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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

apart. Ontario. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Toronto. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 2. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. with the hollow side away from you. 2. To throw a boomerang. 1. away. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. It is held in this curve until dry. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A piece of plank 12 in. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The pieces are then dressed round. 2 -. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. 1. distant. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . E. as shown in Fig. 1. Noble. long will make six boomerangs. wide and 2 ft. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E.Fig.

it is not essential to the support of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. high and 4 or 5 in. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. made of 6-in. however. First. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. or rather no bottom at all. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. 6 in. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. and it may be necessary to use a little water. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. A wall. blocks . As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. long. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. one inside of the circle and the other outside. the block will drop out. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. dry snow will not pack easily. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. thick. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. A very light. If the snow is of the right consistency. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. minus the top. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and with a movable bottom. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. but about 12 in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. which makes the building simpler and easier. forcing it down closely. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it.

There is no outward thrust. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. It also keeps them out. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The piece of wood. above the ground. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig. a. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 3 -. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and the young architect can imitate them. 1. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A nail. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. wide. Ore. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. which can be made of wood. 2. or an old safe dial will do. which is about 1 ft. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 2. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. is 6 or 8 in. 3. D. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. long and 1 in. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. 1. Goodbrod. C. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Union.

the box locked . For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. If ordinary butts are used. New York. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Merrill. S. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. as the weight always draws them back to place.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. says the Sphinx. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Syracuse. one pair of special hinges. --Contributed by R. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. If they do not. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. When the sieve is shaken. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Ga. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. as shown in Fig. 3. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. allowing each coat time to dry. proceed as follows: First. draw one-half of it. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. Augusta. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. With the metal shears. All .and the performer steps out in view. To make a design similar to the one shown. 2. Place the piece in a vise. Alberta Norrell. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 1. on drawing paper. It remains to bend the flaps. about 1-32 of an inch. -Contributed by L. smooth surface. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Fig. If the measuring has been done properly. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. one for each corner. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. as shown. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side.

is fitted tightly in the third hole. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The current. about 6 in. cover it with banana-oil lacquer.the edges should be left smooth. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and in the positions shown in the sketch. in diameter. Galbreath. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. If a touch of color is desired. used for insulation. from the back end. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. After this has dried. if rolled under the shoe sole. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. B. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. in passing through the lamp. Denver. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. C. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . 25 gauge German-silver wire. 25 German-silver wire. A piece of porcelain tube. The common cork. H. causing it to expand. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. In boring through rubber corks. of No. R. When the current is turned off. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. --Contributed by R. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. which is about 6 in. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. A resistance. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. long. as shown at AA. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. should be in the line. Colo.

When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 3. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip.bottom ring. Mo. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. Kansas City. Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Purchase two long book straps. 1. --Contributed by David Brown. between them as shown in Fig. with thin strips of wood. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 2. . and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. as shown in Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.

The folds are made over the string. 36 in. to form a handle. 1. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. When the aeroplane tips. and tack smoothly. These are shown in Fig. in diameter. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. one weighing 15 lb. 3. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Fig. 2. Doylestown. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. long. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Two strips of brass. Kane. Fig.. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. just the right weight for a woman to use. Y. Fig. The string is then tied. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. having a gong 2-1/2 in. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. A. as . Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. N. Syracuse. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. and a pocket battery. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 1. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and one weighing 25 lb.. Pa. 4. C. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. which is the right weight for family use. --Contributed by James M. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 1. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. are mounted on the outside of the box.An ordinary electric bell. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D.

AA. and many fancy knick-knacks. 1. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. if once used. such as brackets. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Y. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 2. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. four washers and four square nuts. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 2. Floral Park. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. bent as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. N. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. --Contributed by Louis J. machine screws. Frame Made of a Rod . 3/32 or 1/4 in. Day. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. The saw. in diameter. long. two 1/8 -in.

five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Michigan. Apply two coats. Drying will cause this to change to purple. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges.. be covered the same as the back. Silver is the most desirable but. Detroit. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Of the leathers. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. therefore. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. In the design shown. of water in which dissolve. or silver. the most expensive. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. after breaking up. it has the correct strength. allowing each time to dry. green and browns are the most popular. as well as brass and copper. copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. A. as well as the depth of etching desired. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The buckle is to be purchased. Watch Fob For coloring silver. An Austrian Top [12] . of water. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. though almost any color may be obtained. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. 1 part sulphuric acid. If it colors the metal red. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. File these edges. --Contributed by W. Scranton. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. if copper or brass. using a swab and an old stiff brush.may be made of either brass. 1 part nitric acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. of course. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. treat it with color. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. For etching. Rub off the highlights.

starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. --Contributed by J. hole. wide and 3/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. is formed on one end. in diameter. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 5-1/4 in. A handle. pass one end through the 1/16-in. thick. A 1/16-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Bore a 3/4-in. . Tholl. 3/4 in. Michigan. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 1-1/4 in.F. long. Ypsilanti. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. hole in this end for the top. When the shank is covered. set the top in the 3/4 -in. long. The handle is a piece of pine.

Ga. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Augusta. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. For black leathers. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. --Contributed by Miss L. Houghton. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. --A. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The baking surface. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Northville. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Mich. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. having no sides. tarts or similar pastry. Alberta Norrell.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle.

obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Centralia. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Mo. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. then solder cover and socket together. two turns will remove the jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. glass fruit jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. says Studio Light. the same as shown in the illustration. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. When you desire to work by white light. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power.

for loading and development. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Vertical pieces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. They are fastened. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 4 Braces. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. so it can be folded up. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. and not tip over. Janesville. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 16 Horizontal bars. 1-1/4 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Wis. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. as shown in the cross-section sketch. square by 12 in. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. .

The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. from scrap material.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. after filling the pail with water. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Rosenthal. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The whole. H. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Phillipsburg. and a loop made in the end. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. --Contributed by Dr. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. After rounding the ends of the studs. The front can be covered . If the loop is tied at the proper place. O. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. C. New York. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Cincinnati. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand.

I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. thoroughly fix. If the gate is raised slightly. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. you are. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. --Contributed by Gilbert A. FIG. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. sickly one. and. 1 FIG. Wehr. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. In my own practice. The results will be poor. Baltimore. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The . By using the following method. the color will be an undesirable. by all rules of the game. the mouth of which rests against a. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Develop them into strong prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. if you try to tone them afterward. principally mayonnaise dressing. Md. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. either for contact printing or enlargements.

. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. 16 oz. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. Water .. 2....... when it starts to bleach..... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. to make it 5 by 5 in. without previous wetting... A good final washing completes the process... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.... wide and 4 in.. transfer it to a tray of water. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. but. preferably the colored kind.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Cal..... --Contributed by T. L. 20 gr.. It will bleach slowly and evenly..... three times.... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. With a little practice..... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. The blotting paper can . Iodide of potassium ... San Francisco.. where it will continue to bleach.. Place the dry print....... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. in this solution.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. etc. 2 oz. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. 5 by 15 in. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. 1 and again as in Fig." Cyanide of potassium .. long to admit the angle support. Gray... When the desired reduction has taken place. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. in size..

The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Corners complete are shown in Fig. wide. Wisconsin. Wilson Aldred Toronto. the shaft 1 in.J. 20 gauge. --Contributed by J. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Make a design similar to that shown. having a width of 2-1/4 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. the head of which is 2 in. 3. wide below the . Canada. and a length of 5 in. Monahan.

thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. after folding along the center line. 2. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 4. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 1 part sulphuric acid. Do not put the hands in the solution. . freehand. as shown in Fig. but use a swab on a stick. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. For coloring olive green. 3. Fig. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 1. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The metal must be held firmly. After this has dried. With files. Pierce a hole with a small drill. being held perpendicular to the work. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. then trace the other half in the usual way. Allow this to dry. using carbon paper. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 1 Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. using a small metal saw. With the metal shears. then coloring. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching.FIG. Make one-half of the design. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Trace the design on the metal. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Apply with a small brush. 1 part nitric acid. After the sawing. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. then put on a second coat. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using turpentine. deep.

The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Carl Cramer. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. --Contributed by M. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. --Contributed by Katharine D. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. New York. then stain it a mahogany color. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. as shown. Burnett. Syracuse. on a chopping board. thick. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Cal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. --Contributed by H. Morse.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. After the stain has dried. M. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. attach brass handles. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Conn. it does the work rapidly. When this is cold. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. . The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.

After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. also locate the drill holes. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. --Contributed by W. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. 4. in width at the shank. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Jaquythe. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. thick and 4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. two enameled. 1/4 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 53 steel pens. 1. H. Kissimmee. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. indicating the depth of the slots. brass. WARNECKE Procure some brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. machine screws. some pieces of brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. holes. Florida. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. A. Richmond. . it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Fig. thick. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Cal. about 3/16 in. Atwell. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. as shown at A. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. not over 1/4 in.. one shaft. and several 1/8-in. L. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. square. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. saucers or pans. or tin. --Contributed by Mrs. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. as shown in Fig.

a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and pins inserted. wide and bend as shown in Fig. 3. If metal dishes. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. about 1/32 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. a square shaft used. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. machine screws and nuts. 3. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. as shown. hole is drilled to run off the water. as in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 6. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. long by 3/4 in. wide. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. using two nuts on each screw. 2. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. hole in the center. Bend as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 7. Fig. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. into the hole. long and 5/16 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. If the shaft is square. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. each about 1 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 1. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. can be procured. lead should be run into the segments. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. These are connected to a 3/8-in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. brass and bolted to the casing. thick. with the face of the disk. 5. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. with a 3/8-in. thick. in diameter and 1/32 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. hole. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. supply pipe. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface..When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. 2. machine screws. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. A 3/4-in. with 1/8-in.

Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Hamilton. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. from the bottom end of the legs. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Fasten with 3/4-in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Be sure to have the cover. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Ill. from the top of the box. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. using four to each leg. to make the bottom. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. or more in diameter. high and 15 in. deep over all. long. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Smith. --Contributed by F. Stain the wood before putting in the . The lower part. three of which are in the basket. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. V. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. With a string or tape measure. square and 30-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. When assembling. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. screws. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. we will call the basket. make these seams come between the two back legs. La Salle. 8-1/2 in. --Contributed by S. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Canada. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The four legs are each 3/4-in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Cooke.

with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. you can. Md. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Boston. Mass.lining. The folded part in the center is pasted together. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. --also the lower edge when necessary. and gather it at that point. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide and four strips 10 in. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 1. sewing on the back side. as shown in the sketch. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Fig. -Contributed by Stanley H. When making the display. 2. If all the parts are well sandpapered. The side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Baltimore. Cover them with the cretonne. wide. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. Packard. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig.

Gloversville. It is cleanly. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. --Contributed by H. Cross Timbers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Y. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. When through using the pad. It is not difficult to . Mo. with slight modifications. 3. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by B. N. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. and. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Crockett. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. saving all the solid part. Fig. L.

After stirring. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. -Contributed by C. it should be new and sharp. remove the contents. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. If a file is used. Mass. --Contributed by Edith E. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. across the face. or if desired. Bourne. S. Both of these methods are wasteful. Texas. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. are shown in the diagram. After this is done. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Lowell. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Lane. and secure it in place with glue or paste. and scrape out the rough parts. El Paso. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.

Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Canton. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Des Moines. Greenleaf. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Geo. Ill. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Turl. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Iowa. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel.cooking utensil. Oak Park. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The insects came to the light. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Those having houses . F. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Marion P. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. circled over the funnel and disappeared. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Oregon. The process works well and needs no watching. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. After several hours' drying. Wheeler. Ill.

Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. material. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. will do as well. Rosenberg. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the best material to use being matched boards. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. 6 in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. 6 in. Worcester. but for cheapness 3/4 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and the second one for the developing bench. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. --Contributed by Wm. and both exactly alike. Conn. Only three pieces are required. by 2 ft. the bottom being 3/8 in. one on each side of what will be the . One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Mass. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. not even with the boards themselves. thick. boards are preferable. Glenbrook.. Lay the floor next. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. --Contributed by Thomas E. The single boards can then be fixed. Both sides can be put together in this way. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light.. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Dobbins. plane and pocket knife.

three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close.. 10). A shelf for bottles and another for plates. which is fixed on as shown . 9 by 11 in. nailing them to each other at the ridge. as shown in Figs. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. etc. and act as a trap for the light. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. wide. so that it will fit inside the sink. 9). 6. 7. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. In hinging the door. hinged to it. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. by screwing to the floor. is cut. below which is fixed the sink. 5. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 6 and 9. so that the water will drain off into the sink. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.. brown wrapping paper. and should be zinc lined. of the top of the door for the same reason. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. the closing side as at B. 3 and 4. The developing bench is 18 in. It is shown in detail in Fig.. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 2 in section. 11. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and the top as at C in the same drawing.doorway. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. and in the middle an opening. and to the outside board of the sides. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The roof boards may next be put on. At the top of the doorway. 8.

Details of the Dark Rook .

15. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. after lining with brown paper. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Karl Hilbrich. which makes it possible to have white light. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 6. as in Fig. 17. 20. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as shown in the sections. Pennsylvania. are fastened in the corners inside. 16. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. four coats at first is not too many. Fig. or red light as at K. --Contributed by W. Erie. 13. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . hole bored in the center for a handle. 2. these being shown in Fig. preferably maple or ash. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and a tank stand on it. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. The house will be much strengthened if strips. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A circular piece about 2 in. In use. as at M. Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as shown in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. 16. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 18. 14. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. if desired. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 13. as at I. 19. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. though this is hardly advisable. it is better than anything on the market. 1. screwing them each way into the boards. mixing flour and water.in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. The handle should be at least 12 in. and a 3/8-in. Fig. but not the red glass and frame. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. when put together properly is a puzzle. about 3/8 in. Yonkers. which. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. L. Eureka Springs. Kansas City. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. -Contributed by E. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Smith. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. as shown in the sketch. long. for a handle. Schweiger. --Contributed by Wm. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. G. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. --Contributed by L. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Ark. To operate. New York. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Mo. D. Mitchell.copper should be. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue.

Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. need them. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Having completed the bare box. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. holes should be drilled in the bottom. If the sill is inclined. . After the box is trimmed. as well as improve its appearance. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as shown in Fig. The design shown in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. in order to thoroughly preserve it. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. A number of 1/2-in. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. which binds them together. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 2. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. to make it set level. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. the box will require a greater height in front. especially for filling-in purposes. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. the rustic work should be varnished. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The corks in use are shown in Fig. for the moment. 3. as is usually the case. Each cork is cut as in Fig. 1.

Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. being partly eaten into. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. share the same fate. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 2. drilled at right angles. as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. 1. and observe results.. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. When the corn is gone cucumbers. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. . Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. too dangerous. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. But I have solved the difficulty. Traps do no good. 3. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Each long projection represents a leg. it's easy. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. cabbages. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. etc. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. F. 4. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. can't use poison. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. life in the summer time is a vexation.

This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. If. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. . The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. -. by trial. cut in 1/2-in. strips. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. and made up and kept in large bottles. of No. About 9-1/2 ft. the coil does not heat sufficiently. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Iowa. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. cut some of it off and try again. The solution can be used over and over again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. long. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.

forks. --Contributed by James M. but with unsatisfactory results. hot-water pot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Y. is a good size--in this compound. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. 1) removed. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. --Contributed by Katharine D. Doylestown. coffee pot. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Knives. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Stir and mix thoroughly. Pa. Syracuse. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. to cause the door to swing shut. of gasoline. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Kane. C. N. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Fig 2. of oleic acid with 1 gal. . The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Morse. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Dallas. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Do not wash them. it falls to stop G. In cleaning silver. Texas. as shown in the sketch. and a strip. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. D.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. which is. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Fisher. --Contributed by Oliver S. Pa. but unfixed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. later fixed and washed as usual. Ill. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Sprout. negatives. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Harrisburg. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . using the paper dry. Waverly. New Orleans. . --Contributed by Theodore L. La. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.

The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. then . Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. In this uncertainty lies the charm. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. To obviate this difficulty. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. metal. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The harmonograph. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.

R. A weight.. in diameter.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. K. A length of 7 ft. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. --Contributed by Wm. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Punch a hole. Chicago. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Another weight of about 10 lb. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Holes up to 3 in. 1. as shown in Fig. that is. to prevent any side motion. provides a means of support for the stylus. Gaffney. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. for instance. is attached as shown at H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Rosemont. which can be regulated. G. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.. The length of the short pendulum H. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. with a nail set or punch. one-fourth. as shown in the lower part of Fig. in the center of the circle to be cut. such as a shoe buttoner. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. is about right for a 10-ft. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. A small weight. what is most important. and unless the shorter pendulum is. J. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. ceiling. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. of about 30 or 40 lb. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. as long as the other. A small table or platform. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. or the lines will overlap and blur. Arizona. makes respectively 3. etc. one-fifth. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Ingham. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. 1. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. exactly one-third. A pedestal. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. --Contributed by James T.

depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. dividing them into quarters. N.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Morey. 1. 3. then put 2 at the top. The capacity of the vise. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. and 4 as in Fig. Cruger. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. --Contributed by J.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.H. and proceed as before. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. -Contributed by W. 6. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Fig. 2. Chicago. distributing them over the whole card. a correspondent of .J. of course. 4. then 3 as in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Cape May City. 5. The two key cards are made alike. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.

It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of the uprights. 6 gauge wires shown. 30 gr. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. 1/4 in. Alberta Norrell. drill 15 holes. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. respectively. --Contributed by L. long. acetic acid and 4 oz. of ferricyanide of potash. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. the portion of the base under the coil. sheet of well made asbestos paper. After securing the tint desired. Augusta. of water. Ga. Cut through the center. 1/2 oz. If constructed of the former. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. from the top and bottom. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Wind the successive turns of . To assemble.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. After preparing the base and uprights. Asbestos board is to be preferred. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. says Popular Electricity. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. wood-screws. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. citrate of iron and ammonia. deep. remove the prints. of 18-per-cent No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together.

instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Ward. then fasten the upright in place. Y. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Labels of some kind are needed. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. etc. if one is not a smoker. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. screws. Small knobs may be added if desired. 16 gauge copper wire. which. as they are usually thrown away when empty. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. square. rivets. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material..wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. --Contributed by Frederick E. but these are not necessary. 14 gauge. cut and dressed 1/2 in. N. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Ampere. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding .

. then to the joint to be soldered. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. or has become corroded. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. it must be ground or filed to a point. S. Ark. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. galvanized iron. D. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. tinner's acid. A. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. --Contributed by A. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. This is considerable annoyance. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Eureka Springs. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. sandpaper or steel wool. C. and labeled "Poison. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. and rub the point of the copper on it.. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. --Contributed by W. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. --C. G. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Jaquythe. the pure muriatic acid should be used. brass. The material can be of any wood." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Larson. as shown in the sketch. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Copper. lead. and one made of poplar finished black. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Wis. California. E and F. Kenosha. Richmond. of glycerine to 16 oz. being careful about the heat. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. a piece of solder. If the soldering copper is an old one. tin. of water. In soldering galvanized iron. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. B. especially if a large tub is used. zinc.14 oz. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A.

I bind my magazines at home evenings. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. nut. N. D. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. wide. Fig. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The disk will come out pan shaped. brass and silver. Place the band. in diameter. however. such as copper. Brass rings can be plated when finished. The punch A. This will leave a clear hole. Take a 3/4-in. B. Apart from this.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 2. C. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter. round iron. This completes the die. Y. W. 7/8 in. 1. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. which gives two bound volumes each year. Troy. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. with good results. Six issues make a well proportioned book. -Contributed by H. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The dimensions shown in Fig. thick and 1-1/4 in. Hankin. a ring may be made from any metal. and drill out the threads.

Five cuts. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The string No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 2. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and then to string No. 1. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. on all edges except the back. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Coarse white thread. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. . and a third piece. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. of the ends extending on each side. is nailed across the top. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 1 in Fig. C. 1/8 in. using . If started with the January or the July issue. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and place them against the strings in the frame. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. through the notch on the left side of the string No. threaded double. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. The sections are then prepared for sewing. then back through the notch on the right side. which is fastened the same as the first. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The covering can be of cloth. After drawing the thread tightly. 5. allowing about 2 in. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. size 16 or larger. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Start with the front of the book. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. as shown in Fig. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. deep. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Place the cardboard covers on the book.4. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. is used for the sewing material.

at opposite sides to each other. Place the cover on the book in the right position. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Clyde E. For the blade an old talking-machine . Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. on which to hook the blade. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. and. Cal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. round iron. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Nebr. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Tinplate. and mark around each one. College View.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Encanto. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around.

and another piece (B) 6 in. thick. hydraulic pipe. F. in order to drill the holes in the ends. with 10 teeth to the inch. and file in the teeth. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. B. C. and 1/4 in. Summitville. or double extra heavy. long. Moorhead. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. E. Miss. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. by 1 in. Make the blade 12 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Then on the board put . On the upper side. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. with a steel sleeve. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). fuse hole at D.. as shown. Ohio. -Contributed by Willard J. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. as it is sometimes called. A. at the same end. and a long thread plug. Hays. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. bore. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. thick.

the jars need not be very large. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. as from batteries. using about 8 in. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of rubber-covered wire. H. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Chas. about 5 ft. and some No. A lid may be added if desired. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Philadelphia. 4 jars. Boyd. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. high around this apparatus. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect up as shown. of wire to each coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. If you are going to use a current of low tension. some sheet copper or brass for plates.

thick. The illustration shows how to shape it. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 16-1/2 in. 2 is lower down than in No. Fig. 15-1/2 in. as they "snatch" the ice. Z. and for the rear runners: A. then apply a coat of thin enamel. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 30 in. two pieces 30 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. wide and 3/4 in.. long by 22 in. The connection between point No. steel rod makes a good steering rod. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 34 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Use no screws on the running surface. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. by 1-1/4 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. and four pieces 14 in. long. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. two pieces 14 in. by 2 in. On the door of the auto front put the . B and C. 1. wide. 1 and so on for No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. by 1-1/4 in. or source of current. B. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. two pieces 34 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. by 1 in. sheet brass 1 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. To wire the apparatus. long. wide by 3/4 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. as they are not substantial enough. B. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. . square by 14 ft.. wide and 2 in. 27 B. are important. 1 on switch. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. two for each jar. long. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. A 3/4-in. 5 on switch. Use no nails. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. with the cushion about 15 in. A variation of 1/16 in. & S. 2 and 3. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 4 in. 3 and No. No. making them clear those in the front runner. by 2 in. gives full current and full speed.. At the front 24 or 26 in. C. and bolt through. For the front runners these measurements are: A. by 5 in... and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 is connected to point No. direct to wire across jars. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front.. 2. For the brass trimmings use No. by 6 in. oak boards. In proportioning them the points A. 7 in. 11 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. An iron washer. on No. apart. 3. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 2. The top disk in jar No. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. above the ground. Equip block X with screw eyes.the way. C. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. and plane it on all edges. 2 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 4. thick. however. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Put arm of switch on point No. 3 in. The stock required for them is oak. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. long. 4) of 3/4-in. Their size also depends on the voltage. is used to reduce friction. 2. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. First sandpaper all the wood. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. beginning at the rear. by 5 in. See Fig. The current then will flow through the motor. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in.. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft.

a brake may be added to the sled. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Then get some upholstery buttons. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. If desired. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. to improve the appearance. If desired. etc. such as used on automobiles. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. by 1/2 in. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. may be stowed within. which is somewhat moist. Fasten a horn. to the wheel. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. overshoes. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. lunch. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. or with these for $25. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. The best way is to get some strong. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. such as burlap. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. brass plated. cheap material. long. If the expense is greater than one can afford. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. cutting it out of sheet brass. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. parcels. fasten a cord through the loop.

The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. .tree and bring. Lexington.

4). E. some files. say 1 in. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. with twenty-four teeth. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. though more difficult. The first tooth may now be cut. the cut will be central on the line. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. 3. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. a compass. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Draw a circle on paper. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. A small clearance space. by drawing diameters. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. The straight-edge. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. the same diameter as the wheel. which. made from 1/16-in. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. thick. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. sheet metal. Fig. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. CD. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. This guide should have a beveled edge. London. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . when flat against it. 1. will be over the line FG. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. mild steel or iron. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. First take the case of a small gearwheel. 2. Fig. The Model Engineer. so that the center of the blade. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. FC. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. from F to G. outside diameter and 1/16 in.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. . either the pencils for arc lamps. Then take one outlet wire. R. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. ground it with a large piece of zinc. transmitter. No shock will be perceptible. A bright. hold in one hand. If there is no faucet in the house. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. Focus the camera in the usual manner. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. B. some wire and some carbons. each in the center. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. and the other outlet wire. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 2. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. B. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. electric lamp. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Make a hole in the other. 1. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A.

and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Dry batteries are most convenient. of course. But in this experiment. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. A is a wooden block. For a base use a pine board 10 in. --Contributed by Geo. They have screw ends. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Emsworth. by 1 in. or more of the latter has been used. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. at each end for terminals. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. as shown. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Slattery. Then set the whole core away to dry. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. One like a loaf of bread. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. a transmitter which induces no current is used. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. D D are binding posts for electric wires. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. and about that size. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Ohio. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. 36 wire around it. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and again wind the wire around it. If desired. Several battery cells. leaving about 10 in. are also needed. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. B. Ashland. as indicated by E E. under the gable. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. by 12 in. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Pa. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and will then burn the string C. Wrenn. serves admirably. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. J.

which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. B B. The oven is now ready to be connected. until the hand points to zero on the scale. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. B B. in parallel. 2. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Connect these three to switch. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. First make a support. run a No. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. and the lamps. and one single post switch. E. C. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. F. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Jr. From the other set of binding-posts. Fig.. while C is open. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. These should have hollow ends. 1. Turn on switch. C. Ohio. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Fig. Newark. D. Place 16-cp. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. the terminal of the coil. The apparatus is now ready for operation. D.wire. connecting lamp receptacles. as shown. 14 wire. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. 12 or No. in series with bindingpost. as shown. for the . Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. At one side secure two receptacles. and switch.

where A is the homemade ammeter. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. a variable resistance. 4 amperes. A wooden box. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. If for 3-way. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. The pointer or hand. 5. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 4. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Mine is wound with two layers of No. a battery. drill a hole as shown at H. E. deep. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . is made of iron. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. drill in only to the opening already through. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. D. thick. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. This may be made of wood. 6. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. The box is 5-1/2 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support.E. At a point a little above the center. is then made and provided with a glass front. until the scale is full. wide and 1-3/4 in. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. and D. 1/4 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. long. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. as shown in the cut. wind with plenty of No. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 1. from the lower end. remove the valve. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 14 wire. high. drill through the entire case and valve.or 4-way valve or cock.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. The core. C. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 5. 3. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do. wide and 1/8 in. Fig. D. This is slipped on the pivot. After drilling. inside measurements. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. to prevent it turning on the axle. 1. Dussault. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 2. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by J. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. is made of wire. To make one. Montreal. long. long and make a loop. 4 in.. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Fig. It is 1 in. although brass is better. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. etc. Fig. Fig. 14. 10 turns to each layer. B. 3 amperes. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 1/2 in. 7. but if for a 4way. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. a standard ammeter.

The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. provided with a rubber stopper. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. E. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in.performing electrical experiments. To start the light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and a metal rod. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. in diameter. B. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. and the arc light. as shown. F. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. D. in thickness . and the other connects with the water rheostat. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. A. This stopper should be pierced. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. making two holes about 1/4 in. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. One wire runs to the switch. high. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. which is used for reducing the current. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. By connecting the motor.

When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Having finished the interrupter. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. 2. --Contributed by Harold L. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Carthage. 2. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. 1. If all adjustments are correct. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. as shown in B. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Having fixed the lead plate in position. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 1. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Jones. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Fig. As there shown. where he is placed in an upright open . This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. N. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in C. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. To insert the lead plate. B. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Y. long. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of wood.

high. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The glass should be the clearest possible. If everything is not black. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. loosejointed effect. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. with the exception of the glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. L and M. The skeleton is made of papier maché. All . Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. could expect from a skeleton. especially L. light-colored garments. inside dimensions. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and wave his arms up and down. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. They need to give a fairly strong light. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. and can be bought at Japanese stores. giving a limp. by 7-1/2 in. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. as the entire interior. Its edges should nowhere be visible. should be colored a dull black. A. The lights. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. which can be run by three dry cells. from which the gong has been removed. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and must be thoroughly cleansed. to aid the illusion.coffin. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. should be miniature electric lamps. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. by 7 in. figures and lights. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. within the limits of an ordinary room. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. especially the joints and background near A. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. If it is desired to place the box lower down. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer.. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. the illusion will be spoiled. until it is dark there. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The model. dressed in brilliant. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.

To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. square block. San Jose. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. W. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. --Contributed by Geo. If a gradual transformation is desired. after which it assumes its normal color. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. as shown in the sketch. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. placed about a foot apart. Cal. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. fat spark. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Fry. Two finishing nails were driven in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.

the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. Cohen. as shown. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. 1. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. to make it airtight. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. In Fig. One of these plates is connected to metal top. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. -Contributed by Dudley H. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and should be separated about 1/8 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. hydrogen gas is generated. or a solution of sal soda. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. soldered in the top. New York. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. If a lighted match . by a piece of hard rubber at each end. In Fig. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. The plates are separated 6 in. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. B and C. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. into the receiver G. by small pieces of wood. with two tubes. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. the remaining space will be filled with air. A (see sketch). and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. F.

If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. as is shown in the illustration. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. by means of the clips. 36 insulated wire. N. The distance between the nipple. then a suitable burner is necessary. C C. long. Fig. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. A. is made by drilling a 1/8in. Fig. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 2 shows the end view. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. of No. should be only 5/16 of an inch. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. P. copper pipe. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. is then coiled around the brass tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A 1/64-in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. copper pipe. If desired. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. says the Model Engineer. in diameter and 6 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. and the ends of the tube. from the bottom. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. One row is drilled to come directly on top. which forms the vaporizing coil. N. long. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A nipple. London. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 1. A. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A piece of 1/8-in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. either by passing a current of electricity around it. B. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. 1-5/16 in. which is plugged up at both ends. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1/2 in.

at the front and back for fly leaves. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Fig. longer and 1/4 in. boards and all. should be cut to the diameter of the can. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. larger all around than the book. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. 2). Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. about 8 or 10 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper .lamp cord. fold and cut it 1 in. trim both ends and the front edge. Fig. Take two strips of stout cloth. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. A disk of thin sheet-iron. duck or linen. cut to the size of the pages. 1/4 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 1. but if the paper knife cannot be used. with a fine saw. Cut four pieces of cardboard. taking care not to bend the iron. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. this makes a much nicer book. 3. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. smoothly.

The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is perforated with a number of holes. 18 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which will just slip inside the little can. but its diameter is a little smaller. without a head. In the bottom. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. of tank A is cut a hole. and a little can. H. pasting them down (Fig. C. in diameter and 30 in. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Toronto. A gas cock. the joint will be gas tight. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. B. Va. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. deep. --Contributed by Joseph N. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. . Ont. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Another tank. D. is soldered onto tank A. or rather the top now. is fitted in it and soldered. E. is turned on it. is made the same depth as B. Bedford City. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown. Another can. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. 4). A. --Contributed by James E. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Parker. as shown in the sketch.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Noble.

2. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The bridle knots. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. long. basswood or white pine. and sewed double to give extra strength. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. square by 42 in. exactly 12 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. long. thus adjusting the . as shown at C. with an electric-bell magnet. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. 1. should be cut a little too long.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. to prevent splitting. Fig. when finished. E. If the pushbutton A is closed. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. fastened in the bottom. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. The diagonal struts. J. should be 1/4 in. The armature.. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The longitudinal corner spines. D. B. and about 26 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. A A. shows how the connections are to be made. Beverly. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. B. Fig. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. S. The small guards. which may be either spruce. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. B. A. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. If the back armature. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. by 1/2 in. -Contributed by H. should be 3/8 in. Bott. C. are shown in detail at H and J. D. and the four diagonal struts. H is a square knot. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. The wiring diagram. making the width. tacks. N. which moves to either right or left.

shift toward F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. to prevent slipping. as shown. E. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. that refuse to slide easily. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. If the kite is used in a light wind. for producing electricity direct from heat. however. Stoddard. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. the batteries do not run down for a long time. --Contributed by A. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Chicago. --Contributed by Edw. Clay Center. Closing either key will operate both sounders. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.lengths of F and G. Harbert. and. D. thus shortening G and lengthening F. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. and if a strong wind is blowing. can be made of a wooden . with gratifying results. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Kan.

F. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. B. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. placed on top. Fasten a piece of wood. spark. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. and also holds the pieces of wood. Chicago. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. in position. 16 single-covered wire. 14 or No. which conducts the current into the cannon. by means of machine screws or. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. C. Then. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.frame. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and the current may then be detected by means. The wood screw. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. with a pocket compass. to the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. A. --Contributed by A. C. A and B. with a number of nails.. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. When the cannon is loaded. E. A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. D. E. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .

hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. L. To unlock the door. Mich. 1. requiring a strong magnet. --Contributed by Joseph B. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Ohio. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. A hole for a 1/2 in. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. now at A' and S'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. to receive the screw in the center. 1. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Connect as shown in the illustration. Bend the strips BB (Fig. --Contributed by Henry Peck. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. H. . The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. screw is bored in the block. press the button. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Big Rapids. A and S. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A. square and 3/8 in. Chicago. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Fig. A and S. Keil. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. when in position at A'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. within the reach of the magnet. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. with the long arm at L'. where there is a staple. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. but no weights or strings. In Fig. in this position the door is locked. To lock the door. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. B. 1. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.the current is shut off. Marion. To reverse.

makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. or for microscopic work. Thread the other end of the pipe. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. if enameled white on the concave side. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. hole. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When ready for use. Rand. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. J. West Somerville. and C is a dumbbell. put in the handle. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and may be made at very slight expense. The standard and base. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. are enameled a jet black. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. long. When the holes are finished and your lines set. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. --Contributed by C. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and if desired the handles may . Mass. gas-pipe. about 18 in.

round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. which shall project at least 2 in. 8 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 1. B. M. inside the pail.. with a cover. 1. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. A. Mass. Fig. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. North Easton. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. --Contributed by C.be covered with leather. high by 1 ft. Warren. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. D. across. Make a cylindrical core of wood. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Fig. long and 8 in. E. as shown at A in the sketch. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.

Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. After removing all the paper. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. let this dry thoroughly. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 2. pipe 2-ft. in diameter. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. if there is to be any glazing done. thick. and on it set the paper wrapped core. long. carefully centering it. such . and 3/8 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. make two wood ends. but will be cheaper in operation.. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. of fine wire. projecting from each end (Fig. full length of iron core. strip of sheet iron. Wind about 1/8 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. the point of the blue flame. C. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. 1330°. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. 2 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 3) with false top and bottom. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. L. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. When lighted. C. as is shown in the sketch. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. pack this space-top. and cut it 3-1/2 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. to hold the clay mixture. wider than the kiln. This done. or make one yourself. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. pipe. Set aside for a few days until well dried. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.. as dictated by fancy and expense. the firing should be gradual. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. cutting the hole a little smaller. 1). shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. diameter. Fig. and varnish. say 1/4 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. C. Fit all the parts together snugly. sand. Whatever burner is used. thick. The 2 in. layer of the clay mixture. 60%. W. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 1). and graphite.-G. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. Line the pail. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. about 1 in. in diameter. which is the hottest part. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. After finishing the core.. 1390°-1410°. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Cover with paper and shellac as before. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. If the cover of the pail has no rim. bottom and sides.mixture of clay. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. and 3/4 in. 25%. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and with especial caution the first time. E. if you have the materials. hard porcelain. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and your kiln is ready for business. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. It is placed inside the kiln. 15%. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. hotel china.

2. and so on. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. red and black. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. bind tightly with black silk. diameter.. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as shown in the sketch herewith. A. leaving long terminals. Then take the black cards. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. as in Fig. about 1/16 in. square them up and place in a vise. R. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. D. C. taking care to have the first card red. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Of course. a regulator must be had for the vibrator.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. --Contributed by J. length of . 2). all cards facing the same way. 2. overlaps and rests on the body. B. 8 in. and divide it into two piles. and plane off about 1/16 in. . every alternate card being the same color.53 in. procure a new deck. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Then. Chicago. Take the red cards. C. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. with a plane. and discharges into the tube. C. Washington. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. T. You can display either color called for. the next black. The funnel. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 1. around the coil. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. square them up. as in Fig.

It should be placed in an exposed location. 1 gill of litharge. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. and this is inexpensive to build. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. The upright pieces. To find the fall of snow. A. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. C. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. All the horizontal pieces. 1. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. D. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. E. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. B. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. Long Branch. The bottom glass should be a good fit. stove bolts. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson.J. the same ends will come together again. through the holes already drilled. the first thing to decide on is the size. When the glass is put in the frame a space. The cement. A. angle iron for the frame.. so that when they are assembled. 1 gill of fine white sand. about 20 in. Drill all the horizontal pieces. to form a dovetail joint as shown. B. of the frame. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. N. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Fig. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. B. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Let . E. stove bolts.C. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. F. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. so it is filled up with plaster of paris.

Aquarium Finished If desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. a centerpiece (A. A. having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Fasten the lever. if desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. on the door by means of a metal plate. B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fig. D. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. to the door knob. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and.

long. Two short boards 1 in. 2 at GG. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. F. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. from the outside top of the frame. Cut two pieces 30 in. wide by 1 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. 2 ft. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. PAUL S. and Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. for the top. Fig. To make the frame. N. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. D. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. and another. but mark their position on the frame. Cut two of them 4 ft. another. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. A small piece of spring brass. with a water pressure of 70 lb.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. long. soldered to the end of the cylinder. E. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. to keep the frame from spreading. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. I referred this question to my husband. as at E. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. AA. screwed to the door frame. Buffalo.. Fig. to form the slanting part. Y. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. thus doing away with the spring. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. 3 shows one of the paddles. long. --Contributed by Orton E. Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. They are shown in Fig. C. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 1 is the motor with one side removed. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 1. 6 in. showing the paddle-wheel in position. wide . 1 . which is 15 in. 2 is an end view. Do not fasten these boards now. according to the slant given C. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 26 in. White. another. approximately 1 ft. B. 1.

1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. and drill a 1/8-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. hole through its center. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. to a full 1/2 in. that is. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Make this hole conical. 2) and another 1 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. Take the side pieces. take down the crosspieces. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. These are the paddles. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole to form the bearings. as shown in Fig. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. long to the wheel about 8 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 24 in. thick. Fig.burlap will do -. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Next secure a 5/8-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Tack one side on. hole through the exact center of the wheel. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. long and filling it with babbitt metal. 4. hole through them. hole from the tops to the 1-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Drill 1/8-in. iron 3 by 4 in. thick (HH. Fasten them in their proper position. Fig. When it has cooled. in diameter. Now block the wheel. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. (I.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. remove the cardboard. by 1-1/2 in. and a 1/4 -in. pipe. tapering from 3/16 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and drill a 1-in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. GG. holes. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. iron. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 1. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 2) with a 5/8-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . 2) form a substantial base. from one end by means of a key. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. then drill a 3/16-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. hole through their sides centrally. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. steel shaft 12 in. Fig.

dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. of course. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. but now I put them in the machine. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. as shown in the sketch at B. It is obvious that. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Do not stop down the lens. ice-cream freezer. Correct exposure depends. and leave them for an hour or so. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. as this makes long exposure necessary. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. remove any white curtains there may be. Raise the window shade half way. place the outlet over a drain. shutting out all light from above and the sides. any window will do. but as it would have cost several times as much. on the lens. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Drill a hole through the zinc. or what is called a process plate. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. sewing machine. The best plate to use is a very slow one. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. If sheet-iron is used. light and the plate. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Focus the camera carefully. . drill press. start the motor. and the subject may move. and as near to it as possible. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. If the bearings are now oiled. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper.a water-tight joint. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. it would be more durable. Darken the rest of the window. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. says the Photographic Times. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways.

without detail in the face. C. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. A. or can be taken from an old magnet. a core. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. as shown in Fig. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. With a piece of black paper. or wood. or an empty developer tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. an empty pill bottle may be used. by twisting. and a base. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. with binding posts as shown. full of water. The core C. D. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. 2. hard rubber. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. which is made of iron and cork. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The current required is very small. On completing . as a slight current will answer. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. the core is drawn down out of sight. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. B. a glass tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The glass tube may be a test tube. 2. until the core slowly rises. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. and without fog. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube.

Interior View the circuit the core will descend. finest graphite. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . according to his control of the current. and one not easy to explain. 1 lb. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. 1. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. The colors appear different to different people. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. water and 3 oz. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. and are changed by reversing the rotation. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. whale oil. 1 pt. and make a pinhole in the center. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. white lead.

This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . before cutting. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. As this device is easily upset. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. -Contributed by D. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.B. especially if the deck is a new one. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. deuce. B. In prize games. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. C.. nearly every time. when the action ceases. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. fan-like. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.L. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. A. or three spot. thus partly filling bottles A and C. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. In making hydrogen. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. Chicago.

2 is also an enlarged sketch. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 3). long. S. Fig. Dak. . S. J.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. as shown in Fig. (Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces.. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. in diameter. 10 in. W. Make a 10-sided stick. Detroit. --Contributed by C. 9 in. 12 in. Huron. 4. 2.. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. that will fit loosely in the tube A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. --Contributed by F. long and 3 in. Jr. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. in length and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Detail of Phonograph Horn . at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Form a cone of heavy paper. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Bently. 1.

such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. on one side and the top. but bends toward D. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. A second piece of silk thread. Fortunately. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. --Contributed by Reader. Cut out paper sections (Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. 6. and walk in. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. about the size of a leadpencil. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Denver. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. A. with a pin driven in each end. E. will cause an increased movement of C. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fig. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. bend it at right angles throughout its length. it is equally easy to block that trick. C. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. long. A piece of tin. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. allowing 1 in. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Remove the form. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. push back the bolt. making it three-ply thick. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight.

By this arrangement one.. The 2 by 4-in. long. S. R. are made 2 by 4 in. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. posts. 4 ft. The upper switch. The reverse switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. while the lower switch. as shown.strip. W. West St. Minn. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. or left to right. B. Two wood-base switches. will last for several years.. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The feet. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. put together as shown in the sketch. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is connected each point to a battery. --Contributed by J. B. long. Fremont Hilscher. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. S S. A. S. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Paul. are 7 ft. Jr. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly .

it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The steam chest D. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The piston is made of a stove bolt. thick. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. FF. The valve motion is shown in Figs.every house. 2 and 3. Fig. or anything available. H and K. The base is made of wood. 2. E. which is made of tin. with two washers. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and the crank bearing C. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. In Fig. 1. which will be described later. and valve crank S. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. and in Fig. the other parts being used for the bearing B. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. is an old bicycle pump. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Fig. cut in half. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. pulley wheel. and has two wood blocks. and a cylindrical . The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 3/8 in. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft.

Fig. 4. J. Cal. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Schuh and A. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. . G. The valve crank S. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. This engine was built by W. or galvanized iron. using the positive wire as a pen. Eustice. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The boiler. at that. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. of Cuba. Fig. as shown in Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. powder can. First. --Contributed by Geo. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. as it is merely a trick of photography. to receive the connecting rod H. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and saturated with thick oil. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and the desired result is obtained. W. San Jose. G. C. and a very amusing trick. can be an old oil can. This is wound with soft string. 3. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Wis. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing.piece of hard wood. 1. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. is cut out of tin. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Fry.

but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 1 will be seen to rotate.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. to cross in the center. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Fig. diameter. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. B. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. as shown. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. C. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and Fig. as shown at AA. Cut half circles out of each stave. and place a bell on the four ends. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. and pass ropes around . Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. When turning. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The smaller wheel. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. They may be of any size. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving.

Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. procure a wooden spool. but not on all. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. To make this lensless microscope. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. as shown in the illustration. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A (a short spool. Louis. --Contributed by H. produces a higher magnifying power). The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.M. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. which accounts for the sound. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. which allows the use of small sized ropes. long.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. from the transmitter.. St. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.G. such as clothes lines. W. Mo. From a piece of thin .

and look through the hole D. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. A. B. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. The pivot. 2. darting across the field in every direction. E. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. which are pieces of hard wood. cut out a small disk. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. as in all microscopes of any power. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. bent as shown. To use this microscope. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. in which hay has been soaking for several days. e. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. 3. and so on.) But an object 3/4-in. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. held at arm's length.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. C. can be made of brass and the armature. by means of brads. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. D. which costs little or nothing to make. B. The lever. place a small object on the transparent disk. the diameter will appear three times as large. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. Viewed through this microscope. An innocent-looking drop of water. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is made of iron. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. the object should be of a transparent nature. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. otherwise the image will be blurred. i. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The spring. or 64 times. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. the diameter will appear twice as large. Fig. . 1.. is fastened at each end by pins. fastened to a wooden base. C. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and at the center. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. if the distance is reduced to one-half. H. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. (The area would appear 64 times as large. D. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and has the general appearance shown in Fig.. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.

binding posts: H spring The stop. brass or iron soldered to nail. can be made panel as shown. . coils wound with No. The binding posts. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. and are connected to the contacts. is cut from a board about 36 in. K. in length and 16 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. or a single piece. brass: E. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. Fig. DD. 2. wood. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide and set in between sides AA. wide. A switch. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. 1. should be about 22 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. D. long by 16 in. C.SOUNDER-A. The back. wide. connection of D to nail. 26 wire: E. D. Fig. which are made to receive a pivot. thick. long and 14-1/2 in. Cut the top. similar to the one used in the sounder. A. D. wood: F. Each side. K. 16 in. E. C. F. soft iron. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. HH. KEY-A. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. AA. 16 in. brass. brass: B. long. nail soldered on A. wide and about 20 in. between the armature and the magnet. B. fastened near the end. The door. wood: C. FF. wide. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. B. The base of the key.

Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. brads. AA. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. as shown. E. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Garfield. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. In operation. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Make 12 cleats. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 2 and made from 1/4-in. with 3/4-in. cut in them. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. 13-1/2 in. Ill. long. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. material.

which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A (see sketch). An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . N. When the pipe is used. through which a piece of wire is passed. pulls down the armature. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A. C. --Contributed by R. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Ridgewood. N. F. A fairly stiff spring. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Brown. will give a greater speed. --Contributed by John Koehler. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Y. in order to increase the surface. down into the water increases the surface in contact. J. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. when used with a motor. the magnet. and thus decreases the resistance. filled with water. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Fairport. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. A. and. Pushing the wire. E. B.

A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Gachville. Borden. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. B. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. N. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. even those who read this description. Of course. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. if desired. --Contributed by Perry A.

records. for 6-in. from the bottom. Connect switch to post B.whenever the bell rings. Compton. From a piece of brass a switch. C. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. as shown in Fig. Jr. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. apart. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. E. long and full 12-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. C. 1. --Contributed by Dr. --Contributed by H. Nails for stops are placed at DD. as shown in Fig. Mangold. H. Washington. The three shelves are cut 25-in. thick and 12-in. 2. and on both sides of the middle shelf. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Cal. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. deep and 3/4 in. A. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and 5 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Dobson. East Orange. records and 5-5/8 in. in a semicircle 2 in. wide. The top board is made 28-in. N. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. wide. J. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. for 10in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. D. . long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in.. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. With about 9 ft.

which in operation is bent. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. A. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . 1. closed. E. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. B. as shown in Fig. to which is fastened a cord. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Va.

wide. apart. 1 in. through one of these holes. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Do not fasten the sides too . this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Fig. wide. against which the rubber tubing. they will bind. 3). or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. it too loose. in diameter. long. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. CC. Bore two 1/4 in. in diameter. Fig. in diameter. In these grooves place wheels. thick. Figs. The crankpin should fit tightly. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. 1. Figs. square and 7/8 in. thick (A. In the sides (Fig. deep. E. holes (HH. 4 shows the wheel-holder. is compressed by wheels. which should be about 1/2 in. they will let the air through. D. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. to turn on pins of stout wire. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Put the rubber tube.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 5) when they are placed. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. one in each end. 3. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Cut two grooves. excepting the crank and tubing. B. deep and 1/2 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Now put all these parts together. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Notice the break (S) in the track. as shown in the illustration. E. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed.

Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. is all the expense necessary. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from that mark the next hole. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Take the center of the bar. Kan. the other wheel has reached the bottom.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 15 in. 2. The animal does not fear to enter the box. from the bottom and 2 in. and mark for a hole. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. though a small iron wheel is better. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. a platform should be added. from each end. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Hubbard. Cut six pieces. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. from each end. AA. mark for hole and 3 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Idana. Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. The three legs marked BBB. For ease in handling the pump. costing 10 cents. Fig. The screen which is shown in Fig. long. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. B. and are 30 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Fig. beyond each of these two. tubing. and 3-1/2 in. 1. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 2. 1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. mark again. Two feet of 1/4-in. To use the pump. A in Fig. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. of material. as it gives steadiness to the motion. because he can . 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. --Contributed by Dan H. iron. Then turn the crank from left to right. AA. from each end. 1. as shown in Fig. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. stands 20 in. 17-1/2 in.

rub the zinc well. The battery is now complete. but if one casts his own zinc. . the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. When through using the battery. silvery appearance. To cause a flow of electricity. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. 1) must be prepared. acid 1 part).see through it: when he enters. however. of water dissolve 4 oz. or small electric motors. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 14 copper wire. Place the carbon in the jar. potassium bichromate. If the solution touches the zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. 2). raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. of the top. some of it should be poured out. If it is wet. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Philadelphia. The mercury will adhere. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. stirring constantly. sulphuric acid. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. When the bichromate has all dissolved. until it is within 3 in. C. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. and the solution (Fig. or. dropping. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. shuts him in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. The battery is now ready for use. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. giving it a bright. Meyer. The truncated. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. long having two thumb screws. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. and touches the bait the lid is released and. add slowly. It is useful for running induction coils. --Contributed by H. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. there is too much liquid in the jar. If the battery has been used before. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. 4 oz. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful.

If. e. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Madison. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. however. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W..1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. pressing the pedal closes the door. i. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. while the coal door is being opened. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. which opens the door. the jump-spark coil . the battery circuit. The price of the coil depends upon its size. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. with slight changes. After putting in the coal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Wis.Fig. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.

described elsewhere in this book. while a 12-in. 7. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 5. Change the coil described. the full length of the coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7. in a straight line from top to bottom. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in a partial vacuum. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. W W. Now for the receiving apparatus. This will make an excellent receiver. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. This coil. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp.7. W W. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. . coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. coil. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. as shown in Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and closer for longer distances. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. 7). apart. After winding. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. being a 1-in. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. made of No. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. which is made of light copper wire. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". as shown in Fig. 6. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Fig. diameter. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 6. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig.

to the direction of the current. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. Figs.The aerial line. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A. 90°. but simply illustrates the above to show that. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. I run my lathe by power. A large cone pulley would then be required. above the ground. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. For an illustration. only. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. 90°. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. which will be described later. are analogous to the flow of induction. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. where A is the headstock. . No. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 1). and hence the aerial line. These circles. being vertical. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. being at right angles. at any point to any metal which is grounded. as it matches the color well. using an electric motor and countershaft. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. after all. Run a wire from the other binding post. may be easily made at very little expense. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 1 to 4. in the air.6 stranded. B the bed and C the tailstock. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil.

cut a square hole in the wood as shown. After pouring. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. tapered wooden pin. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. too. which pass through a piece of wood. 5. Fig. deep. 2 and 3. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Fig. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. but not hot enough to burn it. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. just touching the shaft. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. pitch and 1/8 in. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 6. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 5. on the under side of the bed. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. and Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. and runs in babbitt bearings. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 4. one of which is shown in Fig. If the bearing has been properly made. To make these bearings. A. which are let into holes FIG. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The headstock. thick. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Heat the babbitt well. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. B. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 6 Headstock Details D. The bolts B (Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 4. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig.

B. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Ill. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Oak Park. the alarm is easy to fix up. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Newark. The tail stock (Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. This prevents corrosion. so I had to buy one. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. and a 1/2-in.J. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. of the walk . lock nut. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. N. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. A. If one has a wooden walk. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.other machines. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. If not perfectly true. they may be turned up after assembling. embedded in the wood. FIG.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. Take up about 5 ft.

--Contributed by R. to roughen the surface slightly. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Connect up an electric bell. To avoid touching it. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Fig.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. silver or other metal. Finally. water. Do not touch the work with the hands again. save when a weight is on the trap. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Jackson. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. before dipping them in the potash solution. of water. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Minneapolis. and the alarm is complete. leaving a clear solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. (A. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Minn. 2). Then make the solution . Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. add potassium cyanide again. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. so that they will not touch. clean the articles thoroughly. S. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. to remove all traces of grease. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. hang the articles on the wires. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house.

18 wire. 1. lead. Screw the two blocks together. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. zinc. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. light strokes. copper. 3) strikes the bent wire L. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. long. must be about 1 in. If accumulators are used. will serve for the key. Fig. pewter. but opens the door. 1). 1 in. of clothesline rope and some No. This solution. To provide the keyhole. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. which . with water. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. If more solution is required. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. The wooden catch. The wooden block C. which is advised. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Fig. about 25 ft. saw a piece of wood. an old electric bell or buzzer. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. use 2 volts for large articles. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. German silver. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Make a somewhat larger block (E. --Model Engineer. square. with water. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. hole in its center. with the pivot 2 in. and the larger part (F. also. B should be of the same wood. of water. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. In rigging it to a sliding door. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point.up to 2 qt. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Having finished washing the precipitate. a hand scratch brush is good. 1 not only unlocks. if one does not possess a buffing machine. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. 3. Repeat six times. I. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. piece of broomstick. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. On brass. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. 1). Then. 3) directly over the hole. silver can be plated direct. With an electric pressure of 3. Take quick. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. as at F. shaking. Before silver plating. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. from the lower end. make a key and keyhole. long. 10 in. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. A (Fig. a circuit is completed. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center.5 to 4 volts. A 1/4 in. thick by 3 in. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. nickel and such metals. such metals as iron. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. as shown in Fig. When all this is set up. Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. and then treated as copper. Where Bunsen cells are used. which is held by catch B. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape.

. 3. --Contributed by E. with the lights turned low. in his shirt sleeves. Heavy metal objects. enlarged. Objects appear and disappear. The box must be altered first. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. The interior must be a dead black. which unlocks the door. or cave. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. a few simple tools. half way from open end to closed end. East Orange. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. H. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. sides and end. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 1. Klipstein. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. spoons and jackknives. shows catch B. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. surrounding a perfectly black space. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and a slit. 1. B. and plenty of candles. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). 116 Prospect St. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. the requisites are a large soap box. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Fig. In front of you.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. to throw the light toward the audience. Fig. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. between the parlor and the room back of it. 2. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. one-third of the length from the remaining end. heighten the illusion. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. and hands its contents round to the audience. Receiving the bowl again. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. some black cloth. H. Fig. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and finally lined inside with black cloth. the illumination in front must be arranged. Fig. On either side of the box. To prepare such a magic cave. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Thus. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. cut in one side. Next. he tosses it into the cave. floor. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Next. with a switch as in Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. New Jersey. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 0. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. some black paint. The magician stands in front of this. 2. although a little more trouble. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. so much the better. he points with one finger to the box. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. no painting inside is required. One end is removed. should be cut a hole. is the cut through which the rope runs. One thing changes to another and back again. H. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. such as forks. . where immediately appears a small white china bowl. He removes the bowl from the black box. top. and black art reigns supreme.

But illusions suggest themselves. and pours them from the bag into a dish. a screen must be used. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. had a big stage. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The illusion. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and several black drop curtains. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and if portieres are impossible. only he. of course. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. was identical with this. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. if. of course. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. The exhibitor should be . and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. is on a table) so much the better. which are let down through the slit in the top. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. his confederate behind inserts his hand. Consequently. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. as presented by Hermann. The audience room should have only low lights. the room where the cave is should be dark. you must have an assistant. in which are oranges and apples. one on each side of the box. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which can be made to dance either by strings. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. into the eyes of him who looks. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut.Finally. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind.

The action of the switch is shown in Fig. 1. terminal c3 will show .2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. c4.a boy who can talk. d. terminal c3 will show +. when handle K is turned to one side. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. 2. held down on it by two terminals. A. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. Then. so arranged that. b3. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. and c4 + electricity. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c3. making contact with them as shown at y. and c2 to the zinc. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. and a common screw. by means of two wood screws. b3. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. Finally. c2. held down on disk F by two other terminals.. b2. A represents a pine board 4 in. About the center piece H moves a disk. by 4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. 2). f2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. vice versa. respectively. b2. c1. if you turn handle K to the right. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . square. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. 2. e1 and e2. at L. b1. or b2. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. their one end just slips under the strips b1. with three brass strips. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). held down by another disk F (Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. as shown in Fig. On the disk G are two brass strips. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. making contact with them. 1. or binding posts. respectively. is shown in the diagram. respectively. FIG. Fig. and c1 – electricity.

Newark. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. B is a onepoint switch. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. -Contributed by A. . 5. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and then hold the receiver to your ear. you have the current of one battery. 4. When switch B is closed and A is on No. jump spark coil. E.. 1. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when on No. --Contributed by Eugene F. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver. from three batteries. 3. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Joerin. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Jr. and when on No. from four batteries. Tuttle. when A is on No. Ohio. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. from five batteries. when on No. and C and C1 are binding posts.

New Orleans. A. so one can see the time. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. La. traveled by the thread. and placed on the windowsill of the car. E. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. is the device of H. per second. per second for each second. Wis. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. of Burlington. over the bent portion of the rule. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. B. P. and supporting the small weight. The device thus arranged. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel.. Redmond. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Handy Electric Alarm . Thus. mark.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. mark. rule. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. which may be a button or other small object. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. as shown in the sketch.

The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. When the alarm goes off. S. for a wetting is the inevitable result. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Instead. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. --Contributed by Gordon T. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. soldered to the alarm winder. Lane. which illuminates the face of the clock. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Pa. B. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. C. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then if a mishap comes. Crafton.which has a piece of metal. and with the same result. but may be closed at F any time desired. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. . --C.

and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. --Contributed by A. ornaments of various kinds. but it is a mistake to try to do this. C. A. With the easily made devices about to be described. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. when it is being prepared. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. 1 . The first thing to make is a molding bench. cannons. Macey. New York City. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. as shown. whence it is soon tracked into the house. small machinery parts. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. engines. bearings. L. battery zincs. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. BE. and many other interesting and useful articles. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. models and miniature objects. and duplicates of all these. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. binding posts. Two cleats. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. AA. as shown in Fig. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . If there is no foundry Fig.

a little larger than the outside of the flask. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. It is made of wood and is in two halves. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. If the box is not very strong. An old teaspoon. The rammer. CC. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. II . giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. G. as shown. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. E. the "cope. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. The cloth bag." or upper half. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. 1. Fig. The flask. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. say 12 in. high. by 8 in.near at hand. and this. is shown more clearly in Fig. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. try using sand from other sources. which can be either aluminum. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. makes a very good sieve. is made of wood. previous to sawing. A A. 2 .How to Make a Mold [96] . and the "drag. A slight shake of the bag Fig. DD. is filled with coal dust. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. F. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. CC.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and saw it in half longitudinally. Fig. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. by 6 in. The dowels. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and the lower pieces. which can be made of a knitted stocking. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. 2. A wedge-shaped piece. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. but this operation will be described more fully later on. and a sieve. which should be nailed in. D. If desired the sieve may be homemade." or lower part. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. white metal. will be required. is about the right mesh. is nailed to each end of the cope. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. 1. H. J. as shown.

where they can watch the molders at work. turn the drag other side up." in position. In finishing the ramming. and thus judge for himself. It is then rammed again as before.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. or "drag. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as described. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. in order to remove the lumps. Place another cover board on top. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and scatter about 1/16 in. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown at C. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. the surface of the sand at . Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as it is much easier to learn by observation. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as shown at E." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. and if water is added. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. and then more sand is added until Fig. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. After ramming. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or "cope. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown at D. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask.

When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in.E should be covered with coal-dust. Place a brick or other flat. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at J. place the cope back on the drag. after being poured. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. in diameter. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand." or pouring-hole. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. is next cut. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus holding the crucible securely. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at F. thus making a dirty casting. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. . and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at H. This is done with a spoon. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. wide and about 1/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. The "sprue. and then pour. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. to give the air a chance to escape. After drawing the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. deep. as shown at G. as shown in the sketch. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at H. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. III. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. made out of steel rod. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. Fig. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds.

aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Referring to the figure. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Although the effect in the illustration . 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and the casting is then ready for finishing. 15% lead. white metal and other scrap available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. babbitt. although somewhat expensive. the following device will be found most convenient. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. is very desirable. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Minneapolis. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. used only for zinc. --Contributed by Harold S. In my own case I used four batteries. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. battery zincs. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. and. but any reasonable number may be used. Morton. If a good furnace is available. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. or from any adjacent pair of cells. may be used in either direction. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable.

--Contributed by Draughtsman. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Then walk down among the audience. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Put a sharp needle point.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. may be made of hardwood. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. connected by cords to the rudder. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. B. The bearings. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. which will be sufficient to hold it. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. The brass rings also appear distorted. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. If desired. Chicago. as shown in the illustration. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. B. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. To make it take a sheet-iron band. By replacing the oars with paddles. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. A. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. 3/4 in. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Fig. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. outward. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. 2. shaft made. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Then replace the table. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Make one of these pieces for each arm. backward. as shown at A. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed.

Snow. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. If babbitt is used. Fig. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown.melted babbitt. The covers. as shown in Fig. 1. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. or the paint will come off. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. In the same way. If galvanized iron is used. The hubs. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 2 and 3. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. A block of ice. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. 1. 3. 1. 2. should be made of wood. W. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. but when in motion. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and a weight. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. as shown in Fig. when it will again return to its original state. C. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. or under pressure. spoiling its appearance. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. being simply finely divided ice. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. E. It may seem strange that ice . D. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. A.

To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. thus giving a high resistance contact. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. which resembles ice in this respect. it will gradually change from the original shape A. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. brass. but by placing it between books. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. as shown on page 65. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Lane. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight.should flow like water. Crafton. by 5 in. as per sketch. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Pressing either push button. square. but. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. by 2 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. The rate of flow is often very slow. Pa. no matter how slow the motion may be. by 1/2 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. or supporting it in some similar way. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . and assume the shape shown at B. P. B. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 1/4. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. --Contributed by Gordon T. in. sometimes only one or two feet a day.. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.

wooden supports. draft. pulleys. as shown. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. E. Pa. A is the circuit breaker. Ward. alarm clock. Indianapolis. the induction coil. as shown. G. Wilkinsburg. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. J. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. C. F. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. about the size used for automobiles. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. D. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3.000 ft. the battery. and C. B. --Contributed by A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. I. K . and five dry batteries. H. The success depends upon a slow current. In the wiring diagram.thumb screws. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. vertical lever. B. draft chain. The parts are: A. G. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. horizontal lever. cord. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. furnace. weight.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. material framed together as shown in Fig. as well as the bottom. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. where house plants are kept in the home. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Artistic Window Boxes The top. such as used for a storm window. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 3. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Kalamazoo. Mich.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up.

one can regulate the batteries as required. and a suitable source of power.. a cork and a needle. This is more economical than dry cells. e. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. so as to increase the current. in diameter. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. as if drawn upon for its total output. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. where they are glad to have them taken away. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. 1 cp. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. is something that will interest the average American boy. Push the needle into the cork. in this connection. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. after a rest. --Contributed by Wm. and the instrument will then be complete. since a battery is the most popular source of power. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. and cost 27 cents FIG. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. N. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. Halifax. Canada. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. multiples of series of three. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. by connecting them in series. However. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. S. as indicated by Fig. in any system of lamps. A certain number of these. Grant. this must be done with very great caution. i. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. can be connected up in series. but maintain the voltage constant. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. 1 each complete with base. However. which sells for 25 cents. Thus. It must be remembered. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.. W. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. The 1/2-cp. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and will give the . In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. for some time very satisfactorily.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. 1.

it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. 11 series. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current.. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and diffused light in a room. for display of show cases. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. lamps. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 2 shows the scheme. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Thus. each. These will give 3 cp. Chicago. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. However. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. by the proper combination of these. especially those of low internal resistance. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. if wound for 6 volts. lamp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. FIG. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. as in Fig. Fig. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and for Christmas trees. 3. 1-cp. we simply turn on the water. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. lamps. and then lead No. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. which is the same as that of one battery. Thus. according to the water pressure obtainable. double insulated wire wherever needed. . So. although the first cost is greater. In conclusion. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. generates the power for the lights.proper voltage. to secure light by this method. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. where the water pressure is the greatest. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. 18 B & S. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and running the series in parallel. or 22 lights. making. If wound for 10 volts.

the letters indicate as follows: FF. --Contributed by F. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. bars of pole-changing switch. After I connected up my induction coil. Parker. or a tempting bone. DD.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. are cut just alike. switch. field of motor. Cal. and the sides. . BB. AA. --Contributed by Leonard E. a bait of meat. CC. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. B. as shown in the sketch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. simply change the switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. center points of switch. brushes of motor. Plymouth. thus reversing the machine. B. A indicates the ground. or from one pattern. A. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. outside points of switch. Ind. Emig. and C. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. To reverse the motor. we were not bothered with them. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Santa Clara. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted.

a hammer. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. San Jose. If it is not. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Fry. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. merely push the button E. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. as it is the key to the lock. W. 903 Vine St. a piece of string. and a table or bench. -Contributed by Claude B. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. one cell being sufficient. Hutchinson. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The experiment works best . A. When the circuit is broken a weight.. or would remain locked. Minn. Cal. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. thus locking the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. which is in the door. To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. Melchior. The button can be hidden.

A. D. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 3. I. Canada. Tie the ends of the string together. Schmidt. Madison. the current flows with the small arrows. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. attached at the other end. When the alarm rings in the early morning. . Ontario. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. releasing the weight. 1). To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 18 Gorham St. forming a loop. Brockville. Culebra. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 3. On another block of wood fasten two wires. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. W. P. the stick falls away. Crawford Curry. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Porto Rico. which pulls the draft open.. the key turns.Contributed by F. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. run through a pulley. -. where it will remain suspended as shown. C. Wis. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 4). When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in Fig.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 2.

J. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. --Contributed by Wm. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house.. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and the other to the battery. Farley. D. which fasten to the horn. including the mouthpiece. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. or tree. First. get two pieces of plate glass. thence to a switch. thick. 6 in. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. The cut shows the arrangement. Connect two wires to the transmitter. R. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and break the corners off to make them round. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. running one direct to the receiver. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and then to the receiver. J. Jr. N. made with his own hands. S. or from a bed of flowers. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Use a barrel to work on. Camden. and . a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. square and 1 in.

) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. also rotate the glass. using straight strokes 2 in. A. 1. and label. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. of water. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in.. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. with 1/4-in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. melt 1 lb. Fig. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Then warm and press again with the speculum. then 8 minutes. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When dry. while walking around the barrel. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. by the side of the lamp. In a dark room. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. When polishing the speculum. or less. a round 4-in. spaces. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. wide around the convex glass or tool. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. 2.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and is ready for polishing. then take 2 lb. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. and spread on the glass. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. so the light . L. and the under glass or tool convex. Use a binger to spread it on with. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. unless a longer focal length is wanted. twice the focal length away. wetting it to the consistency of cream. as in Fig. in length. and a large lamp. set the speculum against the wall. or it will not polish evenly. Fasten.. with pitch. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. the coarse grinding must be continued. wet till soft like paint. Fig. 2.

. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way.……………. that was set aside. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes..100 gr. If not. 4 oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.. cement a strip of board 8 in. Place the speculum S. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. as in K. long to the back of the speculum. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. then ammonia until bath is clear. 25 gr. 39 gr. When dry. and pour the rest into the empty dish. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. or hills. deep. 2. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Fig. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Silver nitrate …………………………….. The knife should not be more than 6 in. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 840 gr. with distilled water. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Now add enough of the solution A. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. also how the rays R from a star . 100 gr.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.………………………………. the speculum will show some dark rings. touched with rouge. Fig.. Then add solution B. 2. from the lamp. Then add 1 oz.. 4 oz. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. With pitch.……………………………. longer strokes. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). When the focus is found. fill the dish with distilled water. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. if a hill in the center. Nitric acid . Fig. face down. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Place the speculum. must be procured. The polishing and testing done. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.

two glass prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Mellish. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. is a satisfactory angle. slightly wider than the lens mount. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. and proceed as for any picture. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. About 20. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the tube I of sheet iron. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The flatter they are the less they will distort. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. . using strawboard and black paper. Thus an excellent 6-in. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. cover with paper and cloth. deg. with an outlay of only a few dollars. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.John E. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. stop down well after focusing.. which proves to be easy of execution. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Then I made the one described. telescope can be made at home. long and cost me just $15. My telescope is 64 in. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Place over lens.

Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Boody. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. B. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Fig. To unlock. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. push the button D. but will not preserve its hardening. Ill. through the lens of the camera and on the board. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. add the plaster gradually to the water. then add a little sulphate of potash. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. . complete the arrangement. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. -Contributed by A. unobstructed light strike the mirror. 1. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. says the Master Painter. and reflect through the negative. Zimmerman. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. A. Do not stir it. instead of the contrary. as shown in Fig. or powdered alum. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The paper is exposed. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. D. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. The rays of the clear. 2.

but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fasten on the switch lever. 1). A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 3. throw . and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. as in Fig. 2. 2. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as at A and B. Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. also provide them with a handle. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as shown in the sketch. use a string.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. To reverse. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Then blow through the spool.

-Contributed by Morris L. rinse in alcohol. . San Marcos. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Take out. B. Levy. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Go McVicker. the armature. wash in running water. binding posts. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Tex. although this is not necessary. carbon sockets. L. A is the electricbell magnet. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by Geo. Tex. and E E. San Antonio. as shown in the sketch. North Bend. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. and rub dry with linen cloth. carbons. D. Thomas. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Neb. Push one end of the tire into the hole.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. C C. In the sketch. --Contributed by R. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied.

--Contributed by Joseph B. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. long or more. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Brooklyn. Bell. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. wound evenly about this core.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 36 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 16 magnet wire.

about 6 in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. making two layers. In shaping the condenser. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. wide. The condenser is next wrapped . at a time. in diameter. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 2 may be purchased at a small cost.which would be better to buy ready-made. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. No. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. long and 5 in. which is an important factor of the coil. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. or 8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. as the maker prefers. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. with room also for a small condenser. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. a box like that shown in Fig. one piece of the paper is laid down. hole is bored in the center of one end. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. then the strip of tin-foil. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. in length. and finally the fourth strip of paper. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. diameter. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. 4. A 7/8-in. as shown in Fig. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 1. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. which is desirable. long and 2-5/8 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Beginning half an inch from one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. When cut and laid in one continuous length. but if it is not convenient to do this work. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. After the core wires are bundled. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The following method of completing a 1-in. 2 yd.

For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. forms the other pole or terminal. switch. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. flange turned on one side. and the other sheet. round so that the inside . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. copper lever with 1-in. F. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. B. Fig. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. shows how the connections are made. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. whole length. B. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. and one from battery. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. A. V-shaped copper strip. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. 4 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board.securely with bands of paper or tape. C. bell. G. go. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. battery . after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.) The wiring diagram. which allows wiring at the back. which is insulated from the first. by 12 in. wide. lines H. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. I. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. long and 12 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. long to key. one from bell. shelf for clock. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. E. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E.. ready for assembling. D. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. 3. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. to the door. the letters indicate as follows: A. spark. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. open switch C. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection.

. of zinc sulphate. The circuit should also have a high resistance. and then rivet the seam. says the Model Engineer. London. . do not shortcircuit. and the battery is ready for use. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. of blue stone. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Line the furnace. but with the circuit. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. That is what they are for.diameter is 7 in. instead of close to it. Use a glass or metal shade. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. but add 5 or 6 oz. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. 2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. This is for blowing. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. from the bottom. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Short-circuit for three hours. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. If desired for use immediately. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in.

imparting to them a violet tinge. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and then. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. square and about 9 in. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. as in the other movement. This type of battery will give about 0. Enlarge the hole slightly. for some it will turn one way. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and therein is the trick." which created much merriment. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. If too low. At least it is amusing. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Ohio. the second finger along the side. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. porcelain and paper. or think they can do the same let them try it. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. If any or your audience presume to dispute. affects . In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. To operate the trick..9 of a volt. Try it and see. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. while for others it will not revolve at all. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Outside of the scientific side involved. 2. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. herein I describe a much better trick. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. 1. for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. long. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. below the bottom of the zinc. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. but the thing would not move at all. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. thus producing two different vibrations. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. g. oxygen to ozone. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig.

How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . that also can be obtained from hardware stores.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. earth. if possible. an old tripod screw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. however. chemicals. a short-focus lens. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a means for holding it vertical.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. insects. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. says the Photographic Times. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. but not essential. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. To the front board is attached a box. and. and one of them is photomicrography. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. but small flowers. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but this is less satisfactory.

8 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. If the balloon is 10 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Mass. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 905 57 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 7-1/2 in. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. CD. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 5 in. The following table will give the size. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. balloon. 9 ft. Boston. Cap. 179 11 lb. 697 44 lb. 268 17 lb. 12 ft. 65 4 lb. 7-1/2 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Fig. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.--Contributed by George C. which is 15 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. A line. in diameter.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. AB. 381 24 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 113 7 lb. 5 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. Ft Lifting Power. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 1. or 3 ft. 6 ft. 11 ft. Madison. long and 3 ft. or 31 ft. and a line. in Cu. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 7 ft. while it is not so with the quill.

Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Repeat this operation four times. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. of beeswax and boil well together. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. on the curved line from B to C. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 3. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. keeping the marked part on the outside. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 70 thread. 4. using a fine needle and No. Procure 1 gal. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. of the very best heavy body. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. and so on. The cloth segments are sewed together. 2. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The pattern is now cut.

C.ft. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. of water will make 4 cu. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. with water 2 in. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. until no more dirt is seen. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. B. Vegetable oils should never be used. A. or a fan. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. The outlet. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. it is not fit to use. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. leaving the hand quite clean. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. A. A. About 15 lb. balloon are 125 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. this should be repeated frequently. pipe. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The 3/4-in. by fixing. of iron. In the barrel. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. C.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. which may sound rather absurd. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. ft. B. to the bag. but if any grease remains on the hand. Water 1 oz. 5. All FIG. using a fine brush. or dusting with a dry brush. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. and the teeth of the escapement wheel.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of sulphuric acid. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. Fill the other barrel. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point.. B. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. 1 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. if it is good it will dry off. of iron borings and 125 lb. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 5 . After washing a part. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. When the clock has dried. 150 gr. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. . 1 lb. . with the iron borings. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. as shown in Fig. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. a clean white rag. of gas in one hour. ]. oil the spindle holes carefully. with 3/4in. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. capacity and connect them. above the level of the water in barrel A.

This aerial collector can be made in . may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. 20 to 30 minutes. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. toning first if desired. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter.000 ft. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Port Melbourne. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. . Exposure. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Dry in the dark. or carbon. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. .Water 1 oz. of any make. dry atmosphere will give best results. or zinc. Printing is done in the sun. and a vigorous negative must be used. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. The positive pole.. The miniature 16 cp. A longer exposure will be necessary. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. A cold. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. The negative pole. and keep in the dark until used. says the Moving Picture World. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. keeping the fingers out of the solution. fix in hypo. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Dry the plates in the dark. or battery. to avoid blackened skin. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. at the time of employment.

holes . in diameter. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. lay a needle. long. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. making a ground with one wire. As the telephone offers a high resistance. This will complete the receiving station. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. when left exposed to the air. forming a cup of the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. both positive and negative. as described below. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. and have the other connected with another aerial line.various ways. lead pipe. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. If the waves strike across the needle. a positive and a negative. If the wave ceases. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. the resistance is less. The storage cell. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. 5 in. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. will soon become dry and useless. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver.

This box can be square. This.as possible. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The other plate is connected to the zinc. When mixing the acid and water. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Two binding-posts should be attached. says the Pathfinder. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. on each end. namely: a square hole. does not need to be watertight. and the other to the negative. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. by soldering the joint. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. or tube C. except for about 1 in. of course. an oblong one and a triangular one. D. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This support or block. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. B. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. a round one. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. or tube B. one to the positive.

The third piece of brass. Only galvanized nails should be used. 1. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. wide. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. all around the edge. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. as shown in Fig. back and under. 2. . about 20 in. as shown in Fig. long. is built 15 ft. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C. 3. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. in place on the wood. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. 1. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Chicago. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. and has plenty of good seating capacity. C. and match them together.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. This punt. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. leaving about 1/16 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as it is not readily overturned. Ill. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. were fitted by this one plug. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. thick cut two pieces alike. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. 2. deep and 4 ft. wide. A and B.

is cut 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. In Fig. B.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. gas pipe. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Tacoma.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. square (Fig 2). A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Wash. A piece of 1/4-in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in.

The winding of the armature. says the Model Engineer. Wagner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. H. lamp. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe.--Contributed by Charles H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. if possible. may be of interest to some of our readers. In designing. no special materials could be obtained. it had to be borne in mind that." has no connection with the outside circuit. and to consume. no more current than a 16-cp. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. without auxiliary phase. with the exception of insulated wire. or "rotor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. which the writer has made. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which can be developed in the usual manner. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.

about 2-1/2 lb. and filled with rivets. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The stator is wound full with No. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. as shown in Fig. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. this little machine is not self-starting. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. as shown in Fig. thick.the field-magnet. 3. no steel being obtainable. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. or "stator. being used. 1. to be filed out after they are placed together. C. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. bolts put in and tightened up. in diameter were drilled in the corners. 5. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and all sparking is avoided. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. B. wrought iron. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. 4. were then drilled and 1/4-in. while the beginnings . A. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. Unfortunately. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. Holes 5-32 in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 2. After assembling a second time. with the dotted line. also varnished before they were put in. holes. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds.

it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. This type of motor has drawbacks. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The rotor is wound with No. The image should . The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. In making slides by contact. No starting resistance is needed. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. One is by contact.. E. and as each layer of wire was wound. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Jr. as before stated. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 1. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 3-Contributed by C. 2. and all wound in the same direction. a regulating resistance is not needed. McKinney. having no commutator or brushes. if applied immediately. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. it would be very simple to build. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. as a means of illustrating songs. J. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. N. as shown in Fig. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and especially of colored ones. film to film. If too late for alcohol to be of use. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and as the motor runs at constant speed. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. Newark. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and would not easily get out of order. and the other by reduction in the camera. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid.

on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. the formulas being found in each package of plates. 5. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Being unbreakable. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. D. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . as shown in Fig. to use a plain fixing bath. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 1. if possible. also. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. 2. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. a little extra work will be necessary. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. Select a room with one window. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. as shown in Fig. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. they are much used by travelers. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and then a plain glass. over the mat. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. It is best. A. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. about a minute. Draw lines with a pencil. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 3. 4. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. If the exposure has been correct. except that the binding is different.appear in. C. B. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots.

holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. from the ends. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 16 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. wide and 50 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. holes bored in the end pieces. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. known as rods and cones. If the star is in front of the left eye. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Hastings. long. 1. from the end piece of the chair. as shown in Fig. Fig. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Corinth. long. as shown at B. A piece of canvas. or other stout cloth. in diameter and 40 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 2. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. while the dot will be in front of the other. These longer pieces can be made square. long. Fig. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. as shown at A. Vt. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. 1.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. in diameter and 20 in. is to be used for the seat. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in.

as shown in Fig. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig. A disk 1 in. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Auburn. in thickness and 10 in. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 1. per square inch. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. made from an ordinary sash cord. J. Cal. O'Gara. 2. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as well as to operate other household machines. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. . which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine.-Contributed by P. A belt. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block.

and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. 3/4 in. . says the Scientific American. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. direction. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. thick and 2-1/2 in. wide. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Put the bolt in the hole. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. fairly accurate. it serves a very useful purpose. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. with as fine a thread as possible. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. leaving it shaped like a bench. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. screwing it through the nut. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. A simple. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. divided by the number of threads to the inch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. will be the thickness of the object. and the construction is complete. to the top of the bench. square for a support.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The part of a rotation of the bolt. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Bore a 1/4-in. or inconvenient to measure. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. then removing the object.

material 12 ft. Santa Maria. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. which show up fine at night. long. piece of wood 12 ft. bolt in each hole. Oal. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. long is used for the center pole. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The wheel should be open . Bore a 3/4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. globe that has been thrown away as useless.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Place a 3/4-in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. beyond the end of the wood. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water.

Side and Top View or have spokes. Tex. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. at the top and 4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A. long. A cross bar. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. 1/2 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. thick is used for the armature. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. The spool . Fort Worth. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. long. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. of the ends with boards. thick. A piece of brass 2 in. from the ends. C. at the bottom. B. and on its lower end a socket. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. H and J. wide and 1/8 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod.-Contributed by A. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. wide and 1/8 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. made of the same material. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. in diameter. The coil. The boards may be nailed or bolted. C. Graham. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. square and 3 or 4 in. which should be 1/4 in. long. P. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. from the top end. O. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. L. is soldered. pieces used for the spokes. long. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch.

which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core.--A. long. do it without any apparent effort. B. is drilled. C.E. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. . 2. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. or a water rheostat heretofore described. A soft piece of iron. S. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. which may be had by using German silver wire. At the bottom end of the frame. and place it against a door or window casing. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. one without either rubber or metal end. for insulating the brass ferrule. Randolph. Bradlev. 1. by soldering. 2 the hat hanging on it. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and in numerous other like instances. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.000 for irrigation work. This tie can be used on grain sacks. and directly centering the holes H and J. F. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. S.J. Mass. that holds the lower carbon. This is a very neat trick if performed right. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. R.is about 2-1/2 in. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.000. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. When you slide the pencil along the casing. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. D and E. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. then with a firm. A. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. --Contributed by Arthur D. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. The armature. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.

about 1/8 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . The vibrator B. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. B. may be made from a 3/8-in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 1. 2. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. and then 1. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 1. from the core and directly opposite. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. long and 1 in. hole in the center. wide. mixed with water to form a paste. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. thick. leaving the projections as shown. A. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in.500 turns of No. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. about 1 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. About 70 turns of No. The vibrator. with a 3/16-in. D. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. F. for the primary. long. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. S. in diameter and 2 in. for the secondary. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The core of the coil. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. is constructed in the usual manner. in diameter. S. in diameter and 1/16 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Fig. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The switch. C. about 3/16 in. Fig. in diameter. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. for adjustment. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in.

to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The lock. brass plate. which is only 3/8-in. The tin is 4 in. in an ordinary water glass. long and when placed over the board. it laps down about 8 in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. between the boards. as shown in the sketch. and then well clinched. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. as shown. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The three screws were then put in the hasp. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. Fig. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. and the same distance inside of the new board. lighted. thick on the inside. 1. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 1. The hasp.Place a small piece of paper. . board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 16 in. board. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. which seemed to be insufficient. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The knob on the dial extends out too far. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. wide. which is cut with two holes. with which to operate the dial. 2 to fit the two holes.

an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. black color.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. and the back left dark. one in each division. If the box is made large enough. square and 8-1/2 in. not shiny. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. but when the front part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. When making of wood. or in the larger size mentioned. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for use in window displays. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. the glass. When the rear part is illuminated. square and 10-1/2 in. clear glass as shown.

Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. as it appears. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. wide will be about the right size. as shown in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown at A in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. into the other.. . long and 1 ft. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. a tank 2 ft. above the top of the tank. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. alternately. When there is no electric current available. When using as a window display. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

bit. using a 3/4-in. each. The pieces can then be taken out. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. with a length of 13 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. O. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. or ferrous sulphate. is the green vitriol. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Iron sulphate. This precipitate is then washed. and boring two holes with a 1-in. long. gauge for depth. from the ground. then use a red-hot iron to finish. This hole must be continued . The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. as shown. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. radius. thick and 3 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. If a planing mill is near. 6 in. is built on the front. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. however. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. hole bored the full length through the center. long. dried and mixed with linseed oil. lines gauged on each side of each. but with a length of 12 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. hole. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. high. 2 ft. A small platform. The 13-in. square and 40 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. and 6 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. wide. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Columbus. 5 ft. Shape the under sides first. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. 1 in. Three windows are provided. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and a solution of iron sulphate added. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. wide. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and a door in front. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. bore from each end. under sides together. one for each side. square.

Electric globes--two. The sketch shows one method of attaching. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. if shade is purchased. A better way. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Saw the two blocks apart. three or four may be attached as shown. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When the filler has hardened. If the parts are to be riveted." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. thick and 3 in. When this is dry. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. hole in each block. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. For art-glass the metal panels are . apply two coats of wax. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.through the pieces forming the base.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE . as brass.Construction of Shade .

It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. the object and the background. The arms holding the glass. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. one way and 1/2 in. and Fig. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. as in ordinary devices. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. the other. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. 2 the front view of this stand. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. as shown in the sketch. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Figure 1 shows the side. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.

How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as shown in the sketch. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. thus forming a 1/4-in. outside diameter. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. and swinging freely. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. channel in the circumference of the ring. as it is very poisonous. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. in diameter. in diameter for a base. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. wide and 11 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. and an inside diameter of 9 in. thick 5/8-in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. wide and 6-5/16 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. An ordinary pocket compass. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. long. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. If the light becomes dim. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Put the ring in place on the base. Before mounting the ring on the base. uncork and recork again. as shown in the cut. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. pointing north and south.

black oxide of copper. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. into these cylinders. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.088 .715 . Place on top the so- . EE. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.865 1.500 .289 . from the second to the third. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and mirrors. in diameter and 8 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. 1 oz. and north of the Ohio river. Corresponding mirrors. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .600 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. are mounted on a base. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.420 . CC. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. above the half can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. AA. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. of the top. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. B. The results given should be multiplied by 1. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.182 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.

This device makes an attractive advertising sign. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. 31 gr. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . then they will not rust fast. When renewing. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. always remove the oil with a siphon. little crystals forming in the liquid. Colo. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. alcohol. says Metal Worker. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. of pulverized campor. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 62 gr. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. In Fig. which otherwise remains clear. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. University Park. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Put the solution in a long. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. slender bottle.

A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. floating on a solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and copper are used. If zinc and carbon are used. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Lloyd Enos. A paper-fastener box. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. about 1-1/4 in. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Attach to the wires. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Solder in the side of the box . on the under side of the cork. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. --Contributed by C. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.

B. brass tubing. Wind evenly about 2 oz. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.in. A. D. away. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The bottom of the box. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. H.in. stained and varnished. 1/2. long. to it. The standard.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. glass tubing . of wire on each end extending from the coil. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. If the hose is not a tight fit. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. 3 in. hole. 1. The base.1-in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Rhamstine. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Use a board 1/2. . The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. A circular piece of cardboard. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. C.Contributed by J. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. or made with a little black paint. as shown in Fig. E. The spring should be about 1 in. wide and 6 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. piece of 1/4-in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. of No. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.not shorter than 18 in. Bore holes for binding-posts. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 14 wire will do. is made from a piece of No. and on the other around the glass tube. one on each side of the board. 1-1/4 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. can be made of oak. B. G--No. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. thick. 10 wire about 10 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. A. Thos. D. long that has about 1/4-in. wide and 2-1/2 in. F. D. long. E. C. and then solder on the cover. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Put ends. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. C.

3. canvas. long. Wis. 1. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. is drawn nearer to the coil. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Cuba. 3 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. . Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. of mercury will be sufficient. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.of the coil. four hinges. of 8-oz. J. long. in diameter. E. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3-in. N. as shown in Fig. about 1 in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. D. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. two pieces 2 ft. Smith. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 2. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. making a support as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. Milwaukee. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. About 1-1/2 lb. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. from the right hand. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Y. of No. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. When the glass becomes soft. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest.--Contributed by R. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. 5.--Contributed by Edward M. Teasdale. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in.

long. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. thus leaving a. Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Keys. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. This tube as described will be 8 in. Measure 8 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. expelling all the air. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Toronto. leaving 8 in. holding in the left hand. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Take 1/2 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Break off the piece of glass. Can. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. 3. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The tube now must be filled completely. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 4. of vacuum at the top. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. 2. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 5. 6. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. small aperture in the long tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube.. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. --Contributed by David A.

A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes.6 -. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. thick. as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 12 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. wide and 3 in. 2. but yellow pine is the best. 3 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 4. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wide and 5 ft. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 5. 7. wide and 5 ft. FIG. wide and 5 ft. as in Fig. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 9 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. wood screws. long. in diameter. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 6. This forms a slot. 1 in. material 2 in. and 1/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 1. 3 in. as shown in Fig. Four blocks 1/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. These are bent and nailed. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long. from the end of same. joint be accurately put together. thick. Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 3. with each projection 3-in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. thick. 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig.

says Photography. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. first removing the crank. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. above the runner level. . The runners can be made from 1/4-in. by 1-in. Manhattan. Welsh. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. --Contributed by C. Water 1 oz. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. R. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Kan. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. attach runners and use it on the ice.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other.

Leominster. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 2. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. . The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Mass. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The print is washed. and very much cheaper. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Newton. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 1 oz. 3. Printing is carried rather far. from an ordinary clamp skate. This is done with a camel's hair brush. of water. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. as shown in Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. also. Treasdale. --Contributed by Wallace C. 1. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper.

Alexandria. say. Fig. wide. wide and 4 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and 3 ft. 1-1/2 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. as shown in the sketch. with about 1/8-in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. about 10 in. fasten a 2-in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. from one end. Va. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. 1. A. square piece. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. and to the bottom. Church. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. high. high for rabbits. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Then. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Place a 10-in. --Contributed by H. causing the door to swing back and up. hole. The thread is broken off at the . 1. long. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. 1 ft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. extending the width of the box. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. too. The swing door B. F. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 2. Fig. Take two glass tubes. and bend them as shown in the sketch. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. which represents the back side of the door.

to be used as a driving pulley. Cut an opening in the other piece. long. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. 1 in. Chicago. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. in size. 3.. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater.proper place to make a small hole. Paste a piece of strong black paper. camera and wish to use some 4. inside of the opening. high and 12 in. This opening. . one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. says Camera Craft. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. wide. Take two pieces of pasteboard. but cut it 1/4 in. -Contributed by William M. Fig. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. trolley cars. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A and B. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. shorter. shorter at each end. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. 10 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. D. 2. say 8 in.by 5-in. Jr.by 7-in. and go in the holder in the same way. C. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. B. horses and dogs. being 1/8 in. plates. in size. Fig. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Out two rectangular holes. as shown in Fig. black surfaced if possible. wide. Crilly. long. wide and 5 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. 1. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. automobiles.

A cell of this kind can easily be made. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. if it has previously been magnetized. long and 6 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.. wide will be required. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The needle will then point north and south. making a .A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. in diameter. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. into which the dog is harnessed.

short time. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. when the paraffin is melted. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. 1/4 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. plaster of paris. for a connection. Place the pan on the stove. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. A is a block of l-in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. fuel and packing purposes. of the plate at one end. and a notch between the base and the pan.in. F is a spool. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. under the spool in the paraffin.watertight receptacle. Pack the paste in. 1 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of water. with narrow flanges. This makes the wire smooth. long which are copper plated. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Do not paint any surface. B is a base of 1 in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. 3/4 lb. in which P is the pan. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. zinc oxide. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. one that will hold about 1 qt. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. in diameter and 6 in. pine. pull out the wire as needed. only the joints. leaving about 1/2-in. says Electrician and Mechanic. sal ammoniac. fodder. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of rosin and 2 oz. filter. beeswax melted together. . Form a 1/2-in. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. of the top. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T.

I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. as in the other movement. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. and therein is the trick. and he finally. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Ohio. and one friend tells me that they were . thus making the arm revolve in one direction.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. 2. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. from vexation. while for others it will not revolve at all. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. At least it is amusing.. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. let them try it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Toledo. and then. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. or think they can do the same. If any of your audience presume to dispute. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. thus producing two different vibrations. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. g. for others the opposite way. by the Hindoos in India. Try it and see. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. square and about 9 in." which created much merriment. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Enlarge the hole slightly. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. long. but the thing would not move at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement.

3. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. To operate.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face.100 r. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. no rotation resulted. p. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. 5. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. 6. secondly. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The experiments were as follows: 1. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the pressure was upon an edge. and. the rotation may be obtained. by means of a center punch. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. gave the best results. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Thus a circular or . and I think the results may be of interest. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 2. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 7. m. Speeds between 700 and 1. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. rotation was obtained. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 4.

D. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. . The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. so far as can be seen from the photographs. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. A. A wire is tied around the can. if the pressure is from the left. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. --Contributed by M. a piece of wire and a candle. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Duluth. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. G. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. D." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. it will be clockwise.. forming a handle for carrying. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action.. Washington. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. or greasy. Sloan. Minn. and the resultant "basket splash. at first. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Ph. the upper portion is.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. C. as shown. unwetted by the liquid. is driven violently away. Lloyd.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. about 2-5/8 in. long. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. thick and 1 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. axle. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. flange and a 1/4-in. 1. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. in diameter. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. hole drilled in the center. with a 1/16-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. as shown in Fig. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown.

The parts. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. bent as shown. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig.brass. A trolley. 4. each in its proper place. Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. are shown in Fig. of No. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. lamp in series with the coil. --Contributed by Maurice E. 6. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. put together complete. 3. 5. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 3/4 in. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. These ends are fastened together. bottom side up. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. with cardboard 3 in. If the ends are to be soldered. This will save buying a track. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. which must be 110 volt alternating current. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. is made from brass. wide and 16 in. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 3. Fuller. as shown in Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. long. 1 from 1/4-in. 2. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. as shown in Fig. or main part of the frame. The current. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The first piece. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. and the locomotive is ready for running. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Fig. San Antonio. Texas. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. holes 1 in.50. 2. wood. The motor is now bolted. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. is made from a piece of clock spring.

the length of a paper clip. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. but do not heat the center. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Cincinnati. When cold treat the other end in the same way. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in Fig. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 3. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig 1. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. The quarter will not go all the way down.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 1. and as this end . and holes drilled in them. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. then continue to tighten much more. as shown in Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fig. O. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened.

at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A pair of centers are fitted. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. In the sketch. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. has finished a cut for a tooth. and adjusted . 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. 2 and 1 respectively. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. When the cutter A. or should the lathe head be raised. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe.

about 1-1/2 in. (6. lady's card case. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. coin purse. blotter back. 1. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. such as brass or marble. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. (4. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. watch fob ready for fastenings. note book. Second row: -Two book marks. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. swing lathe. The frame holding the mandrel.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. --Contributed by Howard S. lady's belt bag. at the same time striking light. (1. Bunker. if four parts are to be alike. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.to run true. --Contributed by Samuel C. Bott. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Make on paper the design wanted. book mark. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Place the paper design on the leather and. trace the outline. tea cosey. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. In this manner gears 3 in.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. (3. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. holding it in place with the left hand. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (2. twisted around itself and soldered.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Brooklyn. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Fig. if but two parts. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. above the surface.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . or one-half of the design. (5. When connecting to batteries. long. tea cosey. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. gentleman's card case or bill book. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. draw center lines across the required space. N. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). An ordinary machine will do. 2. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Fold over along these center lines. and a nut pick. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Y.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube.. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and push it through a cork. where it condenses. Thrust a pin. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The electrodes are made .C. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. a distance of 900 miles. Florida. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. from Key West. and bore a hole through the center. If the needle is not horizontal. into which fit a small piece of tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. A. B. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. D. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.

Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The operator can then land safely and . wide and 4 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. wide and 3 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 1/2. 1. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. To make a glide. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Powell. both laterally and longitudinally. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 1.in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. free from knots. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. slacken speed and settle. thick. 16 piano wire. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. lengths and splice them.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. thick. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long. by 3/4 in. All wiring is done with No. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 3. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. long for the body of the operator. --Contributed by Edwin L. wide and 4 ft. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 2. 1. C. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. Washington. or flying-machine. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 2 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. Connect as shown in the illustration. lumber cannot be procured. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. long. If 20-ft. several strips 1/2 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. thick. wide and 4 ft long. using a high resistance receiver. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 1-1/2 in. long. 1-1/4 in. thick. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. apart and extend 1 ft. use 10-ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. as shown in Fig. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. thick. 2. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. as shown in Fig. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. which is tacked to the front edge. as shown in Fig. take the glider to the top of a hill. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. long. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. square and 8 ft long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. long. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. D.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Of course. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. but this must be found by experience. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Great care should be .

otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 1. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. 2.exercised in making landings. Olson. a creature of Greek mythology. --Contributed by L. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. which causes the dip in the line. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. half man and half horse. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Bellingham. M. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. as shown in Fig. When heated a little.

about the size of door screen wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. square. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. 14 in. The light from the . making it 2-1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. this will cost about 15 cents. about the size of stove pipe wire. at the other. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. long. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. long and about 3/8 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. outside the box. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. will complete the material list. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. of small rubber tubing. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in.

With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. . A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in Fig. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in the sketch. Hunting. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. Dayton. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. O. M. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 2. while others will fail time after time.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 1. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. This is very simple when you know how. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. If done properly the card will flyaway. --Photo by M.

When the desired shape has been obtained. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as shown. closing both hands quickly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. place the other two. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. hold the lump over the flame. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as described." or the Chinese students' favorite game. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as before. then put it on the hatpin head. This game is played by five persons. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Cool in water and dry.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. distribute electric charges . passing through neutralizing brushes. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. these sectors.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. from about 1/4-in. long. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. at the other. and the outer end 11/2 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Fig. long and the shank 4 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. 3. Two solid glass rods. The fork part is 6 in. The plates are trued up. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The two pieces. The collectors are made. 4. as shown in Fig. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. the side pieces being 24 in. are made from 7/8-in. long and the standards 3 in. Fig. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. 2. brass tubing and the discharging rods. free from wrinkles. in diameter. The drive wheels. RR. in diameter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. These pins. GG. and 4 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The plates. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. wide at one end. wide. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. material 7 in. turned wood pieces. 1 in. in diameter. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and pins inserted and soldered. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. and of a uniform thickness. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. in diameter. long. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. or teeth. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1. to which insulating handles . are made from solid. Two pieces of 1-in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter and 15 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. EE. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. C C. D. after they are mounted. 3. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends.

ball and the other one 3/4 in. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. one having a 2-in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. and the work was done by themselves. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. in diameter. wide and 22 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. which are bent as shown. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colo. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. D. KK. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. --Contributed by C. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.. Colorado City. 12 ft.are attached. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. long.

string together. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. deep. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.is a good one. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. They can be used to keep pins and needles. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. pens . Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. The key will drop from the string. as at A. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. using a 1-in. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. yet such a thing can be done. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. bit. and bore a hole 1/2 in.

they make attractive little pieces to have about. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 6. 4. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. extra metal on each of the four sides. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. When the stamping is completed. 23 gauge. Having determined the size of the tray. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. about 3/4-in. inside the first on all. slim screw. or cigar ashes.. unless it would be the metal shears. Draw one-half the design free hand. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 3. This is to make a clean. very rapid progress can be made. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. sharp division between background and design. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. two spikes. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. file. 9. They are easily made. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Raise the ends.. 7. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 8. using a nail filed to chisel edge.and pencils. also trace the decorative design. and the third one 1/4 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. etc. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Use . etc. Inside this oblong. stamp the background promiscuously. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. above the work and striking it with the hammer. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the metal. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. then the other side. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 2. 5. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.

Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. and fourth fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 8. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The eyes. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. second fingers. 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 6. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 10. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. third fingers. 7. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. first fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. In the first numbering. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. and the effect will be most pleasing. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

as high as you want to go.. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. In the second numbering. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. first fingers. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Two times one are two. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. or 60. 11. 12. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. 600. .called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Let us multiply 12 by 12. the product of 12 times 12. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. At a glance you see four tens or 40. etc. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 25 times 25. Still. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. etc. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. above 15 times 15 it is 200. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. viz. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. above 20 times 20. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. thumbs. or 80. which would be 16. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or the product of 6 times 6. which tens are added. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. 400. Put your thumbs together. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. there are no fingers above. renumber your fingers. or the product of 8 times 9.. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44.. or numbers above 10. which would be 70. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. etc. 2 times 2 equals 4. but being simple it saves time and trouble. if we wish. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.

which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. and. or from above or from below. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. It takes place also. 21. The inversion and reversion did not take place. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. or what. etc. 2. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the lump sum to add. 75 and 85. twenties. forties. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. when he removes his spectacles. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Take For example 18 times 18. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the value which the upper fingers have. 3. about a vertical axis. lastly. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. being 80). and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. such as an used for lighting gas-burners.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. And the lump sum to add. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. as one might suppose. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. For example. first finger 17. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the inversion takes place against his will. further. For figures ending in 6. however. in the case of a nearsighted person.. thumbs. not rotation. the revolution seems to reverse. and so on. . first fingers 22. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 7. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. 8. at the will of the observer. adding 400 instead of 100. any two figures between 45 and 55. thirties. beginning the thumbs with 16. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Proceed as in the second lumbering.

but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. sometimes the point towards him. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. tee. and putting a cork on the point. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. A flat slide valve was used. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The ports were not easy to make. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. as . when he knows which direction is right. Looking at it in semidarkness. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the other appearance asserts itself. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When.

as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. . and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. pipe 10 in. apart. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. pipe. H. about 2 in. Ill. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. bottom side up. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Kutscher. across and 1/2 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. deep. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The steam chest is round. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Springfield. Fasten the block solidly. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. -Contributed by W. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. If nothing better is at hand. in diameter. secure a piece of No. across the head. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. as in a vise.. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. saw off a section of a broom handle. and make in one end a hollow. such as is shown in the illustration. While this engine does not give much power. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. it is easily built. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. inexpensive.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Next take a block of wood. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Beating copper tends to harden it and.

will cause the metal to break. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. as it softens the metal. Vinegar. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. and. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. the other to the left. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. To produce color effects on copper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. To overcome this hardness. This process is called annealing. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. O. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. --Contributed by W. Camden. Hay. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. S. C. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out.

. and lies to the right on the picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. although they pass through the screen. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. as for instance red and green. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture.stereoscope. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. because of the rays coming from them. diameter. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. It is just as though they were not there. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. with the stereograph. not two mounted side by side. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. In order to make them appear before the card. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. in the proper choice of colors. But they seem black. however. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. only the orange rays may pass through. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they must be a very trifle apart. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. disappears fully. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. that for the right. So with the stereograph. from the stereograph. would serve the same purpose. the further from the card will the composite image appear. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The further apart the pictures are. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. because. orange. and without any picture. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. while both eyes together see a white background. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. it. The red portions of the picture are not seen. the left eye sees through a blue screen. the one for the left eye being blue. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background.

The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. San Francisco. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. This should only be bored about half way through the block. A No. thick. wide and 1 in. or the middle of the bottle. 1/4 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Cal. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in the shape of a crank. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 12 gauge wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Place a NO.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. long and a hole drilled in each end. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. wireless. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. in diameter. The weight of the air in round . 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. etc. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.

34 ft.numbers is 15 lb. will calibrate itself. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. if accurately constructed. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but before attempting to put in the mercury. Before fastening the scale. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. internal diameter and about 34 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. the contrary. a bottle 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. square. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. wide and 4 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. thick. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. long. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. if you choose. 30 in. long. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.. and a slow fall. In general. square. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. inside diameter and 2 in. the instrument. or. pine 3 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. wide and 40 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. high. The 4 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made.6) 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a glass tube 1/8 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. high. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. . The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. long. high.

thick. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 3. 5. Procure a metal can cover. the size of the outside of the bottle. long. Mark out seven 1-in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Number the pieces 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 6 and 7. 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. which is slipped quickly over the end. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a cover from a baking powder can will do. and place them as shown in Fig. wide and 10 in.

2's place. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. l over No. 5 over No. 7's place. 6 in. which is the very best material for the purpose. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 2. Move 6-Move No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 10-Move No. Move 14-Jump No. 3 over No. Move ll-Jump No. Woolson. 2 . long and 2 ft. 3 to the center. Make 22 sections. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No. using checkers for men. 1. procure unbleached tent duck. To make such a tent. in diameter. 1 to No. 6. 3. 1. Move 8-Jump No. 3. Move 12-Jump No. 7 over No. L. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Cape May Point. 2's place. Move 7-Jump No. 6 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns.-Contributed by W. Move 2-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. each 10 ft. Move 4-Jump No. Move 9-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 5 over No. shaped like Fig. 6.J. 6 to No. Move 3-Move No. N. Move 13-Move No. 6 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. as shown in Fig. 5's place. 1 into No. Move 15-Move No. 5. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2. 3. 3 into No. 7 over No. 5's place. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2 over No. 7.

making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. leaving the rest for an opening. After transferring the design to the brass. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. As shown in the sketch. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Fig. diameter. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. round galvanized iron. fill with canvas edging. In raising the tent. 2 in. 5. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Emsworth. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. about 9 in. Punch holes in the brass in . Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Fig. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. back of the rice paper and before a bright light.J. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. high. Tress. from the top. Use blocks. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. in diameter. wide at the bottom. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. long. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. added. made in two sections. 2. 6-in. Pa. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in.. wide at the bottom. as in Fig. to a smooth board of soft wood. --Contributed by G. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. will do. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. wide by 12 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. 5) stuck in the ground. 9 by 12 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 6. 3 in. These are ventilators. long and 4 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.

then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. bend into shape. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. Corr. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When the edges are brought together by bending. but before punching the holes. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. apart. . The pattern is traced as before. It will not. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. excepting the 1/4-in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. around the outside of the pattern. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. When all the holes are punched. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder.

so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. If a wheel is selected. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. pipe. --Contributed by H. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. or. Oregon. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Stevens. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. These pipes are . The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Que. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A 6-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Badger. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. A cast-iron ring. --Contributed by Geo. partially filled with cream. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. better still. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. pipe is used for the hub.however. or less. allowing 2 ft. Mayger. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. E. between which is placed the fruit jar. Dunham.. G. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. or center on which the frame swings.

pipe clamps. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Four braces made from 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in.

and dropped on the table. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. while doing this. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. which was placed in an upright position. as shown in Fig. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 1. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and the guide withdrawn. 3. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before.

and second. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The box can be made of selected oak or . St. Denver. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. -Contributed by C. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. D. Louis.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. White. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. 2. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Colo. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin. Mo. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. in a half circle. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. --Contributed by H. 1. F. first. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Harkins.

which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. 1. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. Two or three holes about 1 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. from each end of the outside of the box. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. as shown in Fig.mahogany. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. wide by 5 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. 3-1/2 in. and 2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. long and should be placed vertically. 5-1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide. focal length. high and 11 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. but not tight. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. An open space 4 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. AA. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide and 6-1/2 in. and. represented by the dotted line in Fig. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. high and must . long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 2. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. fit into the runners. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. This will be 3/4 in. from each end. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used.

Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and so on. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling this February. calling that knuckle January. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. April. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. C. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. West Toledo. the article may be propped up .. then the second knuckle will be March. --Contributed by Chas. June and November. as it requires an airtight case. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. This process is rather a difficult one. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Bradley. Ohio. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year." etc. provided it is airtight. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. 1.

A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Y. giving it an occasional stir. in. and the lead 24 sq. Crawford. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The top of a table will do. fruit jars are required. in. but waxed. Pour in a little turpentine. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. 2. N. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. 1 and 2.with small sticks. --Contributed by J. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. In both Fig. the lid or cover closed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. In each place two electrodes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. or suspended by a string. 1. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. taking care to have all the edges closed. and set aside for half a day. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. . How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. H. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Schenectady. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq.

--Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Cleveland. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. He. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as you have held it all the time. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. you remove the glass. as well as others. After a few seconds' time. he throws the other. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. This trick is very simple. which you warm with your hands. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. You have an understanding with some one in the company..

Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. . J. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Pull the ends quickly. but by being careful at shores. in diameter in the center. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Be sure that this is the right one.take the handiest one. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. on a table. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Colo. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. put it under the glass. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration.-Contributed by E. Victor. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. if any snags are encountered. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. near a partition or curtain. Crocker. but in making one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.

and. by 2 in. screws and cleats. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. from each end to 1 in. 3 and 4. 1 mast. 3 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. wide. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. for the stern piece. wide and 12 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. from the stern. for center deck braces. 1/8 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 in. 1 in. one 6 in. 1 piece. by 16 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. 4 outwales. 1 in. long. 1/4 in. wide 12-oz. by 2 in. 9 ft.. selected pine. Paint. and the other 12 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. by 15 ft.. is 14 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. and fastened with screws. 1 piece. from the bow and the large one. drilled and fastened with screws. ducking. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Both ends are mortised. thick and 3/4 in. wide unbleached muslin. 8 in. 8 yd. and is removed after the ribs are in place. by 12 in. clear pine. 1. by 16 ft. at the ends. for the bow. The keelson. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 10 ft. for cockpit frame. wide and 12 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. of rope. Fig. 50 ft. apart. 3 in. of 1-1/2-yd. square by 16 ft. 14 rib bands. 11 yd. long. long. 1 in. by 8 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. of 1-yd. 2 and braced with an iron band. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 7 ft. 2 gunwales. as illustrated in the engraving. 2 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. long. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together.

wide. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. is cut to fit under the top boards. corner braces. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. A 6-in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. These are put in 6 in. 9. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 1 in. The deck is not so hard to do. thick and 12 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wide and 14 in. A block of pine. A piece of oak. thick 1-1/2 in. Figs. 1 in. 3-1/2 ft. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. also. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Fig. 6 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. apart. wide and 24 in. from the bow. 1/4 in. 5. long. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. a piece 1/4 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Braces. long is well soaked in water. The block is fastened to the keelson. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 4 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. length of canvas is cut in the center. thick. This block. is a cube having sides 6 in. thick and 1/2 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. They are 1 in. 7 and 8. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. long. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The trimming is wood. wide and 3 ft. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 6. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 6 and 7. . bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. and fastened to them with bolts. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. doubled. wood screws. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. screws. long. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick. gunwales and keelson. in diameter through the block. Before making the deck. Fig. The 11-yd. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. wide. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas.

A strip 1 in. thick by 2 in. The keel. The mast has two side and one front stay. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. each 1 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Fig. wide at one end and 12 in. 10 with a movable handle. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. are used for the boom and gaff. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 11. wide. 12. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. . long. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The house will accommodate 20 families. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. is 6 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. --Contributed by O. Tronnes. The sail is a triangle. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. in diameter and 10 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. apart in the muslin. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. long. Ill. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. at the other. E. Wilmette. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles.

Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 4. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. thick. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 5. about 5/16 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. long. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. and 3 ft.into two 14-in. 1. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. square. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 3. long and five 1/2-in. wide and 30 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. five 1/2-in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. wide. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. as shown in Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 1 yd. flat-headed screws. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. 2. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. E. Take this and fold it over . one 11-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. wide.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. flat on one side. --Contributed by O. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. flat headed screws. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Cut the maple. wide and 2 ft. long. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Tronnes. long. Wilmette. Ill. and the other 18 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces.

from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. A. Another piece. The bag is then turned inside out. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 1-1/4 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 3 in. Cut another piece of board. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. When the glue is set. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Mo. long. Fig. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Louis. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick. St. wide and 2-3/4 in. C. Make a double stitch all around the edge. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. is set. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 6-3/4 in. long. 5 from 1/16-in. 3-1/4 in. of each end unwound for connections. 6-1/2 in. square. long. --Contributed by W. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. and the four outside edges. thick and 3 in. long. the top and bottom. The front. square. F. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Figs. forming an eye for a screw. A. Wind three layers of about No. 3/8 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. B. then centered. D. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. If carefully and neatly made. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 1. wide . After the glue. Bliss. wide and 5 in. but can be governed by circumstances. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Glue a three cornered piece. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. as well as the edges around the opening. the mechanical parts can be put together. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. C. soaked with water and blown up. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. E. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. are rounded. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. thick. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. and make a turn in each end of the wires. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 6-1/2 in. about 3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. About 1/2 in. long. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. wide and 2-1/2 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 2 and 3.once. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up.

The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. F. that has the end turned with a shoulder. 5-1/2 in. The end of the polar axis B. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. These wires should be about 1 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. 4. board.and 2-5/8 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling.A. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. W. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.R. Chapman. and as the part Fig. thick. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Place the tin. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Richmond Hill. G. L. and fasten in place. the same size as the first. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. 1/4 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. 4. The base is a board 5 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. in diameter. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. R. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. and the farther apart they will be forced. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Like poles repel each other. The stronger the current. so it will just clear the tin. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Fig. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . bored in the back. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long. I. the part carrying the pointer moves away. 5. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Fig. from one end. The resistance is now adjusted to show . is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. long. Austwick Hall. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. C. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Yorkshire. wide and 2-1/2 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. wide and 9 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. Another strip of tin. A pointer 12 in. 4 is not movable. 1/16 in. long. from the spindle. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. A brass tube having a 1/4-in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. When the current flows through the coil. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B.S. hole is fastened to the pointer. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. The following formula will show how this may be found. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation. at 9 hr. A. 30 min. shows mean siderial. M. and vice . 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 1881. thus: 9 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.

The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. and then verify its correctness by measurement. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. --Contributed by Robert W. or.f. . Conn. if one of these cannot be had. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. New Haven. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.m. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Hall.

Fig. arsenic to every 20 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. The boring bar. of alum and 4 oz. 1. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. leaves or bark. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. as shown in the accompanying picture. and heap the glowing coals on top. 3/8 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. especially for cooking fish. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. thick. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wet paper will answer. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. cover up with the same. When the follower is screwed down. put the fish among the ashes. fresh grass. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 1-3/4 in. long. Then.

These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. and threaded on both ends. pipe. when they were turned in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. about 1/2 in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. fastened with a pin. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder.

and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. 30 in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. 4. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. thick and 3 in. long. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 2. was then finished on an emery wheel. Clermont. Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal.valve stems. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. bent in the shape of a U. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. square iron. Fig. It . then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Iowa. the float is too high. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Fig. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The rough frame. but never one which required so little material. 5. 3. a jump spark would be much better. If the valve keeps dripping. as the one illustrated herewith. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. wide. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. then it should be ground to a fit. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. and which gave such satisfactory results. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. A 1-in. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. labor and time. however. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in.

The illustration largely explains itself." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. A 3/4 -in. 12 ft. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . from all over the neighborhood. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. The crosspiece is 2 in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long is the pivot. square. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. butting against short stakes. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. long. from the center. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. 3/4 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Nieman. strong clear material only should be employed. --Contributed by C. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. A malleable iron bolt. so it must be strong enough. If it is to be used for adults. and a little junk." little and big. no matter what your age or size may be. long. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. square and 2 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. It looks like a toy. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. As there is no bracing. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. for the "motive power" to grasp. in diameter and 15 in. and. This makes an easy adjustment. W. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The seats are regular swing boards. rope is not too heavy. square and 5 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. being held in position by spikes as shown. completes the merry-go-round. in the ground with 8 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. timber. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. in fact. with no trees or buildings in the way. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. hole bored in the post. extending above. set 3 ft.

The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. These ends are placed about 14 in. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. square. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Having placed the backbone in position. long. as shown in Fig. if nothing better is at hand. 1/4 by 3/32 in. a wreck. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. away. one for the backbone and one for the bow. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. then it is securely fastened. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 1. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced.2 emery. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. and 18 in. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. A reel is next made. To wind the string upon the reel. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 2. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The bow is now bent. The backbone is flat. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line.the fingers. Both have large reels full of . He shapes two pieces of bamboo. light and strong. and sent to earth. 4. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other.

The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Bunker. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. common packing thread. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Brooklyn. C. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The handle end is held down with a staple. --Contributed' by Harry S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.-Contributed by S. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Moody. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Newburyport. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can .string. often several hundred yards of it. or glass-covered string. N. the balance. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Y. First. he pays out a large amount of string. If the second kite is close enough. Mass. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.

Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. make the pad as shown in the illustration. cutting the circular piece into quarters. --Contributed by Earl R. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. length of 2-in. then draw the string up tight. If the table is round. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Vt. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. then a dust protector. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. lengths (Fig. such as mill men use. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Corinth. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Hastings. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . must be attached to a 3-ft. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. each the size of half the table top. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. square (Fig.

and E to G. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. trace the design carefully on the leather.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Wharton. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 6-1/4 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. . which spoils the leather effect. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. E.-Contributed by H. Use a smooth. 17-1/2 in. hard pencil. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 2-1/4 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. from E to F. Moisten the . This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.9-1/4 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 16-1/4 in.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. G to H. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.. Calif. Oakland. from C to D. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.

A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. if not more than 1 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. also lines A-G. G-J. with the rounded sides of the tools. and E-G. and corresponding lines on the other side. get something with which to make a lining. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. apart. I made this motor . is taken off at a time. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. about 1/8 in. place both together and with a leather punch. H-B. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Now cut narrow thongs. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. To complete the bag. wide.

B. 1. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. in length. 2-1/4 in. D. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Shannon. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. each being a half circle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. long. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. as shown in Fig. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. . The one shown is 3-1/2 in.M. 2. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Pasadena. --Contributed by J. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Calif. 24 gauge magnet wire. iron. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 1.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. of No. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.

1. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The gores for a 6-ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. are the best kind to make. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. near the center. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. and the gores cut from these. pasted in alternately. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. from the bottom end.

The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. somewhat larger in size. as shown in Fig. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. so it will hang as shown in Fig. E. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . using about 1/2-in. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 2. In removing grease from wood. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. 1. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. coming through the small pipe A. leaving the solution on over night. The steam. as shown in Fig. The boat soon attains considerable speed. As the boat is driven forward by this force. A. 3. After washing. saturating it thoroughly. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. These are to hold the wick ball. 4. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 5. lap on the edges. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. leaving a long wake behind. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. If the gores have been put together right. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Staunton. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. after which the paint will adhere permanently.widest point. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. B. in diameter. --Contributed by R.

high and 8 in. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. In using either of the two methods described. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. as is shown in Fig. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. if you have several copies of the photograph. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. apart on these lines. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. 1. wide by 6 in. Second.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. long. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. There are three ways of doing this: First. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Third. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. long and each provided with a handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. in bowling form. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The blocks are about 6 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin.

Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John A. Albany. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Y. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching.Fig. thick. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. not pointed down at the road at an angle. being careful not to dent the metal. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 2. Hellwig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. N.

CC. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. In Fig. 1 Fig. Va. With this device. thick. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 2 the front view. long for the base. and. wide and of any desired height. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Corner irons. and not produce the right sound. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Richmond. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight.upon any particular object. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Break off the frame. with a set screw. are screwed to the circular piece. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. S. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A circular piece of wood. 6 in. 5 in. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. is fastened to a common camera tripod. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. These corner irons are also screwed to. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. A. A. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. --Contributed by R. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. which is 4 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. and Fig. Paine. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. in diameter. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. wide and 8 in. B. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. through which passes the set screw S. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument.

A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. pine boards. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. thus producing sound waves.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. . will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. S.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. D. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. -1. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. This horn. I made a wheel 26 in. Kidder. R. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Lake Preston. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. La Salle. in diameter of some 1-in. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. as only the can is visible. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. This will make a very compact electric horn. Ill. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.

thick and 12 in. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. --Contributed by James R. If there is a large collection of coins. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. the same thickness as the coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Ghent. 2. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. O. B. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] .Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. A. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. --Contributed by C. square. Doylestown. If the collection consists of only a few coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Purdy. Kane.

Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. thick. Smith. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. melted and applied with a brush. --Contributed by J. plus a 3/8-in. Canada. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. cut and grooved. Cal. A rivet punch is desirable. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Wis. though not absolutely necessary. and then glued together as indicated. --Contributed by August T. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Noble. border all around. a hammer or mallet. It will hold 4 oz. A lead pencil. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. of developer. --Contributed by R. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The material required is a sheet of No. Neyer. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Toronto. Milwaukee. into which to place the screws .E. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. One Cloud. they become uninteresting. several large nails. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. If desired. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.J.

draw one part. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Punch rivet holes in holder and band.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. both outline and decoration. like the one shown. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. never upon the metal directly. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. using 1/2-in. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Take the nail. There are several ways of working up the design. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. and file it to a chisel edge. Remove the screws. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. screws placed about 1 in.

2. for the top. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Provide four lengths for the legs. Rivet the band to the holder. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 1. square and 181/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. using a 1/2in. long. 3. for the lower rails. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. long. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. of 11-in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. long. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. l-1/8 in. The pedal. in the other. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. square. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. two lengths. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 11 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. . hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. each 1 in. and two lengths. 3/4 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto.wall. being ball bearing. Do not bend it over or flatten it. as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. About 1/2 yd.

It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by W. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. F. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Attalla. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Quackenbush. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. New York City. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. having quite a length of threads. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Ala.

making a lap of about 1 in. from the end. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. wide and 4-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. the end of the other piece is folded over. from one end. --Contributed by C. Luther. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. in depth. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and the other 2-3/4 in. long. and two holes in the other. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Mich. initial. each 1-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and 3/8 in. Ironwood. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. college or lodge colors. something that is carbonated. D. one about 1 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. The desired emblem.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .. using class. wide and 8-1/4 in.

or a pasteboard box. --Contributed by John H. and the cork will be driven out. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or more in height. which can be procured from a plumber. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. This method allows a wide range of designs. from the center and opposite each other. 1/4 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . as shown in the sketch. A piece of lead. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 1. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. if desired by the operator. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Ind. Schatz. in diameter and 2 in. Punch two holes A. Indianapolis. in the cover and the bottom. about 2 in. as shown at B. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Fig. 2. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.

The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. on both top and bottom. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. as shown in Fig. 1. When the can is rolled away from you. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 3. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. or marble will serve. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. metal. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. A piece of thick glass. Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper.Rolling Can Toy lead. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. are turned up as in Fig. . Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 4. putting in the design. Columbus. 5. allowing the two ends to be free. The pieces of tin between the holes A. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. O. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. it winds up the rubber band.

The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. A pencil may be used the first time over. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. After this has been done. wide and 20 in. New York City. I secured a board 3/4 in. thicker than the pinion. or more thick on each side. long and bored a 1/2-in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. 1 in. hole through it. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. and. The edges should be about 1/8 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . If it is desired to "line" the inside. 3 in. face up. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. thick. mark over the design.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Next place the leather on the glass. deep in its face. from each end. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side.

pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Rice. 2 crosspieces. New York. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . N. Y. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Brooklyn. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. countersinking the heads of the vise end. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 end rails. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 3 by 3 by 36. --Contributed by A. 1. Make the lower frame first. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. thick top board. lag screws as shown. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 side rails. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. pieces for the vise slides. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 screw block. M. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Cut the 2-in. Fig. 4 guides. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 back board. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Now fit up the two clamps. in diameter. 2. 1 top board. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Syracuse. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 piece. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece for clamp. 1 piece for clamp.in the board into the bench top. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked.

. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 cross cut saw. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 2 screwdrivers.. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. it can be easily found when wanted. The amateur workman. The bench is now complete. 1 set gimlets. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 marking gauge. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 rip saw. 1 countersink. 1 pair pliers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.screws.. 1 2-ft. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 24 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 nail set. as well as the pattern maker. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 pocket level. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair dividers. in diameter. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 compass saw. 1 set chisels. rule. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 monkey wrench. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 wood scraper. 1 claw hammer. 24 in. 3 and 6 in. Only the long run.

and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. The calf skin. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. after constant use. becomes like A. Fig. Doylestown. try square. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. No. the projecting point A. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig.1 6-in. ---Contributed by James M. 2 and 00 sandpaper. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. being softer. Kane.1. 1. 2. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will be easier to work. 1. 1 oilstone. 3. but will not make . Fig. Pa. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.

If cow hide is preferred. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and the length 6-5/8 in. water or heat will not affect. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. but a V-shaped nut pick. After the outlines are traced. . which steam. White. lay the design on the face. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. will do just as well. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Having prepared the two sides. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. New York City. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. secure a piece of modeling calf. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. The form can be made of a stick of wood. -Contributed by Julia A. the same method of treatment is used. then prepare the leather. such as copper or brass. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Two pieces will be required of this size. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. If calf skin is to be used. First draw the design on paper. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side.as rigid a case as the cow skin. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. when dry. cover it completely with water enamel and. Turn the leather.

On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by Chester L. as shown in the sketch. Cal. Jaquythe. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Cobb. Richmond. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. --Contributed by Chas. and an adjustable friction-held loop. . Portland. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Maine. A. C. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Herrman. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by W. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. New York City.

6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. B.. This was very difficult. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. --Contributed by Geo. Middletown. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. for instance. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A thick piece of tin. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. . the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Wright. --Contributed by Wm. Mass. an inverted stewpan. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. was marked out as shown. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Roberts. Cambridge. Conn. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.

Indianapolis. of boiling water. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Bone. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Herbert. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. as shown. L. --Contributed by Paul Keller. A beautifully bound book. When dry. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. apply powdered calcined magnesia. --Contributed by C. face down. so some bones were quickly calcined. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Chicago. If the article is highly polished. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Ind.. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. F. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. There was no quicklime to be had. Illinois. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. pulverized and applied. but only an odor which soon vanished. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and quite new. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. If any traces of the grease are left. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. and the grease will disappear. but not running over. which has been tried out several times with success. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. on a clear piece of glass. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. such as chair seats. The next morning there was no trace of oil. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. . well calcined and powdered. used as part of furniture. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring.

and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. set and thumbscrews. A. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. high and are bolted to a block of wood. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. Howe. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement.. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. the pieces . New York. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The pieces marked S are single. says Scientific American. wide and 12 in.. soft steel with the opening 6 in. thick. 2 in. --Contributed by Geo. If properly adjusted. long.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. deep and 5 in. 6 in.

If the letters are all cut the same height. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. albums and the like. Their size depends on the plate used. they will look remarkably uniform. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The seat is a board. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . to the underside of which is a block. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. A sharp knife. for sending to friends. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. E. no doubt. says Camera Craft. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats.

the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. for example. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. photographing them down to the desired size. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. using care to get it in the right position. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. mount them on short pieces of corks. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. So made. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. The puzzle is to get . and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. In cutting out an 0. pasting the prints on some thin card. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. So arranged.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. after.

Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . G. Old-Time Magic . The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. says the American Thresherman. He smells the bait. squeezes along past the center of the tube. snow or anything to hide it. A hole 6 or 7 in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. so they will lie horizontal. hung on pivots. long that will just fit are set in. Cape May Point. with the longest end outside. of its top.-Contributed by I. Bayley. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.J. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. N. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.

How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Brooklyn. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. then expose again. Y. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. E. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . --Contributed by Charles Graham. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.faced up. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. --Contributed by L. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pocatello. then spread the string. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Szerlip. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Parker. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Rhode Island. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Pawtucket. Idaho. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by L. Press the hands together. N. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button.

Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 1 Fig. wide and 2 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The handle is next made. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. in width. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. in building up his work from the illustrations. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The pieces. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 2 Fig. or a complete suit of armor. 1. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. wipe the blade . The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. or green oil paint. 4 on the blade. whether he requires a single sword only. Glue the other side of the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. near the point end. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. if any. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 3 Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. narrower. The blade should be about 27 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. they will look very much like the genuine article.. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and if carefully made. thick. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle.. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. full size. says the English Mechanic. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. When the glue is thoroughly dry. end of the blade. When the whole is quite dry. dark red.Genuine antique swords and armor. using a straightedge and a pencil. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. long.

The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. follow the directions as for Fig. 3.. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. should be about 9 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 2. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The length of the handle. 3. shows only two sides. In making this scimitar. In making. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or half-round. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. thick and 5 in. the length of the blade 28 in. the other two are identical. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. take two pieces of wood. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. about 1-1/2 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. and 3 in.. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. This sword is about 68 in. square and of any length desired. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. long. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. as it is . In the finished piece. the other is flat or halfround. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the illustration. 4. preferably of contrasting colors. in diameter. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. of course. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 2. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 1/8 in. 1.

Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. in an attempt to remove it. about 3/8 in. A cold . Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. long. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. It is made of a plank. A piece of mild steel. are fastened two pieces of strap iron.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. piping and jackets by hard water. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Mass. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as there was some at hand. On each edge of the board. however. Syracuse. Morse. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Doctors probed for the button without success. Y. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as shown in the sketch. The thinness of the plank. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. N. each about 1 ft. square. or an insecure fastening. Franklin. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. and if so. at the lower end. --Contributed by John Blake. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. 2 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. as can the pitch bed or block. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Both can be made easily. and. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out.

1/2 Design for the Frame lb..chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 5 lb. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. To remedy this. a file to reduce the ends to shape.. using a small metal saw. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When the desired form has been obtained. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. When this has been done. To put it in another way. on the pitch. tallow. plaster of Paris. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 18 gauge. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Trim up the edges and file them . design down. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. secure a piece of brass of about No. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening.

Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. . over the smaller vessel. per second. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. This in turn divided by 33. and hang a bird swing. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. make an unusual show window attraction. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. it may be well to know what horsepower means.smooth. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Before giving the description. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. lb. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. one 18 in. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. but not to stop it.000 lb.000 ft. Cutter. 30 ft. or 550 ft. living together in what seems like one receptacle. using powdered pumice with lye. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Fig. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in the center. lb. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. A. in diameter (Fig. 2). to keep it from floating. 3.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 1 ft. or fraction of a horsepower. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Fill the 3-in. in one minute or 550 lb. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. space between the vessels with water. in diameter (Fig. That is lifting 33. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 1 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Clean the metal thoroughly. 1) and the other 12 in. in one second. --Contributed by Harold H. and still revolve. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. per minute.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Somerville. Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. 1 Fig. Campbell. The effect is surprising. or on a pedestal. Diameter Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.3 Fig. --Contributed by J. Diameter 12 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . --Contributed. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. by L. Szerlip. 2 Fig.18 in. N. Y. F. Brooklyn. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.

and then. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. as a rule. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Rivet the cup to the base.copper of No. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. unsatisfactory. Do not be content merely to bend them over. This compound is impervious to water. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. and cut out the shape with the shears. Polish both of these pieces. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. which. using any of the common metal polishes. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. In riveting. with the pliers. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. which may be of wood or tin. away from the edge. keeping the center high. and the clay . after which it is ready for use. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. the same as removing writing from a slate. often render it useless after a few months service. with other defects. is. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands.

A. DeLoof. --Contributed by A. -Contributed by Thos. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. . The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 1. long. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. in diameter and 5 in. Dunlop. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air.can be pressed back and leveled. as shown in Fig. It is made of a glass tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Shettleston. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Scotland. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. Mich. Houghton. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. 2. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Northville. 3/4 in. Grand Rapids. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. --Contributed by John T. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Mich.

The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. stilettos and battle-axes.FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. As the handle is to . long. in width and 2 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. put up as ornaments. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.1 FIG. This sword is 4 ft. 1. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.

The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This sword is about 4 ft. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. 6. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. When the whole is quite dry. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 3 is shown a claymore. 7. The ball is made as described in Fig. in width. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. paint it a dark brown or black. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cut two strips of tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. long. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Three large. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The handle is of wood. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. long with a dark handle of wood. 5. sometimes called cuirass breakers. narrower. In Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . 8. 11 were used. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the axe is of steel. studded with brass or steel nails. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. with both edges of the blade sharp. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. with both edges sharp. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. In Fig. very broad. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The crossbar and blade are steel. wood with a keyhole saw. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. This weapon is also about 1 ft. A German stiletto. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. one about 1/2 in. in length. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. firmly glued on. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. This stiletto has a wood handle. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Both handle and axe are of steel. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. string. small rope and round-headed nails. When dry. glue and put it in place. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 9. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The sword shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. in length. the upper part iron or steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. In Fig. 4. sharp edges on both sides. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century.represent copper. the same as used on the end of the handle.

and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Davis. 10. W. --Contributed by E. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. This will make a very good flexible belt. Old-Time Magic . Chicago. the ends are tied and cut off. When wrapped all the way around. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. so the contents cannot be seen. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. such as braided fishline.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in.described in Fig. high. will pull where other belts slip. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. . will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. together as shown in Fig. 2.

an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . There will be no change in color. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Oakland. filled with water. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The dotted lines in Fig. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Calif.J. As zinc is much lighter than iron. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. held in the right hand. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. S. an acid. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. --Contributed by A. N. These wires are put in the jar. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. 1 and put together as in Fig. four glass tumblers. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. apparently. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. or using small wedges of wood. some of the liquid.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Macdonald. about one-third the way down from the top. with the circle centrally located. causing the flowers to grow. 2. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Before the performance. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. in a few seconds' time. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Bridgeton.

The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. says a correspondent of Photo Era. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. A. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. This outlines the desired opening. --Contributed by W. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Cal. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Richmond. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. 2 for height. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which are numbered for convenience in working. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. and kept ready for use at any time. When many slides are to be masked. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. and equally worthy of individual treatment. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. practical and costs nothing.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Jaquythe. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. 4 for width and No. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. If the size wanted is No.

With a stick. or. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. may be changed. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. using the carbon paper. is about right for the No. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . too. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. and the extreme length 7 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Secure a sheet of No. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. This done. 16 gauge. but they can be easily revived. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The decoration. about half and half. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. the margin and the entire back of the metal. a little less acid than water. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. which is dangerous. paint the design. not the water into the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. or a pair of old tongs. When etched to the desired depth. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The one shown is merely suggestive. and do not inhale the fumes. the paper is folded along the center line. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Draw a design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. possibly.

through it. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 3. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. wide. 24 parts water. so that when it is pressed down. thick. 2. Then get two posts. repeat as many times as is necessary. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. J is another wire attached in the same way. . Fig. Paint the table any color desired. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 4. attached to a post at each end. as shown in the illustration. about 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. it will touch post F. Cut out a piece of tin. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. the bell will ring. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. high. 2. long and 1 ft. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. The connections are simple: I. 5. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. It may be either nailed or screwed down. C and D. A. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. to the table. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. with the wires underneath. 3/8 in. as in Fig. Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. When the button S is pressed. in diameter and 1/4 in. and about 2-1/2 ft. 5. long. as shown in Fig. about 1 in. Nail a board. wide and of the same length as the table. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Fig. 1. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. about 3 ft. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Fig. Fig. about 8 in. and bore two holes. 0 indicates the batteries. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. or more wide. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. as at H. 2.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 3 parts ammonia carbonate.

The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. handle and all. These rings can be carved out. long serves as the dowel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. but they are somewhat difficult to make. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. such as . the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. 2. The imitation articles are made of wood. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks.Imitation Arms and Armor . A wood peg about 2 in. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. This weapon is about 22 in. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 1. The circle is marked out with a compass. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the wood peg inserted in one of them. long. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. says the English Mechanic. After the glue is dry. is to appear as steel. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The entire weapon. thick. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary..

at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. If such a tool is not at hand. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. 6. also. The handle is of steel imitation. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 8. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. . A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up.ornamental scrolls. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 5. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. leaves. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The handle is of wood. the hammer and spike. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. covered with red velvet. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. 2. The lower half of the handle is wood. Its length is about 3 ft. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. used at the end of the fifteenth century. This weapon is about 22 in. as before mentioned. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. flowers. studded with large brass or steel nails. The spikes are cut out of wood. The axe is shown in steel. or the amateur cannot use it well. with a sharp carving tool. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. etc. The upper half of the handle is steel. as shown. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. as described in Fig. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 3. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe.

1. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as in Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The knife falling on its side (Fig. then the other plays. 2. . and so on for nine innings.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 3. as shown in Fig. 6. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 4). The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 7) calls for one out. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. calls for a home run. Fig. Chicago. 5. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. a three-base hit.

sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 3. one of them burning . Mass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. as shown in Fig. with the rope laced in the cloth. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Old-Time Magic . 2. as shown in Fig. F. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. hypo to 1 pt. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.-Contributed by J. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. of water for an hour or two. of the rope and holds it. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Campbell. If it is spotted at all. while the committee is tying him up. 1. Somerville. This he does.

the lamp having been removed and the back opened. of sugar. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. with which he is going to light the other candle. and. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. 4 oz. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. the other without a light. Lebanon. Thome. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. showing that there is nothing between them. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Ky. thick. --Contributed by C. 4 oz. B. thus causing it to light. of plumbago. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. The magician walks over to the burning candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. of turpentine. invisible to them (the audience). Louisville.. 3/4 in. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. bolt. of water and 1 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. . Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. --Contributed by L. Evans. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Ky. He then walks over to the other candle. Drill Gauge screw. shades the light for a few seconds. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. New York City. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.Contributed by Andrew G.brightly. Brown. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. etc.

--Contributed by C. which will give a strong. In making up the solution. N. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. thick. diameter.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Denniston. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. about 5 in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. 5 in. into a tube of several thicknesses. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. but is not so good. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. or blotting paper. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Do not add water to the acid. Its current strength is about one volt. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. long. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. for the material. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Y. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. To make the porous cell. H. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Pulteney. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. steady current. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode.

carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. while the other end is attached by two screws. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. As to thickness. the other holding them apart. steel. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. one drawing them together. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. long with a bearing at each end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. a positive adjustment was provided. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. but somewhat lighter. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. One hole was bored as well as possible. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.) may be obtained. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.station. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. Finally. To insure this. carrying the hour circle at one end. The . The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in.

" Only a rough setting is necessary. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. It is. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. are tightened. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. turn the pointer to the star. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood.. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Instead. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. All set screws. Set the declination circle to its reading. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. save the one in the pipe. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Point it approximately to the north star. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. If the result is more than 24 hours." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. once carefully made. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so.. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. 45 min. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. apart. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Cassiopiae. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. Each shaft. Declination is read directly. The pointer is directed to Alpha. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. and if it is not again directed to the same point. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. To locate a known star on the map. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. need not be changed. To find a star in the heavens. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. All these adjustments. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg." When this is done. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. excepting those on the declination axis.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. and 15 min. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted.

glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. then add 1 2-3 dr. If this will be too transparent. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. long. which is the one examined. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. In reality the first ball. of ether. as shown in the sketch. La. is folded several times. cannon balls. New Orleans. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. add a little more benzole. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. benzole. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. -Contributed by Ray E. Ohio. The dance will begin. the others . The ball is found to be the genuine article. taking care not to add too much. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. 3 or 4 in. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. is the real cannon ball. a great effect will be produced.. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Plain City. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Strosnider.

In boxes having a sliding cover. small brooches. etc. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. F. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Fig. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 1). --Contributed by J. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Mass. Somerville. San Francisco.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Return the card to the pack. Cal. without taking up any great amount of space.. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. taps. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. 2. as shown in the illustration. Campbell. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Milwaukee. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Wis.

At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This box has done good service. Connecticut. . the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. round pieces 2-1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. from the bottom of the box. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. thus giving ample store room for colors. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Beller. slides and extra brushes. prints. Hartford. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors.

Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. holes in the bottom of one. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 1). Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. When the ends are turned under. Fill the upper tub. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. FIG. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Darke. Mass. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. will answer the purpose. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. costing 5 cents.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. 2). This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. with well packed horse manure. about threefourths full. West Lynn. -Contributed by C. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. tacking the gauze well at the corners. . O. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. or placed against a wall.

often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. if this is not available. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. they should be knocked out. Eifel. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If plugs are found in any of the holes. M. --Contributed by L. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. If the following directions are carried out. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. cutting the cane between the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. Chicago. oil or other fluid. and each bundle contains . with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. when they are raised from the pan. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured.

The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In addition to the cane. as shown in Fig. held there by inserting another plug. after having been pulled tight. then across and down. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. as it must be removed again. 1. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. it should be held by a plug. a square pointed wedge. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. put about 3 or 4 in. No plugs . and.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.

and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.15 in. or the style. 5 in. 1. as for example.2 in. --Contributed by M. If handled with a little care. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. During the weaving. W. 1 lat. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 3. D. in this case) times the . This will make three layers. as shown in Fig. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. When cool. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. Michigan. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 5. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. trim off the surplus rosin. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. R. is the horizontal dial. Patrick.42 in. the height of the line BC. 3. 41°-30'. All added to the lesser or 40°. as it always equals the latitude of the place.5 in. called the gnomon. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. From table No. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. we have 4. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Fig. Even with this lubrication. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. the height of which is taken from table No. but the most common.3 in. the next smallest.15+. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case.2+. 4.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. -Contributed by E. 41 °-30'.= 4. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. it is 4. lat. as the height of the line BC for lat. 40°. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. If you have a table of natural functions. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. and for 1° it would be . the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. There are several different designs of sundials. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. is the base (5 in. Detroit. 1. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.075 in. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. No weaving has been done up to this time. and the one we shall describe in this article. 1. stretch the third one. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. 42° is 4. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. The style or gnomon. Fig. using the same holes as for the first layer. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. After completing the second layer. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. as shown in Fig. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.075 in. and for lat. It consists of a flat circular table. Their difference is . for 2°.

93 6.11 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.14 5. 1.63 56° 7.39 .96 32° 3.49 30 .64 4 8 3. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. Its thickness. which will represent the base in length and thickness. For latitudes not given.28 . Table NO.26 4.82 5.40 1.30 2.85 35 .59 2.77 2. 2.55 4.79 4.49 3.41 38° 3. or more.00 40° 4.55 46° 5.16 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.82 2. Draw the line AD.76 1.07 4. an inch or two.12 52° 6. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.87 4.88 36° 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.56 .37 5.97 5 7 4. 2 for given latitudes.99 2.66 1. if of metal. Draw two semi-circles.16 40 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.23 6.37 54° 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.42 .66 latitude. using the points A and C as centers.42 45 .87 1. Fig.19 1.55 5. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.29 4-30 7-30 3.03 3.38 . and intersecting the semicircles.57 1. gives the 6 o'clock points. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.82 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .50 26° 2. circle Sundial.81 4.33 .44 44° 4.89 50° 5. long. To layout the hour circle.46 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. . with a radius of 5 in.32 6.06 2.57 3.91 58° 8.55 30° 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.02 1. according to the size of the dial.66 48° 5.20 60° 8. and perpendicular to the base or style. or if of stone.18 28° 2.33 42° 4.10 6.93 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.83 27° 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. base.42 1.85 1. 2.30 1.94 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.40 34° 3.27 2. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. and for this size dial (10 in.46 .

30 2.63 1.79 6.37 2.46 5. and for the difference between standard and local time.means that the dial is faster than the sun.46 4. says the English Mechanic. and the .98 4. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. then the watch is slower.71 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.72 5.from Sundial lime.08 1.87 6. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. June 15. 25. The + means that the clock is faster.52 Table No.77 3.82 3. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 900 Chicago. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. London. after allowing for the declination. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. each article can be labelled with the name. if west.10 4. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. it will be faster.49 5. Each weapon is cut from wood.24 5. E. As they are the genuine reproductions. April 16. 3.68 3.21 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. will enable one to set the dial. adding to each piece interest and value. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.50 55 . Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.57 1.01 1.60 4. Mitchell.49 3. 3.. 2 and Dec. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.34 5. Sept.50 .12 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.93 6. Sioux City. An ordinary compass. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. --Contributed by J. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.54 60 . The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Sun time to local mean time.53 1.06 2.14 1. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Iowa. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.19 2. This correction can be added to the values in table No.89 3.add those marked + subtract those Marked .

Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 1. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. 3. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. . with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Partisan. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel.

The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It is about 6 ft. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. which are a part of the axe. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. press it well into the carved depressions. The edges are sharp. the holes being about 1/4 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. long. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. used by Italians in the sixteenth century.. long with a round wooden handle. 6 ft. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft.which is square. 7. 8. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The spear is steel. 5. about 4 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. is shown in Fig. long with a round staff or handle. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This weapon is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. . long. A gisarm or glaive. sharp on the outer edges. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. in diameter. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon.

An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 5. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Workman. 1. Cut all the cords the same length. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. as shown in Fig. Substances such as straw. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 4. 2 and 3. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The twisted cross cords should . This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead.-Contributed by R. or in holes punched in a leather strap. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. are less durable and will quickly show wear. the most durable being bamboo. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. In Figs. are put in place. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. H. This is important to secure neatness. They can be made of various materials. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Loudonville. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. apart. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the cross cords. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. B. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Ohio.

A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Harrer. New Orleans.be of such material. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To remedy this. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The first design shown is for using bamboo. shaped as shown at C. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. La. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Lockport. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. A slit was cut in the bottom. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. -Contributed by Geo. of the bottom. below the top to within 1/4 in. New York. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. in which was placed a piece of glass. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. M. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. This was turned over the top of the other can. bamboo or rolled paper. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. 3 in. as shown at B. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. wide. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw.

The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . turned over but not fastened. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. N.tape from sticking to the carpet. --Contributed by W. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. and two along the side for attaching the staff. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. H. Shay. After this is finished. --Contributed by Joseph H. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. --Contributed by Chas. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. do not throw away the gloves. Sanford. Cal. Newburgh. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Maywood. about 1/16 in. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. wide. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. the brass is loosened from the block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. This plank. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This should be done gradually. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Pasadena. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Y. Schaffner. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Ill.

Ill. --E. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. the pendulum swings . in diameter. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. -Contributed by W. Jaquythe. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Marshall. K. A.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. bent as shown. Unlike most clocks. Oak Park. Cal.

The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. high. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. wide that is perfectly flat. In using this method. 6 in. is an electromagnet. bar. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. 5/16 in. Metzech. away. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Secure a board. Two uprights. by 1-5/16 in. thick. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Fasten another board. and the other two 2-5/8 in. about 12 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. are secured in the base bar. says the Scientific American. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. in diameter. only have the opposite side up. to the first one with screws or glue.. B. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. about 6 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. The construction is very simple. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Chicago. such as this one. on the board B. C. high and 1/4 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. --Contributed by V. Now place the board to be joined. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. high. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. bearing on the latter. wide. 3/4 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. long and at each side of this. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. . and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. A. 7-1/2 in.

as shown at A. Pa. --Contributed by Elmer A. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 1. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. by driving a pin through the wood. 4. The trigger. whose dimensions are given in Fig. wide and 1 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Phoenixville. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 2.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Vanderslice. Fig. 1. or more. from one end. Fig. 1. square inside. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. wide and 5 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. square. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. long. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. plates should be made 8 in. . 3. is fastened in the hole A.

when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. Simonis. square. by weight.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks.A. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 5 parts of black filler. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Ohio. one-half the length of the side pieces. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. which allows 1/4 in. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. if only two bands are put in the . Fostoria. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 2 parts of whiting.

The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. In use. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. long. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. --Contributed by Thos. DeLoof. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. G. If a plain glass is used. is necessary. London. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. A mirror.lower strings. is set at an angle of 45 deg. which may be either of ground or plain glass. -Contributed by Abner B. In constructing helmets. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. and the picture can be drawn as described. says the English Mechanic. Grand Rapids. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. deep. place tracing paper on its surface. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. No. A piece of metal. 8 in. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. in the opposite end of the box. Shaw. wide and about 1 ft. 1. Michigan. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. preferably copper. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. keeps the strong light out when sketching. as shown in Fig. Dartmouth. Mass. A double convex lens. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. It must be kept moist and well . An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. II.

3. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and left over night to soak. or some thin glue. shown in Fig. Scraps of thin. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape.kneaded. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The clay. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and over the crest on top. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. After the clay model is finished. This being done. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 2. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. a few clay-modeling tools. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. joined closely together. with a keyhole saw. All being ready. on which to place the clay. as shown in Fig. 1. as in bas-relief. will be necessary. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. take. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. brown. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 4 is the side outline of the helmet.

How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. one for each side. The whole helmet. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. the piecing could not be detected. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. a crest on top. 9. 1. and so on. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. Indiana. When perfectly dry. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. Indianapolis. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. They are all covered with tinfoil. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. which should be no difficult matter. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 5. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. This contrivance should be made of wood.as possible. as shown: in the design. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. then another coating of glue. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. When dry. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. owing to the clay being oiled. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. the skullcap. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. In Fig. Before taking it off the model. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. with the exception of the vizor. square in shape. When the helmet is off the model. In Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. --Contributed by Paul Keller. as seen in the other part of the sketch. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. a few lines running down. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. should be modeled and made in one piece. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. or. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The center of the ear guards are perforated. and the ear guards in two pieces. The band is decorated with brass studs. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. will make it look neat. 7.

is shown in Fig. 4. thick sheet asbestos. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 12 in. for connections. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. should extend about 1/4 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. until it is within 1 in. AA. Fig. The mineral wool. the fuse block. 4. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. when they are placed in opposite positions. 4. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. above the collar. about 1 lb. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. long. wide and 15 in. or. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. AA. 1. in diameter and 9 in. screws. one fuse block. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Fig. about 80 ft. long. of No. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. This will allow the plate. and two large 3in. 4. 3 in. FF. are allowed to project about 1 in. 2. if the measurements are correct. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. 3. about 1/4 in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. thick. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 4 lb. is then packed down inside the collar. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 1 in. 2. as shown in Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 4. high. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. one oblong piece of wood. Fig. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. as shown in Fig. one glass tube. of fire clay. one small switch. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. Fig. German-silver wire is better. AA. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. 2.same size. The two holes. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. of the top. E and F. JJ. If asbestos is used. which can be bought from a local druggist. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. and. two ordinary binding posts. 1. GG. 4. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. with slits cut for the wires. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. also the switch B and the fuse block C. The reverse side of the base. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. long. if this cannot be obtained. and C. The plate. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. of mineral wool. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. as shown in Fig. 1. 1. the holes leading to the switch. 1. 22 gauge resistance wire.

Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. then. when heated. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. KK. Jaquythe. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. When this is done. as the turns of the wires. The clay. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. A. Can. so that the circuit will not become broken. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. causing a short circuit. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. 4. --Contributed by R. above the rim. Cal. When the tile is in place. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. This point marks the proper length to cut it. when cool. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. more wire should be added. Catherines. As these connections cannot be soldered. Cut a 1/2-in. If it is not thoroughly dry. will slip and come in contact with each other. Fig. It should not be set on end. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Next. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. deep. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. --Contributed by W. St. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. steam will form when the current is applied. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. using care not to get it too wet. allowing a space between each turn. H. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Cover over about 1 in. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. apart. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. This completes the stove. Cnonyn. While the clay is damp. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. and pressed into it. If this is the case. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. II. It should not be left heated in this condition. Richmond. it leaves a gate for the metal. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in.

Then clip a little off the . If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Thorne. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the air can enter from both top and bottom. as shown. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. says the Photographic Times. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. but 12 by 24 in. --Contributed by Andrew G. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Louisville. square material in any size. the pie will be damaged. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. constructed of 3/4-in. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Ky. and the frame set near a window. and the prints will dry rapidly. is large enough.

It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1. 2-1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. which are fastened to the base. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The board can be raised to place . An offset is bent in the center. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The driving arm D. which gives the shaft a half turn. thick. W. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Herron. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 4 in. Fig. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. open out. Le Mars. 1/2 in. wide. 2. in diameter and about 4 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. 3. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 14 in. causing a break in the current. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Iowa. in diameter. allowing each end to project for connections. wide and 3 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. long. A 1/8-in. thereby saving time and washing. each 1 in. 1/2 in. Figs. Two supports. thick and 3 in.Paper Funnel point. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The connecting rod E. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. each 1/2 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. as shown. The upright B. 1 and 3. Fig. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. thick and 3 in. slip on two cardboard washers. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. long. wide and 7 in. for the crank. long. at GG. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. high. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. -Contributed by S. Fig. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1. 1. high. As the shaft revolves. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig.

Mass. on a board. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Stecher. bottom side up. In designing the roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. making a framework suitable for a roost. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Dorchester. --Contributed by William F. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Place the pot. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. in height. as shown in the sketch. . One or more pots may be used. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. 3 in.

Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. The bottom part of the sketch. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. 1. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. that it is heated. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. windows. grills and gratings for doors. as shown in Fig. ordinary glue. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. without any corresponding benefit. odd corners. 1. Fig. paraffin and paint or varnish.. F. in diameter..Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. if it is other than straight lines. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. F. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. preferably. The materials required are rope or. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. and give it time to dry. Wind the . when combined. shelves. etc. adopt the method described. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. will produce the pattern desired.

-Contributed by Geo. Harrer. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. six designs are shown. Lockport. M.Fig. N. Y. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc. chips of iron rust. 1... The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. which was used in front of a horse's head. London. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc.. As the .Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. will be retained by the cotton. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter. but no farther. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.

as the surface will hold the clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. This will make the model light and easy to move around. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. An arrangement is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and the clay model oiled. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. 2. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 2. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. then another coat of glue. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. with the exception of the thumb shield. In Fig. All being ready. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. which can be made in any size. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. the rougher the better. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 6 and 7. The armor is now removed from the model. except the thumb and fingers. 4. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. as shown in the sketch. but for . and will require less clay. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which is separate. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This triangularshaped support. This being done. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. and therefore it is not described. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. 8. This can be made in one piece. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. the same as in Fig.

When locating the place for the screw eyes. Buxton. are glued to it. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. running down the plate. The two pieces of foil. are better shown in Fig. Fasten a polished brass ball to. will be about right. long. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. --Contributed by Ralph L. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. and the instrument is ready for use. --Contributed by John G. each about 1/4 in. fastened to the rod. 1/2 in. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. 9. wide and 1/2 in. Calif. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Goshen. A piece of board. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Redondo Beach. cut into the shape shown in Fig. two for the jaws and one a wedge. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. two in each jaw. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. in depth. N. . will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 2. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. La Rue. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Y. but 3-1/2 in. If it does not hold a charge.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. the top of the rod. the foils will not move.

Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. hole bored through it. When a fish is hooked. Bryan. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. silvered. The can may be bronzed. enameled or otherwise decorated. long. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. M. --Contributed by Mrs. pine board. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. At a point 6 in. about 15 in. A. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as indicated in the . Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as shown in the illustration. 2-1/2 in. from the smaller end. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Corsicana. Texas. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. is made of a 1/4-in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design.

long over all. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Polish the metal. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. A good size is 5 in. take a piece of thin wood. or even pine. Any kind of wood will do. thick. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Basswood or butternut. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. will do as well as the more expensive woods. and trace upon it the design and outline. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Having completed the drawing." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. using a piece of carbon paper. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. 3/8 or 1/4 in. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Next prepare the metal holder. wide by 6 in. using powdered pumice and lye. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. If soft wood. then with a nail. When it has dried over night. as shown. punch the holes. 22 is plenty heavy enough. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. such as basswood or pine was used.

of pure olive oil. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Richmond. long. 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. 2 in. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Two wire nails.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. If carving is contemplated. --Contributed by W. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Jaquythe. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. are used for the cores of the magnets. Cal. the whole being finished in linseed oil. It is useful for photographers. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. thick. A. can be made on the same standards. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. . each 1 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. If one has some insight in carving. is used for the base of this instrument. long.

and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. as shown by the dotted lines. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. then covered with red. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. 25 gauge. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. H. 1. in the shape shown in the sketch. at A. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. except that for the legs. says the English Mechanic. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Lynas. 3. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. All of the parts for the armor have been described. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. the paper covering put on. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. when the key is pushed down. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. cut in the shape of the letter T. London. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. leaving about 1/4 in. About 1 in. . similar to that used in electric bells. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. A piece of tin. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A rubber band. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. about No.

completes the equipment. Instead of using brass headed nails. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. The two pieces are bolted together. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. A 1/4-in. Secure two strips of wood. So set up. holes. one to another . make the same series of eight small holes and. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. flat headed carriage bolt. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. By moving the position of the bolt from. Silver paper will do very well. Cut them to a length or 40 in. drill six 1/4-in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 1 and drill a 1/4in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues.. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 2. apart.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. long. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. says Camera Craft. apart. Take the piece shown in Fig. In one end of the piece. hole in the center. not too tight. for the sake of lightness. 1 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. at each end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and eight small holes. 3 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. about 1 in. in the other end. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Fig.

take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. A round fob is made in a similar way. taking the same start as for the square fob. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 4. doubled and run through the web of A. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. as in portraiture and the like. for instance. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and the one beneath C. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. D over A and C. Then take B and lay it over A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. C over D and B. but instead of reversing . A is the first string and B is the second. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. In this sketch. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Fig. as shown in Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. the one marked A. 1. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. Start with one end. long. and lay it over the one to the right. in Fig.

Other designs can be made in the same manner. long. 1-1/2 in. Monroeville. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as B. as at A in Fig. The round fob is shown in Fig. --Contributed by John P. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Rupp. 5. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. over the one to its right.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as in making the square fob. A loop. especially if silk strings are used. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. always lap one string. the design of which is shown herewith. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Ohio. is to be made of leather. 3. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down .

but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. . Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A. Any smooth piece of steel. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick. using the reverse side. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Northville. filling them with wax. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Houghton. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. it can be easily renewed. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Mich. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. pressing it against the wood. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. door facing or door panel. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. When the supply of wax is exhausted. beeswax or paraffin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred.

If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. it is best to leave a plain white margin. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. says Photographic Times. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. New York. if blueprints are used. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. E and F. N. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Y. . long. those on matte paper will work best. leaving about 1/4 in. Thompson. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. although tin ones can be used with good success. Ill. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and about 12 in. apart and driven in only part way. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. place it face down in the dish. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Enough plaster should. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Petersburg. remaining above the surface of the board. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Select the print you wish to mount. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The tacks should be about 1 in. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. --Contributed by O. Fold together on lines C. and after wetting. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. D. thick. but any kind that will not stick may be used. J.

. will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. One of the . at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. filling the same about onehalf full. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. violets. roses. as shown at the left in the sketch. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. bell flowers.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. without mixing the solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. as shown in the right of the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. etc. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.

Fig. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The tin horn can be easily made. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. long. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Millstown. Shabino. The sound box. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. A rod that will fit the brass tube. 1. The diaphragm.. When soldering these parts together. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 3. should be soldered to the box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. long and made of wood. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. about 1/8s in. turned a little tapering. but which will not wobble loose. as shown. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. South Dakota. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. as shown in the sketch. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The first point should be ground blunt. thick. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. or delicate tints of the egg. and at the larger end. 2. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. not too tightly. shading. L. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 1-7/8 in. --Contributed by L. in diameter and 1 in. is about 2-1/2 in. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. made of heavy tin. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown.

Chicago. wondering what it was. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Victor. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. says the Iowa Homestead. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. E. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Gold.Contributed by E. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. mice in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. put a board on top. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Jr. Ill. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. Colo.

--Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Buffalo. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. Pereira. Y. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Ottawa. . N.

This cart has no axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Grand Rapids. Richmond. and at one end of the stick fasten. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. a piece of tin. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by Thos. Mich. Put a small nail 2 in. Cal. cut round. by means of a flatheaded tack. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. --Contributed by W. longer than the length of the can. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Jaquythe. as shown. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. through which several holes have been punched. above the end of the dasher. A. De Loof. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .

Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. as shown. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. New Orleans. A wedge-shaped piece of . screwed it on the inside of a store box. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. wide.1. 2. Doylestown. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Fig. 2. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1. 1 ft. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. of course. long. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The candles. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. I reversed a door gong. The baseboard and top are separable. apart. 1-1/2 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. --Contributed by James M. 1/4 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. were below the level of the bullseye. Notches 1/8 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and as long as the box. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Kane. 2 in. 2. La. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. board. Pa. cut in the center of the rounding edge. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. wide and 1/8 in. deep and 3 in. thick.

Worcester. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. when placed as in Fig. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. A. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. 1. scissors. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.. can be picked up without any trouble. Mass. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. the reason being that if both were solid. etc. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. West Union.Book Back Holders metal. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. 3. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. When not in use. Needles. Wood. Cover the block with rubber. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. will. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. The block can also be used as a paperweight. stone or wood. the blade is put back into the groove . Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. dressing one surface of each piece. This device is very convenient for invalids. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. the shelf could not be put on the window. --Contributed by G. Ia. as shown in Fig. After completing the handle. it can be removed without marring the casing. take two pieces of hard wood. After the glue has dried. wide rubber bands or felt. wide into each side of the casing. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. by cutting away the ends. For the handle.

Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. thus carrying the car up the incline. Erie. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. as shown in Fig. Hutchins. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. is shown in the accompanying sketch. long. Malden. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Cleveland. --Contributed by H. . 1. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. If desired. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. A. 2. --Contributed by Maud McKee. square and 4 in. -Contributed by W. Pa. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Mass. Each one is made of a hardwood block.and sharpened to a cutting edge. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. 1 in. as shown in Fig. S. A notch is cut in one side. Jacobs. Ohio.

If one such as is shown is to be used. N. will be needed. a board on which to work it. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. The letters can be put on afterward. Cape May Point. One sheet of metal. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and an awl and hammer. This will insure having all parts alike. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. .The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.J.. Prepare a design for the front.

and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. . mandolin or guitar. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. 1 part. turpentine. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic." In all appearance. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. which is desirable. One coat will do. The music will not sound natural. On the back. paste the paper design right on the metal. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. or. flat brush. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. placed on a table. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. So impressive are the results. but weird and distant. applied by means of a brush. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. to right angles. if desired. says Master Painter. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. a violin. The stick may be placed by the side of. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. If any polishing is required. as shown. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. behind or through the center of a table leg. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards.Fasten the metal to the board. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. in the waste metal. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 1/4 part. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. that can be worked in your own parlor. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. varnish. 3/4 part. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. 2 parts white vitriol. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Remove the metal.

which should be about 5-1/2 ft. 3. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 6 in. and is easy to construct. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. long. says Work. wide. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. long and measuring 26 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. are shaped as shown in Fig. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long and spread about 8 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. it might be difficult. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. 2. thick by 1/2 in. . each 28 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. round-head machine screws. With proper tools this is easy. square bar iron. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. apart. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. without them. across the top. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. London. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Two pairs of feet. The longest piece. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective.

The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. C. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. using rosin as a flux. While the piece of lead D. The glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 4. 5. on it as shown. The design is formed in the lead. After the glass is cut. or. Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. lead. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. is held by the brads. as shown in Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. and the base border. Place the corner piece of glass. D. cut a long piece of lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. After the joints are soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. better still. The brads are then removed. Fig. 6. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the latter being tapped to . The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 7. B. A. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. in the grooves of the borders.

in diameter and 1/4 in. plank about 12 ft. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. H. plates. long. long. The center pin is 3/4-in. wood screws in each washer. thick and drill 3/4-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. then drill a 3/4-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. J. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Make three washers 3-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. A and B. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. --Contributed by W. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Fasten the plates to the block B. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. not less than 4 in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Jr. in diameter and about 9 in. rocker bolt. rounded at the top as shown. bolt. one on each side and central with the hole. N. This ring can be made of 1-in. This . Bore a 5/8-in. holes through their centers. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground.the base of the clip. then flatten its end on the under side. Camden. bolt. Secure a post. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Bore a 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. long. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. 8. and round the corners of one end for a ring. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post.. as shown in Fig. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. and two wood blocks. Dreier.

from one edge. screws. because it will not stand the weather. 3/4 by 3 in. of 1/4-in. 2-1/2 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long and 1 piece. If trees are convenient. 1. bolts and rope. The four 7-in. can make a first class gymnasium. long. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. by 2 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. by 3 ft. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. New Orleans. 50 ft. horse and rings. straight-grained hickory. chestnut or ash. long. 16 screws. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 7 in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. To substitute small. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 1-1/4in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. 4 pieces. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 3 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 pieces. 9 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. in diameter and 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. shanks. 1/2 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 2 by 4 in. hickory. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. bit. and some one can swing an axe. Draw a line on the four 7-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. La. 4 in. long. by 6-1/2 ft. long. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 filler pieces. maple. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1 by 7 in. 4 in. square by 5 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot.

bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. deep and remove all loose dirt. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Bore a 9/16-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes.. 8 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly.. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. apart. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter.bored. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. from the end. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. at each end. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. each 3 ft. piece of wood. so the 1/2-in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. boards coincide. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. apart. 2.

platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. And all he used was a black thread. but most deceptive at dusk. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. W. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in an endless belt. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room." which skimmed along the distant horizon. which at once gathered. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. and ascends the stem. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. If the tumbler is rotated. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. When the interest of the crowd. was at its height. and materially heightened the illusion. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. it follows the edge for about 1 in. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. not even the tumbler. . apart. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. and then passes in a curve across the base. just visible against the dark evening sky. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. passing through a screweye at either end. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. it is taken to the edge of the foot. not much to look at in daytime. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the effect is very striking. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible.. about 100 ft. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. disappearing only to reappear again. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement.

2 by 4 in. 1. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. long. 4 knee braces. wide and 1 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 base pieces. 2 by 4 in. and turned in a spiral D. 8 bolts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. by 7 ft. long. beginning at a point 9 in. long. 6 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 in. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. To make the apparatus. long. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. square and 6 ft. 4 in. 2 cross braces. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 7 in. deep. square and 51/2 ft. Fig. 4 in. 2 side braces. by 2 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 8 in. The cork will come out easily. A wire about No. La. long. so the point will be on top. from either side of the center. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Bevel the ends of . New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 8 in. long. long and 1 doz. long. 8 in. 4 bolts. 2 by 3 in. by 10 ft. preferably cedar. 2 by 4 in. large spikes. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 4 wood screws. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig.

using four of the 7-in bolts. but even unpainted they are very durable. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. screws. ( To be Continued. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by W. so the bolts in both will not meet. and countersinking the heads. leave it undressed. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. equipped with a strainer. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Richmond. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The wood so treated will last for years. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. of 7 ft. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. etc. Cal. These will allow the ladle to be turned. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. which face each other. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. A large sized ladle. as shown in the diagram.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Two endpieces must be made. leaving the strainer always in position.. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle.the knee braces. save the bars. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. additional long. except the bars. . with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. After the trenches are dug. If using mill-cut lumber. Jaquythe. A. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. jellies. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. It is well to paint the entire apparatus.

If a little turpentine is added to the oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. . drill press or planer. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. milling machine. partly a barrier for jumps. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Oil. which seems impossible. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. of sufficient 1ength. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. thus holding the pail as shown. A. In order to accomplish this experiment. it is necessary to place a stick.

2 by 4 in. 7 in. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. 4-1/2 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 knee braces. long. is a good length. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in.. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 1 cross brace. 2 bases. 2 adjusting pieces. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. projections and splinters. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. long. in diameter--the larger the better. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft. and free from knots. in the ground. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds.. 4 in. square by 5 ft. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. apart in a central position on the horse. long. long. 4 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . apart. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. square by 5-1/2 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. bolts. 1 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 4 in. but 5 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. These are well nailed in place. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. To construct. bolts. Hand holds must be provided next. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 3 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Procure from a saw mill. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. 2 by 4 in. from each end. ten 1/2-in. bolt. long. These are placed 18 in. The round part of this log must be planed.

one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. etc. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Richmond.horse top. Such a hand sled can be made in a . says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Cal. water. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. snow. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. A. no one is responsible but himself. it is caused by some obstruction. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Also. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. such as a dent. then bending to the shape desired. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.--Contributed by W. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. pipe and fittings. over and around. but nevertheless. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Jaquythe. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through.

at E and F. 2. will give the length. 1. Joerin. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. in width and 1/32 in. Vener. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Noble. Paris. These. The end elevation. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. are all the tools necessary. when complete. 1/4 or 3/16 in. W. then run a string over each part. --Contributed by J. Ontario. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. France. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. when straightened out. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. Mass. which. is much better than a wood sled. Boston. . one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron.

The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 3. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. are nailed. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. . The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 4.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. AA and BB. The method shown in Figs. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. It is best to use soft water.

as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 8 and 9. 4. 3. class ice-yacht. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 1). having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. or various rulings may be made. Broad lines can be made. 2. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. . The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. The materials used are: backbone. 2. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Percy Ashley in Rudder.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. but if it is made much longer. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. out from the collar. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pipe. a larger size of pipe should be used. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The point should extend about 11/2 in. Both the lower . The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. about 30 in. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. long. pins to keep them from turning. a tee and a forging. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it.Fig. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. 1. bent and drilled as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. It can be made longer or shorter. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.

It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. To do this. --Contributed by M. or a key can be used as well. M. thick as desired. a corresponding line made on this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Cal. Fruitvale. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. 1. 2. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 3/4 or 1 in. UpDeGraff. else taper turning will result. and will answer for a great variety of work. Boissevain. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. . square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Indiana. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. W. It is about 1 in. 2. Held. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Man. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Laporte. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Musgrove. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. a straight line should be scratched Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. but also their insulating properties.

Smith. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . To obviate this. long. Ark. as shown. --Contributed by E. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Ft. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Cline. J.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. In use. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.

by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. La. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. White. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which should be backed out of contact. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Denver. the drill does not need the tool. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. take . This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. and when once in true up to its size. --Contributed by Walter W. on starting the lathe. if this method is followed: First. centering is just one operation too many. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. After being entered. face off the end of the piece. New Orleans. Colo.

Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. vanishing wand. After the wand is removed. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. says the Sphinx. and can be varied to suit the performer. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief rod. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and this given to someone to hold. is put into the paper tube A. all the better. shown at C. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. as shown in D. a bout 1/2 in. the cap is placed over the paper tube. shorter t h a n the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. In doing this. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The glass tube B. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. a long piece of glass tubing. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. after being shown empty. by applying caustic soda or . unknown to the spectators.

square and 1-7/8 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The brace at D is 1 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. thick. long. With care and patience. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. with the back side rounding. 1. preferably hard maple. as shown by K. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. End. Glue the neck to the box. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The sides. 1 Bottom. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. As the cement softens. 1 Neck. 1 End. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. giving it an old-fashioned appearance.potash around the edges of the letters. 1/4 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. by 14 by 17 in. This dimension and those for the frets . and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. and glue it to the neck at F. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 3/16. Glue strips of soft wood. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 2 Sides. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. can be made by the home mechanic. ends and bottom are made of hard wood.

in diameter. O.should be made accurately. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. thick and about 1 ft. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. long is used for a keel. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. 3/16 in. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Norwalk. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. 1) on which to stretch the paper. -Contributed by J. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Six holes. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. A board 1 in. toward each end. or backbone. E. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. H. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. but it is not. Carbondale.Pa. Stoddard. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. --Contributed by Chas. Frary. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. and beveled .

long. procure at a carriage factory. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. such as hazel or birch. The cross-boards (B. as they are apt to do. Fig. and so. such as is used for making chairbottoms. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and the smaller ends to the gunwales.. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. b. 3. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. B. by means of a string or wire. 1 and 2. 3. but twigs of some other trees. . but before doing this. Osiers probably make the best ribs. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. Green wood is preferable. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. as shown in Fig. in thickness and should be cut. 2). and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. and are not fastened. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. long are required. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 13 in. Any tough. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. apart. when made of green elm. Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. as shown in Fig. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. These are better. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. twigs 5 or 6 ft. wide by 26 in. buy some split cane or rattan. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. In drying. C. probably. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. thick. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. b. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. with long stout screws. For the gunwales (a. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3/8 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. are next put in. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. thick. some tight strips of ash.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. will answer nearly as well. 3). which are easily made of long. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 4. 4). while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. b. the loose strips of ash (b. Fig. two twigs may be used to make one rib. and notched at the end to receive them (B. slender switches of osier willow. and. or other place. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. in such cases. two strips of wood (b. as before described. 2). In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. Fig. a.) in notches. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 1. or similar material. 3). 2. The ribs. C.

Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and held in place by means of small clamps. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and as soon as that has soaked in. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. preferably iron. It should be drawn tight along the edges. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. When the paper is dry. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. If not. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. of very strong wrapping-paper. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. You may put in . if it has been properly constructed of good material.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. B. and steady in the water. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Fig. Being made in long rolls. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. after wetting it. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. however. 5). trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and light oars. If the paper be 1 yd. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. but with less turpentine. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Then take some of the split rattan and. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. The paper is then trimmed. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. tacking it to the bottom-board. but neither stiff nor very thick. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. When thoroughly dry. wide. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. It should be smooth on the surface. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. and very tough.

fore and aft. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. 5). For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5. and if driven as shown in the cut. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 2.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 1. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. We procured a box and made a frame. and make a movable seat (A. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. to fit it easily. Drive the lower nail first. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 1 and the end in . Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.

Pa. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. 5. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the result is. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Pittsburg. 3. this makes the tube airtight. This is an easy . being softer where the flame has been applied. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. A good way to handle this work. This way has its drawbacks. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing.Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Close the other end with the same operation. and the glass. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed.

How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. or six arms. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Give the metal a circular motion. flat and round-nosed pliers. 23 gauge. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. file. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. metal shears. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. above the metal. third. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. extra metal all around. fifth. fourth. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. with a piece of carbon paper. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . also trace the decorative design. -Contributed by A. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. thin screw. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Sixth. After the bulb is formed. three. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Oswald. four. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Seventh.way to make a thermometer tube. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. very rapid progress can be made. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The candle holders may have two. second. rivet punch. then reverse.

Small copper rivets are used. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Metal polish of any kind will do. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Having pierced the bracket. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. drip cup. and holder.

all the rest I found. Soak 1 oz. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. sugar 1 part. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. A saw. smooth it down and then remove as before. thus it was utilized. Twenty cents was all I spent. of glycerine to about 200 deg. except they had wheels instead of runners. Mother let me have a sheet. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. J. The gaff. the stick at the bottom of the sail. glycerine 4 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. F. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and other things as they were needed. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Shiloh. winding the ends where they came together with wire. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. using a steel pen. The boom. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and in a week . dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. and it will be ready for future use. hammer. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. when it will be ready for use. on a water bath. N. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. I steer with the front wheel. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. is a broomstick. alcohol 2 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. and water 24 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Fifty. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. they were like an ice boat with a sail. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and brace and bit were the tools used. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and add the gelatine. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. deep.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens .

A and B. 1/2 to 3/4 in. This ring is made up from two rings. slide to about 6 ft. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. wire brads. 3.. at a point 1 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. focus enlarging a 3-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. and the lens slide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 8 in. provided the material is of metal. thick. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. 1. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. high. or a lens of 12-in. about 2 ft. The slide support. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. If a small saw is used. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. but if such a box is not found. Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and the work carefully done. well seasoned pine. above the center. A table. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. DD. describe a 9-in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The board is centered both ways. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. wide. long. H. at a distance of 24 ft. E. G. wide and 15 in. are . battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and 14 in. or glue. and. as desired. and a projecting lens 2 in.

Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. and when the right position is found for each. Small strips of tin. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. B. Paul. St. P. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. E. apply two coats of shellac varnish. of safe. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The arrangement is quite safe as.-Contributed by G. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. To reach the water. but not long enough.constructed to slip easily on the table. light burning oil. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. placed on the water. JJ. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Minn. A sheet . should the glass happen to upset. the strips II serving as guides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the water at once extinguishes the flame.

from a tent company. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. to cover the mattresses. Schenectady.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 4. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. I ordered a canvas bag. 2. 12 ft. by 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 1. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 9 in. N. Crawford. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig.H. 3. 3. --Contributed by J. form a piece of wire in the same shape. If one of these clips is not at hand. Y. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 3 in.

White. so as to form two oblong boxes. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Fasten the wire with gummed label. holes in the edge.each edge. first mark the binding-post A. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. 1/2 in. 2. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. --Contributed by Edward M. to keep it from unwinding. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3 to swing freely on the tack. as shown in Fig. A rubber band. --Contributed by Walter W. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. for amperes and the other post. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 1. 3/4 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. in the center coil. D. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. thick. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 3/4 in. 2. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. long. drill two 3/16 in. V. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. open on the edges. 1/2 in. 1. apart. Colo. and insert two binding-posts. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Warren. Teasdale. Fig. C. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. long and 3/16 in. through which the indicator works. wide. Attach a piece of steel rod. Denver. Fig. Pa. An arc is cut in the paper. To calibrate the instrument. Fold two strips of light cardboard. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Do not use too strong a rubber.

Dayton. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. --Contributed by M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Hunting. Place this can on one end of the trough. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Wood Burning [331] . Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. M. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. with the large hole up.

then into this bottle place. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

Y. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the cork is adjusted properly. Whitehouse. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. as shown in the sketch. Upper Troy. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Place the small bottle in as before. provided the bottle is wide. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Auburn. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. N. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This will make a very pretty ornament. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 4 in. but not very thick. 3/4 in. thick. 1. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. --Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. If the small bottle used is opaque. many puzzling effects may be obtained. --Contributed by Fred W. long.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. 2. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in.

by the method shown in Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. The 21/2-in. Both bearings were made in this manner. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 2 ft. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. 1 in. thick. was 1/4in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. W. The bearing blocks were 3 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. line. wide. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. B. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. On a 1000-ft. thick. which was nailed to the face plate. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. If a transmitter is used. Fig. Fig. A staple. was keyed to shaft C. thick and 3 in. 3. high without the upper half. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. iron rod. to the shaft. 4. which was 6 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. were constructed of 1-in. such as blades and pulleys. 2. 1. Milter. The shaft C. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. K. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. as shown in Fig. even in a light breeze. G. 1. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. pulley F. I. Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The wire L was put . or ordinary telephone transmitters. which extended to the ground. Its smaller parts. --Contributed by D. Fig. 1. pulley. long. which gave considerable power for its size. 1.

The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. providing one has a few old materials on hand. for instance. The smaller one. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. in diameter. To make the key. 25 ft. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Fig. R. top down also. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The other lid. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 3 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. long and bend it as . were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. To lessen the friction here. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. wide and 1 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 1. with all parts in place. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. when the windmill needed oiling. so that the 1/4-in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. This board was 12 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 6. long and 1/2 in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. long and 3 in. 1) 4 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. G. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 0. 1. pine 18 by 12 in. a 1/2-in. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. washers were placed under pulley F. The bed plate D. as. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. through the latter. across the thin edge of a board. and was cut the shape shown. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 5. Fig. Fig. long. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. was 2 ft. This fan was made of 1/4-in. If you have no bell. hole for the shaft G was in the center. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. with brass headed furniture tacks. hole was bored for it. This completes the receiver or sounder. The power was put to various uses. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. long and bend it as shown at A. apart in the tower. 1. was tacked. There a 1/4-in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. in the center of the board P. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 6. long. square to the board P at the top of the tower. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. H. strips.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 2.

The rear barrels are. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. as shown at Water. By adjusting the coils. as indicated. Going back to Fig. Now. causing a buzzing sound. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. at the front. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. -Contributed by John R. and.shown. leaving the other wire as it is. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Thus a center drive is made. Before tacking it to the board. using cleats to hold the board frame. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. When tired of this instrument. although it can be made with but two. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. 1. like many another device boys make. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. fitted with paddles as at M. McConnell. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. 2. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel.

There is no danger. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. If the journals thus made are well oiled.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. can be built. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. or even a little houseboat. 3. feet on the pedals. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as shown in Fig. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. which will give any amount of pleasure. 1. The speed is slow at first. copper piping and brass tubing for base. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.

exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. C. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning.of pleasure for a little work. 1. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. A. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. D. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Turn a small circle of wood. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Place one brass ring in cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Then melt out the rosin or lead. and so creating a false circuit. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. B. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 2. 1. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle.

long. To operate this. if too small. brass rod. key of alarm clock. dry batteries. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. When alarm goes off. Utah. I. switch. Ogden. Pa. while lying in bed. copper tubing. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. G. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. brass strip. near the bed. some glue will secure them. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. F. --Contributed by Geo. after two turns have been made on the key. In placing clock on shelf. S. D. shelf. Throw lever off from the right to center. contact post. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Brinkerhoff. J. thick. wire from light to switch. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. B. long. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. X. T. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. by having the switch on the baseboard. Chatland. To get the cylinder into its carriage. which stops bell ringing. --Contributed by C. wire from bell to switch.india rubber tubing. 4-1/2 in. The parts indicated are as follows: A. C. bell. bracket. C. 4 in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. H.. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. wire from batteries to switch. or 1/4in. and pulled tight. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. set alarm key as shown in diagram. after setting alarm. Swissvale. E. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. wide and 1/16 in. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 3/8 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. such as is used for cycle valves.

A small lamp of about 5 cp. Having finished this. as at A. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. about 6 in. --Contributed by Chas. Pull out the nail and stick. All that is required is a tin covering. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Lanesboro. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 1. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. wide.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as at B. for instance. This is to form the fuse hole. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. A flannel bag. Chapman. 2. letting it extend 3/4 in. long. place stick and all in a pail of sand. which can be made of an old can. being careful not to get the sand in it. Make a shoulder. will do the heating. Make the spindle as in Fig. 3. as . from one end. as at A. 2. beyond the end of the spindle. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. making it as true and smooth as possible. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Fig. 1/4 in. 1. 4 in. in diameter. in diameter. Fig. S. a bed warmer. gives the heater a more finished appearance. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Minn. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as in Fig.

spring and arrows. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. wide and 3 ft. long. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. deep. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. --Contributed by Arthur E. long. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 3/8 in. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling .well as making it more pleasant to the touch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. wide and 3/8 in. thick. wide and 6 ft. A piece of tin. Joerin. 11/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. or hickory. but if this wood cannot be procured. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. ash. 1. 5/8 in. 1 in. The illustration shows how this is done. thick. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. A piece of oak. 6 in.

throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 7. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 4. To shoot the crossbow. better still. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. from the opposite end. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. and one for the trigger 12 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. thick. 6. The bow is not fastened in the stock. 3. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Such a temporary safe light may be . 8. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Wilmette. 9. Trownes. --Contributed by O. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. wide at each end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A spring. The stick for the bow. Ill. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. having the latter swing quite freely. as shown in Fig. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The trigger. When the trigger is pulled. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it lifts the spring up. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. which is 1/4 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Fig. or through the necessity of. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. from the end of the stock. 2. place the arrow in the groove. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. To throw the arrow. Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. E.

An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. since the flame of the candle is above A. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. and replace as shown at B. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. it is the easiest camp to make. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. or only as a camp on a short excursion. make the frame of the wigwam. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and nail it in position as shown at A. the bark lean-to is a . Branches and brush can easily be piled up. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. says Photo Era. The cut should be about 5 ft. Remove one end. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Remove the bottom of the box. is used as a door. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. making lighting and trimming convenient. from the ground. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. By chopping the trunk almost through. The hinged cover E. apart. from the ground. respectively. C. This lamp is safe.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Moreover. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft.

and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. long. makes a good pair of tongs. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. are a convenient size for camp construction. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. 3 ft. spruce. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. A piece of elm or hickory. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Tongs are very useful in camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. and cedar.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. selecting a site for a camp. In the early summer. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. will dry flat. piled 2 or 3 ft. long and 1-1/2 in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and when the camp is pitched. make the best kind of a camp bed. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Where bark is used. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. long and 2 or 3 ft. Sheets of bark. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. deep and covered with blankets. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. a 2-in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. . pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. For a permanent camp. wide and 6 ft. thick. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. 6 ft. and split the tops with an ax. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. wide.

. and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. hinges. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described.. B. B. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. A. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. 1. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. the interior can. I drove a small cork. Doylestown. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. changing the water both morning and night. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. to another . The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. and provide a cover or door. --Contributed by James M. wide. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Pa. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. about 4 in. Fig. Kane. be kept at 90 or 100 deg.

As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. a liquid. C. if necessary. The current is thus compelled. which project inside and outside of the tube. fused into one side. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered.glass tube. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. until. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The diagram. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. to pass through an increasing resistance. Fig. 2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. This makes . Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. E. 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. limit. 3. 2. such as ether. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum.

by turning the lathe with the hand. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 4-1/2 in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Fig. to allow for finishing. After cleaning them with the solution. thick. drill the four rivet holes. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. on a lathe. thicker. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. therefore. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Before removing the field from the lathe. and for the outside of the frame. in diameter. Then the field can be finished to these marks. bent at right angles as shown. two holes. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. assemble and rivet them solidly. they will make a frame 3/4 in. set at 1/8 in. but merely discolored. or even 1/16 in. when several pieces are placed together. which will make it uniform in size. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. When the frame is finished so far. 3-3/8 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. If the thickness is sufficient. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. A. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. brass or iron. larger than the dimensions given. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 2. which may be of any thickness so that. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. making it 1/16 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Fig. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. cannot be used so often. These holes are for the bearing studs. or pattern. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. Alpena. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. as shown in Fig. screws. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. tap. After the template is marked out. Michigan. is composed of wrought sheet iron. The bearing studs are now made. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. between centers. 3-3/8 in. clamp the template. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. in diameter. thick. A 5/8in. mark off a space. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. brass. hole is . The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. 1.

The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. 4. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. or otherwise finished. The shaft of the armature. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Fig. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. solder them to the supports. brass rod is inserted. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. and build up the solder well.

9. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown m Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 1-1/8 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. When annealed. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. or segments. 3/4 in. thick. being formed for the ends. Rivet them together. thick. 6. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. thick are cut like the pattern. by 1-1/2 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. wide. The sides are also faced off and finished. as shown in Fig. holes through them for rivets. thick and 1/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. hole and tap it for a pin. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. threaded. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 1/8 in. 3/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 3. and held with a setscrew. brass rod. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 5. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. washers. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. then drill a 1/8-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. wide. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. 8. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Armature-Ring Core. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown in Fig. After they . These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 7. 3. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. deep and 7/16 in. thick. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. as shown in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Make the core 3/4 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. inside diameter. The pins are made of brass. sheet fiber. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 6. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. to allow for finishing to size. in diameter and fit in a brass spider.

The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. All connections should be securely soldered. after the motor is on the stand. Fig. yet it shows a series of . shown at B. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. 1. 5. sheet fiber. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. and wind on four layers. which will take 50 ft. the two ends of the wire. about 100 ft. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. 6 in. of the end to protrude. wide and 1 in. This winding is for a series motor. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The field is wound with No. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. thick. being required. they are glued to the core insulation. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The two ends are joined at B. long. sheet fiber. 1. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. The winding is started at A.have dried. until the 12 slots are filled. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. or side. To connect the wires. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Fig. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Run one end of the field wire. shown at A. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The source of current is connected to the terminals. In starting to wind. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. are soldered together. of No. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. After one coil. 8 in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. by bending the end around one of the projections. of the wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. When the glue is set. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in.

and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. and one. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Nine wires run from the timer. or. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. is fastened to the metallic body. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. which serves as the ground wire.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. as in the case of a spiral. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. one from each of the eight contacts. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. still more simply. A 1/2-in.

the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. of the dial. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing.The Wind Vane. Without this attachment. Covering these is a thin. 6 in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. circle. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. It should be . the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. thus giving 16 different directions. long. board. 45 deg. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

according to who is going to use it. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Before tacking the fourth side.about 6 ft. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. if not too high. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. . called a chip carving knife. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. and about 6 in. Blackmer. Cut 3-in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. though a special knife. thus making a universal joint. will be sufficient. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. 14 by 18 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. long to give the best results. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. and securely nail on the top of the box. N. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. however. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. To make it. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. will be enough for the two sides. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. will answer the purpose just as well. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. To work these outlines. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. is most satisfactory. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. making it heavy or light. Place the leather on some level. -Contributed by James L. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Fill the box with any handy ballast. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Buffalo. also a piece of new carpet. Y. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. high. or.

A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

can be thrown away when no longer needed. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. temporary lameness. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. and put the solution in thin glass bottles.will do if a good stout needle is used. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. and fasten the feathers inside of it. --Contributed by Katharine D. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. of water. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Y. of common salt and 10 lb. B. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. N. square and tying a piece of . With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. rather than the smooth side. and tie them together securely at the bottom. If a fire breaks out. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Morse. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. a needle and some feathers. Syracuse. away from it. or a hip that has been wrenched. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C.

setting traps. There is a 1-in. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. letting it go at arm's length. but not sharp. Wis. Paterson. is cut on the wood. commonly called tintype tin. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. and the receiver is ready for use. A. cut to the length of the spool. which is the essential part of the instrument. long.string to each corner. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. laying poisoned meat and meal. N. 1/8 in. The coil is 1 in. Albany. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. as shown. One end is removed entirely. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Ashland. . Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. etc. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. E. Gordon Dempsey. The strings should be about 15 in.. Y. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. --Contributed by John A. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. deep. A small wooden or fiber end. thus helping the rats to enter. wide and 1/16 in. and a coil of wire. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. Hellwig. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. B. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. high. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The diaphragm C. N. The end is filed to an edge. G. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. wound on the head end. F. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm.J. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. made up of four layers of No. The body of the receiver. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. the corners being wired. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. long. --Contributed by J. This not only keeps the rats out. board all around the bottom on the inside. and tacked it to the boards. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.

wide. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. better still. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a piece of string or. and bend each strip in shape. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. begin with the smallest scrolls. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. gold. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. to . A single line will be sufficient. The vase is to have three supports.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. To clean small articles. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. a piece of small wire.

After taking off the pattern. wide when stitching up the purse. and does not require coloring. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. from E to F. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Fold the leather on the line EF. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. 3-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. as shown in the sketch. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. sharp pencil. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Press or model down the leather all around the design..which the supports are fastened with rivets. 6-3/8 in.. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from the lines EF on the piece. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. using a duller point of the tool. About 1 in. thus raising it. 4-1/4 in. from C to D. through which to slip the fly AGH. Work down the outside line of the design. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. . Trace also the line around the purse.

cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Fit this to the two . b. the "open" side. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and a model for speed and power. deep. Cut off six pieces 12 in. then nail it. being cast in wooden molds. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. When it is finished. 1. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with the largest side down. around the wheel. square. by 12 ft. following the dotted lines. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. leaving the lug a. 2. deep.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. with pins or small nails. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Now take another piece of wood. It is neat and efficient. This also should be slightly beveled. and cut out a wheel. with a compass saw. as shown in Fig. thick. 3. First. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Then nail the wheel down firmly. 1 was cut. long. with the open side down. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 1/2 in. and the projections B. as well as useful. Make the lug 1/4 in. and which will be very interesting. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and tack the other piece slightly. all the way around. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and cut it out as shown in Fig.

4. then bolt it together. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. slightly beveled. bolts. and bore six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the .1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and clean all the shavings out of it. in the center of it. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. hole entirely through at the same place.pieces just finished. deep. holes through it. hole 1/4 in. and boring a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. 1. After it is finished. square pieces of wood. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole bored through its center. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and lay it away to dry. Take the mold apart.

and pour babbitt metal into it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. B. one in the lug. screw down. in diameter must now be obtained. and run in babbitt metal again. instead of the right-handed piece. holes at d. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. holes. one in the projections. see that the bolts are all tight.2. where the casting did not fill out. After it is fitted in. long. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. d. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.2. Now take mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. the other right-handed. 1. drill in it. Pour metal into mold No. and lay it away to dry. and two 1/4-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Put this together in mold No. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and connect to the boiler. b. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. as shown in illustration. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. lay it on a level place. Then bolt the castings together. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. long. and the exhaust hole in projection b. 6. This is the same as Fig.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig.1.black dots in Fig. Let it stand for half an hour. and drill them in the same manner. until it is full. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. place it under the drill. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. only the one is left-handed. Fig. over the defective part. and the other in the base. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. from the one end. and drill it entirely through. put the top of the brace through this hole. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. true it up with a square. Using the Brace . This is for a shaft. This will cast a paddle-wheel.1. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and bore three 1/4-in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and 3/8-in. This is mold No. so that it will turn easily. take an ordinary brace. wide and 16 in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. 5. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. fasten a 3/8-in. 6. 4.

How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. will do good service. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. while it is running at full speed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Plan of Ice Boat . and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and if instructions have been carefully followed. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. long. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. At each end of the 6ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Then take a knife or a chisel. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. piece and at right angles to it. and the other 8 ft. one 6 ft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work.. turn the wheel to the shape desired.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and. with a boss and a set screw.

The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. bolt the 8-ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Over the middle of the 6-ft. where they often did considerable damage. should be of hardwood. at the top. long and 2-1/2 in. in front of the rudder block. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Fig. at the end. and about 8 in. 8 a reef point knot. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. in diameter in the center. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. boards to make the platform. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. plank. 2 by 3 in. Fig. piece and at right angles to it. in diameter at the base. The tiller. This fits in the square hole. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. The spar should be 9 ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. which may come in handy in heavy winds. projecting as in Fig. at the butt and 1 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. plank nail 8-in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. in the top before the skate is put on. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehous