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through them. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. and drill a 1-in. 2) and another 1 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. tapering from 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Now block the wheel. GG.burlap will do -. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. in diameter. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. from one end by means of a key. and drill a 1/8-in.along the edges under the zinc to form .

Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and leave them for an hour or so. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. remove any white curtains there may be. Do not stop down the lens. drill press. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. sewing machine. as this makes long exposure necessary. shutting out all light from above and the sides. as shown in the sketch at B. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Darken the rest of the window. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. If sheet-iron is used. and the subject may move.a water-tight joint. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Raise the window shade half way. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Drill a hole through the zinc. Correct exposure depends. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. light and the plate. It is obvious that. If the bearings are now oiled. any window will do. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. but as it would have cost several times as much. it would be more durable. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. ice-cream freezer. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. on the lens. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. start the motor. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. place the outlet over a drain. says the Photographic Times. of course. or what is called a process plate. . and as near to it as possible. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Focus the camera carefully. but now I put them in the machine.

by twisting. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. With a piece of black paper. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. as shown in Fig. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. B. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. until the core slowly rises. an empty pill bottle may be used. or an empty developer tube. C. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. and a base. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The current required is very small. The glass tube may be a test tube. a core. with binding posts as shown. The core C. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. and without fog. hard rubber. 2. without detail in the face. which is made of iron and cork. On completing . or can be taken from an old magnet. A. or wood. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. D. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. 2. full of water. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. as a slight current will answer. the core is drawn down out of sight. a glass tube. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.

This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 lb. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and one not easy to explain. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. finest graphite. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. water and 3 oz. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. white lead. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. 1. whale oil. according to his control of the current. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 pt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and make a pinhole in the center. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored.

The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. C. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . deuce. when the action ceases. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. As this device is easily upset. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. In prize games. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. -Contributed by D. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. fan-like. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. before cutting. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. In making hydrogen. thus partly filling bottles A and C.. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. Chicago. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. nearly every time. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.B. especially if the deck is a new one. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.L. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. or three spot. A. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.

--Contributed by C. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. 9 in. 12 in. J. . W. as shown in Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Detail of Phonograph Horn .. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. 3). 2. Make a 10-sided stick. Huron. Detroit. 4. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Dak. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. S. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long. 10 in. 1. Jr. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. --Contributed by F. in diameter. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. in length and 3 in. Fig. (Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Bently. long and 3 in.

about the size of a leadpencil. Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. with a pin driven in each end. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. on one side and the top. E. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. it is equally easy to block that trick. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. push back the bolt. and walk in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Remove the form. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. A. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. bend it at right angles throughout its length. but bends toward D. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Fortunately. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. 6. will cause an increased movement of C. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. long.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. A second piece of silk thread. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . A piece of tin. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. making it three-ply thick. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Denver. C. Cut out paper sections (Fig. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. allowing 1 in. --Contributed by Reader. When the glue is thoroughly hardened.

. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . W. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. The feet. B. posts. Minn. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. put together as shown in the sketch. will last for several years. The 2 by 4-in. The reverse switch. long. are 7 ft. Jr. The upper switch. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. or left to right. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. as shown. S. B. and rest on a brick placed under each end. long. Paul. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. 4 ft. while the lower switch.strip. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. By this arrangement one. R. A. are made 2 by 4 in.. is connected each point to a battery. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. West St. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Two wood-base switches. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. S S. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Fremont Hilscher. --Contributed by J. S.

Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. thick. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The piston is made of a stove bolt. with two washers. Fig. The hose E connects to the boiler. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2 and 3. and a cylindrical . thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 3/8 in. or anything available. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and the crank bearing C. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The steam chest D. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and in Fig. is an old bicycle pump. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and valve crank S. which will be described later. which is made of tin. 2. and has two wood blocks. H and K. In Fig. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A.every house. cut in half. FF. The base is made of wood. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 1. pulley wheel. E.

W. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. powder can. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and the desired result is obtained. . To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. First. can be an old oil can.piece of hard wood. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Cal. J. Wis. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. --Contributed by Geo. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. of Cuba. Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Schuh and A. The boiler. Fig. using the positive wire as a pen. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. is cut out of tin. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. G. This engine was built by W. as shown in Fig. The valve crank S. 4. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. and a very amusing trick. at that. as it is merely a trick of photography. C. 1. Eustice. G. Fry. and saturated with thick oil. 3. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This is wound with soft string. San Jose. or galvanized iron. to receive the connecting rod H.

Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. The smaller wheel. When turning. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. as shown. and Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. to cross in the center. 1 will be seen to rotate. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. They may be of any size. Fig. Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Cut half circles out of each stave. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. C. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and place a bell on the four ends. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. as shown at AA. Fig. and pass ropes around . On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. diameter. 1 by covering up Figs. B.

say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Mo. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.G. which accounts for the sound. produces a higher magnifying power). procure a wooden spool.. --Contributed by H. From a piece of thin . thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.M. Louis. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A (a short spool. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. To make this lensless microscope. St. long. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. but not on all. as shown in the illustration. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. W. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. from the transmitter. such as clothes lines. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. the diameter will appear three times as large. The spring. by means of brads. cut out a small disk. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. is fastened at each end by pins. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. the diameter will appear twice as large. To use this microscope. in which hay has been soaking for several days. darting across the field in every direction. bent as shown. and at the center. is made of iron.. D. H. B. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. A. An innocent-looking drop of water. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. which are pieces of hard wood. if the distance is reduced to one-half. fastened to a wooden base. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The lever. 3. otherwise the image will be blurred. as in all microscopes of any power. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. . which costs little or nothing to make. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.) But an object 3/4-in. Viewed through this microscope.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. place a small object on the transparent disk. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. Fig. 1. 2. or 64 times. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. C. and so on. and look through the hole D. C. D. can be made of brass and the armature. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. (The area would appear 64 times as large. e. the object should be of a transparent nature. i. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-third. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. E. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. The pivot. held at arm's length. B. and has the general appearance shown in Fig.

can be made panel as shown. fastened near the end. should be about 22 in. wide and about 20 in. nail soldered on A. wood: C. D. D. long by 16 in. coils wound with No. 16 in. FF. C. Cut the top. Each side. binding posts: H spring The stop. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. connection of D to nail. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The door. is cut from a board about 36 in. Fig. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wide. wood. A. or taken from a small one-point switch. B. KEY-A. wide. D. 1. The base of the key. 26 wire: E. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The back. K. wide and set in between sides AA. which are made to receive a pivot. wide. AA. similar to the one used in the sounder. brass or iron soldered to nail. . or a single piece. long and 14-1/2 in. K. wood: F. wide. brass: B. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. long. 2. and are connected to the contacts. between the armature and the magnet. brass. A switch. 16 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. in length and 16 in. B. soft iron. Fig. thick. DD. E. The binding posts. brass: E. F. C.SOUNDER-A. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. HH.

with 3/4-in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. cut in them. 13-1/2 in.. as shown. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. material. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. AA. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. long. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Ill. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. In operation. E. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Make 12 cleats. as shown in the sketch. brads. Garfield. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . When the electrical waves strike the needle. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.

The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. The cord is also fastened to a lever. --Contributed by R. in order to increase the surface. when used with a motor. will give a greater speed. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. A (see sketch). When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Ridgewood. A. A. J. E. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and thus decreases the resistance. A fairly stiff spring. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Pushing the wire. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. through which a piece of wire is passed. Y. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. pulls down the armature. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. filled with water. --Contributed by John Koehler. the magnet. N. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . when the coil is not provided with a regulator. and. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. N. When the pipe is used.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Fairport. C. Brown. B. F. down into the water increases the surface in contact.

Of course. B. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. N. --Contributed by Perry A. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Borden. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. even those who read this description. Gachville. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. if desired. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two.

East Orange. Washington. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. D. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD.. in a semicircle 2 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Connect switch to post B. --Contributed by Dr. records and 5-5/8 in. 1. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. deep and 3/4 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. Mangold. for 10in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Jr. and on both sides of the middle shelf. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. long and 5 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. from the bottom. as shown in Fig. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. long and full 12-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. With about 9 ft. wide. The top board is made 28-in. C. C. N. --Contributed by H. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Dobson. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. 2. A. for 6-in. Compton. Cal. H. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. as shown in Fig. The three shelves are cut 25-in. J. thick and 12-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. From a piece of brass a switch. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. . apart. E.

as shown by the dotted lines. 1. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. B. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. closed. Va. to which is fastened a cord. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Roanoke. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. E. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. A. which in operation is bent.

5) when they are placed. deep. square and 7/8 in. Put the rubber tube. they will let the air through. thick (A. which should be about 1/2 in. B.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. wide. but a larger one could be built in proportion. holes (HH. If the wheels fit too tightly. 1 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. against which the rubber tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. is compressed by wheels. apart. deep and 1/2 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. thick. 1. Cut two grooves. to turn on pins of stout wire. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. it too loose. CC. E. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. in diameter. wide. E. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Now put all these parts together. The crankpin should fit tightly. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. one in each end. Figs. 1 in. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Fig. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Fig. they will bind. 3. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. D. 3). 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. long. through one of these holes. Figs. Do not fasten the sides too . Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. excepting the crank and tubing. Bore two 1/4 in. In the sides (Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter.

and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. To use the pump. mark again. Two feet of 1/4-in. Take the center of the bar. 2. Fig. Fig. B. of material. from the bottom and 2 in. AA. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. and are 30 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. --Contributed by Dan H. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. 1. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. tubing. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. from each end. In the two cross bars 1 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. Hubbard. costing 10 cents. A in Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. mark for hole and 3 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. 2. The screen which is shown in Fig. Idana. If the motion of the wheels is regular. though a small iron wheel is better. the pump will give a steady stream. and mark for a hole. Cut six pieces. is all the expense necessary. Fig. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. 1. Kan. beyond each of these two. 15 in. long. 1. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. stands 20 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from that mark the next hole. a platform should be added. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. iron. AA.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 17-1/2 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. For ease in handling the pump. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. The three legs marked BBB. Then turn the crank from left to right.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. The animal does not fear to enter the box. and 3-1/2 in. from each end. because he can . this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel.

conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. add slowly. To cause a flow of electricity. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The battery is now ready for use. C. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. 2). It is useful for running induction coils. 14 copper wire. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. 1) must be prepared. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. . Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. and the solution (Fig. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. however. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. The truncated. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. rub the zinc well. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. and touches the bait the lid is released and. dropping. The mercury will adhere. If the solution touches the zinc. Philadelphia. Meyer. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. acid 1 part). Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. stirring constantly. silvery appearance. If it is wet. or small electric motors. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc.see through it: when he enters. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. but if one casts his own zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. shuts him in. of water dissolve 4 oz. 4 oz. of the top. sulphuric acid. Place the carbon in the jar. The battery is now complete. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If the battery has been used before. there is too much liquid in the jar. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. potassium bichromate. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. giving it a bright. --Contributed by H. until it is within 3 in. long having two thumb screws. or. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. When through using the battery. some of it should be poured out. Next procure what is known as a wire connector.

When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. i. while the coal door is being opened. which opens the door. Wis. with slight changes. After putting in the coal. Madison. however. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. the jump-spark coil . Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. pressing the pedal closes the door. The price of the coil depends upon its size.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.Fig. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. If. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the battery circuit. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.

being a 1-in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. This coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. W W. 6. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. W W. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Change the coil described. After winding. which is made of light copper wire. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth.described elsewhere in this book. as shown in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. apart. while a 12-in. 7. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 7. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. . which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 5. This will make an excellent receiver. in a partial vacuum. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. in a straight line from top to bottom. 7). An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Now for the receiving apparatus. the full length of the coil. 6. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Fig. made of No. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. as shown in Fig.7. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. coil. diameter. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. and closer for longer distances.

being vertical. Figs. using an electric motor and countershaft. above the ground. No. but it could be run by foot power if desired. only. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. I run my lathe by power. at any point to any metal which is grounded.6 stranded. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. These circles. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water.The aerial line. after all. but simply illustrates the above to show that. Run a wire from the other binding post. where A is the headstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. 90°. A large cone pulley would then be required. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. are analogous to the flow of induction. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. . as it matches the color well. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. 1). may be easily made at very little expense. 1 to 4. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. B the bed and C the tailstock. being at right angles. and hence the aerial line. in the air. The writer does not claim to be the originator. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. to the direction of the current. 90°. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. A. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. For an illustration. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. which will be described later.

5. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. which are let into holes FIG. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Heat the babbitt well. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. on the under side of the bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. just touching the shaft. The headstock. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. After pouring. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. thick. 5. and Fig. The bearing is then ready to be poured. steel tubing about 1/8 in. but not hot enough to burn it. tapered wooden pin. If the bearing has been properly made. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. 2 and 3. 4. pitch and 1/8 in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. deep. B. A. 6. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. To make these bearings. 4. which pass through a piece of wood. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. and runs in babbitt bearings. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. too. 6 Headstock Details D. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The bolts B (Fig.

the alarm is easy to fix up. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The tail stock (Fig. so I had to buy one. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. A. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. and a 1/2-in. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. FIG. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.J. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. of the walk . N. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft. If not perfectly true.other machines. Newark. lock nut. Ill. they may be turned up after assembling. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Oak Park. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. embedded in the wood. B. This prevents corrosion. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. If one has a wooden walk.

silver or other metal. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. To avoid touching it. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Minneapolis. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. leaving a clear solution. 2). Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Do not touch the work with the hands again. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. save when a weight is on the trap. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R. and the alarm is complete. of water. Connect up an electric bell. Minn. add potassium cyanide again. clean the articles thoroughly. water. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Fig. S. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. to roughen the surface slightly. hang the articles on the wires. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Finally. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Jackson. so that they will not touch.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. (A. before dipping them in the potash solution. to remove all traces of grease.

must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. and then treated as copper. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. which is held by catch B. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Before silver plating. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. silver can be plated direct. when the point of the key touches the tin. This solution. When all this is set up. must be about 1 in. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. copper. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator.up to 2 qt. --Model Engineer. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. On brass. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. with the pivot 2 in. 1. Make a somewhat larger block (E. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. In rigging it to a sliding door. 1). The wooden block C. a hand scratch brush is good. The wooden catch. 18 wire. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. from the lower end. 3. Screw the two blocks together. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. A (Fig. B should be of the same wood. square. shaking. 3) strikes the bent wire L. about 25 ft. and the larger part (F. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. If more solution is required. 3) directly over the hole. with water. Fig. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. German silver. 1 not only unlocks. A 1/4 in. long. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. as at F. long. if one does not possess a buffing machine. which is advised. To provide the keyhole. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of water. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. use 2 volts for large articles. Take quick. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Having finished washing the precipitate. such metals as iron. thick by 3 in. as shown in Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. but opens the door. I. of clothesline rope and some No. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. piece of broomstick. If accumulators are used. and 4 volts for very small ones. Fig. 1 in. pewter. 10 in. make a key and keyhole. will serve for the key. hole in its center. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 1). With an electric pressure of 3. lead. zinc. an old electric bell or buzzer. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. also. Repeat six times. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. nickel and such metals. light strokes. Then. which . the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Fig. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. a circuit is completed. with water. Can be made of a 2-in. Where Bunsen cells are used.5 to 4 volts. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. saw a piece of wood.

to throw the light toward the audience. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. between the parlor and the room back of it. with the lights turned low. Fig. 1. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. One thing changes to another and back again. 3. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. sides and end. some black cloth. 2. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. He removes the bowl from the black box. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Heavy metal objects. Fig. some black paint. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. To prepare such a magic cave. 1. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. half way from open end to closed end. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. a few simple tools. cut in one side. 0. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. The interior must be a dead black. no painting inside is required. --Contributed by E. should be cut a hole. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. floor. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. H. Objects appear and disappear. is the cut through which the rope runs. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. B. which unlocks the door. Fig. the illumination in front must be arranged. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. or cave. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Next. H. so much the better. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length.. The magician stands in front of this. and plenty of candles. although a little more trouble. such as forks. heighten the illusion. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Thus. H. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. he tosses it into the cave. Fig. One end is removed. Next. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. shows catch B. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. On either side of the box. enlarged. and a slit. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. East Orange. and black art reigns supreme.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Klipstein. 2. with a switch as in Fig. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. New Jersey. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The box must be altered first. . The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. top. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. spoons and jackknives. 116 Prospect St. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and hands its contents round to the audience. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. In front of you. and finally lined inside with black cloth. he points with one finger to the box. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Receiving the bowl again. in his shirt sleeves. surrounding a perfectly black space. the requisites are a large soap box. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave.

and several black drop curtains. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. But illusions suggest themselves. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. a screen must be used. had a big stage. his confederate behind inserts his hand. The audience room should have only low lights. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. one on each side of the box. The illusion. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. was identical with this. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. of course. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if portieres are impossible. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and pours them from the bag into a dish. as presented by Hermann. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The exhibitor should be . and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated.Finally. in which are oranges and apples. the room where the cave is should be dark. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which can be made to dance either by strings. which are let down through the slit in the top. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. into the eyes of him who looks. of course. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. you must have an assistant. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. if. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. only he. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Consequently. is on a table) so much the better.

and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. Finally. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. their one end just slips under the strips b1. and a common screw. A represents a pine board 4 in. 1. f2. Fig. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. held down on it by two terminals. held down by another disk F (Fig.a boy who can talk. b3. 2). The action of the switch is shown in Fig. 2. c1. making contact with them as shown at y. 1. or binding posts. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. terminal c3 will show +.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. and c4 + electricity. making contact with them. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). and c2 to the zinc. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. at L. is shown in the diagram. held down on disk F by two other terminals. FIG. or b2.. respectively. b2. if you turn handle K to the right. b2. terminal c3 will show . so arranged that. e1 and e2. d. by means of two wood screws. when handle K is turned to one side. Then. with three brass strips. About the center piece H moves a disk. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. c2. b1. A. c4. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. c3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. vice versa. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. 2. respectively. as shown in Fig. and c1 – electricity. b3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. On the disk G are two brass strips. by 4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. respectively. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . square. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled.

-Contributed by A. from four batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. and C and C1 are binding posts. when A is on No. from three batteries. jump spark coil. 3. Ohio. Joerin. Tuttle. When switch B is closed and A is on No. from five batteries. B is a onepoint switch. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Jr. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. when on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. . 5. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Newark. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. E. and then hold the receiver to your ear. when on No. and when on No. you have the current of one battery. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. --Contributed by Eugene F.. 1. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 4. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer.

If the thread is tied at the 17-in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. E. The device thus arranged. La. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. A. New Orleans. over the bent portion of the rule. When you do not have a graduate at hand. of Burlington. as shown in the sketch. which may be a button or other small object. mark. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. A. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. traveled by the thread. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. per second. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. Wis. Redmond. is the device of H. per second for each second. P. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. rule. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. mark. Handy Electric Alarm .. and supporting the small weight. B. Thus. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. so one can see the time.

Lane. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Crafton. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. wrapping the wire around the can several times. B. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. and with the same result. --C. Pa. but may be closed at F any time desired. C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Instead. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. . fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. soldered to the alarm winder. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. When the alarm goes off. for a wetting is the inevitable result. --Contributed by Gordon T. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto.which has a piece of metal. which illuminates the face of the clock. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then if a mishap comes. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. S. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge.

engines. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. 1. when it is being prepared. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. and many other interesting and useful articles. If there is no foundry Fig.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. which may. A. BE. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. With the easily made devices about to be described. but it is a mistake to try to do this. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. L. AA. New York City. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. small machinery parts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. battery zincs. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and duplicates of all these. models and miniature objects. --Contributed by A. Two cleats. C. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. 1 . as shown in Fig. as shown. binding posts. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. bearings. cannons. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. whence it is soon tracked into the house. ornaments of various kinds. Macey. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. The first thing to make is a molding bench. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do.

" or lower part. CC. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. white metal. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Fig. G. 1. say 12 in. J. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. The dowels. E. try using sand from other sources. D. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. by 8 in. is nailed to each end of the cope. The rammer.How to Make a Mold [96] . is filled with coal dust. Fig. F. is shown more clearly in Fig. 2. and saw it in half longitudinally. CC. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. and this. will be required. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. DD. H. II . 1. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The cloth bag. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. A slight shake of the bag Fig. previous to sawing. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. If the box is not very strong. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. a little larger than the outside of the flask. The flask. and a sieve. A wedge-shaped piece. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. as shown. which can be either aluminum. which should be nailed in. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. A A. An old teaspoon. and the "drag. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. high. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. but this operation will be described more fully later on. 2 . and the lower pieces." or upper half. If desired the sieve may be homemade. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. as shown. by 6 in. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. is made of wood. which can be made of a knitted stocking. It is made of wood and is in two halves. the "cope. is about the right mesh.near at hand. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. makes a very good sieve.

as shown at D. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A." in position. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and scatter about 1/16 in. or "drag. turn the drag other side up. as shown. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. In finishing the ramming. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It is then rammed again as before. and by grasping with both hands. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. the surface of the sand at . It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and if water is added. as it is much easier to learn by observation. After ramming. as shown at C. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. Place another cover board on top. as shown at E. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and thus judge for himself. or "cope. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. The sand is then ready for molding. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. where they can watch the molders at work. and then more sand is added until Fig. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. in order to remove the lumps. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. as described. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured.

After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as shown at G. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Place a brick or other flat. to give the air a chance to escape. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. and then pour.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. in diameter. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The "sprue. is next cut. thus making a dirty casting. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. after being poured. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown at H. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. made out of steel rod. The next operation is that of cutting the gate." or pouring-hole. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. Fig. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. as shown at F. . thus holding the crucible securely. as shown in the sketch. III. place the cope back on the drag. it shows that the sand is too wet. deep. After drawing the pattern. This is done with a spoon. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at H. in order to prevent overheating. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. wide and about 1/4 in. as shown at J. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. a channel being cut about 3/4 in.

15% lead. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Morton. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. or from any adjacent pair of cells. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. used only for zinc. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. babbitt. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. but any reasonable number may be used. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. --Contributed by Harold S. Minneapolis. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. battery zincs. Although the effect in the illustration . the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. although somewhat expensive. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. If a good furnace is available. may be used in either direction. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. the following device will be found most convenient. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Referring to the figure. is very desirable. In my own case I used four batteries. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. white metal and other scrap available. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling.

Chicago. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. backward. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Then walk down among the audience. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. B. 3/4 in. shaft made. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. which will be sufficient to hold it. A. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Fig. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. as shown at A. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. The bearings. may be made of hardwood. connected by cords to the rudder. To make it take a sheet-iron band. 2. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Put a sharp needle point. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. --Contributed by Draughtsman. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. and the oarsman is obliged to travel.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. By replacing the oars with paddles. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. outward. Then replace the table. If desired. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. as shown in the illustration. The brass rings also appear distorted. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed.

Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Fig. A block of ice. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. It may seem strange that ice . The covers. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. 3. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. W. 1. 1. A. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. If babbitt is used. and a weight. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. D. The hubs. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. but when in motion. C. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 2 and 3. or under pressure.melted babbitt. spoiling its appearance. 2. 1. If galvanized iron is used. being simply finely divided ice. should be made of wood. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. or the paint will come off. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. when it will again return to its original state. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. In the same way. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Snow. as shown in Fig. E. as shown in Fig.

by 1/4.. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. brass. as shown on page 65. whenever there is any connection made at all. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. P. Crafton. square. Pressing either push button. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. --Contributed by Gordon T. by 1/2 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 2 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. thus giving a high resistance contact. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. which resembles ice in this respect. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. B. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. but. but by placing it between books. or supporting it in some similar way. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. no matter how slow the motion may be. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Pa. The rate of flow is often very slow. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. it will gradually change from the original shape A. as per sketch. by 5 in. Lane.should flow like water. and assume the shape shown at B.

F. G. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. B. and five dry batteries. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. K . as shown. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. the induction coil. and C. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. J. G. as shown. Wilkinsburg. C. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. the battery. E. draft chain.000 ft.thumb screws. In the wiring diagram. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Indianapolis. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. weight. A is the circuit breaker. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. horizontal lever. cord. B. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. D. Pa. furnace. about the size used for automobiles. vertical lever. pulleys. --Contributed by A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. H. draft. alarm clock. Ward. I. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. wooden supports. The success depends upon a slow current. The parts are: A.

A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 3. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Mich. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. material framed together as shown in Fig. The frame (Fig. such as used for a storm window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Kalamazoo. where house plants are kept in the home. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. as well as the bottom. will fit nicely in them. which will provide a fine place for the plants.

the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. A certain number of these. This is more economical than dry cells. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. S. Push the needle into the cork. and will give the . In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. However. since a battery is the most popular source of power. 1. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. The 1/2-cp. multiples of series of three. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. where they are glad to have them taken away. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.. in this connection. after a rest. which sells for 25 cents.. and cost 27 cents FIG. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. as if drawn upon for its total output. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Canada. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as indicated by Fig. in any system of lamps. i. so as to increase the current. can be connected up in series. 1 cp. and a suitable source of power. for some time very satisfactorily. is something that will interest the average American boy. However. in diameter. a cork and a needle. Halifax. but maintain the voltage constant. N. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. --Contributed by Wm. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. It must be remembered. 1 each complete with base. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Grant. Thus. one can regulate the batteries as required. W. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. by connecting them in series. this must be done with very great caution. and the instrument will then be complete.. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. e. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom.

making. Thus. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. If wound for 10 volts. if wound for 6 volts. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. by the proper combination of these. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. 3. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. So. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. In conclusion. according to the water pressure obtainable. Chicago. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. Thus. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. lamps. we simply turn on the water. These will give 3 cp. 2 shows the scheme. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. generates the power for the lights. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and running the series in parallel. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Fig. lamps. However. 1-cp. to secure light by this method. where the water pressure is the greatest.proper voltage. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. although the first cost is greater. and then lead No. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. especially those of low internal resistance. . It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. 18 B & S. each.. 11 series. or 22 lights. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. as in Fig. and diffused light in a room. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. which is the same as that of one battery. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. lamp. for display of show cases.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. FIG. double insulated wire wherever needed. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and for Christmas trees. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current.

and C. After I connected up my induction coil. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. bars of pole-changing switch. center points of switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Emig. as shown in the sketch. or a tempting bone. are cut just alike. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. CC. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. --Contributed by Leonard E. the letters indicate as follows: FF.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. we were not bothered with them. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. DD. Ind. Parker. To reverse the motor. Cal. AA. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. . thus reversing the machine. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. A indicates the ground. --Contributed by F. outside points of switch. B. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. brushes of motor. or from one pattern. simply change the switch. a bait of meat. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. and the sides. Santa Clara. Plymouth. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. BB. switch. field of motor. A. B. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted.

Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. and a table or bench. W. as it is the key to the lock. Melchior. 903 Vine St. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. -Contributed by Claude B.. The experiment works best . Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A. San Jose. a hammer. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Hutchinson. thus locking the door. Fry. Cal. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Minn. one cell being sufficient. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. To unlock the door. The button can be hidden. which is in the door. a piece of string. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. If it is not.

W. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. C. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. When the alarm rings in the early morning. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. 4). Brockville. -. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. the stick falls away. which pulls the draft open.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Schmidt. 1). run through a pulley. 2. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. the key turns. forming a loop. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 3. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. I. attached at the other end. 3.Contributed by F. Crawford Curry. On another block of wood fasten two wires. the current flows with the small arrows. P. as shown in Fig. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Canada. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. where it will remain suspended as shown. Ontario. . D. releasing the weight. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Wis. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock.. 18 Gorham St. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. A. Porto Rico. --Contributed by Geo. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Madison. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Culebra.

S. or from a bed of flowers. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. J. Connect two wires to the transmitter. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. thence to a switch. and . but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. R. Camden. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. square and 1 in. thick. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Farley. including the mouthpiece. and then to the receiver. 6 in. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret..Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or tree. get two pieces of plate glass. Use a barrel to work on. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. First. running one direct to the receiver. N. and the other to the battery. made with his own hands. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. which fasten to the horn. Jr. D. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. J. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and break the corners off to make them round. The cut shows the arrangement. --Contributed by Wm.

then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. set the speculum against the wall. as in Fig. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. 2. or it will not polish evenly. with pitch. When done the glass should be semitransparent. 2.. a round 4-in. A. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then take 2 lb. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. with 1/4-in. twice the focal length away. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Fasten. the coarse grinding must be continued. while walking around the barrel. wet till soft like paint. also rotate the glass. Use a binger to spread it on with. so the light . Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Have ready six large dishes. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. then 8 minutes. 1. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Place a large sheet of pasteboard.. L. In a dark room. melt 1 lb. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. using straight strokes 2 in. wide around the convex glass or tool. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. of water. and spread on the glass. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. or less. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and the under glass or tool convex. and label. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and a large lamp. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. When dry. Fig. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. in length. Fig. by the side of the lamp.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. When polishing the speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and is ready for polishing. spaces. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave.

to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Then add solution B. with distilled water. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.. touched with rouge. face down. Then add 1 oz. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. deep. fill the dish with distilled water. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …..………………………………. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. longer strokes. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. the speculum will show some dark rings. When the focus is found. Place the speculum S. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 2. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. 25 gr. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. With pitch.. must be procured. 100 gr.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . add the ammonia solution drop by drop. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. cement a strip of board 8 in.100 gr.. 840 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. then ammonia until bath is clear. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Place the speculum.. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia.. The polishing and testing done. that was set aside. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. long to the back of the speculum. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.. 4 oz. When dry. the speculum is ready to be silvered. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. and pour the rest into the empty dish. also how the rays R from a star . or hills. as in K.. if a hill in the center. 39 gr. 4 oz. 2. Fig.. from the lamp. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.……………………………. Fig. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Fig. Now add enough of the solution A. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. If not. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Nitric acid .……………. Alcohol (Pure) …………….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.

John E. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. with an outlay of only a few dollars. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. My telescope is 64 in. Thus an excellent 6-in. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. which proves to be easy of execution. deg. telescope can be made at home. Then I made the one described. Place over lens. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. two glass prisms.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The flatter they are the less they will distort. slightly wider than the lens mount. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. long and cost me just $15. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Mellish. is a satisfactory angle. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Make the tube I of sheet iron. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. using strawboard and black paper. stop down well after focusing. About 20. and proceed as for any picture. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. cover with paper and cloth. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. .

After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The paper is exposed. 2. and reflect through the negative. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Fig. -Contributed by A. instead of the contrary. push the button D. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The rays of the clear. or powdered alum. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. through the lens of the camera and on the board. as shown in Fig. but will not preserve its hardening. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. then add a little sulphate of potash. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. add the plaster gradually to the water. Ill. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Boody. D. B. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Do not stir it. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. 1. Zimmerman. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. . A. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. To unlock. says the Master Painter. complete the arrangement. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. unobstructed light strike the mirror. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached.

thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. To reverse. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Then blow through the spool. but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. as shown in the sketch. 3.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Fasten on the switch lever. 1). as in Fig. Fig. throw . I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 2. as at A and B. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. also provide them with a handle.

Take out. D. North Bend. Thomas. --Contributed by Geo. binding posts. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. rinse in alcohol. Tex. . Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. and rub dry with linen cloth. although this is not necessary. Tex. Neb. wash in running water. carbon sockets. A is the electricbell magnet. L. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. B. carbons. Go McVicker. C C.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by R. the armature. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. San Antonio. In the sketch. as shown in the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Levy. -Contributed by Morris L. Push one end of the tire into the hole. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. San Marcos. and E E. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.

Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. 14 or No. wound evenly about this core. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. long or more. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 16 magnet wire. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. 36 magnet wire. Brooklyn. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Bell. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .

The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. at a time. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. in diameter. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. as the maker prefers. No. In shaping the condenser. but if it is not convenient to do this work. wide. diameter. long and 5 in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. When cut and laid in one continuous length.which would be better to buy ready-made. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. 1. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. which is an important factor of the coil. which is desirable. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. a box like that shown in Fig. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. about 6 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. the entire core may be purchased readymade. Beginning half an inch from one end. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The condenser is next wrapped . each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. with room also for a small condenser. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. This makes a condenser which may be folded. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. as shown in Fig. or 8 in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. After the core wires are bundled. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The primary is made of fine annealed No. long and 2-5/8 in. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. making two layers. The following method of completing a 1-in. 2 yd. in length. A 7/8-in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. then the strip of tin-foil. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 4. hole is bored in the center of one end. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. one piece of the paper is laid down.

The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. flange turned on one side. go. copper lever with 1-in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. A. C. whole length. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. bell. which allows wiring at the back. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. shelf for clock. E. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. D. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. round so that the inside .) The wiring diagram. F. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. battery . long and 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. which is insulated from the first. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. shows how the connections are made. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. V-shaped copper strip. lines H. B. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. the letters indicate as follows: A. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Fig. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. and one from battery.. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. long to key. G. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. 4 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. I. by 12 in. wide. one from bell. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. B. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and the other sheet. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. 3. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. open switch C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation.securely with bands of paper or tape. forms the other pole or terminal. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spark. to the door. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. switch. ready for assembling.

and the battery is ready for use. but add 5 or 6 oz. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Line the furnace. London. of blue stone. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. from the bottom. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. of zinc sulphate. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. . and then rivet the seam. do not shortcircuit. This is for blowing. Short-circuit for three hours. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.diameter is 7 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. That is what they are for. says the Model Engineer. but with the circuit. Use a glass or metal shade. instead of close to it. 2 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat.. If desired for use immediately.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. 1. Ohio. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. for some it will turn one way. Outside of the scientific side involved. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. affects . Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. herein I describe a much better trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. square and about 9 in. At least it is amusing. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. This type of battery will give about 0. and then. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. 2. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. below the bottom of the zinc. Enlarge the hole slightly. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. oxygen to ozone. thus producing two different vibrations. changes white phosphorus to yellow. If too low. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.. but the thing would not move at all. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm." which created much merriment. g. long. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. To operate the trick. imparting to them a violet tinge. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. porcelain and paper. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same let them try it. while for others it will not revolve at all. as in the other movement. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. for others the opposite way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. the second finger along the side.9 of a volt. and therein is the trick. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Try it and see. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.

If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. if possible. chemicals. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. To the front board is attached a box. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and one of them is photomicrography. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. however. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. says the Photographic Times. a short-focus lens. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. but not essential. an old tripod screw. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but this is less satisfactory. and. earth. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. insects. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. but small flowers. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for holding it vertical. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined.

1. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 10 ft 523 33 lb.--Contributed by George C. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 5 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 113 7 lb. CD. 5 in. while it is not so with the quill. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Madison. 6 ft. Mass. or 3 ft. A line. 65 4 lb. or 31 ft. 7 ft. 7-1/2 in. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 268 17 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. in Cu. AB. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and a line. 381 24 lb. 8 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. The following table will give the size.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Fig. 12 ft. 11 ft. 697 44 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 905 57 lb. balloon. 7-1/2 in. 179 11 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 9 ft. Cap. which is 15 ft. in diameter. wide from which to cut a pattern. If the balloon is 10 ft. long and 3 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Boston. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.

The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The amounts necessary for a 10- . of beeswax and boil well together. using a fine needle and No. on the curved line from B to C. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. and so on. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. keeping the marked part on the outside. 2. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 3. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The pattern is now cut. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. of the very best heavy body. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 70 thread. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 4. Procure 1 gal. making a double seam as shown in Fig. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The cloth segments are sewed together. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This test will show if the bag is airtight. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid.

and the teeth of the escapement wheel. All FIG. A. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator.Green Iron ammonium citrate . All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. ft. with 3/4in. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. it is not fit to use. Fill the other barrel. About 15 lb. B. if it is good it will dry off. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. 5. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. of water will make 4 cu. ]. of gas in one hour. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. C.. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris.ft. 5 . of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. above the level of the water in barrel A. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. B. leaving the hand quite clean. of iron borings and 125 lb. The outlet. 150 gr. by fixing. of iron. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. balloon are 125 lb. . How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. until no more dirt is seen. In the barrel. When the clock has dried. Water 1 oz. with water 2 in. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. After washing a part. but if any grease remains on the hand. should not enter into the water over 8 in. C. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. A. B. 1 lb. a clean white rag. The 3/4-in. to the bag. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. oil the spindle holes carefully. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of sulphuric acid. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. which may sound rather absurd. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. as shown in Fig. or dusting with a dry brush. pipe. with the iron borings. or a fan. 1 lb. capacity and connect them. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. Vegetable oils should never be used. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. using a fine brush. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. . this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. this should be repeated frequently. A. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr.

. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. dry atmosphere will give best results. of any make. . and keep in the dark until used. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. . Bathe the plates 5 minutes. keeping the fingers out of the solution. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. The positive pole. Printing is done in the sun. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. or carbon. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly.000 ft. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. and a vigorous negative must be used. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Port Melbourne. or zinc. Dry the plates in the dark. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. A cold. says the Moving Picture World.Water 1 oz. to avoid blackened skin. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. at the time of employment. or battery. toning first if desired. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. A longer exposure will be necessary. fix in hypo. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The negative pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. 20 to 30 minutes. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. This aerial collector can be made in . Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Exposure. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Dry in the dark. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. The miniature 16 cp.

lay a needle. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. a positive and a negative. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. As the telephone offers a high resistance. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. in diameter. and have the other connected with another aerial line. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. when left exposed to the air. as described below. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station.various ways. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. forming a cup of the pipe. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. lead pipe. 5 in. If the waves strike across the needle. and as less current will flow the short way. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. both positive and negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. making a ground with one wire. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. If the wave ceases. long. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. The storage cell. This will complete the receiving station. the resistance is less. holes . and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. will soon become dry and useless.

The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. except for about 1 in. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. a round one. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. of course.as possible. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. or tube B. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. D. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . says the Pathfinder. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. an oblong one and a triangular one. does not need to be watertight. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. and the other to the negative. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. When mixing the acid and water. on each end. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. This support or block. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This box can be square. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. namely: a square hole. by soldering the joint. B. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This. one to the positive. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Two binding-posts should be attached. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. or tube C. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands.

The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. as shown in Fig. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. 3. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. were fitted by this one plug. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. thick cut two pieces alike. C. The third piece of brass. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. in place on the wood. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. This punt. is built 15 ft. back and under. 2. 1. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Chicago. A and B. long. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. C. and match them together. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. all around the edge. . The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Ill. Only galvanized nails should be used. deep and 4 ft. 2. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. leaving about 1/16 in. 1. wide. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. about 20 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. as it is not readily overturned. wide. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end.

The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Tacoma. gas pipe. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. In Fig. Wash. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. is cut 1 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. thick and 3-1/2 in. A piece of 1/4-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. square (Fig 2).Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. B.

Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. with the exception of insulated wire. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which can be developed in the usual manner. H. no more current than a 16-cp." has no connection with the outside circuit. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. In designing. if possible. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. no special materials could be obtained. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. which the writer has made. says the Model Engineer. may be of interest to some of our readers.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. without auxiliary phase. and to consume. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Wagner. it had to be borne in mind that. lamp. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. or "rotor.--Contributed by Charles H. The winding of the armature. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.

and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and all sparking is avoided. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. A. 1. in diameter were drilled in the corners. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces.the field-magnet. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. B. 5. After assembling a second time. to be filed out after they are placed together. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 2. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. this little machine is not self-starting. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. holes. wrought iron. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. about 2-1/2 lb. or "stator. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. no steel being obtainable. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. thick. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. as shown in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. being used. while the beginnings . and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. Unfortunately. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. bolts put in and tightened up. C. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and filled with rivets. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. The stator is wound full with No. 4. also varnished before they were put in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. with the dotted line. 3. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished.

A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. film to film. and as the motor runs at constant speed. N. having no commutator or brushes. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Newark. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. it would be very simple to build. and as each layer of wire was wound. a regulating resistance is not needed. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. as shown in Fig. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. 3-Contributed by C. as before stated. McKinney. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. If too late for alcohol to be of use. In making slides by contact. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. No starting resistance is needed. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on.. This type of motor has drawbacks. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. if applied immediately. J. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. E. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The rotor is wound with No. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. 2. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. as a means of illustrating songs. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and especially of colored ones.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The image should . A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and the other by reduction in the camera. and would not easily get out of order. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and all wound in the same direction. Jr. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 1. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. One is by contact.

and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. A. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Select a room with one window. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Being unbreakable. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. B. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. 5. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. they are much used by travelers. over the mat. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Fig. It is best. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. the formulas being found in each package of plates. 3. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. if possible. except that the binding is different. a little extra work will be necessary. also. 4. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. If the exposure has been correct. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 1. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 2. to use a plain fixing bath. about a minute. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. C. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. D. Draw lines with a pencil.appear in. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush.

The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. long. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. in diameter and 40 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. long. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. long. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. from the ends. Fig. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. is to be used for the seat. in diameter and 20 in. 2. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Vt. A piece of canvas. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 16 in. 1. from the center of this dot draw a star. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. as shown in Fig. holes bored in the end pieces. while the dot will be in front of the other.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. or other stout cloth. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. as shown at B. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. known as rods and cones. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 1. Corinth. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. as shown at A. Fig. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the end piece of the chair. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . wide and 50 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Hastings.

as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.-Contributed by P. in thickness and 10 in. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. as well as to operate other household machines. made from an ordinary sash cord. Auburn. A disk 1 in. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Cal. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. A belt. 1. per square inch. as shown in Fig. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. 2. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. O'Gara. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. . was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. J. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.

hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. screwing it through the nut. Bore a 1/4-in. or inconvenient to measure. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. with as fine a thread as possible. thick and 2-1/2 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. 3/4 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. . A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. square for a support. says the Scientific American. and the construction is complete. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. it serves a very useful purpose. Cut out a piece from the block combination. fairly accurate. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. direction. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. long. Put the bolt in the hole. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. to the top of the bench. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. wide.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. then removing the object. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. will be the thickness of the object. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. A simple. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in.

Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. which show up fine at night. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Santa Maria. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. beyond the end of the wood. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. bolt in each hole. Bore a 3/4-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Oal. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. material 12 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. The wheel should be open .Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. long. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. piece of wood 12 ft. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Place a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole.

wide and 1/8 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. of the ends with boards. at the top and 4 in. square and 3 or 4 in. A cross bar. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Tex. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. pieces used for the spokes. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing.Side and Top View or have spokes. Fort Worth. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. P. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. B. made of the same material. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. at the bottom. C. long. The boards may be nailed or bolted. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. H and J. is soldered. thick. thick is used for the armature. thick. L. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A.-Contributed by A. long. long. A piece of brass 2 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. Graham. from the ends. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. 1/2 in. long. which should be 1/4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. The spool . Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. in diameter. to be operated by the magnet coil. and on its lower end a socket. O. The coil. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. wide and 1/8 in. from the top end. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft.

making a hole just a little larger than the rod. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.000. D and E. S. then with a firm. This tie can be used on grain sacks. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. . Randolph. A. 2. or a water rheostat heretofore described. 1. 2 the hat hanging on it. is drilled.J.E. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. F. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. which may be had by using German silver wire. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. The armature. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and directly centering the holes H and J. R. --Contributed by Arthur D. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. for insulating the brass ferrule. and in numerous other like instances. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. S.--A. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. long. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Bradlev. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. B. C. Mass. At the bottom end of the frame. that holds the lower carbon.is about 2-1/2 in. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. one without either rubber or metal end. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.000 for irrigation work. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. by soldering. A soft piece of iron. and place it against a door or window casing. do it without any apparent effort. This is a very neat trick if performed right.

is constructed in the usual manner. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. is connected to a flash lamp battery. with a 3/16-in. The vibrator. for the primary. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. B. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. F. and then 1. Fig. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. 1. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. for the secondary. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. may be made from a 3/8-in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. Experiment with Heat [134] . The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. About 70 turns of No. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. D. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Fig. S. 2. thick. wide. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The coil ends are made from cardboard. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. in diameter and 2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out.500 turns of No. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. long and 1 in. hole in the center. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The vibrator B. mixed with water to form a paste. about 3/16 in. in diameter and 1/16 in. leaving the projections as shown. about 1/8 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. in diameter. The core of the coil.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. about 1 in. The switch. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. from the core and directly opposite. S. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. for adjustment. A. in diameter. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. C. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. 1. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. long.

This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and the same distance inside of the new board. with which to operate the dial. . It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. in an ordinary water glass. 1. was to be secured by only three brass screws. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. Fig. The hasp. as shown. lighted. 2 to fit the two holes. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. as shown in the sketch. which may be filed off and two holes substituted.Place a small piece of paper. it laps down about 8 in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 1. and then well clinched. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. board. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. brass plate. 16 in. between the boards. which seemed to be insufficient. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. which is cut with two holes. The tin is 4 in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. long and when placed over the board. thick on the inside. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which is only 3/8-in. wide. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The lock.

openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. which completely divides the box into two parts. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. square and 8-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When the rear part is illuminated. or in the larger size mentioned. and the back left dark. clear glass as shown. If the box is made large enough. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. When making of wood. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. not shiny. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. black color. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for use in window displays. any article placed therein will be reflected in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. the glass. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. square and 10-1/2 in. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. but when the front part is illuminated. one in each division. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in.

Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. and with the proper illumination one is changed. . When using as a window display.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. into the other. as shown at A in the sketch. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. When there is no electric current available. as shown in the sketch. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. wide will be about the right size. long and 1 ft. alternately. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. above the top of the tank.. a tank 2 ft.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

then use a red-hot iron to finish. lines gauged on each side of each. Iron sulphate. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. O. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. using a 3/4-in. hole bored the full length through the center. Shape the under sides first. long. hole. square and 40 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. however. radius. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. 1 in. one for each side. gauge for depth. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. square. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. The 13-in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. each. is the green vitriol. Columbus. and boring two holes with a 1-in. bit. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Three windows are provided. 6 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. 2 ft. and a door in front. A small platform. This hole must be continued . The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. with a length of 13 in. 5 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. as shown. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The pieces can then be taken out. bore from each end. This precipitate is then washed. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and 6 ft. wide. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. is built on the front. but with a length of 12 in. high.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. wide. or ferrous sulphate. under sides together. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. from the ground. long. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through.

Electric globes--two. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. If the parts are to be riveted. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. hole in each block. When the filler has hardened. three or four may be attached as shown. A better way. When this is dry. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.through the pieces forming the base. Saw the two blocks apart. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. thick and 3 in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. apply two coats of wax. The sketch shows one method of attaching. if shade is purchased. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. For art-glass the metal panels are . Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in.

The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. such as copper.Construction of Shade . as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

the other. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. the object and the background. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. 2 the front view of this stand. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. one way and 1/2 in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Figure 1 shows the side. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. as in ordinary devices. The arms holding the glass. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. as shown in the sketch. and Fig. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow.

All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. pointing north and south. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. thick 5/8-in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. uncork and recork again. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. as shown in the sketch. as shown in the cut. in diameter for a base. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. channel in the circumference of the ring. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. An ordinary pocket compass. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. about 1-1/4 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Before mounting the ring on the base. Put the ring in place on the base. Cut another circular piece 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. If the light becomes dim. and swinging freely. long. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. in diameter. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. as it is very poisonous. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. outside diameter. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thus forming a 1/4-in. wide and 11 in. wide and 6-5/16 in.

and mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. above the half can. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Place on top the so- . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.715 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.088 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. and north of the Ohio river. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. AA. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.182 . 1 oz. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.865 1. into these cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. in diameter and 8 in. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. B.420 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. EE. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. of the top.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. black oxide of copper. CC. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.500 .600 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. from the second to the third. are mounted on a base. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.289 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Corresponding mirrors.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.

Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. says Metal Worker. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. University Park. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 62 gr. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Colo. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. always remove the oil with a siphon. 31 gr. which otherwise remains clear. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Put the solution in a long. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. alcohol. little crystals forming in the liquid. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. the wheel will revolve in one direction. When renewing. of pulverized campor. In Fig. slender bottle.

The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. A paper-fastener box. If zinc and carbon are used. This is used in place of the spoon. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If two of them are floating on the same solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. will allow the magnet to point north and south. about 1-1/4 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Attach to the wires. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If zinc and copper are used. Solder in the side of the box . in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Lloyd Enos. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. on the under side of the cork. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. --Contributed by C. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.

26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. E. Use a board 1/2. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. brass tubing. D. glass tubing . is made from a piece of No. Thos. F. of No. A circular piece of cardboard.Contributed by J. 1-1/4 in. Put ends. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Wind evenly about 2 oz. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. A.in. stained and varnished. The base. 1. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. to it. E. The spring should be about 1 in. C. The bottom of the box. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. B. and then solder on the cover.not shorter than 18 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. D. or made with a little black paint.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. 10 wire about 10 in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. can be made of oak. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. long that has about 1/4-in. D. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The standard. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint.in. thick. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. B. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. hole. . square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.1-in. If the hose is not a tight fit. wide and 6 in. A. G--No. 1/2. and on the other around the glass tube. as shown in Fig. 14 wire will do. Bore holes for binding-posts. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. of wire on each end extending from the coil. 3 in. H. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. wide and 2-1/2 in. Rhamstine. To this standard solder the supporting wire. away. one on each side of the board. piece of 1/4-in. C. Take a small piece of soft iron. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Secure a piece of 1/4-in.

Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. about 1 in. Wis. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. four hinges. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. canvas. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. of No. of 8-oz. 3. long. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. in diameter.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. Y. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. . 3-in. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. About 1-1/2 lb. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 1. The iron plunger. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 2.--Contributed by Edward M. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.of the coil. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.--Contributed by R. Milwaukee. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. J. long are used for the legs. D. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. long. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Cuba. N. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. When the glass becomes soft. making a support as shown in Fig. long. 5. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. from the right hand. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 3 in. of mercury will be sufficient. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Teasdale. two pieces 2 ft. Smith. E.

The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Measure 8 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. of vacuum at the top. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. expelling all the air. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 2.. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 5. Break off the piece of glass. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. leaving 8 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Fig. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 6. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 3. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Can. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Take 1/2 in. thus leaving a. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. holding in the left hand. --Contributed by David A. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. long. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. This tube as described will be 8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Toronto. The tube now must be filled completely. small aperture in the long tube. 4.. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Keys.

long. as in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 5 ft. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. thick. 1 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. as shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wide and 12 in. This forms a slot. long. but yellow pine is the best. 4 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. joint be accurately put together. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. material 2 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. thick. 3 in. in diameter. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. from the end of same. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 2. 1 in. long. 9 in. Fig. 1. 7. wide and 3 in. 6.6 -. wood screws. Four blocks 1/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. wide and 5 ft. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 5. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. FIG. with each projection 3-in. 4. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. thick. as shown in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. and 1/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 3. The large pulley is about 14 in. These are bent and nailed. 3 in. thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background.

first removing the crank. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Welsh. Manhattan. . leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. by 1-in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. says Photography. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. attach runners and use it on the ice. --Contributed by C. R. above the runner level. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Water 1 oz.

Mass. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. This is done with a camel's hair brush. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Printing is carried rather far. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. of water. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. also. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 3. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. and very much cheaper. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Treasdale. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Wallace C. Newton. 1 oz. from an ordinary clamp skate. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. as shown in Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The print is washed. 2. . Leominster. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 1.

The thread is broken off at the . board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. causing the door to swing back and up. fasten a 2-in. 1. too. Take two glass tubes. Church. 1. A. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. from one end. long. The swing door B. and to the bottom. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. as shown in the sketch. 1-1/2 ft. F. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. say. and 3 ft. Then. 1 ft. wide and 4 in. Place a 10-in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 2. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. with about 1/8-in. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Fig. high. Fig. hole. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. --Contributed by H. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. square piece. which represents the back side of the door. Va. extending the width of the box. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Alexandria. and bend them as shown in the sketch. wide. high for rabbits. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. about 10 in.

B. and go in the holder in the same way. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. plates. automobiles. 2. A and B. high and 12 in. Jr. This opening. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. as shown in Fig. C. trolley cars. Fig. inside of the opening. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage.by 5-in. Chicago. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. -Contributed by William M. wide. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. wide. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. black surfaced if possible. horses and dogs. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. long. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Take two pieces of pasteboard. shorter at each end. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Out two rectangular holes. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 1 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. in size. 1. shorter. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. says Camera Craft. Crilly. . long. from the edge on each side of these openings.proper place to make a small hole.. Paste a piece of strong black paper. 3. camera and wish to use some 4. to be used as a driving pulley. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. say 8 in. but cut it 1/4 in. D. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 10 in.by 7-in. being 1/8 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Fig. Cut an opening in the other piece. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. wide and 5 in. in size.

Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. into which the dog is harnessed. if it has previously been magnetized. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. making a . This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The needle will then point north and south.in. long and 6 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. wide will be required. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. A cell of this kind can easily be made. in diameter.

Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Do not paint any surface. 1 lb. . Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. in which P is the pan. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather.in. fodder. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. filter. beeswax melted together. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. short time. of rosin and 2 oz. sal ammoniac. F is a spool. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. for a connection. only the joints. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. 1/4 lb. leaving about 1/2-in. of the top. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a.watertight receptacle. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. pine. says Electrician and Mechanic. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Pack the paste in. under the spool in the paraffin. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. plaster of paris. This makes the wire smooth. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Place the pan on the stove. and a notch between the base and the pan. A is a block of l-in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. pull out the wire as needed. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. zinc oxide. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. when the paraffin is melted. long which are copper plated. 3/4 lb. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. B is a base of 1 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. in diameter and 6 in. Form a 1/2-in. of the plate at one end. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. of water. one that will hold about 1 qt. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. fuel and packing purposes. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. with narrow flanges. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in.

Ohio. 2. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. square and about 9 in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. If any of your audience presume to dispute.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and then. thus producing two different vibrations. Toledo. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Try it and see. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. while for others it will not revolve at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. grip the stick firmly in one hand. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. for some it will turn one way." which created much merriment. and therein is the trick. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. as in the other movement. from vexation. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Enlarge the hole slightly. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.. by the Hindoos in India. let them try it. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. but the thing would not move at all. At least it is amusing. long. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and one friend tells me that they were . for others the opposite way. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. g. or think they can do the same. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and he finally. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.

sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The experiments were as follows: 1. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the pressure was upon an edge. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and I think the results may be of interest. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and. rotation was obtained. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 7. p. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. m. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. the rotation may be obtained. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 5. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. 6. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. no rotation resulted. 2. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 4. To operate. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Thus a circular or . secondly. 3. by means of a center punch. A square stick with notches on edge is best. gave the best results. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. Speeds between 700 and 1.100 r.

Ph. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Duluth. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Washington. it will be clockwise. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can.. and the resultant "basket splash." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the upper portion is.. --Contributed by M. Sloan. at first. a piece of wire and a candle. Lloyd. if the pressure is from the left. C. unwetted by the liquid.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.D. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. --Contributed by G. or greasy. A. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A wire is tied around the can. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. as shown. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Minn. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. forming a handle for carrying. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). D. G. . and not to friction of the pin in the hole.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. long. as shown in Fig. in diameter. flange and a 1/4-in. axle. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. with a 1/16-in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. 1. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. about 2-5/8 in. as shown. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. thick and 1 in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves.

5. These ends are fastened together. of No. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. each in its proper place. 4. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Fig. or main part of the frame. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wide and 16 in. bottom side up. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 3. 6. The parts. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. A trolley. with cardboard 3 in. are shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. long. Fuller. bent as shown. is made from brass. as shown in Fig.50. Texas. lamp in series with the coil. Fig. The first piece. The motor is now bolted. 2. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 3. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . before doing so drill four 1/4-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. The current. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. If the ends are to be soldered. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 1 from 1/4-in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. wood. is made from a piece of clock spring. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration.brass. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. holes 1 in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. put together complete. as shown in Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. This will save buying a track. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 3/4 in. 2. San Antonio. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place.

Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. 2. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. O.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. as shown in Fig. and holes drilled in them. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Cincinnati. and as this end . as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. but do not heat the center. Fig 1. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. the length of a paper clip. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. then continue to tighten much more. 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. 3. The quarter will not go all the way down. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts.

The frame is made from a 1/2 in. and adjusted . square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. When the trick is to be performed. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. or should the lathe head be raised. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. A pair of centers are fitted. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. In the sketch. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. 2 and 1 respectively. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the cutter A. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

and a nut pick. (4. watch fob ready for fastenings.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. blotter back. draw center lines across the required space. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. such as brass or marble. The frame holding the mandrel. Y. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. N. (1. holding it in place with the left hand. When connecting to batteries. if four parts are to be alike. tea cosey. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. An ordinary machine will do. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. or one-half of the design. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Make on paper the design wanted. (2. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. above the surface. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. (5. trace the outline. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. about 1-1/2 in. (6.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Bunker. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. gentleman's card case or bill book. Fig. (3. 2. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. 1. lady's belt bag. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Bott. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. coin purse. book mark.to run true. long. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). --Contributed by Howard S. Brooklyn. at the same time striking light. lady's card case. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. In this manner gears 3 in. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. dividing it into as many parts as desired. tea cosey. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. note book. twisted around itself and soldered. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. --Contributed by Samuel C. if but two parts. Fold over along these center lines. swing lathe. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Second row: -Two book marks. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle.

Florida. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. If the needle is not horizontal. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and bore a hole through the center. and push it through a cork. Thrust a pin. C. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. where it condenses. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. a distance of 900 miles. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. from Key West. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. B. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.C. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. A. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The electrodes are made . D. into which fit a small piece of tube.

1. long. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. long for the body of the operator. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. thick. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. Connect as shown in the illustration. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 1.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Edwin L. wide and 3 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. thick. 16 piano wire. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. All wiring is done with No. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. C. take the glider to the top of a hill. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. D. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. wide and 20 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Powell. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. To make a glide. as shown in Fig. lumber cannot be procured. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. 2. apart and extend 1 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. wide and 3 ft. 2 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 2 arm sticks 1 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. or flying-machine. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Washington. using a high resistance receiver. 12 uprights 1/2 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. The operator can then land safely and . free from knots. square and 8 ft long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 1. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. Four long beams 3/4 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. slacken speed and settle. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 4 ft long. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. long. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. long. use 10-ft. which is tacked to the front edge.in. several strips 1/2 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. 3/4 in. lengths and splice them. long. If 20-ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 3. thick. by 3/4 in. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 4 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1/2. thick. thick. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 1-1/4 in. long. wide and 4 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. beyond the rear edges of the main frames.

The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be .gently on his feet. but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. a creature of Greek mythology. Olson. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. which causes the dip in the line. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. 1. half man and half horse. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. 2. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Bellingham. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes.

Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The light from the . While at the drug store get 3 ft. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. about the size of door screen wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. in diameter. at the other. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. outside the box. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. making it 2-1/2 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. of small rubber tubing. long and about 3/8 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. 14 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. this will cost about 15 cents. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. long. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. square. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. will complete the material list. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp.

2. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 1. Hunting. as shown in Fig. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Dayton. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. This is very simple when you know how. O. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. while others will fail time after time. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. as shown in Fig. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in the sketch. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. If done properly the card will flyaway. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. . M.

A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. closing both hands quickly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. hold the lump over the flame. When the desired shape has been obtained. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Cool in water and dry. then put it on the hatpin head. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . as described. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as shown. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. place the other two. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. as before. This game is played by five persons. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent.

Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. or more in width. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. these sectors. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges . After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.

One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 1 in. from about 1/4-in. wide at one end. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. are made from solid. and this should be done before cutting the circle. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. Two solid glass rods. Two pieces of 1-in. Fig. as shown in Fig. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. These pins. The drive wheels. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 3. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. as shown in Fig. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. RR. The plates are trued up. material 7 in. and of a uniform thickness. 4. and pins inserted and soldered. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. at the other. The two pieces. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. free from wrinkles. to which insulating handles . or teeth. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. long. 3/4 in. Fig. 2. 1-1/2 in. the side pieces being 24 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. in diameter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter and 15 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 3. GG. in diameter. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. EE. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and 4 in. 1. wide. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The plates. long. The collectors are made. long and the standards 3 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. in diameter. brass tubing and the discharging rods. after they are mounted. turned wood pieces. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long and the shank 4 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. are made from 7/8-in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. D.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. C C. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work.

Colorado City.. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.are attached. which are bent as shown. D. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Colo. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. and the work was done by themselves. 12 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. KK. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Lloyd Enos. long. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. in diameter. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. one having a 2-in. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. wide and 22 ft. --Contributed by C.

How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. They can be used to keep pins and needles. yet such a thing can be done. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.is a good one. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. as at A. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. string together. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. pens . The key will drop from the string. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. deep. bit. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood.

flat and round-nosed pliers. Raise the ends. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 3. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the metal. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off.and pencils. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. They are easily made. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. and the third one 1/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. 23 gauge. sharp division between background and design. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Use . This is to make a clean. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 7. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. very rapid progress can be made. inside the second on all. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 9. 4. Draw one-half the design free hand. 8. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Proceed as follows: 1. or cigar ashes. then the other side. they make attractive little pieces to have about. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 2.. 5. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one.. two spikes. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. about 3/4-in. file. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. The second oblong was 3/4 in. slim screw. inside the first on all. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. unless it would be the metal shears. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Having determined the size of the tray. 6. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. etc. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. stamp the background promiscuously. Inside this oblong. also trace the decorative design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. When the stamping is completed. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. etc.

Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. third fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. The eyes. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 8.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. In the first numbering. 10. 7. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 6. and the effect will be most pleasing. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . first fingers. and fourth fingers. second fingers. 9. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9.

viz. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or numbers above 10. thumbs. above 15 times 15 it is 200... Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. 400. Put your thumbs together.. 11.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. or the product of 6 times 6. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 25 times 25. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 12. or the product of 8 times 9. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. and the six lower fingers as six tens. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Still. In the second numbering. At a glance you see four tens or 40. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. or 80. Two times one are two. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 2 times 2 equals 4. . as high as you want to go. there are no fingers above. above 20 times 20. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Let us multiply 12 by 12. etc. or 60. etc. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. which would be 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. which tens are added. if we wish. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. which would be 16. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. but being simple it saves time and trouble. first fingers. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. the product of 12 times 12. renumber your fingers. etc.

the revolution seems to reverse. first fingers 22. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. And the lump sum to add. The inversion and reversion did not take place. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 7. 21. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. For figures ending in 6. It takes place also. etc. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the lump sum to add. twenties. and. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. lastly. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. in the case of a nearsighted person. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. adding 400 instead of 100. thumbs. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200.. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. being 80). the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. as one might suppose. the inversion takes place against his will.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. any two figures between 45 and 55. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. when he removes his spectacles. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 2. not rotation. beginning the thumbs with 16. 8. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. further. Take For example 18 times 18. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the value which the upper fingers have. For example. about a vertical axis. first finger 17. thirties. forties. 3. at the will of the observer. or what. and so on. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the value of the upper fingers being 20. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. or from above or from below. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Proceed as in the second lumbering. however. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. . 75 and 85. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering.

A flat slide valve was used. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. tee. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. as . But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The ports were not easy to make. when he knows which direction is right. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. sometimes the point towards him. and putting a cork on the point. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the other appearance asserts itself.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette.

The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. across and 1/2 in. as in a vise. The steam chest is round. in diameter. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. secure a piece of No. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in.. if continued too long without proper treatment. Next take a block of wood. Beating copper tends to harden it and. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Ill. pipe. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. If nothing better is at hand. -Contributed by W. and make in one end a hollow. inexpensive. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The tools are simple and can be made easily. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. H. such as is shown in the illustration. Kutscher. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Fasten the block solidly. bottom side up. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. deep. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. apart. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. across the head. While this engine does not give much power. it is easily built. pipe 10 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. about 2 in. . Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Springfield. saw off a section of a broom handle. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings.

This process is called annealing. Vinegar. and. Camden. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. To overcome this hardness. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. as it softens the metal. To produce color effects on copper. C. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. S. the other to the left. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. --Contributed by W. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side.will cause the metal to break. O. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . especially when the object is near to the observer. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses.

In order that the picture shall be "plastic. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. as for instance red and green. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. diameter. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. because. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. It is just as though they were not there. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. would serve the same purpose. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and without any picture. So with the stereograph. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. orange. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. the further from the card will the composite image appear. from the stereograph. In order to make them appear before the card. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the one for the left eye being blue. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. that for the right. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result.stereoscope. however. the left eye sees through a blue screen. although they pass through the screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and lies to the right on the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. . with the stereograph. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. it. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. while both eyes together see a white background. not two mounted side by side. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. because of the rays coming from them. in the proper choice of colors. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The further apart the pictures are. But they seem black. disappears fully. only the orange rays may pass through.

so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. long and a hole drilled in each end. San Francisco. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. wireless. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. thick. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. or the middle of the bottle. This should only be bored about half way through the block. 12 gauge wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. in diameter. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The weight of the air in round . etc. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Place a NO. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 1/4 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. wide and 1 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Cal. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. in the shape of a crank. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A No. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge.

high. In general. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. if you choose. and a slow fall. internal diameter and about 34 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. a glass tube 1/8 in. long. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.6) 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax.numbers is 15 lb. square. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. if accurately constructed. long. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. the contrary. or. a bottle 1 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. 34 ft. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Only redistilled mercury should be used. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. wide and 4 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. pine 3 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. the instrument. will calibrate itself. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. high. or a column of mercury (density 13. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. inside diameter and 2 in. thick. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. high. The 4 in. long. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. . wide and 40 in. square. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Before fastening the scale. But if a standard barometer is not available. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. 30 in.

and place them as shown in Fig. wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 1. thick. Number the pieces 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. 3. 6 and 7. Procure a metal can cover. which is slipped quickly over the end. Mark out seven 1-in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 5.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.

1. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 6. This can be done on a checker board.J. 2 over No. long and 2 ft. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1 into No. 3. 6. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6 in. 2's place. Move 4-Jump No.-Contributed by W. 3 to the center. 5's place. Move 7-Jump No. 2. 2's place. procure unbleached tent duck. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 3-Move No. Move 5-Jump No. 2 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Make 22 sections. 5. 6 to No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. as shown in Fig. 3. 7's place. 2 . Move ll-Jump No. Move 12-Jump No. 7 over No. Move 9-Jump No. 2. Move 6-Move No. l over No. 3 over No. 7. 5 over No. To make such a tent.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3 into No. in diameter. 5 over No. 3. 6 over No. Move 8-Jump No. N. Move 10-Move No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 1 to No. Cape May Point. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 2-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. Woolson. 5's place. Move 13-Move No. 1. 7 over No. 6 into No. using checkers for men. L. shaped like Fig. each 10 ft. Move 14-Jump No.

How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Tress. as in Fig. 6. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. to a smooth board of soft wood. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. leaving the rest for an opening. 6-in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. long and 4 in. Use blocks. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. long. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Have the tent pole 3 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. wide at the bottom. 2 in. Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. made in two sections. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. fill with canvas edging. added. As shown in the sketch. Emsworth. 5) stuck in the ground. 2. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Nail a thin sheet of brass. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. round galvanized iron. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Pa. After transferring the design to the brass. from the top. Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. high. 5. wide at the bottom. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 9 by 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Punch holes in the brass in .in.. --Contributed by G. wide by 12 in. 3 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. will do. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. about 9 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. diameter. in diameter. These are ventilators.J. In raising the tent. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design.

I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. When the edges are brought together by bending. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The pattern is traced as before. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. Corr. Chicago.the spaces around the outlined figures. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. bend into shape. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When all the holes are punched. but before punching the holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. It will not. . apart. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in.

The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. G. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. partially filled with cream. Oregon. E. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. allowing 2 ft. Stevens. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Badger. Dunham. A 6-in. Que. If a wheel is selected. between which is placed the fruit jar. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. These pipes are . A cast-iron ring. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. --Contributed by Geo.however. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. --Contributed by H. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. or less. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or center on which the frame swings. better still. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. pipe. Mayger.. pipe is used for the hub.

pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe clamps. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. as shown in Fig. while doing this. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The performer. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. which was placed in an upright position. 1. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and the guide withdrawn. 3. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. and dropped on the table. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide.

Make a circle 3-1/2 in. in diameter on another piece of tin. St. D. F. -Contributed by C. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. 1. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. first. --Contributed by H. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. and second. Denver. Colo. in a half circle. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Mo. Louis. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. it requires no expensive condensing lens. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The box can be made of selected oak or . The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Harkins. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.

This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. focal length. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide by 5 in. fit into the runners. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. wide and 6-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 5-1/2 in. AA. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. wide. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This will be 3/4 in. from each end of the outside of the box. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Two or three holes about 1 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. long. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. as shown in Fig. 2. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. high and 11 in. 3-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. 1. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide and 5 in.mahogany. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. from each end. The door covering this hole in the back. but not tight. An open space 4 in. and. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. and 2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. high and must . and tacked to the inside surface of the door. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights.

The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. 1. West Toledo. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Ohio. then the second knuckle will be March. June and November. provided it is airtight. Bradley. and so on. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and extending the whole height of the lantern. --Contributed by Chas. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. the article may be propped up . then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. This process is rather a difficult one. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. C. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece." etc. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. calling that knuckle January.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.. calling this February. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. as it requires an airtight case. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. April. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.

In each place two electrodes. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. . in. Schenectady. Pour in a little turpentine.with small sticks. the lid or cover closed. The top of a table will do. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. one of lead and one of aluminum. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. but waxed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Y. Crawford. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. giving it an occasional stir. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. fruit jars are required. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and the lead 24 sq. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. 1 and 2. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. and set aside for half a day. in. N. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. --Contributed by J. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. or suspended by a string. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. taking care to have all the edges closed. running small motors and lighting small lamps. H. In both Fig. 2. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration.

are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. After a few seconds' time. which you warm with your hands. he throws the other. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain.. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You have an understanding with some one in the company. as well as others. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . This trick is very simple. you remove the glass. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. O. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as you have held it all the time. He. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Cleveland.

but by being careful at shores. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. if any snags are encountered. Be sure that this is the right one. Crocker. put it under the glass. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. in diameter in the center. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. J. on a table. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. near a partition or curtain. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish.-Contributed by E. Pull the ends quickly. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but in making one. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Victor. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.take the handiest one. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. . Colo. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief.

Paint. apart. of 1-1/2-yd. The keelson. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. of rope. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces.. 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws. wide 12-oz. 4 outwales. of 1-yd. wide and 12 ft. by 8 in. wide unbleached muslin. 7 ft. 8 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. by 10 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Fig. by 16 ft. long. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1 in. wide and 12 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. long. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 3 in. from the stern. long. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. from each end to 1 in. for the bow. by 2 in.. 8 yd. 1. from the bow and the large one. and is removed after the ribs are in place. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . and fastened with screws. by 15 ft. for cockpit frame. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 50 ft. 2 in. and the other 12 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. as illustrated in the engraving. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 9 ft. thick and 3/4 in. wide. one 6 in. 3 and 4. 1 piece. by 16 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. ducking. for the stern piece. screws and cleats. 1 mast. 14 rib bands. long. for center deck braces. are as follows: 1 keelson. 11 yd. square by 16 ft. at the ends. selected pine. Both ends are mortised. 1/8 in. 1 in. 1/4 in. and. 2 gunwales. 1 in. clear pine.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. by 12 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. is 14 ft. 1 piece. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 2 in.

in diameter through the block. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. length of canvas is cut in the center. 1/4 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. The trimming is wood. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 4 in. apart. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. also. and fastened to them with bolts. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. A 6-in. long. Fig. 7 and 8. 9.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 6 and 7. from the bow. long is well soaked in water. A piece of oak. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. wide and 14 in. long. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 6. They are 1 in. This block. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. is a cube having sides 6 in. doubled. Before making the deck. wide. wide and 24 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Braces. thick 1-1/2 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The 11-yd. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. screws. 5. thick and 12 in. thick. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. wood screws. thick. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. The deck is not so hard to do. a piece 1/4 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. A block of pine. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wide and 3 ft. wide. 3-1/2 ft. is cut to fit under the top boards. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The block is fastened to the keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. corner braces. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Figs. 1 in. long. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. . These are put in 6 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Fig. thick and 1/2 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 6 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. gunwales and keelson.

The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. in diameter and 10 ft. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. are used for the boom and gaff. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The mast has two side and one front stay. wide at one end and 12 in. is 6 in. 10 with a movable handle. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. each 1 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Wilmette. A strip 1 in. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. --Contributed by O. long. apart in the muslin. long. wide. E. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. 11. . With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. thick by 2 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The house will accommodate 20 families. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Fig. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The sail is a triangle. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The keel. Ill. Tronnes. 12. at the other. long that will fit the holes in the hinge.

with the ends and the other side rounding. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 2.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. long. Bevel both sides of the pieces. wide and 2 ft. and 3 ft. square. as shown in Fig. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. wide and 30 in. five 1/2-in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2-1/2 in. thick. Ill. and the other 18 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. 2-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. flat on one side. long. 4. thick. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. long and five 1/2-in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. thick. --Contributed by O. Take this and fold it over . on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. about 5/16 in. 1 yd. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 5. Cut the maple. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. flat headed screws. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Fig. Wilmette. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. one 11-1/2 in. Tronnes. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one.into two 14-in. 3. E. wide. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2 in. wide. flat-headed screws. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 1.

Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. and make a turn in each end of the wires. After the glue. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide . this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 4-1/2 in. square. wide and 2-3/4 in. Another piece. and the four outside edges. 6-1/2 in. wide and 5 in. E. Mo. Fig. Bliss. The bag is then turned inside out. wide and 3 ft. Glue a three cornered piece. When the glue is set. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. 3/8 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. About 1/2 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. St. wide and 2-1/2 in. Cut another piece of board. as well as the edges around the opening. A. wide and 6-1/2 in.once. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. 3 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Wind three layers of about No. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. C. long. soaked with water and blown up. the mechanical parts can be put together. B. leaving a small opening at one corner. C. is set. long. are rounded. wide and 6-3/4 in. A. thick. then centered. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Figs. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. long. square. --Contributed by W. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. F. about 3/8 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. long. but can be governed by circumstances. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. the top and bottom. 1. 2 and 3. Louis. 5 from 1/16-in. and take care that the pieces are all square. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. long. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 3-1/4 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. thick. If carefully and neatly made. forming an eye for a screw. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. D. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. thick and 3 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. The front. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. of each end unwound for connections.

and the farther apart they will be forced. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. When the current flows through the coil. Yorkshire. A pointer 12 in.S. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. showing a greater defection of the pointer. hole is fastened to the pointer. from the spindle. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. in diameter. and as the part Fig. Place the tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. I. F. thick. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . and fasten in place. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. that has the end turned with a shoulder. 4. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. C. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Fig. The stronger the current. Another strip of tin. bored in the back. 1/16 in. wide and 9 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle.R. the same size as the first. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. from one end.and 2-5/8 in. The end of the polar axis B. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in.A. long. long. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The base is a board 5 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. board. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Austwick Hall. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. W. 5. The resistance is now adjusted to show . Like poles repel each other. 4. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Fig. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 5-1/2 in. 4 is not movable. the part carrying the pointer moves away.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. L. R. Richmond Hill. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Chapman. 1/4 in. so it will just clear the tin. G. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. long. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle.

Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. 10 min. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. and vice . 30 min. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. at 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. M. thus: 9 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. 1881. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. A. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.

f. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. if one of these cannot be had. or. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. New Haven. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. owing to the low internal resistance. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Conn.m. --Contributed by Robert W. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. . Hall.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.

Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. arsenic to every 20 lb. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . especially for cooking fish. fresh grass. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Fig. 3/8 in. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. The boring bar. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 1-3/4 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. cover up with the same. 1. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. long. thick. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. of alum and 4 oz. leaves or bark. and heap the glowing coals on top. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. as shown in the accompanying picture. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. When the follower is screwed down. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. put the fish among the ashes. Then. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Wet paper will answer.

Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. thick. when they were turned in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe were fitted to these holes so that.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and threaded on both ends. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. as the one illustrated herewith. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. however. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. the float is too high. was then finished on an emery wheel. square iron. 3. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. 4. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. 5. 30 in. A 1-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. long. a jump spark would be much better. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. and which gave such satisfactory results. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods.valve stems. Iowa. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Clermont. labor and time. bent in the shape of a U. Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. wide. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then it should be ground to a fit. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. thick and 3 in. It . angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 2. but never one which required so little material. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The rough frame. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Fig. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. This plate also supports the rocker arms. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in.

strengthened by a piece 4 in. in fact. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. If it is to be used for adults. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. long. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. from the center. A 3/4 -in. The illustration largely explains itself. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in." little and big. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. It looks like a toy. hole bored in the post. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. rope is not too heavy. so it must be strong enough. long. A malleable iron bolt. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. and. timber. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. set 3 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. strong clear material only should be employed. in the ground with 8 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. --Contributed by C. and a little junk. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. extending above. square and 2 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. being held in position by spikes as shown. in diameter and 15 in. Use a heavy washer at the head. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. with no trees or buildings in the way. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. square. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. square and 5 ft. no matter what your age or size may be. As there is no bracing. butting against short stakes. This makes an easy adjustment. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. 3/4 in. Nieman. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. The seats are regular swing boards. long is the pivot. W. completes the merry-go-round. from all over the neighborhood. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . supported by a stout and serviceable rope. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. 12 ft.

The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. light and strong. To wind the string upon the reel. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. A reel is next made. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. a wreck. as shown in Fig.2 emery. 1/4 by 3/32 in. away. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Having placed the backbone in position. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. These ends are placed about 14 in. 2. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and 18 in. square.the fingers. Both have large reels full of . therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. long. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. if nothing better is at hand. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is securely fastened. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The bow is now bent. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The backbone is flat. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 4. 1. and sent to earth. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.

often several hundred yards of it. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Mass. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line.-Contributed by S. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Newburyport. he pays out a large amount of string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Bunker. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Brooklyn. N. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. the balance. The handle end is held down with a staple. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. or glass-covered string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. --Contributed' by Harry S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Y. If the second kite is close enough. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. C. First. common packing thread. Moody. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.

A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. lengths (Fig. square (Fig. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. make the pad as shown in the illustration. If the table is round. then draw the string up tight. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. must be attached to a 3-ft. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Corinth. Hastings. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. such as mill men use. length of 2-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Vt. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. each the size of half the table top. then a dust protector. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. --Contributed by Earl R. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open.

6-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 16-1/4 in. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. and E to G. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 2-1/4 in. E. . G to H. which spoils the leather effect. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. from C to D. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. from E to F.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. trace the design carefully on the leather. Wharton. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. hard pencil. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Oakland.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.9-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Calif. Moisten the . Make the other half circular disk in the same way. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.. Use a smooth. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 17-1/2 in..

if not more than 1 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Cut it the same size as the bag. get something with which to make a lining. Now cut narrow thongs. apart. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and E-G. G-J. To complete the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Trace the openings for the handles. and lace through the holes. I made this motor . also lines A-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. with the rounded sides of the tools. and corresponding lines on the other side. place both together and with a leather punch. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. wide. is taken off at a time. H-B.

2-1/4 in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Pasadena. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. D. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 1. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Shannon. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. B. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Calif. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 1. --Contributed by J. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. . of No. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. iron. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 2. each being a half circle. 24 gauge magnet wire. long. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.M. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. in length. as shown in Fig.

Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. 1.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The gores for a 6-ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. are the best kind to make. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. from the bottom end. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. high. pasted in alternately. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. balloon should be about 8 ft. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.

Staunton. If the gores have been put together right. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. --Contributed by R. A. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 2. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. After washing.widest point. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. coming through the small pipe A. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. as shown in Fig. in diameter. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. B. 4. so it will hang as shown in Fig. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 3. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. These are to hold the wick ball. 5. As the boat is driven forward by this force. using about 1/2-in. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 1. leaving a long wake behind. E. lap on the edges. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. saturating it thoroughly. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The boat soon attains considerable speed. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. leaving the solution on over night. somewhat larger in size. In removing grease from wood. In starting the balloon on its flight. The steam. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. as shown in Fig. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe.

apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Second. There are three ways of doing this: First. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. high and 8 in. wide by 6 in. The blocks are about 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. In using either of the two methods described. apart on these lines. Third. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. if you have several copies of the photograph. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. as is shown in Fig. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. in bowling form. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. long and each provided with a handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. long. 1. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife.

Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. being careful not to dent the metal. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. --Contributed by John A. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel.Fig. N. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Albany. Hellwig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2. thick. Rinse the plate in cold water. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board.

How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. 2 the front view. S. A. Richmond. and. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Paine. wide and of any desired height. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Va. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . With this device. CC. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. thick. Corner irons. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. These corner irons are also screwed to. Break off the frame. B. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. and Fig. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A circular piece of wood. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 6 in. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. in diameter. 5 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. and not produce the right sound. In Fig. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 1 Fig. A. long for the base. with a set screw. through which passes the set screw S. wide and 8 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. are screwed to the circular piece.upon any particular object. which is 4 in. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. --Contributed by R.

This will make a very compact electric horn. . The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This horn. -1. thus producing sound waves.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. S. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. I made a wheel 26 in. D.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. R. Ill. pine boards. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. in diameter of some 1-in. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Lake Preston. La Salle. as only the can is visible.

A. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. --Contributed by C. 1. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. B. Purdy. The frame is made of a heavy card.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Fig. thick and 12 in. 1. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Doylestown. If there is a large collection of coins. Kane. Ghent. square. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. the same thickness as the coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. O. Feet may be added to the base if desired. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 2. --Contributed by James R. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe.

Wis. though not absolutely necessary. Smith. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Cal. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. they become uninteresting.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. A lead pencil. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Milwaukee. --Contributed by August T. The material required is a sheet of No. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. --Contributed by R. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. melted and applied with a brush. a hammer or mallet. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. border all around. into which to place the screws . Noble. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.E. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. several large nails. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. and then glued together as indicated. plus a 3/8-in. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Toronto. It will hold 4 oz. One Cloud. Canada. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. cut and grooved. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Neyer. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. of developer. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. thick. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. A rivet punch is desirable. --Contributed by J. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. If desired.J. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive.

Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. draw one part. never upon the metal directly. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. using 1/2-in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. both outline and decoration. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Take the nail. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Remove the screws. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. and file it to a chisel edge. There are several ways of working up the design. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . screws placed about 1 in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. like the one shown. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design.

long. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. square and 181/2 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. for the top. being ball bearing. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. . Do not bend it over or flatten it. and two lengths. About 1/2 yd. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. in the other. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. square and 11 in. for the lower rails. Provide four lengths for the legs. 2. using a 1/2in. of 11-in. 1. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. l-1/8 in. Rivet the band to the holder. as shown in Fig. long.wall. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. each 1 in. long. 3/4 in. square. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. 3. up from the lower end. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The pedal. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. two lengths.

It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Quackenbush. F. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Ala. --Contributed by W. New York City. having quite a length of threads. --Contributed by John Shahan. Attalla. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.

. Assemble as shown in the sketch. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and 3/8 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Purchase a 1/2-in. something that is carbonated. using class. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . college or lodge colors. and two holes in the other. making a lap of about 1 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. wide and 4-1/4 in. from one end. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. initial. and the other 2-3/4 in. one about 1 in. Luther. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Mich. D. The desired emblem. Ironwood. from the end. in depth. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. each 1-1/4 in. long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. --Contributed by C. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.

in diameter and 2 in. Fig. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. if desired by the operator. or a pasteboard box. as shown in the sketch. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. as shown at B. 1/4 in. --Contributed by John H. from the center and opposite each other. 1. Ind. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. 2. This method allows a wide range of designs. in the cover and the bottom. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. about 2 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Punch two holes A. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Schatz. which can be procured from a plumber. A piece of lead. or more in height. Indianapolis. and the cork will be driven out. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle.

are turned up as in Fig. putting in the design. . The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. metal. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 3. A piece of thick glass. or marble will serve. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 4. Columbus. as shown in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. When the can is rolled away from you. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it.Rolling Can Toy lead. allowing the two ends to be free. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. O. on both top and bottom. 5. 1. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. it winds up the rubber band.

--Contributed by Henry Schaefer. hole through it. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . If it is desired to "line" the inside. New York City. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. wide and 20 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. mark over the design. thick. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. thicker than the pinion. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. After this has been done. A pencil may be used the first time over. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. from each end. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. deep in its face. 1 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. Next place the leather on the glass. or more thick on each side. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. 3 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. long and bored a 1/2-in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. face up.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth.

1 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . N. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. and fit it in place for the side vise. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. pieces for the vise slides. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Y. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1 screw block. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. New York. thick top board. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 back board. 1 piece for clamp. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 top board. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 top board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 2 end rails. 1 piece. Now fit up the two clamps. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. in diameter. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Make the lower frame first. countersinking the heads of the vise end. M. 4 guides. Cut the 2-in. --Contributed by A. 1. lag screws as shown. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2 side rails. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 crosspieces. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Brooklyn. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Fasten the end pieces on with screws.in the board into the bench top. Syracuse. Rice. Fig. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip.

1 wood scraper. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 2 screwdrivers. 1 cross cut saw. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The amateur workman. 1 set chisels. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. rule. 3 and 6 in. 1 bench plane or jointer.screws. 1 marking gauge. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 24 in. 24 in. Only the long run.. . 1 pair dividers. 1 compass saw.. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 set gimlets. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. If each tool is kept in a certain place. it can be easily found when wanted. in diameter. 1 pocket level. The bench is now complete. 1 pair pliers. 1 monkey wrench. 1 2-ft.. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 claw hammer. 1 rip saw. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. as well as the pattern maker. 1 nail set. 1 countersink. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 brace and set of bits. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws.

1. the projecting point A. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. try square. becomes like A. Fig. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 3. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.1 6-in. Kane. Fig. 1 oilstone. but will not make . will be easier to work.1. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 2. No. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. The calf skin. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Pa. Doylestown. after constant use.

and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. The form can be made of a stick of wood. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. then prepare the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. After the outlines are traced. such as copper or brass. the same method of treatment is used. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. but a V-shaped nut pick. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Turn the leather. which steam. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. New York City. when dry. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Having prepared the two sides. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. White. . Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. If calf skin is to be used. lay the design on the face. -Contributed by Julia A. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. secure a piece of modeling calf. will do just as well. and the length 6-5/8 in. First draw the design on paper. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Two pieces will be required of this size. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. If cow hide is preferred.

The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. New York City. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and an adjustable friction-held loop. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Cal. C. Maine. Cobb. Portland. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chas. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Jaquythe. Herrman. Richmond. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sketch. A. . This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by Chester L. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth.

Middletown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. was marked out as shown. A thick piece of tin. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. This was very difficult. B. Wright. for instance. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Conn. Cambridge. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm. Roberts. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. an inverted stewpan. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. . The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.. Mass.

Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Ind. well calcined and powdered. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. If the article is highly polished. F. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. of boiling water. If any traces of the grease are left. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. face down. --Contributed by C.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. and the grease will disappear. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. but only an odor which soon vanished. pulverized and applied. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. The next morning there was no trace of oil. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. When dry. Bone. L. Herbert.. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. A beautifully bound book. There was no quicklime to be had. which has been tried out several times with success. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. such as chair seats. --Contributed by Paul Keller. so some bones were quickly calcined. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. on a clear piece of glass. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. and quite new. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Illinois. Chicago. but not running over. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Indianapolis. as shown. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. used as part of furniture. . Let the solution cool to about 110 deg.

The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. the pieces . The pieces marked S are single. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. Tarrytown.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 6 in. New York. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. wide and 12 in. Howe... --Contributed by Geo. thick. says Scientific American. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. If properly adjusted. soft steel with the opening 6 in. set and thumbscrews. long. deep and 5 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. A. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.

The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. E. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. they will look remarkably uniform. to the underside of which is a block. for sending to friends. says Camera Craft. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The seat is a board. A sharp knife. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. albums and the like. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. If the letters are all cut the same height. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. no doubt. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Their size depends on the plate used. with a short bolt through each pair as shown.

" An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. So made. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. for example. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. So arranged. The puzzle is to get . The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. using care to get it in the right position. pasting the prints on some thin card. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. after. In cutting out an 0. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. mount them on short pieces of corks. photographing them down to the desired size. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.

square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. so they will lie horizontal. with the longest end outside. hung on pivots. of its top. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A hole 6 or 7 in. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Old-Time Magic .Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. G. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. He smells the bait. long that will just fit are set in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. N. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Bayley. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. says the American Thresherman. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.J.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Cape May Point. squeezes along past the center of the tube.-Contributed by I. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. snow or anything to hide it. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.

saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pocatello. Pawtucket. --Contributed by Charles Graham. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Idaho. then expose again. then spread the string. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. N. Press the hands together. Parker. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. E. Rhode Island. Szerlip. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by L. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Brooklyn. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right.faced up. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Y. --Contributed by L. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string.

whether he requires a single sword only. they will look very much like the genuine article. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. 3 Fig.Genuine antique swords and armor. thick. in width. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in.. 4 on the blade. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. using a straightedge and a pencil. end of the blade. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. or a complete suit of armor. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 1 Fig. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The blade should be about 27 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain.. or green oil paint. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. wide and 2 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 2 Fig. When the whole is quite dry. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. if any. dark red. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. says the English Mechanic. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. and if carefully made. wipe the blade . wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The pieces. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The handle is next made. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. long. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. narrower. 1. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. near the point end. When the glue is thoroughly dry. full size. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip.

the other two are identical. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. thick and 5 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. should be about 9 in. and 3 in. as it is . The pommel is a circular piece of wood. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. In the finished piece. In making this scimitar. the length of the blade 28 in. preferably of contrasting colors. 1. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. shows only two sides. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or halfround. The length of the handle. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. allowing for a good hold with both hands. Both edges of the blade are sharp. of course. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece.. about 1-1/2 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 2. Fig. 1. take two pieces of wood. square and of any length desired. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 3. in the widest part at the lower end. long. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. in diameter. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 3. 4. the illustration. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In making. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 2. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 1. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated.. 1/8 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. This sword is about 68 in. follow the directions as for Fig. the other is flat or half-round. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.

Syracuse. 2 in. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. It is made of a plank. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. about 3/8 in. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as shown in the sketch. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as there was some at hand. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Y. at the lower end. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. long. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. N. as can the pitch bed or block. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. A piece of mild steel. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Mass. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. --Contributed by John Blake. each about 1 ft. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. or an insecure fastening. Both can be made easily. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. however. Franklin. A cold . Doctors probed for the button without success. --Contributed by Katharine D. and. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. piping and jackets by hard water. The thinness of the plank. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. and if so. Morse. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. On each edge of the board. square. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. in an attempt to remove it.

With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. design down. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Trim up the edges and file them . The illustration shows an iron receptacle. a file to reduce the ends to shape. When the desired form has been obtained. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 18 gauge. 5 lb. using a small metal saw. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. To put it in another way. To remedy this. When this has been done. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. plaster of Paris. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.. on the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. secure a piece of brass of about No. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.. tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.

It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. lb. This in turn divided by 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. lb. A. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in diameter (Fig. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. over the smaller vessel. 1 ft.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. living together in what seems like one receptacle. it may be well to know what horsepower means. make an unusual show window attraction. 3. Fill the 3-in. 30 ft. using powdered pumice with lye. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Cutter. one 18 in. and still revolve. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Before giving the description. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 1) and the other 12 in. --Contributed by Harold H. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Clean the metal thoroughly. in the center. The smaller is placed within the larger. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 1 ft. .000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. to keep it from floating. That is lifting 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 2). Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in diameter (Fig. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. in one second. per second. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. in one minute or 550 lb.smooth. Fig. and hang a bird swing. or 550 ft. but not to stop it. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. or fraction of a horsepower. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. space between the vessels with water.000 lb. per minute.

Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Szerlip. --Contributed by J. by L. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .18 in. 2 Fig. Diameter 12 in. Brooklyn. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. F.3 Fig. Y. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. or on a pedestal. The effect is surprising. 1 Fig. N. --Contributed. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Somerville. Campbell.

Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Do not be content merely to bend them over. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. with other defects. the same as removing writing from a slate. using any of the common metal polishes. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. In riveting. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. and then. and the clay . Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. and cut out the shape with the shears. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Rivet the cup to the base. after which it is ready for use. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. away from the edge. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. is. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. to keep the metal from tarnishing. often render it useless after a few months service. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. which may be of wood or tin. unsatisfactory. with the pliers. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. keeping the center high. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Polish both of these pieces. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine.copper of No. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. as a rule. This compound is impervious to water.

Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Grand Rapids. 1. . The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John T. in diameter and 5 in. Shettleston. 2. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Dunlop. the device will work for an indefinite time. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It is made of a glass tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. as shown in Fig.can be pressed back and leveled. Northville. Houghton. Mich. 3/4 in. DeLoof. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by A. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. -Contributed by Thos. long. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. A. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Mich. Scotland.

The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.FIG. stilettos and battle-axes. put up as ornaments. London. long. in width and 2 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.1 FIG. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. This sword is 4 ft. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. As the handle is to . 1. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

6. in width. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. firmly glued on. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. studded with brass or steel nails. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. very broad. In Fig. 9. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. 4. one about 1/2 in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The crossbar and blade are steel. 8. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. When dry. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 11 were used. in length. glue and put it in place. narrower. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. Both handle and axe are of steel. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. A German stiletto. 7. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The ball is made as described in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 3 is shown a claymore. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. A German poniard is shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 5. paint it a dark brown or black. is shown in Fig. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. This weapon is about 1 ft. 20 spike. The sword shown in Fig.represent copper. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. When the whole is quite dry. the axe is of steel. long. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. then glued on the blade as shown. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. Three large. the upper part iron or steel. This stiletto has a wood handle. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The handle is of wood. with both edges of the blade sharp. This weapon is also about 1 ft. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This sword is about 4 ft. Cut two strips of tinfoil. string. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. in length. sharp edges on both sides. with wire or string' bound handle. This axe is made similar to the one . Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. with both edges sharp. long with a dark handle of wood. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. In Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw.

10. W. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 2. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Davis. together as shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. When wrapped all the way around. will pull where other belts slip. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Old-Time Magic .The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. so the contents cannot be seen. Chicago. high. --Contributed by E. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. . When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.described in Fig.

J. about one-third the way down from the top. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. N. causing the flowers to grow. Macdonald. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Bridgeton. 1 and put together as in Fig. The dotted lines in Fig. 2. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. or using small wedges of wood. an acid.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. with the circle centrally located. apparently. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Oakland. in a few seconds' time. There will be no change in color. Before the performance. S. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. four glass tumblers. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. --Contributed by A. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Calif. some of the liquid. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. As zinc is much lighter than iron. filled with water. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. These wires are put in the jar. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. held in the right hand. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher.

Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. practical and costs nothing. If the size wanted is No. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. and kept ready for use at any time. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Jaquythe. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. 2 for height. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. says a correspondent of Photo Era. When many slides are to be masked. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. A.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Richmond. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. and equally worthy of individual treatment. unless some special device is used. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . --Contributed by W. which are numbered for convenience in working. This outlines the desired opening. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Cal. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. 4 for width and No. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. not only because of the fact just mentioned.

the margin and the entire back of the metal. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. This done. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . not the water into the acid. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. and do not inhale the fumes. a little less acid than water. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. may be changed. or. which is dangerous. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. or a pair of old tongs. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. too. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. the paper is folded along the center line. 16 gauge. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. When etched to the desired depth. The decoration. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Secure a sheet of No. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. but they can be easily revived. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. is about right for the No. paint the design. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. about half and half. and the extreme length 7 in. possibly. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Draw a design. using the carbon paper. With a stick. The one shown is merely suggestive.

and bore two holes. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. . R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. repeat as many times as is necessary. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 2. 5. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. The connections are simple: I. thick. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Then get two posts. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. it will touch post F. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. about 1 in. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. wide. through it. to the table. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 2. about 8 in. with the wires underneath. or more wide. attached to a post at each end. in diameter and 1/4 in. 24 parts water. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. as shown in Fig. 1. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. as shown in the illustration. so that when it is pressed down. high. 0 indicates the batteries. and about 2-1/2 ft. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Cut out a piece of tin. as in Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig. about 3 ft. 3/8 in. 5. long and 1 ft. long. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 2. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. C and D. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. Fig. the bell will ring. Fig. about 2-1/2 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. wide and of the same length as the table.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. A. as at H. When the button S is pressed. 3. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Nail a board. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 4. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig.

A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. A wood peg about 2 in.. thick. is to appear as steel. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circle is marked out with a compass. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. handle and all. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. long. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the wood peg inserted in one of them.Imitation Arms and Armor . 1. After the glue is dry. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The entire weapon. says the English Mechanic. but they are somewhat difficult to make. These rings can be carved out. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The imitation articles are made of wood. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. long serves as the dowel. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. such as . It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. This weapon is about 22 in. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.

5. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Its length is about 3 ft. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. All of these axes are about the same length. 3. with a sharp carving tool. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 2. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. 8. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel.ornamental scrolls. the hammer and spike. leaves. also. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The spikes are cut out of wood. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. as before mentioned. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The axe is shown in steel. is shown in Fig. 6. studded with large brass or steel nails. etc. as described in Fig. flowers. covered with red velvet. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. or the amateur cannot use it well. . A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of steel imitation. The upper half of the handle is steel. as shown. long. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. The lower half of the handle is wood. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. sharp-pointed and coneshaped.

7) calls for one out. 3. Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 4). calls for a home run. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Chicago. then the other plays. and so on for nine innings. 2. a three-base hit. . as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 5. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 6. Each person plays until three outs have been made.

Old-Time Magic . Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. If it is spotted at all. of the rope and holds it.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Somerville. Mass. as shown in Fig. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. It may be found that the negative is not colored. one of them burning . 1. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. This he does. of water for an hour or two. hypo to 1 pt. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. with the rope laced in the cloth. as shown in Fig. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Campbell. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 2. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.-Contributed by J. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. 3. F. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. while the committee is tying him up. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative.

He then walks over to the other candle. Brown. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. thick. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. . Louisville. New York City. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. 4 oz. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of turpentine. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. --Contributed by C. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.. the other without a light. --Contributed by L. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. The magician walks over to the burning candle. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Ky. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern.brightly.Contributed by Andrew G. Ky. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. shades the light for a few seconds. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. and. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. of plumbago. Evans. bolt. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. of water and 1 oz. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. with which he is going to light the other candle. 4 oz. Thome. 3/4 in. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. B. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. invisible to them (the audience). showing that there is nothing between them. etc. Lebanon. Drill Gauge screw. of sugar. thus causing it to light.

thick. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Its current strength is about one volt. Do not add water to the acid. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. To make the porous cell. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Denniston. 5 in. or blotting paper. --Contributed by C. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. In making up the solution. steady current. N. about 5 in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. into a tube of several thicknesses. H. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. but is not so good. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. diameter. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Y. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. which will give a strong. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Pulteney. long. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. for the material. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using.

All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a positive adjustment was provided. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. long with a bearing at each end. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. carrying the hour circle at one end. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. As to thickness. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. while the other end is attached by two screws. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. steel. After much experimentation with bearings. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The . and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other.station. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. Finally. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. one drawing them together.) may be obtained. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. the other holding them apart. To insure this. but somewhat lighter. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in.

When properly set it will describe a great circle. Cassiopiae. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. and 15 min. Point it approximately to the north star. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. It is. If the result is more than 24 hours. The pole is 1 deg. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. All set screws. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. subtract 24. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The pointer is directed to Alpha. need not be changed. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes... The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To locate a known star on the map. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. turn the pointer to the star." When this is done. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. in each direction from two points 180 deg. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Set the declination circle to its reading. All these adjustments. Instead. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Each shaft. To find a star in the heavens. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. save the one in the pipe. 45 min. is provided with this adjustment. are tightened. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. apart. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. once carefully made. excepting those on the declination axis. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit." Only a rough setting is necessary. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Declination is read directly. and if it is not again directed to the same point. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness.

If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which is the one examined.. La. New Orleans. In reality the first ball. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Ohio. The dance will begin. -Contributed by Ray E. The ball is found to be the genuine article. as shown in the sketch. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. the others .glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. of ether. is the real cannon ball. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. cannon balls. benzole. taking care not to add too much. is folded several times. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. then add 1 2-3 dr. 3 or 4 in. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Strosnider. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. add a little more benzole. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. a great effect will be produced. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. If this will be too transparent. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Plain City. long.

--Contributed by J. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Milwaukee. F. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. without taking up any great amount of space. Wis. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Campbell. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. San Francisco. as shown in the illustration. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Somerville. 2. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. etc. Cal. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Mass. taps. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. small brooches. 1). To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Return the card to the pack.. Fig. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. In boxes having a sliding cover. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

round pieces 2-1/4 in. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. prints. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Hartford. from the bottom of the box. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. as shown in the illustration. This box has done good service. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Connecticut. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. thus giving ample store room for colors. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. slides and extra brushes. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Beller. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. .

then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 1).I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. will answer the purpose. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. FIG. holes in the bottom of one. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 2). Darke. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. with well packed horse manure. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. or placed against a wall. and especially are the end pieces objectionable.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. When the ends are turned under. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. . The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. West Lynn. costing 5 cents. O. Mass. -Contributed by C. Fill the upper tub. about threefourths full. tacking the gauze well at the corners.

it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. --Contributed by L. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. cutting the cane between the holes. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. Eifel. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. if this is not available. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the following directions are carried out. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. M. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. and each bundle contains . often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. they should be knocked out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. when they are raised from the pan. oil or other fluid. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Chicago.

put about 3 or 4 in. No plugs . and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as it must be removed again. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. after having been pulled tight. a square pointed wedge. then across and down. and. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In addition to the cane. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. as shown in Fig. 1. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. it should be held by a plug.

as it always equals the latitude of the place. All added to the lesser or 40°. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. No weaving has been done up to this time. Detroit. using the same holes as for the first layer. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. -Contributed by E. stretch the third one. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. is the base (5 in.2 in. 1. This will make three layers. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 40°. the next smallest.2+. the height of which is taken from table No. trim off the surplus rosin. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.= 4. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. When cool. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. and for 1° it would be . The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. --Contributed by M.5 in.15+. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. for 2°.3 in. Michigan. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB.075 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. There are several different designs of sundials. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. If you have a table of natural functions. and for lat. we have 4. After completing the second layer. as shown in Fig. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. the height of the line BC. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal.075 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . lat. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. W. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 41 °-30'. called the gnomon. as shown in Fig. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. 42° is 4. R. 3. 1 lat. The style or gnomon. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. It consists of a flat circular table. Their difference is . Even with this lubrication. 4. 5 in. or the style. 3.42 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Fig.15 in. From table No. During the weaving. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Patrick. If handled with a little care. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 5. but the most common. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. in this case) times the . Fig. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. and the one we shall describe in this article. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. as the height of the line BC for lat. as for example. 1. is the horizontal dial. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. it is 4. 1. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. D. 41°-30'.

Draw two semi-circles. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.88 36° 3.59 2.46 .82 2.11 3. and intersecting the semicircles.94 1.93 2.81 4. For latitudes not given.99 2.64 4 8 3.00 40° 4. or if of stone.56 .18 28° 2.12 52° 6. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .76 1.97 5 7 4.57 3.55 4.93 6.37 5.32 6. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.33 . To layout the hour circle. according to the size of the dial. 2.40 1.40 34° 3.27 2.63 56° 7.91 58° 8. 2 for given latitudes.49 3.30 1. circle Sundial.07 4. and perpendicular to the base or style.82 3.02 1. Table NO.06 2.37 54° 6.96 32° 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.38 .39 .42 .55 46° 5.10 6.82 5. or more. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.29 4-30 7-30 3. using the points A and C as centers.79 4.tangent of the degree of latitude.87 1.68 5-30 6-30 5.42 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.55 30° 2.41 38° 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. which will represent the base in length and thickness.19 1. base.89 50° 5.66 latitude.49 30 .66 48° 5. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. an inch or two.14 5.26 4.16 1. long. 2.28 . and for this size dial (10 in. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 1.57 1.87 4. Its thickness.85 35 .83 27° 2.23 6.33 42° 4. Fig. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.03 3.77 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. if of metal. Draw the line AD.16 40 . .42 45 . with a radius of 5 in.20 60° 8.50 26° 2.55 5. 1.46 3.30 2.44 44° 4.85 1.

93 6.06 2.71 2. then the watch is slower.10 4.57 1.63 1. 900 Chicago.21 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.50 . --Contributed by J. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. E. This correction can be added to the values in table No..68 3. and the . 2 and Dec. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.01 1. 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. will enable one to set the dial. April 16. 25. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Sept.72 5. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .08 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.98 4. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.54 60 . if west. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.77 3. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. and for the difference between standard and local time. says the English Mechanic. The + means that the clock is faster. adding to each piece interest and value.46 4. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.37 2.60 4. 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.30 2. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Mitchell. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.46 5.34 5. each article can be labelled with the name.49 3.24 5.14 1.49 5.12 5. it will be faster. An ordinary compass.79 6. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. London.from Sundial lime.52 Table No. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Each weapon is cut from wood.add those marked + subtract those Marked . June 15. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.53 1.19 2. after allowing for the declination.50 55 . As they are the genuine reproductions. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.87 6. Sioux City. Iowa.82 3. Sun time to local mean time.89 3. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.

Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. 1. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. . brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Partisan. When putting on the tinfoil. the length of which is about 5 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. 3. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.

The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. . A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. sharp on the outer edges. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. 5. which are a part of the axe. 6 ft. It is about 6 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The edges are sharp. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. in diameter. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used about the seventeenth century.which is square. is shown in Fig. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe.. long. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. press it well into the carved depressions. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. 7. The extreme length is 9 ft. long. long with a round staff or handle. The spear is steel. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. 8. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. about 4 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A gisarm or glaive. long with a round wooden handle. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament.

5. as shown in Fig. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. Substances such as straw. The twisted cross cords should . Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Ohio. Loudonville.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. apart. are put in place. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 1. They can be made of various materials. This is important to secure neatness. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. the cross cords. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. used for spacing and binding the whole together. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig.-Contributed by R. 4. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. B. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. 2 and 3. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Workman. the most durable being bamboo. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. In Figs. or in holes punched in a leather strap. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.

for a length extending from a point 2 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. To remedy this. below the top to within 1/4 in. M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. as shown at B. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. in which was placed a piece of glass. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. New Orleans. Lockport. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Harrer. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. shaped as shown at C. New York. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. This was turned over the top of the other can. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. of the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Four V-shaped notches were cut. bamboo or rolled paper. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. wide. A slit was cut in the bottom. 3 in. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The first design shown is for using bamboo. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place.be of such material. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord.

Schaffner. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Pasadena. Sanford. turned over but not fastened. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Ill. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Shay.tape from sticking to the carpet. --Contributed by Chas. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. do not throw away the gloves. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Y. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Maywood. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. After this is finished. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Cal. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. wide. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. H. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This should be done gradually. This plank. is shown in the accompanying sketch. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. the brass is loosened from the block. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Newburgh. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. about 1/16 in. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. giving the appearance of hammered brass. --Contributed by W. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. N. and two along the side for attaching the staff. --Contributed by Joseph H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed.

Richmond. Unlike most clocks. Cal. -Contributed by W. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Marshall. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. --E. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Ill. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. K. the pendulum swings . Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. in diameter. Oak Park. A. Jaquythe.

Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. wide that is perfectly flat. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. A. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight.. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. high. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Fasten another board. such as this one. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. in diameter. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. In using this method. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. 6 in. bearing on the latter. thick. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. by 1-5/16 in. high and 1/4 in. high. wide. --Contributed by V. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The construction is very simple. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. B. Chicago. 7-1/2 in. about 6 in. 5/16 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Now place the board to be joined. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Secure a board. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Two uprights. . high. the center one being 2-3/4 in. on the board B. and the other two 2-5/8 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. are secured in the base bar. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Metzech. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. C. away. bar. to the first one with screws or glue. says the Scientific American. 3/4 in. only have the opposite side up. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. is an electromagnet. long and at each side of this. about 12 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock.

Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Phoenixville. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. is fastened in the hole A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. wide and 1 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. long. square. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 1. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Pa. wide and 5 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Fig. . the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. from one end. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 3. 4. 2. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The trigger. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. plates should be made 8 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. by driving a pin through the wood. Vanderslice. square inside. or more. as shown at A.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of black filler. -Contributed by J. 2 parts of whiting. by weight.A. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Ohio. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Fostoria. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. as shown in the illustration. if only two bands are put in the . which allows 1/4 in. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. one-half the length of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. square.

If the wire fits the lamp loosely. keeps the strong light out when sketching. No. G. London. long. as shown in Fig. is necessary. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. A piece of metal. Mass. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. In use. Michigan. which may be either of ground or plain glass. If a plain glass is used. 1. and it may be made as a model or full sized. in the opposite end of the box. 8 in. says the English Mechanic. is set at an angle of 45 deg. In constructing helmets. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. --Contributed by Thos. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Dartmouth. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Shaw. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A double convex lens.lower strings. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. DeLoof. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. place tracing paper on its surface. preferably copper. deep. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. -Contributed by Abner B. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. wide and about 1 ft. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. II. Grand Rapids. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A mirror. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. It must be kept moist and well . and the picture can be drawn as described.

and over the crest on top. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. take. or some thin glue. This being done. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 2. 3. 1. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. the clay model oiled. as in bas-relief. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the deft use of the fingers. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. Scraps of thin. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. on which to place the clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The clay. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and left over night to soak. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. with a keyhole saw. After the clay model is finished. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. joined closely together. shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood.kneaded. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. brown. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. a few clay-modeling tools. 1. All being ready. as shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. will be necessary.

as seen in the other part of the sketch. 1. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. then another coating of glue. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. a few lines running down. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The band is decorated with brass studs. square in shape. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. as shown: in the design. which should be no difficult matter. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. Indianapolis. When the helmet is off the model. should be modeled and made in one piece. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. 7. When perfectly dry. one for each side. with the exception of the vizor. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . In Fig. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 5. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The whole helmet. The center of the ear guards are perforated. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. When dry. Before taking it off the model. Indiana. the piecing could not be detected. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration.as possible. They are all covered with tinfoil. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. This contrivance should be made of wood. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and so on. will make it look neat. and the ear guards in two pieces. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the skullcap. a crest on top. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 9. or. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size.

This will make an open space between the plates. the fuse block. 3. with slits cut for the wires. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. and C. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. about 1 lb. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. should extend about 1/4 in. as it stands a higher temperature. the holes leading to the switch. Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron. 3 in. German-silver wire is better. Fig. thick. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. or. long. are allowed to project about 1 in. and two large 3in. Fig. if this cannot be obtained.same size. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 4. one glass tube. 1. as shown in Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. one oblong piece of wood. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. AA. 2. long. 4. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The plate. The mineral wool. 1. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The reverse side of the base. Fig. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. for connections. 2. if the measurements are correct. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. when they are placed in opposite positions. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. as shown in Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 4. 22 gauge resistance wire. thick sheet asbestos. The two holes. 1 in. of fire clay. as shown in Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. GG. Fig. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. high. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. two ordinary binding posts. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. FF. of mineral wool. is then packed down inside the collar. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 12 in. of the top. to receive screws for holding it to the base. AA. is shown in Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. JJ. Fig. 2. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. about 80 ft. 1. 4. each 4-1/2 in. 4. Fig. long. and. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. If asbestos is used. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 1. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. until it is within 1 in. wide and 15 in. above the collar. 1. Fig. in diameter and 9 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . of No. This will allow the plate. screws. AA. which can be bought from a local druggist. about 1/4 in. one small switch. The holes B and C are about 3 in. one fuse block. E and F. 4 lb.

How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. As these connections cannot be soldered. If it is not thoroughly dry. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The clay. Fig. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. allowing a space between each turn. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. above the rim. Fig. as the turns of the wires. --Contributed by W. While the clay is damp. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Cut a 1/2-in. KK. 2. If this is the case. using care not to get it too wet. Next. so that the circuit will not become broken. when cool. Cnonyn. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. when heated. will slip and come in contact with each other. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. then. more wire should be added. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. St. --Contributed by R. When this is done. When the tile is in place. This completes the stove. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Jaquythe. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. A. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. II. apart. steam will form when the current is applied. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. H. Cal. This point marks the proper length to cut it. it leaves a gate for the metal. It should not be set on end.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. and pressed into it. Catherines. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. It should not be left heated in this condition. Cover over about 1 in. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. 4. Can. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. deep. Richmond. causing a short circuit. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead.

bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the pie will be damaged. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. but 12 by 24 in. is large enough. Thorne. constructed of 3/4-in. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. and the prints will dry rapidly. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. square material in any size. --Contributed by Andrew G. as shown. says the Photographic Times. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Ky. the air can enter from both top and bottom." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the frame set near a window. Then clip a little off the . The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Louisville.

Figs. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1. Fig. Two supports. -Contributed by S. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 1. long. 1 and 3. each 1/2 in. each 1 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. The upright B. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1. 3. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The connections are made as shown in Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. causing a break in the current. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 2-1/2 in. slip on two cardboard washers. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. long. high. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. high. An offset is bent in the center. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. at GG. for the crank. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. wide. open out. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thereby saving time and washing. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 1. Fig. As the shaft revolves. W. The board can be raised to place . in diameter. 2. 14 in. 1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. Le Mars. wide and 7 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 4 in. long. in diameter and about 4 in. A 1/8-in. high. thick. 22 gauge magnet wire. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The connecting rod E. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thick and 3 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. The driving arm D. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F.Paper Funnel point. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. thick and 3 in. Iowa. as shown. Herron. allowing each end to project for connections. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in.

making a framework suitable for a roost. in height. bottom side up. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Mass. Place the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. One or more pots may be used. --Contributed by William F. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. on a board. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. . Stecher. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. as shown in the sketch. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Dorchester. In designing the roost.

can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. adopt the method described. ordinary glue. in diameter.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Wind the . 1. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. grills and gratings for doors. shelves. 1. odd corners. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. The materials required are rope or. windows. and give it time to dry.. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. if it is other than straight lines. without any corresponding benefit. when combined. F. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. as shown in Fig. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. will produce the pattern desired. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. etc. that it is heated. paraffin and paint or varnish. preferably. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Fig. If the meter is warmed 10 deg.. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. F. The bottom part of the sketch. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more.

A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.Fig. M. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. N. cut and glue them together. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. 2. six designs are shown. Y. Fig. Harrer.

This piece of horse armor. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. which was used in front of a horse's head. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. but no farther. and the sides do not cover the jaws. says the English Mechanic. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.. will be retained by the cotton.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. 1. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. As the . etc.. chips of iron rust. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. etc. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. London. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

as shown in the sketch. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. which can be made in any size. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This can be made in one piece. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. All being ready. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. In Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. and will require less clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This triangularshaped support. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 2. This being done.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. except the thumb and fingers. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The armor is now removed from the model. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. which is separate. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. but the back is not necessary. with the exception of the thumb shield. the rougher the better. and the clay model oiled. 2. the same as in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. but for . then another coat of glue. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. and therefore it is not described. as the surface will hold the clay. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. 8. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. 4. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

wide and 1/2 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. 2.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Y. the foils will not move. but 3-1/2 in. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. N. If it does not hold a charge. running down the plate. two in each jaw. La Rue. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. and the instrument is ready for use. The two pieces of foil. are better shown in Fig. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. 1/2 in. in depth. fastened to the rod. Redondo Beach. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. A piece of board. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. the two pieces of foil will draw together. will be about right. two for the jaws and one a wedge. each about 1/4 in. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. 9. Buxton. cut into the shape shown in Fig. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. are glued to it. the top of the rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Fasten a polished brass ball to. --Contributed by Ralph L. long. When locating the place for the screw eyes. --Contributed by John G. Calif. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Goshen. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. .

hole bored through it. 2-1/2 in. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. about 15 in. M. The can may be bronzed. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Texas. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. silvered. Bryan. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. At a point 6 in. is made of a 1/4-in. long. When a fish is hooked. from the smaller end. A. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as indicated in the . Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Corsicana.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as shown in the illustration. enameled or otherwise decorated. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. pine board. --Contributed by Mrs. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught.

they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. will do as well as the more expensive woods. then with a nail. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Next prepare the metal holder. Polish the metal. If soft wood. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. and trace upon it the design and outline. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Basswood or butternut. or even pine. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. When it has dried over night. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. long over all. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. using a piece of carbon paper. 22 is plenty heavy enough." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. A good size is 5 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Any kind of wood will do. take a piece of thin wood. using powdered pumice and lye. as shown. punch the holes. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. wide by 6 in. such as basswood or pine was used. Having completed the drawing. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. thick. put a coat or two of wax and polish .Match Holder accompanying sketch.

It is useful for photographers. 1/2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. are used for the cores of the magnets.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If one has some insight in carving. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. A. wide and 5 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. 2 in. Jaquythe. of pure olive oil. If carving is contemplated. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Richmond. is used for the base of this instrument. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. long. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Cal. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. long. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Two wire nails. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Instead of the usual two short ropes. . thick. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. each 1 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. can be made on the same standards. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered.

Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. About 1 in. then covered with red. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. in the shape shown in the sketch. except that for the legs. Lynas. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. about No. 25 gauge. cut in the shape of the letter T. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. says the English Mechanic. --Contributed by W. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. leaving about 1/4 in. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A piece of tin. as shown in Fig. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. London. cloth or baize to represent the legs. similar to that used in electric bells. All of the parts for the armor have been described. at A.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. H. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A rubber band. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. as shown by the dotted lines. when the key is pushed down. 1. . These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. 3. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. the paper covering put on.

there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. A 1/4-in. 1 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Take the piece shown in Fig. not too tight. in the other end. flat headed carriage bolt. about 1 in. says Camera Craft. Silver paper will do very well. Instead of using brass headed nails. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. can be made in a few minutes' time.. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. apart. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. 2. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. long.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. 1 and drill a 1/4in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 3 in. at each end. Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. The two pieces are bolted together. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. apart. completes the equipment. drill six 1/4-in. So set up. holes. and eight small holes. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Secure two strips of wood. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. By moving the position of the bolt from. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. one to another . make the same series of eight small holes and. hole in the center.

then B over C and the end stuck under A. but instead of reversing . Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Then draw all four ends up snugly. in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. 4. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A is the first string and B is the second. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. as in portraiture and the like. lay Cover B and the one under D. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 2. for instance. as shown in Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. In this sketch. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. C over D and B. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. of the ends remain unwoven. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 2. Then take B and lay it over A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and lay it over the one to the right. and the one beneath C. D over A and C. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. 1. long. Start with one end.of the larger holes in the strip. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 2. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. doubled and run through the web of A. the one marked A. Fig.

--Contributed by John P. is to be made of leather. Monroeville. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 1-1/2 in.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. the design of which is shown herewith. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. 5. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Rupp. A loop. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Ohio. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as at A in Fig. is left out at the center before starting on one side. especially if silk strings are used. The round fob is shown in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. always lap one string. as in making the square fob. as B. 3. long. over the one to its right.

filling them with wax. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. beeswax or paraffin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Northville. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Mich. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. door facing or door panel. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. using the reverse side. it can be easily renewed. pressing it against the wood. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Houghton. such as a nut pick. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. A. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. . Any smooth piece of steel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. -Contributed by A. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B.

Thompson. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. N. . Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. New York. long. says Photographic Times. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Select the print you wish to mount. although tin ones can be used with good success. D. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Fold together on lines C. Ill. and after wetting. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The tacks should be about 1 in. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. and about 12 in. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. thick. leaving about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Y. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. those on matte paper will work best. J. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. if blueprints are used. apart and driven in only part way. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Enough plaster should. --Contributed by O. remaining above the surface of the board. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. place it face down in the dish. Petersburg. it is best to leave a plain white margin. E and F.

etc. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. filling the same about onehalf full. violets. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. will be rendered perfectly white. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Lower into the test tube a wire. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. One of the .. roses. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. bell flowers. as shown at the left in the sketch. without mixing the solutions.

in diameter and 1 in. When soldering these parts together. to keep the core from coming off in turning. made of heavy tin. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. and at the larger end. shading. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. 3. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The first point should be ground blunt. The tin horn can be easily made. but which will not wobble loose. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. L. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The sound box. not too tightly. 1. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . Millstown. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. 2. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. A rod that will fit the brass tube. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. as shown. The diaphragm. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. about 1/8s in. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. thick. Fig. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. 1-7/8 in. is about 2-1/2 in. long and made of wood. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. or delicate tints of the egg. Shabino. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder.. should be soldered to the box. turned a little tapering. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. South Dakota. long. --Contributed by L.

Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. says the Iowa Homestead.Contributed by E. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Victor. and weighted it with a heavy stone. wondering what it was. Jr. Gold. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. mice in the bottom. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Colo. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Ill.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. put a board on top. E. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.

and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. N. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Pereira. Buffalo. Ottawa. . with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Y. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . De Loof. as shown. and at one end of the stick fasten. longer than the length of the can. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. This cart has no axle. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Richmond. Grand Rapids. Mich. above the end of the dasher. --Contributed by Thos. through which several holes have been punched. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. a piece of tin. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. cut round. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Jaquythe. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cal. --Contributed by W. A. by means of a flatheaded tack. Put a small nail 2 in.

wide and 1/8 in. La. 2 in. Kane. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. deep and 3 in. 2. 1/4 in. long. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 1. thick. apart. The strip of wood is 1/4 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1-1/2 in. 1 ft. A wedge-shaped piece of . At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. 2. wide and as long as the box. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. I reversed a door gong. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. of course. Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The candles. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The baseboard and top are separable. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. as shown. Pa. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. board. Notches 1/8 in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide. --Contributed by James M. cut in the center of the rounding edge.1. screwed it on the inside of a store box. New Orleans. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Doylestown.

the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. take two pieces of hard wood. Ia. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. dressing one surface of each piece. The block can also be used as a paperweight.. Needles. the blade is put back into the groove . the reason being that if both were solid. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. it can be removed without marring the casing. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. when placed as in Fig. After completing the handle. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Worcester. Cover the block with rubber. When not in use. scissors. as shown in Fig. stone or wood. will. 3. wide into each side of the casing. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. West Union. Wood. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.Book Back Holders metal. by cutting away the ends. wide rubber bands or felt. the shelf could not be put on the window. 1. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. to prevent its scratching the desk top. can be picked up without any trouble. After the glue has dried. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. --Contributed by G. A. This device is very convenient for invalids. etc. Mass. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. For the handle.

-Contributed by W. S. --Contributed by H. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Each one is made of a hardwood block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cleveland. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. A notch is cut in one side. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Mass. Hutchins. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. thus carrying the car up the incline.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Pa. Jacobs. 1. 2. long. . If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. A. If desired. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. 1 in. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. square and 4 in. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. --Contributed by Maud McKee. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Ohio. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. as shown in Fig. Erie. Malden.

--Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and an awl and hammer. The letters can be put on afterward. Cape May Point. . Prepare a design for the front. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.J. will be needed. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. This will insure having all parts alike. N. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.. If one such as is shown is to be used. 6 by 9-1/2 in.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. One sheet of metal. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. a board on which to work it.

The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. if desired. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 1/4 part. placed on a table. applied by means of a brush." In all appearance. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. On the back. behind or through the center of a table leg. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. So impressive are the results. or. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. varnish. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The stick may be placed by the side of. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. a violin. says Master Painter. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. that can be worked in your own parlor. as shown. If any polishing is required. The music will not sound natural. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. . One coat will do.Fasten the metal to the board. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 2 parts white vitriol. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. flat brush. Remove the metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. mandolin or guitar. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. but weird and distant. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 1 part. in the waste metal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 3/4 part. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. turpentine. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. to right angles. which is desirable.

long. is bent square so as to form two uprights. across the top. are shaped as shown in Fig. thick by 1/2 in. The longest piece. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. . round-head machine screws. each 6 in. 3. Two pairs of feet. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long and spread about 8 in. and is easy to construct. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 2. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. London. each 28 in. without them. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. long and measuring 26 in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. says Work. it might be difficult. square bar iron. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. With proper tools this is easy. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. apart. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in.

6. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The design is formed in the lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. as shown in Fig. Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. A. 5. the latter being tapped to . 4. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. After the glass is cut. After the joints are soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Place the corner piece of glass. 7. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. and the base border. Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. using rosin as a flux. The brads are then removed. better still. or. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. While the piece of lead D. in the grooves of the borders. C. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. B. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. lead. on it as shown. cut a long piece of lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. 5. is held by the brads. The glass. D.

8. bolt. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. A and B. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. long. Secure a post. square and of the length given in the drawing. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. then drill a 3/4-in. long. J. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. plates. bolt. Dreier. rounded at the top as shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Bore a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. as shown in Fig. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Camden. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. in diameter and about 9 in. wood screws in each washer. N. Make three washers 3-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. then flatten its end on the under side. not less than 4 in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. This ring can be made of 1-in. plank about 12 ft. in diameter and 1/4 in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. and two wood blocks. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. The center pin is 3/4-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. rocker bolt. holes through their centers. Jr. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. long. one on each side and central with the hole. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. H..the base of the clip. This . thick and drill 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used.

manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. square by 9-1/2 ft. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1-1/4in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. by 2 ft. bolts and rope. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. shanks. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long and 1 piece. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 2-1/2 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. boards along the side of each from end to end. 3 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. horse and rings. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. in diameter and 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. square by 5 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. To substitute small. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 16 screws. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 1 by 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 4 in. and some one can swing an axe.will make an excellent cover for a pot. from one edge. hickory. 3/4 by 3 in. long. La. 1/2 in. 4 in. of 1/4-in. long. New Orleans. long. apart for a distance of 3 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 9 in. because it will not stand the weather. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 2 by 4 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Draw a line on the four 7-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. If trees are convenient. 50 ft. long. The four 7-in. straight-grained hickory. can make a first class gymnasium. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. by 6-1/2 ft. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1. 4 pieces. 4 pieces. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. long. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. bit. long. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. screws. 7 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 filler pieces. by 3 ft. maple. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. chestnut or ash.

bored. 8 in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. from the end. apart. piece of wood. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. deep and remove all loose dirt. 2. so the 1/2-in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. each 3 ft. at each end. apart. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in.. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. boards coincide. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Bore a 9/16-in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig.. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft.

a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and materially heightened the illusion." which skimmed along the distant horizon. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. When the interest of the crowd. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. disappearing only to reappear again. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. . the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. but most deceptive at dusk. the effect is very striking. apart. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. And all he used was a black thread. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. about 100 ft. which at once gathered. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. was at its height. in an endless belt. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. it follows the edge for about 1 in. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. He stretched the thread between two buildings. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. not much to look at in daytime. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. just visible against the dark evening sky. W. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and ascends the stem. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. not even the tumbler. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. passing through a screweye at either end. If the tumbler is rotated. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. and then passes in a curve across the base. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in.

These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. so the point will be on top. preferably cedar. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 8 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 by 4 in. 2 in. 2 base pieces. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. large spikes. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 knee braces. Bevel the ends of . long. by 10 ft. long. long. and turned in a spiral D. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. New Orleans. A wire about No. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. La. long. wide and 1 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. from either side of the center. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 7 in. 6 in. 4 in. by 7 ft. 8 in. long. To make the apparatus. square and 6 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 1. The cork will come out easily. long. 4 wood screws. 4 bolts. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 cross braces. by 2 ft. 8 bolts. 2 side braces. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Fig. long. square and 51/2 ft. by 3 ft. deep. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. beginning at a point 9 in. long and 1 doz. 2 by 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 by 4 in.

jellies. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. etc. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. of 7 ft. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A large sized ladle. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. ( To be Continued. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Two endpieces must be made. Jaquythe. If using mill-cut lumber. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. These will allow the ladle to be turned. additional long. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration.the knee braces. but even unpainted they are very durable. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. leave it undressed. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. save the bars. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. using four of the 7-in bolts. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. . bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. A. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. After the trenches are dug. Cal. screws.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. as shown in the diagram. The wood so treated will last for years. Richmond. --Contributed by W. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. so the bolts in both will not meet. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. which face each other. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. leaving the strainer always in position. equipped with a strainer. and countersinking the heads.. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. except the bars.

which seems impossible. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. or various cutting compounds of oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is necessary to place a stick. drill press or planer. partly a barrier for jumps. In order to accomplish this experiment. A. of sufficient 1ength. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. thus holding the pail as shown. milling machine. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. . it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe.

long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. square by 5-1/2 ft. These are placed 18 in. ten 1/2-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. 4 knee braces. in diameter--the larger the better. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. These are well nailed in place. but 5 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. beginning 1-1/2 in.. 2 by 4 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. is a good length. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 by 4 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. from each end. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 1 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4 in. in the ground. 2 by 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Hand holds must be provided next. 2 bases. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Procure from a saw mill. bolts. apart. 1 cross brace. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. To construct. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. 4 in. 7 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. by 3 ft. long. long. bolts. The round part of this log must be planed. 4-1/2 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. long. bolt..The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. bolts. and free from knots. piece of 2 by 4-in. square by 5 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. stud cut rounding on one edge. projections and splinters. 3 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. long.

Such a hand sled can be made in a . the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. it is caused by some obstruction. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. pipe and fittings. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. such as a dent. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.horse top. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. A.--Contributed by W. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. etc. Richmond. Jaquythe. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. no one is responsible but himself. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. over and around. water. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Also. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but nevertheless. snow. Cal. then bending to the shape desired. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.

These. Toronto. Joerin. Noble. 2. will give the length. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. --Contributed by Arthur E. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Vener. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. in width and 1/32 in. when straightened out. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. thick. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. then run a string over each part. Paris.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. . when complete. 1/4 or 3/16 in. W. France. --Contributed by J. which. 1. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. is much better than a wood sled. The end elevation. Ontario. Mass. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Boston. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. --Contributed by James E. are all the tools necessary. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. at E and F. with a pair of flat-nose pliers.

. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. It is best to use soft water. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. AA and BB. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. nor that which is partly oxidized.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. and the latter will take on a bright luster. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The method shown in Figs. 3. are nailed. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 4. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade.

5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. . Broad lines can be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 4. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 2. 8 and 9. 1). having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 3. The materials used are: backbone. or various rulings may be made. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. or unequal widths as in Fig. class ice-yacht.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. about 30 in. The headstock is made of two tees. The point should extend about 11/2 in. a larger size of pipe should be used. pipe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. A good and substantial homemade lathe. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple.Fig. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. It can be made longer or shorter. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. long. 1. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. out from the collar. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. but if it is made much longer. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. bent and drilled as shown. 1-Details of Lathe sort. pins to keep them from turning. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. a tee and a forging. Both the lower .

as shown in Fig. 2. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. else taper turning will result. Indiana. Man. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. To do this. Fruitvale. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by W. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. UpDeGraff. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Held. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 1. Boissevain. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. but also their insulating properties. Cal. . it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. It is about 1 in. Musgrove. a corresponding line made on this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. thick as desired. M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. or a key can be used as well. and will answer for a great variety of work. 3/4 or 1 in. as shown in Fig. W. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. --Contributed by M. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. Laporte. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors.

J. To obviate this. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ark. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] .Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Ft. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. --Contributed by E. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. as shown. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. Cline. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle.

by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. New Orleans.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. if this method is followed: First. Colo. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. take . and when once in true up to its size. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. --Contributed by Walter W. La. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Denver. White. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. the drill does not need the tool. centering is just one operation too many. which should be backed out of contact. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. After being entered. on starting the lathe. This prevents the drill from wobbling. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. face off the end of the piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle.

and this given to someone to hold. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shorter t h a n the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. says the Sphinx. vanishing wand. In doing this. as shown in D. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. all the better. by applying caustic soda or . a bout 1/2 in. and can be varied to suit the performer. a long piece of glass tubing. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The handkerchief rod. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The glass tube B. is put into the paper tube A. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. unknown to the spectators. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. After the wand is removed. after being shown empty. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shown at C. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.

This dimension and those for the frets . square and 1-7/8 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 2 Sides. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. thick. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. as shown by K.potash around the edges of the letters. With care and patience. 1. can be made by the home mechanic. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1 Neck. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. preferably hard maple. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16. by 14 by 17 in. 1 End. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. As the cement softens. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. with the back side rounding. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 Bottom. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. The brace at D is 1 in. and glue it to the neck at F. cut to any shape desired. The sides. Glue the neck to the box. Cut a piece of hard wood. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Glue strips of soft wood. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1/4 in. End. long.

HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Stoddard. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and beveled . and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. -Contributed by J. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. thick and about 1 ft. H. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. 1) on which to stretch the paper. long is used for a keel. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Carbondale. or backbone.Pa. A board 1 in. When it is completed you will have a canoe. --Contributed by Chas. Frary. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. in diameter. Norwalk. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. but it is not. Six holes. E. O. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.should be made accurately. toward each end. 3/16 in.

Fig. are next put in. two strips of wood (b. which are easily made of long. 2. b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. the loose strips of ash (b. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. buy some split cane or rattan. by means of a string or wire. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. as they are apt to do. apart. These are better. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. with long stout screws. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 1 and 2. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. b. b. . Any tough. For the gunwales (a. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. will answer nearly as well. long. such as hazel or birch. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. thick. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. long are required. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. or other place. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 2). probably. 3). 3/8 in. 3. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Fig. in such cases. 2). and so. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Fig.) in notches. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. a. 4). and are not fastened. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. or similar material. 1. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. slender switches of osier willow. The ribs. as before described. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. procure at a carriage factory. In drying. as shown in Fig. 13 in. thick. 3. C. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. wide by 26 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. C. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. B. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Green wood is preferable. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and. Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 4. 3). 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position.. Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. some tight strips of ash. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. and notched at the end to receive them (B. but before doing this. as shown in Fig. The cross-boards (B. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. when made of green elm.

it can be obtained in almost any length desired. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. When the paper is dry. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and light oars. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. 5). Then take some of the split rattan and. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. You may put in . preferably iron. B. If the paper be 1 yd. but with less turpentine. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. If not. Fig. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and very tough. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and held in place by means of small clamps. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. wide. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. of very strong wrapping-paper. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. but neither stiff nor very thick. however. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. When thoroughly dry. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Being made in long rolls. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and as soon as that has soaked in. It should be smooth on the surface. The paper is then trimmed. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. after wetting it. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and steady in the water. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. It should be drawn tight along the edges. apply a second coat of the same varnish.

which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. 1 and the end in . and if driven as shown in the cut. 1. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Drive the lower nail first. 5). 5. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. to fit it easily. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We procured a box and made a frame. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. fore and aft.

being softer where the flame has been applied. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. 5. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. Close the other end with the same operation. 4. This way has its drawbacks. Pittsburg. and the result is. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. this makes the tube airtight. Pa. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. A good way to handle this work. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame.Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the glass. 3. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. This is an easy .

The candle holders may have two. file. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. third. then reverse. with a piece of carbon paper. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. very rapid progress can be made. four. rivet punch. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 23 gauge. above the metal. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears.way to make a thermometer tube. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. flat and round-nosed pliers. also trace the decorative design. -Contributed by A. After the bulb is formed. fourth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. fifth. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. or six arms. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Oswald. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Seventh. Give the metal a circular motion. extra metal all around. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. second. Sixth. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. metal shears. three. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. thin screw. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. and holder. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Having pierced the bracket. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. drip cup.

lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. sugar 1 part. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. is a broomstick.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and other things as they were needed. deep. The boom. Mother let me have a sheet. thus it was utilized. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. N. hammer. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. A saw. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. smooth it down and then remove as before. glycerine 4 parts. Soak 1 oz. alcohol 2 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and add the gelatine. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and in a week . on a water bath. the stick at the bottom of the sail. if it has not absorbed too much ink. they were like an ice boat with a sail. all the rest I found. F. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and brace and bit were the tools used. J. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and water 24 parts. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and it will be ready for future use. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The gaff. except they had wheels instead of runners. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. when it will be ready for use. I steer with the front wheel. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Fifty. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. of glycerine to about 200 deg. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Twenty cents was all I spent. Shiloh. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. using a steel pen. Heat 6-1/2 oz.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The slide support. at a point 1 in. thick. A and B. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. wide. slide to about 6 ft. and the work carefully done. as desired. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. If a small saw is used. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The board is centered both ways. and 14 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. are . battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. and. describe a 9-in. DD. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other.. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. at a distance of 24 ft. wire brads. G. above the center. 1. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. provided the material is of metal. and the lens slide. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. but if such a box is not found. wide and 15 in. A table. 8 in. 3. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. Fig. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. H. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. high. focus enlarging a 3-in. about 2 ft. E. well seasoned pine. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. or a lens of 12-in. long. and a projecting lens 2 in. or glue.

The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. should the glass happen to upset. placed on the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. B. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. but not long enough. JJ. light burning oil. Minn. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. the strips II serving as guides. St. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. To reach the water. E. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Paul. P. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The arrangement is quite safe as. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.-Contributed by G. and when the right position is found for each.constructed to slip easily on the table. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. A sheet . if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Small strips of tin.

and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.H. Schenectady. to cover the mattresses. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 3 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. from a tent company. N. Fig. 3. 2.. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 12 ft. Y. Crawford. 4. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. --Contributed by J. by 12 ft.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. If one of these clips is not at hand. 9 in. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 3.

Warren. A Film Washing Trough [331] . wide. Fasten the wire with gummed label. open on the edges. --Contributed by Walter W. 1. to keep it from unwinding. 1/2 in. 2. for amperes and the other post. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. first mark the binding-post A. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter.each edge. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 3 to swing freely on the tack. An arc is cut in the paper. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. holes in the edge. To calibrate the instrument. 2. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Do not use too strong a rubber. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. apart. long and 3/16 in. White. D. 1. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 2. 3/4 in. and insert two binding-posts. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3/4 in. Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. A rubber band. Teasdale. Fold two strips of light cardboard. drill two 3/16 in. thick. V. --Contributed by Edward M. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. so as to form two oblong boxes. as shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. Pa. long. through which the indicator works. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. in the center coil. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. C. Denver. Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. Colo. 1/2 in.

Cut a 1/4-in. Hunting. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. --Contributed by M. with the large hole up. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. M. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. as shown.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Wood Burning [331] . Dayton. O. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

Ala. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . N. Auburn. wide and 4 in. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque. Upper Troy. This will make a very pretty ornament.Y. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Fred W. long. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. --Contributed by John Shahan. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. provided the bottle is wide. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. thick. 1. 2. Place the small bottle in as before. Whitehouse. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. as shown in the sketch. but not very thick.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. If the cork is adjusted properly. many puzzling effects may be obtained.

to the shaft. I. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. thick. 1. 1. 2 ft. 2. which was nailed to the face plate. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The shaft C. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by D. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. wide. The 21/2-in. which was 6 in. pulley. 1. thick. G. pulley F. was keyed to shaft C. Fig. which extended to the ground. The wire L was put . Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. iron rod. were constructed of 1-in. such as blades and pulleys. Its smaller parts. On a 1000-ft. The bearing blocks were 3 in. in diameter and 1 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. A staple. even in a light breeze. Milter. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. K. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick and 3 in. by the method shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. long.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. was 1/4in. Fig. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. sugar pine on account of its softness. B. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 3. W. or ordinary telephone transmitters. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. 1 in. line. high without the upper half. 1. 4. Both bearings were made in this manner. which gave considerable power for its size. If a transmitter is used.

The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. cut out another piece of tin (X. was tacked. was 2 ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. long and bend it as . as. To lessen the friction here. Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. so that the 1/4-in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The bed plate D. There a 1/4-in. a 1/2-in. apart in the tower. long. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. R. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fig. 6. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The power was put to various uses. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fig. 3 in. long and 1/2 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. This fan was made of 1/4-in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. pine 18 by 12 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The other lid. This completes the receiver or sounder. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. square to the board P at the top of the tower. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. 0. with all parts in place. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The smaller one. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. H. long and 3 in. strips. long and bend it as shown at A. for instance. To make the key. washers were placed under pulley F. wide and 1 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 1. when the windmill needed oiling. 1. hole was bored for it. Fig. Fig. 1. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. in the center of the board P. and was cut the shape shown. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 25 ft. Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. through the latter. 1) 4 in. Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. G. 2. hole for the shaft G was in the center. This board was 12 in. 5. across the thin edge of a board. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. long. 6. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. top down also. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. If you have no bell. in diameter.

Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. as indicated. leaving the other wire as it is. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Going back to Fig.shown. fitted with paddles as at M. at the front. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Before tacking it to the board. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. By adjusting the coils. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. McConnell. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The rear barrels are. When tired of this instrument. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. and. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. like many another device boys make. as shown at Water. 2. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . causing a buzzing sound. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. using cleats to hold the board frame. Now. although it can be made with but two. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Thus a center drive is made. after the manner of bicycle wheels. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. -Contributed by John R. 1.

seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. copper piping and brass tubing for base. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. or even a little houseboat. If the journals thus made are well oiled. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. there will not be much friction. 1. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. To propel it.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The speed is slow at first. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. There is no danger. as shown in Fig. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. 3. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. feet on the pedals. can be built. which will give any amount of pleasure. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety.

On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard.of pleasure for a little work. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . C. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. then the glass disc and then the other ring. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. B. 1. Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Then melt out the rosin or lead. 1. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. D. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Shape small blocks of boxwood. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 2. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. A. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. and so creating a false circuit. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 2. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it.

be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. J. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. 4 in. wire from light to switch. E. wire from batteries to switch. S. In placing clock on shelf. dry batteries. while lying in bed. --Contributed by Geo. which stops bell ringing. brass rod. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. wire from bell to switch. brass strip. 5-1/4 by 10 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . G. Pa. The parts indicated are as follows: A. or 1/4in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. To throw on light throw levers to the left. F. by having the switch on the baseboard. 4-1/2 in. bracket. switch. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. I. set alarm key as shown in diagram. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. B. some glue will secure them. long. and pulled tight. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 3/8 in. long. X. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. H. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. near the bed. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. C. To operate this. copper tubing. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing.india rubber tubing. C. key of alarm clock. after two turns have been made on the key. bell. wide and 1/16 in. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. such as is used for cycle valves. T. Utah. shelf.. Ogden. thick. Throw lever off from the right to center. if too small. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. D. When alarm goes off. Chatland. Swissvale. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Brinkerhoff. --Contributed by C. after setting alarm. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. contact post.

scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. gives the heater a more finished appearance. All that is required is a tin covering. which can be made of an old can. place stick and all in a pail of sand. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 4 in. in diameter. from one end. about 6 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Pull out the nail and stick. A flannel bag. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. --Contributed by Chas. Make the spindle as in Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. for instance. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Having finished this. 1/4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. in diameter. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. letting it extend 3/4 in. as .Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as at B. long. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Make a shoulder. 2. Fig. a bed warmer. Fig. as at A. about 3-1/2 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. beyond the end of the spindle. as at A. as in Fig. 2. 1. making it as true and smooth as possible. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. being careful not to get the sand in it. wide. 1. 3. S. Chapman. will do the heating. Minn. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Lanesboro. Fig.

The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 1 in. spring and arrows. 6 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . thick. wide and 3 ft. A piece of tin. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. --Contributed by Arthur E. or hickory. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 5/8 in. Joerin. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. deep. 1. good straight-grained pine will do. thick. long. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of oak. 3/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. wide and 6 ft.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 11/2 in. ash. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. long. thick. long.

from the opposite end. The trigger. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 7. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 2. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. it lifts the spring up. To throw the arrow.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. or through the necessity of. 6. 8. in diameter. --Contributed by O. and one for the trigger 12 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 9. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 4. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. thick. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. better still. which is 1/4 in. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. wide at each end. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. place the arrow in the groove. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Wilmette. having the latter swing quite freely. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. When the trigger is pulled. E. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Such a temporary safe light may be . Trownes. Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 3. The bow is not fastened in the stock. from the end of the stock. Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. A spring. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. Ill. The stick for the bow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. To shoot the crossbow. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. as shown in Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow.

Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. from the ground. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and replace as shown at B. it is the easiest camp to make. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Moreover. says Photo Era. respectively. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. since the flame of the candle is above A. is used as a door. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Remove one end. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. and nail it in position as shown at A. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. apart. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The cut should be about 5 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. from the ground. By chopping the trunk almost through. make the frame of the wigwam. C. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. or only as a camp on a short excursion. This lamp is safe. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. the bark lean-to is a . bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Remove the bottom of the box. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. making lighting and trimming convenient. The hinged cover E.

Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. spruce. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. . and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. In the early summer. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. 6 ft. thick. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Tongs are very useful in camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. wide and 6 ft. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. piled 2 or 3 ft. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Sheets of bark. For a permanent camp. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. For a foot in the middle of the stick.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. deep and covered with blankets. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. and when the camp is pitched. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. long. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and cedar. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. wide. selecting a site for a camp. a 2-in. are a convenient size for camp construction. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. long and 1-1/2 in. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A piece of elm or hickory. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. make the best kind of a camp bed. 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. and split the tops with an ax. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. long and 2 or 3 ft. will dry flat. Where bark is used. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. .

about 4 in. Pa. Doylestown. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Kane.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. changing the water both morning and night. B. 1. and provide a cover or door. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Fig. I drove a small cork. to another . connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. A. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. wide. --Contributed by James M. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.. the interior can. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. deep and 4 in.

With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. limit. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. for instance. fused into one side. The diagram. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. until. 2. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. such as ether. E. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. to pass through an increasing resistance. if necessary. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. C. The current is thus compelled. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. This makes . The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 4 and 5).glass tube. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. a liquid. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Fig. 2. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. which project inside and outside of the tube.

thick. clamp the template. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. Fig. Before removing the field from the lathe.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. which may be of any thickness so that. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. therefore. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. A 5/8in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. tap. These holes are for the bearing studs. hole is . which will make it uniform in size. thick. bent at right angles as shown. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. set at 1/8 in. brass or iron. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. and for the outside of the frame. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. between centers. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. mark off a space. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. but merely discolored. After the template is marked out. they will make a frame 3/4 in. on a lathe. 3-3/8 in. when several pieces are placed together. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. or even 1/16 in. drill the four rivet holes. 1. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. as shown in Fig. thicker. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Fig. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. or pattern. making it 1/16 in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. is composed of wrought sheet iron. If the thickness is sufficient. The bearing studs are now made. assemble and rivet them solidly. Then the field can be finished to these marks. to allow for finishing. in diameter. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. 3-3/8 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. brass. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. screws. 2. 4-1/2 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. cannot be used so often. A. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. by turning the lathe with the hand. larger than the dimensions given. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 3. Alpena. After cleaning them with the solution. Michigan. two holes. When the frame is finished so far. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. in diameter.

into which a piece of 5/8-in. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. When the bearings are located. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. The shaft of the armature. is turned up from machine steel. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . solder them to the supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. file them out to make the proper adjustment. 4. and build up the solder well. Fig.

The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. inside diameter. brass rod. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 5. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. thick are cut like the pattern. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. by 1-1/2 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Rivet them together. and held with a setscrew. The sides are also faced off and finished. 6. and then they are soaked in warm water. then drill a 1/8-in. When annealed. as shown in Fig.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 3. threaded. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown in Fig. wide. as shown m Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. wide. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 8. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Procure 12 strips of mica. deep and 7/16 in. 7. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 1-1/8 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. or segments. The pins are made of brass. 1/8 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. thick. After they . Find the centers of each segment at one end.. thick. thick and 1/4 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 6. 9. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. sheet fiber. 3. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. holes through them for rivets. being formed for the ends. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. When this is accomplished. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 3/4 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Armature-Ring Core. Make the core 3/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. washers. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. After the pieces are cut out. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. as shown in Fig. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. as shown in Fig. to allow for finishing to size. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 3/4 in. thick.

The field is wound with No. which will take 50 ft. Fig. 8 in. The two ends are joined at B. after the motor is on the stand. and bring the end of the wire out at B. of No. 1. Fig. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. the two ends of the wire. until the 12 slots are filled. The winding is started at A. are soldered together. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. being required. shown at B. by bending the end around one of the projections. they are glued to the core insulation. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. sheet fiber. and wind on four layers. long. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The source of current is connected to the terminals. thick. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Run one end of the field wire. After one coil. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. 5. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft.have dried. sheet fiber. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. shown at A. about 100 ft. of the end to protrude. 1. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. yet it shows a series of . Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. wide and 1 in. or side. 6 in. of the wire. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. This winding is for a series motor. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. All connections should be securely soldered. When the glue is set. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. To connect the wires. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. In starting to wind. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment.

is fastened to the metallic body. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. still more simply. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. A 1/2-in. or. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Nine wires run from the timer. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. which serves as the ground wire. as in the case of a spiral. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.

the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. circle. Covering these is a thin. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. board. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. 6 in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place.The Wind Vane. It should be . perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. thus giving 16 different directions. of the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 45 deg. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Without this attachment. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in.

The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. To make it. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. To work these outlines. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Before tacking the fourth side. 14 by 18 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Cut 3-in. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. called a chip carving knife. -Contributed by James L." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. if not too high. will be sufficient. thus making a universal joint. according to who is going to use it. is most satisfactory. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Y. though a special knife. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. will be enough for the two sides. however. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. high. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. also a piece of new carpet. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Place the leather on some level. and about 6 in. N. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Buffalo. . and securely nail on the top of the box. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. will answer the purpose just as well. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish.about 6 ft. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Blackmer. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. making it heavy or light. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. or. long to give the best results. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Fill the box with any handy ballast.

An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

of water. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. of common salt and 10 lb. Syracuse. If a fire breaks out. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. rather than the smooth side. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Morse. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. away from it. or a hip that has been wrenched. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. square and tying a piece of . --Contributed by Katharine D. Y. as in cases of a sprained ankle. B. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. a needle and some feathers.will do if a good stout needle is used. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. N. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. can be thrown away when no longer needed. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. temporary lameness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.

Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume.. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. --Contributed by J. Gordon Dempsey. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. long. The body of the receiver. is cut on the wood. --Contributed by John A. and tacked it to the boards. high. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. N. cut to the length of the spool. This not only keeps the rats out. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. setting traps. letting it go at arm's length. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. E. Paterson. laying poisoned meat and meal. but not sharp. commonly called tintype tin. long. The strings should be about 15 in. the corners being wired. as shown. The end is filed to an edge. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The diaphragm C.J. G. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. A small wooden or fiber end. made up of four layers of No. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. F. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. One end is removed entirely. and a coil of wire. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. Albany. There is a 1-in. which is the essential part of the instrument. wide and 1/16 in. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. B. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. etc. wound on the head end. Wis. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. 1/8 in. . A. Hellwig. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The coil is 1 in. thus helping the rats to enter. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. deep. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. N. Ashland. Y. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. and the receiver is ready for use. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. board all around the bottom on the inside. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes.string to each corner.

As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. a piece of small wire. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. and bend each strip in shape. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. begin with the smallest scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. better still. Take a piece of string or. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. The vase is to have three supports. gold. to . To clean small articles. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. wide. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. A single line will be sufficient. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium.

About 1 in. 6-3/8 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from C to D. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out.. through which to slip the fly AGH. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. from the lines EF on the piece. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. wide when stitching up the purse. as shown in the sketch. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. Fold the leather on the line EF. thus raising it.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together.. 3-1/4 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. After taking off the pattern. sharp pencil. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. and does not require coloring. from E to F. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. using a duller point of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse. Press or model down the leather all around the design. 4-1/4 in. . 3-1/2 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.

Make the lug 1/4 in. and which will be very interesting. being cast in wooden molds. thick. It is neat and efficient. b. 3. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Fit this to the two . by 12 ft.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 2. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B. around the wheel. 1 was cut. 1. First. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and cut out a wheel. and a model for speed and power. then nail it. It can be made without the use of a lathe. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and. leaving the lug a. as shown in Fig. and cut it out as shown in Fig. then place the square piece out of which Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and tack the other piece slightly. Now take another piece of wood. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. deep. deep. Then nail the wheel down firmly. with the open side down. 1/2 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. square. following the dotted lines. When it is finished. with pins or small nails. all the way around. as well as useful. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. This also should be slightly beveled. long. with the largest side down. Cut off six pieces 12 in. with a compass saw. the "open" side. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in.

hole 1/4 in. place it between two of the 12-in. hole entirely through at the same place. square pieces of wood. in the center of it. Take the mold apart. as shown by the . After it is finished. as shown by the black dots in Fig. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole bored through its center. then bolt it together. bolts. holes through it. slightly beveled. 1. and lay it away to dry. and boring a 3/8-in. Now put mold No. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.pieces just finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in.

black dots in Fig. one in the projections. After it is fitted in. and the other in the base. until it is full. wide and 16 in. so that it will turn easily. holes at d. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. long. Using the Brace . from the one end. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. where the casting did not fill out. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. one in the lug. Pour metal into mold No. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Let it stand for half an hour. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. 6. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. drill in it. and 3/8-in. 4. and pouring metal in to fill it up. 6. put the top of the brace through this hole. d. and pour babbitt metal into it. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. over the defective part. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. 1. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. as shown by the black dots in Fig.2. B. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. fasten a 3/8-in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. true it up with a square. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Put this together in mold No. and lay it away to dry. and run in babbitt metal again. Fig. place the entire machine in a vise. Then bolt the castings together. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This is the same as Fig. and two 1/4-in. holes. only the one is left-handed. Now cut out one of the 12-in. in diameter must now be obtained. place it under the drill. This is mold No. and drill it entirely through.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. screw down. and bore three 1/4-in. lay it on a level place. Commencing 1-1/2 in. see that the bolts are all tight. long. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b. b.1. and drill them in the same manner.2. the other right-handed. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.1. and connect to the boiler. instead of the right-handed piece. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. This is for a shaft. Now take mold No. 5. as shown in illustration. take an ordinary brace.

with a boss and a set screw. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. piece and at right angles to it. will do good service. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Then take a knife or a chisel. Plan of Ice Boat . Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and if instructions have been carefully followed. At each end of the 6ft. one 6 ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the other 8 ft. while it is running at full speed. turn the wheel to the shape desired. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. long. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Your turbine engine is now ready for work.

at the butt and 1 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. at the top. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Make your runners as long as possible. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. where they often did considerable damage. Fig. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. and about 8 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. 8 a reef point knot. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. projecting as in Fig. The spar should be 9 ft. long. distant. Fig. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. boards to make the platform. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. which may come in handy in heavy winds. should be of hardwood. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. in front of the rudder block. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. leaving 1 ft. in diameter. at the end. To the under side of the 8-ft. being careful that none of the fastening